Three independent recessive mutations at the SPINDLY (SPY) locus of Arabidopsis confer resistance to the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. Relative to wild type, spy mutants exhibit longer hypocotyls, leaves that are a lighter green color, increased stem elongation, early flowering, parthenocarpy, and partial male sterility. All of these phenotypes are also observed when wild-type Arabidopsis plants are repeatedly treated with gibberellin A3 (GA3). The spy-1 allele is partially epistatic to the ga1-2 mutation, which causes GA deficiency. In addition, the spy-1 mutation can simultaneously suppress the effects of the ga1-2 mutation and paclobutrazol treatment, which inhibit different steps in the GA biosynthesis pathway. This observation suggests that spy-1 activates a basal level of GA signal transduction that is independent of GA. Furthermore, results from GA3 dose-response experiments suggest that GA3 and spy-1 interact in an additive manner. These results are consistent ...
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A plants eventual size depends on the integration of its genetic program with environmental cues, which vary on a daily basis. Both efficient carbon metabolism and the plant hormone gibberellin are required to guarantee optimal plant growth. Yet, little is known about the interplay between carbon metabolism and gibberellins that modulates plant growth. Here, we show that sugar starvation in Arabidopsis thaliana arising from inefficient starch metabolism at night strongly reduces the expression of ent-kaurene synthase, a key regulatory enzyme for gibberellin synthesis, the following day. Our results demonstrate that plants integrate the efficiency of photosynthesis over a period of days, which is transduced into a daily rate of gibberellin biosynthesis. This enables a plant to grow to a size that is compatible with its environment. ...
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Literature References: A class of plant growth hormones first isolated in 1938 from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi (Sawada) Wollenweber (Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon) the fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice: Yabuta, Sumiki, J. Agric. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 14, 1526 (1938). Isolated also from higher plants; for source references see review by Lang, Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 21, 537 (1970). More than 60 gibberellins are known of which gibberellin A3, q.v., is the most important. GA3 and mixtures of GA4 and GA7 are available commercially. All gibberellins are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton containing the gibbane nucleus. Major structural differences lie in the substituents at positions 4a, 7, 8 (gibbane numbering) and the presence or absence of a g-lactone ring. Total synthesis of racemic gibberellins A2, A4, A9, A10: Mori et al., Tetrahedron 25, 1293 (1969); of gibberellin A4: A. L. Cossey et al., Tetrahedron Lett. 1980, 4383; of gibberellin A15: Nagata et al., J. Am. Chem. ...
The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) regulates the development and fertility of Arabidopsis flowers. The mature flowers of GA-deficient mutant plants typically exhibit reduced elongation growth of petals and stamens. In addition, GA-deficiency blocks anther development, resulting in male sterility. Previous analyses have shown that GA promotes the elongation of plant organs by opposing the function of the DELLA proteins, a family of nuclear growth repressors. However, it was not clear that the DELLA proteins are involved in the GA-regulation of stamen and anther development. We show that GA regulates cell elongation rather than cell division during Arabidopsis stamen filament elongation. In addition, GA regulates the cellular developmental pathway of anthers leading from microspore to mature pollen grain. Genetic analysis shows that the Arabidopsis DELLA proteins RGA and RGL2 jointly repress petal, stamen and anther development in GA-deficient plants, and that this function is enhanced by RGL1 ...
In wild-type (WT) Columbia and Landsberg erecta ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., trichomes are present on the adaxial surfaces of all rosette leaves but are absent from the abaxial surfaces of the first-formed leaves. We have determined that both long-day (LD) photoperiod and gibberellin (GA) stimulate trichome formation. WT plants grown in LD conditions produce the first abaxial trichome on earlier leaves than plants grown in short-day (SD) conditions. Photoperiod sensitivity of abaxial trichome formation on WT plants develops gradually over time, reaching the maximum sensitivity about 24 d after germination. Application of gibberellic acid to WT plants growing in SD conditions accelerates the onset of abaxial trichomes. Conversely, application of 20 to 80 mg L-1 paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, to wild-type plants suppresses trichome initiation on the abaxial epidermis. The GA-deficient mutants ga1-5 and ga4-1 and the GA-insensitive mutant gai-1 exhibit delayed onset of ...
