Three independent recessive mutations at the SPINDLY (SPY) locus of Arabidopsis confer resistance to the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. Relative to wild type, spy mutants exhibit longer hypocotyls, leaves that are a lighter green color, increased stem elongation, early flowering, parthenocarpy, and partial male sterility. All of these phenotypes are also observed when wild-type Arabidopsis plants are repeatedly treated with gibberellin A3 (GA3). The spy-1 allele is partially epistatic to the ga1-2 mutation, which causes GA deficiency. In addition, the spy-1 mutation can simultaneously suppress the effects of the ga1-2 mutation and paclobutrazol treatment, which inhibit different steps in the GA biosynthesis pathway. This observation suggests that spy-1 activates a basal level of GA signal transduction that is independent of GA. Furthermore, results from GA3 dose-response experiments suggest that GA3 and spy-1 interact in an additive manner. These results are consistent ...
China Plant Growth Regulator Hormone Gibberellin Ga3 90% Tc, Find details about China Ga3, Gibberellic Acid from Plant Growth Regulator Hormone Gibberellin Ga3 90% Tc - Shanghai Fuang Agrochemical Co. Ltd.
A plants eventual size depends on the integration of its genetic program with environmental cues, which vary on a daily basis. Both efficient carbon metabolism and the plant hormone gibberellin are required to guarantee optimal plant growth. Yet, little is known about the interplay between carbon metabolism and gibberellins that modulates plant growth. Here, we show that sugar starvation in Arabidopsis thaliana arising from inefficient starch metabolism at night strongly reduces the expression of ent-kaurene synthase, a key regulatory enzyme for gibberellin synthesis, the following day. Our results demonstrate that plants integrate the efficiency of photosynthesis over a period of days, which is transduced into a daily rate of gibberellin biosynthesis. This enables a plant to grow to a size that is compatible with its environment. ...
Literature References: A class of plant growth hormones first isolated in 1938 from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi (Sawada) Wollenweber (Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon) the fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice: Yabuta, Sumiki, J. Agric. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 14, 1526 (1938). Isolated also from higher plants; for source references see review by Lang, Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 21, 537 (1970). More than 60 gibberellins are known of which gibberellin A3, q.v., is the most important. GA3 and mixtures of GA4 and GA7 are available commercially. All gibberellins are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton containing the gibbane nucleus. Major structural differences lie in the substituents at positions 4a, 7, 8 (gibbane numbering) and the presence or absence of a g-lactone ring. Total synthesis of racemic gibberellins A2, A4, A9, A10: Mori et al., Tetrahedron 25, 1293 (1969); of gibberellin A4: A. L. Cossey et al., Tetrahedron Lett. 1980, 4383; of gibberellin A15: Nagata et al., J. Am. Chem. ...
In wild-type (WT) Columbia and Landsberg erecta ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., trichomes are present on the adaxial surfaces of all rosette leaves but are absent from the abaxial surfaces of the first-formed leaves. We have determined that both long-day (LD) photoperiod and gibberellin (GA) stimulate trichome formation. WT plants grown in LD conditions produce the first abaxial trichome on earlier leaves than plants grown in short-day (SD) conditions. Photoperiod sensitivity of abaxial trichome formation on WT plants develops gradually over time, reaching the maximum sensitivity about 24 d after germination. Application of gibberellic acid to WT plants growing in SD conditions accelerates the onset of abaxial trichomes. Conversely, application of 20 to 80 mg L-1 paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, to wild-type plants suppresses trichome initiation on the abaxial epidermis. The GA-deficient mutants ga1-5 and ga4-1 and the GA-insensitive mutant gai-1 exhibit delayed onset of ...
At least five genes from the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway are clustered on chromosome 4 of knockout mutant identified alleles at the 3 consensus sequence of intron 2 in the mutant, resulting in reduced levels of active protein due to a splicing defect in the mutant. biosynthesis follows the isoprenoid pathway to geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which, in plants, undergoes a two-step cyclization reaction in which GGPP is converted to and through a shared promoter. Using gene disruption and by expressing in the GA-deficient mutant SG139, which lacks the entire gene cluster, we show that the gene codes for a multifunctional locus. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fungal strains and culture conditions. m567, a wild-type strain from rice, was provided by the Fungal Culture Collection, Weimar, Germany. The wild-type strain IMI 58289 and the GA-defective mutant strain SG139 (3) were provided by E. Cerda-Olmedo and 59277-89-3 supplier J. Avalos (University of Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain). SG139 has ...
2016 Global Gibberellin AcidGA Industry Report is a professional and in-depth research report on the worlds major regional market conditions of the Gibberellin AcidGA industry, focusing on the main regions (North America, Europe and Asia) and the main countries (United States, Germany, Japan and China).. The report firstly introduced the Gibberellin AcidGA basics: definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain overview; industry policies and plans; product specifications; manufacturing processes; cost structures and so on. Then it analyzed the worlds main region market conditions, including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry growth rate etc. In the end, the report introduced new project SWOT analysis, investment feasibility analysis, and investment return analysis.. The report includes six parts, dealing with: 1.) basic information; 2.) the Asia Gibberellin AcidGA industry; 3.) the North American Gibberellin AcidGA ...
ONeill, DP and Davidson, SE and Clarke, VC and Yamauchi, Y and Yamaguchi, S and Kamiya, Y and Reid, JB and Ross, JJ (2010) Regulation of the gibberellin pathway by auxin and DELLA proteins. Planta, 232. pp. 1141-1149. ISSN 0032-0935 ...
... specifications & features from suppliers/manufacturer Gibberellic acid is an important plant hormone used to improve seed germination and plant growth and size. Gibberellic acid can also influence the timing of flowering, flower gender and flower size. We can supply: Gibberellic acid 90% TECH powder, Wa
Gibberellins are required for seed development and pollen tube growth in Arabidopsis.: Gibberellins (GAs) are tetracyclic diterpenoids that are essential endoge
Looking for gibberellin? Find out information about gibberellin. Any member of a family of naturally derived compounds which have a gibbane skeleton and a broad spectrum of biological activity but are noted as plant... Explanation of gibberellin
The first of these experiments tested the effects of increasing concentrations of GA3 in the absence of PAC (Fig.7A). The wild-type plants exhibited a typical dose-dependent GA response, with 50 nm GA3 eliciting a stronger response (elongated petioles and pale-green leaf color) than 0.5 nm GA3, whereas, as expected, thegai plants displayed no obvious response to exogenous GA (Fig. 7A; Koornneef et al., 1985; Carol et al., 1995). The gai spy-7 gar2-1 plants also displayed no obvious response to exogenous GA3. At all three GA3 doses, the gai spy-7 gar2-1plants resembled wild-type plants treated with 50 nm GA3, having elongated petioles and pale-green leaves (Fig. 7A). Thus, although the phenotypes of gai (dwarf) and gai spy-7 gar2-1 (tall) are different, they are both saturated in their GA responses.. Additional experiments used two concentrations of PAC (low: 0.5 nm PAC, Fig. 7B; and high: 5 nm PAC, Fig. 7C) to reduce the endogenous GA levels in the wild type, gai,and gai spy-7 gar2-1. On high ...
ONeill, DP and Ross, JJ (2002) Auxin regulation of the gibberellin pathway in pea. Plant Physiology, 130 (4). pp. 1974-1982. ISSN 0032-0889 ...
Read "A Rice Semi-Dwarf Gene, Tan-Ginbozu (D35), Encodes the Gibberellin Biosynthesis Enzyme, ent-Kaurene Oxidase, Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
We have isolated Cv3h, a cDNA clone from the developing seeds of watermelon, and have demonstrated significant amino acid homology with gibberellin (GA) 3β-hydroxylases. This cDNA clone was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein that oxidized GA9 and GA12 to GA4 and GA14, respectively. The Cv3h protein had the highest similarity with pumpkin GA 2β,3β-hydroxylase, but did not possess 2β-hydroxylation function. RNA blot analysis showed that the gene was expressed primarily in the inner parts of developing seeds, up to 10 d after pollination (DAP). In the parthenocarpic fruits induced by treatment with 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU), the embryo and endosperm of the seeds were undeveloped, whereas the integumental tissues, of maternal origin, showed nearly normal development. Cv3h mRNA was undetectable in the seeds of CPPU-treated fruits, indicating that the GA 3β-hydroxylase gene was expressed in zygotic cells. In our analysis of endogenous GAs from developing seeds, GA9 ...