At least five genes from the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway are clustered on chromosome 4 of knockout mutant identified alleles at the 3 consensus sequence of intron 2 in the mutant, resulting in reduced levels of active protein due to a splicing defect in the mutant. biosynthesis follows the isoprenoid pathway to geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which, in plants, undergoes a two-step cyclization reaction in which GGPP is converted to and through a shared promoter. Using gene disruption and by expressing in the GA-deficient mutant SG139, which lacks the entire gene cluster, we show that the gene codes for a multifunctional locus. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fungal strains and culture conditions. m567, a wild-type strain from rice, was provided by the Fungal Culture Collection, Weimar, Germany. The wild-type strain IMI 58289 and the GA-defective mutant strain SG139 (3) were provided by E. Cerda-Olmedo and 59277-89-3 supplier J. Avalos (University of Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain). SG139 has ...
GAs are endogenous plant growth regulators that have been studied for over 70 years. Until relatively recently, most of this research has concentrated on determining the physiological role of various GAs, defining the GA biosynthetic pathway in plants and fungi, and developing practical uses for GAs and chemical inhibitors of GA biosynthesis in agriculture. Over the last decade, considerable progress has also been made in understanding how plants are able to perceive the level of endogenous GAs and the mechanism by which the GA signal is transduced (Thornton et al., 1999a; Lovegrove and Hooley, 2000; Sun, 2000; Richards et al., 2001). This research has been made possible by advances in molecular genetic techniques in model systems such as Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa), and the aleurone layer of cereal grains. In Arabidopsis, several negatively acting components of the GA response pathway have been characterized in some detail, including SPY (SPINDLY; Jacobsen and Olszewski, 1993;Jacobsen et ...
2016 Global Gibberellin AcidGA Industry Report is a professional and in-depth research report on the worlds major regional market conditions of the Gibberellin AcidGA industry, focusing on the main regions (North America, Europe and Asia) and the main countries (United States, Germany, Japan and China).. The report firstly introduced the Gibberellin AcidGA basics: definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain overview; industry policies and plans; product specifications; manufacturing processes; cost structures and so on. Then it analyzed the worlds main region market conditions, including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry growth rate etc. In the end, the report introduced new project SWOT analysis, investment feasibility analysis, and investment return analysis.. The report includes six parts, dealing with: 1.) basic information; 2.) the Asia Gibberellin AcidGA industry; 3.) the North American Gibberellin AcidGA ...
ONeill, DP and Davidson, SE and Clarke, VC and Yamauchi, Y and Yamaguchi, S and Kamiya, Y and Reid, JB and Ross, JJ (2010) Regulation of the gibberellin pathway by auxin and DELLA proteins. Planta, 232. pp. 1141-1149. ISSN 0032-0935 ...
Gibberellic Acid (Ga3, Gibberellin) GA3 specifications & features from suppliers/manufacturer Gibberellic acid is an important plant hormone used to improve seed germination and plant growth and size. Gibberellic acid can also influence the timing of flowering, flower gender and flower size. We can supply: Gibberellic acid 90% TECH powder, Wa
Gibberellins are required for seed development and pollen tube growth in Arabidopsis.: Gibberellins (GAs) are tetracyclic diterpenoids that are essential endoge
Looking for gibberellin? Find out information about gibberellin. Any member of a family of naturally derived compounds which have a gibbane skeleton and a broad spectrum of biological activity but are noted as plant... Explanation of gibberellin
«Gibberellin» Gibberellins are plant hormones that regulate growth and influence various developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination, dormancy, ...
ONeill, DP and Ross, JJ (2002) Auxin regulation of the gibberellin pathway in pea. Plant Physiology, 130 (4). pp. 1974-1982. ISSN 0032-0889 ...
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Read A Rice Semi-Dwarf Gene, Tan-Ginbozu (D35), Encodes the Gibberellin Biosynthesis Enzyme, ent-Kaurene Oxidase, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
We have isolated Cv3h, a cDNA clone from the developing seeds of watermelon, and have demonstrated significant amino acid homology with gibberellin (GA) 3β-hydroxylases. This cDNA clone was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein that oxidized GA9 and GA12 to GA4 and GA14, respectively. The Cv3h protein had the highest similarity with pumpkin GA 2β,3β-hydroxylase, but did not possess 2β-hydroxylation function. RNA blot analysis showed that the gene was expressed primarily in the inner parts of developing seeds, up to 10 d after pollination (DAP). In the parthenocarpic fruits induced by treatment with 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU), the embryo and endosperm of the seeds were undeveloped, whereas the integumental tissues, of maternal origin, showed nearly normal development. Cv3h mRNA was undetectable in the seeds of CPPU-treated fruits, indicating that the GA 3β-hydroxylase gene was expressed in zygotic cells. In our analysis of endogenous GAs from developing seeds, GA9 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DELLAs function as coactivators of GAI-ASSOCIATED FACTOR1 in regulation of Gibberellin homeostasis and signaling in Arabidopsis. AU - Fukazawa, Jutarou. AU - Teramura, Hiroshi. AU - Murakoshi, Satoru. AU - Nasuno, Kei. AU - Nishida, Naotaka. AU - Ito, Takeshi. AU - Yoshida, Michiteru. AU - Kamiya, Yuji. AU - Yamaguchi, Shinjiro. AU - Takahashi, Yohsuke. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. N2 - Gibberellins (GAs) are essential regulators of plant development, and DELLAs are negative regulators of GA signaling. The mechanism of GA-dependent transcription has been explained by DELLA-mediated titration of transcriptional activators and their release through the degradation of DELLAs in response to GA. However, the effect of GA on genome-wide expression is predominantly repression, suggesting the existence of unknown mechanisms of GA function. In this study, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana DELLA binding transcription factor, GAI-ASSOCIATED FACTOR1 (GAF1). GAF1 shows high homology to ...
You may also wish to search for items by MacMillan. 20 matching references were found. Cook, J.W.; Dickson, G.T.; Jack, J.; Loudon, J.D.; McKeown, J.; MacMillan, J.; Williamson, W.F., Colchicine and Related Compounds, J. Chem. Soc., 1950, 139. [all data] Kobayashi, M.; Gaskin, P.; Spray, C.R.; Suzuki, Y.; Phinney, B.O.; MacMillan, J., Metabolism and biological activity of Gibberellin A4 in vegetative shoots of Zea mays, Oryza sativa, and Arabidopsis thaliana, Plant Physiol., 1993, 102, 379-386. [all data] Kobayashi, M.; Gaskin, P.; Spray, C.R.; Phinney, B.O.; MacMillan, J., The metabolism of gibberellin A20 to gibberellin A1 by tall and dwarf mutants of Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana, Plant Physiol., 1994, 106, 1367-1372. [all data] Kobayashi, M.; Spray, C.R.; Phinney, B.O.; Gaskin, P.; MacMillan, J., Gibberellin metabolism in maize. The stepwise conversion of gibberellin A12-aldehyde to gibberellin A20, Plant Physiol., 1996, 110, 413-418. [all data] MacMillan, J.; Ward, D.A.; Phillips, ...
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DELLA proteins act as repressors of growth whose function is opposed by GA (Richards et al., 2001). In several cases, GA opposes DELLA function by promoting DELLA disappearance, most likely via ubiquitin-ligase dependent targetting to the proteasome and subsequent protein degradation (Silverstone et al., 2001; Ito et al., 2002; Gubler et al., 2002; Fu et al., 2002). Recent studies have identified candidate F-box components of a SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase apparently responsible for targetting DELLA proteins to the proteasome (McGinnis et al., 2003; Sasaki et al., 2003). Thus, one emerging picture is that GA stimulates GA-responses by targetting DELLA protein growth repressors for destruction in the proteasome (Harberd, 2003). In another case, that of RGL2, GA apparently opposes RGL2 function by causing downregulation of RGL2 transcript levels during seed germination (Lee et al., 2002).. Previous studies of Arabidopsis DELLA function have involved phenotypic comparisons of GA-deficient (ga1-3) plants ...