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In Arabidopsis, the flagellin-derived peptide flg22 elevates antibacterial resistance [1] and inhibits growth [2] upon perception via the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase Flagellin-Sensitive 2 (FLS2) [3]. DELLA proteins are plant growth repressors whose degradation is promoted by the phytohormone gibberellin [4]. Here, we show that DELLA stabilization contributes to flg22-induced growth inhibition. In addition, we show that DELLAs promote susceptibility to virulent biotrophs and resistance to necrotrophs, partly by altering the relative strength of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling. A quadruple-DELLA mutant (which lacks four out of the five Arabidopsis DELLA proteins [5]) was partially insensitive to gene induction by Methyl-Jasmonate (MeJA), whereas the constitutively active dominant DELLA mutant gai[6] was sensitized for JA-responsive gene induction, implicating DELLAs in JA-signaling and/or perception. Accordingly, the elevated resistance of gai to the necrotrophic fungus
The diterpenoid phytohormone gibberellin (GA) plays pivotal roles in regulating growth and development throughout the life cycle of higher plants. Mutations affecting GA biosynthesis or GA response were the key to control plant stature in wheat and rice that led to dramatically increased grain yield and contributed greatly to the success of the Green Revolution in the 1960s. Although the GA biosynthetic pathway had been characterized biochemically, little was known about the sites of GA production and the mode of GA action. By multi-faceted approaches using the model system Arabidopsis, my lab has made major breakthroughs in revealing the sites and regulatory mechanisms of GA biosynthesis. We also elucidated the conserved molecular events of GA perception and the early GA signaling pathway. We identified the nuclear transcriptional regulators DELLA proteins, which function as master growth repressors by inhibiting all aspects of GA responses. Binding of GA to its nuclear receptor GID1 enhances ...
The goal of this experiment was to observe and record the effects of the growth hormone gibberellin (GA3), fertilizer and water temperature on the growth patterns of Bush Blue Lake Bean plants. The plants were grown from seeds and the height, in centimeters, was recorded regularly over a thirty-two day period. Water was added at the correct temperature on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, while gibberellin and fertilizer, in the correct amount, was administered on the eighth and twenty-fourth days of the experiment. The gibberellin had a distinct effect on the plants, it made the stems grow longer and faster. This was a negative effect because at the end of the experiment the stems were so tall and thin that they broke in half. The fertilizer had a detrimental effect, producing sickly plants. This was due to the fact that the fertilizer was nitrogen based and this was harmful to the bean plants. It was concluded that the gibberellin and fertilizer were damaging to the bean plants.. ...
Auxin, gibberellins & abscisic acid MCQs quiz, learn auxin, gibberellins & abscisic acid multiple choice questions answers, online biology quiz MCQs, shortage of water is controlled through with answer.
Effect of OsKO2 regulation on plant height. Plant architecture is of major agronomic importance as it determines the adaptability of plant to cultivation, its harvest index and potential grain yield. Rice plant architecture is mainly determined by tiller pattern, plant height, leaf shape and arrangement, and panicle architecture. Plant height is an important agronomic trait which directly influences harvest index and yield potential. A number of genes have been identified which affect the plant height. Most of these genes encode for gibberellic acid (GA) and brassinosteroid biosynthetic or signalling pathway components. OsKO2 is one of the GA biosynthetic gene in rice, which encodes for ent-kaurene oxidase. This gene is a target of many transcription factors which are involved in controlling plant height.. References:. Chen X, Lu S, Wang Y, Zhang X, Lv B, Luo L, Xi D, Shen J, Ma H, Ming F (2015) OsNAC2 encoding a NAC transcription factor that affects plant height through mediating the ...
DELLA protein RGA; Probable transcriptional regulator that acts as a repressor of the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway. Probably acts by participating in large multiprotein complexes that repress transcription of GA-inducible genes. Positively regulates XERICO expression in seeds. Upon GA application, it is degraded by the proteasome, allowing the GA signaling pathway. Compared to other DELLA proteins, it is the most sensitive to GA application. No effect of the BOI proteins on its stability. Its activity is probably regulated by other phytohormones such as auxin and ethylene, attenu [...] (587 aa ...
by Cristina Ferrándiz Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas. CSIC-UPV.Valencia, Spain In spite of what their sessile lifestyle could suggest, or maybe perhaps as a consequence of it, plants appear to be big decision-makers. Developmental decisions such as dormancy/germination, growth/arrest, branching/suppression-of-branches, vegetative-growth/flowering, senescence, fate … are key factors for their survival and reproductive…
A plant growth enhancing composition comprising as an active ingredient a synergistic mixture of (a) gibberellins, (b) the heteroauxin indole-3-acetic acid and the cytokinin 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-tr
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Understanding the genetic bases of natural variation for developmental and stress-related traits is a major goal of current plant biology. Variation in plant hormone levels and signaling might underlie such phenotypic variation occurring even within the same species. Here we report the genetic and molecular basis of semidwarf individuals found in natural Arabidopsis thaliana populations. Allelism tests demonstrate that independent loss-of-function mutations at GA locus 5 (GA5), which encodes gibberellin 20-oxidase 1 (GA20ox1) involved in the last steps of gibberellin biosynthesis, are found in different populations from southern, western, and northern Europe; central Asia; and Japan. Sequencing of GA5 identified 21 different loss-of-function alleles causing semidwarfness without any obvious general tradeoff affecting plant performance traits. GA5 shows signatures of purifying selection, whereas GA5 loss-of-function alleles can also exhibit patterns of positive selection in specific populations ...
Gibberellic Acid (GA3) specifications & features from suppliers/manufacturer Chemical Name:(1α, 2β, 4aα, 4bβ, 10β)-2, 4a, 7-trihydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylenegibb-3-ene-1, 10-carboxylic acid 1, 4a-lactone.Specification: 90% tech grade, 95% tech grade, 20% tech grade. GA4+7-90%, 95% tech grade.Molecular
Transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) is highly expressed in cancer cells and its overexpression is widely thought to be a result of the increased requirement of iron uptake for cell growth. In the present study, we have found that two ligands of TfR1, gambogic acid (GA) but not holo-transferrin (Tf) induced apoptosis in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and activated the JNK and p38 signal pathways. Furthermore, PP2, an inhibitor of steroid receptor coactivator (Src), a tyrosine kinase, greatly promoted GA-mediated apoptosis. These results indicate that Src is involved in GA-mediated TfR1-dependent apoptotic pathway. Following immunoprecipitation of TfR1 and immunoblotting of Src or verse versa, TfR1 was found to be associated with Src. This association was further illustrated by their co-localization with confocal fluorescence microscope and shown resulting in constitutive tyrosine phosphorylations of the TfR1. A type II membrane receptor, TfR1 contains a short intracellular N-terminal domain with 61 ...
Plant hormones are a group of organic natural compounds that can influence physiological processes when present at low concentrations. Plant biologists frequently use exogenous hormone application to modify plant physiology or to rescue mutants with defects in hormone pathways. There are a number of methods for these treatments, depending on the plant species, organs and tissues used for application, release path, among others. Here, we describe a simple method used for hormone treatment in maize plants. At the vegetative stage, we show the application of Gibberellic acid (GA3) to wild type and dwarf1 (d1) mutants result in cell elongation (Evans et al., 1995). DWARF1 Encodes a Gibberellin 3-Oxidase enzyme (Chen et al., 2014), so the dwarf phenotype is rapidly recovered by GA3 application. In addition, wild type plants show rapid stem elongation in response to GA3 application. At the reproductive stage, we use our method to apply Jasmonic acid (JA) to a tasselseed2 (ts2) mutant tassel. TS2 suppresses
Multiple developmental pathways for flowering in Arabidopsis: photoperiodism, the autonomous (leaf number) and vernalization (low temperature) pathways, the energy (sucrose) pathway, and the gibberellin pathway. The photoperiodic pathway is located in the leaves and involves the production of a transmissible floral stimulus, FT protein.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Hedden, Peter, Hoad, Gordon V., Gaskin, Paul, Lewis, Mervyn J., Green, Julia, Furber, Mark and Mander, Lewis N. (1993) Kaurenoids and Gibberellins, including the newly characterized Gibberellin A88, in developing apple seeds. Phytochemistry, 32 (2). pp. 231-237. ISSN 0031-9422 ...
Apparatus and methods for pumping and oxygenating blood are provided that include a gas removal system. An integrated blood processing unit is provided in which a gas removal/blood filter, pump and blood oxygenation element are mounted within a common housing. The gas removal system includes a sensor mounted on the housing to sense the presence of gas, and a valve is operably coupled to the sensor to evacuate gas from the system when the sensor detects an accumulation of gas.
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STUDI JUNGHIANI - La visione di Jung sulle cause e il trattamento della schizofrenia alla luce delle attuali conoscenze delle neuroscienze cognitive e della ricerca in psicoterapia. I. Eziologia e fenomenologia ( Oggi gli scritti di Jung sulla schizofrenia sono completamente ignorati o dimenticati. Loscopo di questo scritto è rivedere i temi trattati da Jung nei suoi scritti sulla schizofrenia eaccertare la validità delle sue teorie sul disturbo alla luce delle attuali conoscenze della psicopatologia,delle neuroscienze cognitive e della ricerca in psicoterapia. Larticolo discutecinque questioni degli scritti junghiani sulleziologia e la fenomenologia della schizofrenia:1) labaissement du niveau mental; 2) il complesso; 3) le immagini del mandala; 4) le costellazioniarchetipiche; 5) eziologia della schizofrenia eziologica vs tossicologica. Dallarevisione di queste questioni si profilano tre conclusioni. Primo, le idee di Jung sulla schizofreniaanticipano per molti versi i dati e le ipotesi attuali
Dept. of Biological Sciences. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis1971 .H76. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 40-07, page: . Thesis (M.Sc.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 1972.
Kondhare, K.R.; Farrell, A.D.; Kettlewell, P.S.; Hedden, P. and Monaghan, J.M. (2015) Pre-maturity α-amylase in wheat: The role of abscisic acid and gibberellins. Journal of Cereal Science, 63. pp. 95-108 ...
Fellner, M.: Supersensitivity to ABA and resistance to GA3 and tetcyclasis of tomato mutant 7B-1 suggest a possible involvement of gibberellins in photoperiod-regulated male sterility in tomato ...
Blots were probed with the α-amylase probe and re-probed with an Bellincampi D, Salvi G, De Lorenzo G, Cervone F, Marfà V, Eberhard ubiquitin probe, confirming homogeneous electrophoresis loading S, Darvill A, Albersheim P (1993) Plant J 4: 207- 213 Bergey DR, Orozco-Cardenas M, De Moura DS, Ryan CA (1999) Proc Bethke P, Schuurink R, Jones RL (1997) J Exp Bot 48: 1337-1356 when applied several hours after auxin treatment (Bellincampi Branca C, De Lorenzo G, Cervone F (1988) Physiol Plant 72: 499 - 504 et al. 2000). OGs with DP 1- 8, added 9 hours after gibberellin Côté F, Hahn MG (1994) Plant Mol Biol 26: 1379 -1411 treatment are unable to prevent the increase in α-amylase De Lorenzo G, Ranucci A, Bellincampi D, Salvi G, Cervone F (1987) expression (Fig. 3 B), indicating their inactivity was not due to Ehness R, Ecker M, Godt DE, Roitsch TH (1997) Plant Cell 9: 1825 - their fragmentation in the culture medium. The effect of chito- san and OGs with DP 9 -18 suggests a transcriptional block ...
Affiliation:東京大学,大学院農学生命科学研究科(農学部),准教授, Research Field:Bioproduction chemistry/Bioorganic chemistry,製造化学・食品,Bioproduction chemistry/Bioorganic chemistry,植物生理・分子,Bioorganic chemistry, Keywords:ジベレリン,免疫組織化学,植物ホルモン,生理活性物質,植物,受容体,gibberellin,形質転換タバコ,分化制御,アサガオ, # of Research Projects:15, # of Research Products:47, Ongoing Project:進化過程に隠されたジベレリン起源物質の構造解明
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Ministero della Salute Direzione Generale Ricerca Sanitaria e Biomedica e della Vigilanza sugli Enti BANDO 2010 RICERCA FINALIZZATA GRADUATORIA PROGETTI ORDINARI Role of circulating and tissutal
SCIENZE REGIONALI - La Smart Specialization Strategy delle regioni italiane e le relazioni fra ambiti tecnologici ( La Smart Specialization Strategy richiede alle regioni di individuare le relazioni tra domini tecnologici allinterno della stessa regione (relatedness) e di indicare i potenziali collegamenti con domini di altre regioni (connectivity). Il presente lavoro, oltre a fornire un quadro degli ambiti di specializzazione individuati dalle regioni italiane, mostra che lanalisi della relatedness e della connectivity è stata in gran parte trascurata dalle regioni stesse. Tale sottovalutazione è, a nostro avviso, frutto della mancanza di una metodologia consolidata per rilevare la natura e lintensità dei legami fra settori oltre che della carenza di dati e informazioni necessari allanalisi.)
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