The first committed step in the formation of diterpenoids leading to gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis is the conversion of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to ent-kaurene. ent-Kaurene synthase A (KSA) catalyzes the conversion of GGDP to copalyl diphosphate (CDP), which is subsequently converted to ent …
In Arabidopsis, the flagellin-derived peptide flg22 elevates antibacterial resistance [1] and inhibits growth [2] upon perception via the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase Flagellin-Sensitive 2 (FLS2) [3]. DELLA proteins are plant growth repressors whose degradation is promoted by the phytohormone gibberellin [4]. Here, we show that DELLA stabilization contributes to flg22-induced growth inhibition. In addition, we show that DELLAs promote susceptibility to virulent biotrophs and resistance to necrotrophs, partly by altering the relative strength of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling. A quadruple-DELLA mutant (which lacks four out of the five Arabidopsis DELLA proteins [5]) was partially insensitive to gene induction by Methyl-Jasmonate (MeJA), whereas the constitutively active dominant DELLA mutant gai[6] was sensitized for JA-responsive gene induction, implicating DELLAs in JA-signaling and/or perception. Accordingly, the elevated resistance of gai to the necrotrophic fungus
The diterpenoid phytohormone gibberellin (GA) plays pivotal roles in regulating growth and development throughout the life cycle of higher plants. Mutations affecting GA biosynthesis or GA response were the key to control plant stature in wheat and rice that led to dramatically increased grain yield and contributed greatly to the success of the Green Revolution in the 1960s. Although the GA biosynthetic pathway had been characterized biochemically, little was known about the sites of GA production and the mode of GA action. By multi-faceted approaches using the model system Arabidopsis, my lab has made major breakthroughs in revealing the sites and regulatory mechanisms of GA biosynthesis. We also elucidated the conserved molecular events of GA perception and the early GA signaling pathway. We identified the nuclear transcriptional regulators DELLA proteins, which function as master growth repressors by inhibiting all aspects of GA responses. Binding of GA to its nuclear receptor GID1 enhances ...
The goal of this experiment was to observe and record the effects of the growth hormone gibberellin (GA3), fertilizer and water temperature on the growth patterns of Bush Blue Lake Bean plants. The plants were grown from seeds and the height, in centimeters, was recorded regularly over a thirty-two day period. Water was added at the correct temperature on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, while gibberellin and fertilizer, in the correct amount, was administered on the eighth and twenty-fourth days of the experiment. The gibberellin had a distinct effect on the plants, it made the stems grow longer and faster. This was a negative effect because at the end of the experiment the stems were so tall and thin that they broke in half. The fertilizer had a detrimental effect, producing sickly plants. This was due to the fact that the fertilizer was nitrogen based and this was harmful to the bean plants. It was concluded that the gibberellin and fertilizer were damaging to the bean plants.. ...
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Aliases : Solyc01g080900.3. Description : 17.6.1.4 hormone metabolism.gibberelin.synthesis-degradation.ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase/oxygenase ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase (KAO2) ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase 2 (KAO2). ...
The gene that determined height in Mendels pea plants has been identified. This gene (T) encodes an enzyme called gibberellin 3-oxidase. The function of this enzyme is to convert an inactive plant compound into active gibberellin. Gibberellin is a plant hormone that stimulates growth, resulting in taller plants. A point mutation in the T gene resulted in an allele (t) in which a single guanine nucleotide is changed to adenine. This nucleotide substitution results in a protein that contains threonine instead of alanine. This mutation is best described as what ...
The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) controls growth and development in plants. Previously, we identified a rice F-box protein, gibberellin-insensitive dwarf2 (GID2), which is essential for GA-mediated DELLA protein degradation. In this study, we analyzed the biological and molecular biological propert …
14-3-3 proteins regulate diverse cellular processes in eukaryotes by binding to phospho-serine or threonine of target proteins. One of the physiological functions of 14-3-3 is to bind and protect phosphate groups of the target proteins against phosphatases. REPRESSION OF SHOOT GROWTH (RSG) is a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) transcription factor that is involved in the feedback regulation of biosynthetic genes of plant hormone gibberellin. 14-3-3 binds to phospho-Ser-114 in RSG. Ca2+-dependent protein kinase NtCDPK1 was identified as a kinase that phosphorylates Ser-114 of RSG. Our recent study revealed that NtCDPK1 forms a heterotrimer with RSG and 14-3-3 and that 14-3-3 was transferred from NtCDPK1 to phosphorylated RSG (Ito et al., 2014). In the course of the study, we found that 14-3-3 protects the phosphate group of RSG from λ protein phosphatase in vitro. Here, we describe a protocol for in vitro phosphatase protection assay. To detect the phosphorylation state of proteins, we used Phos-tag SDS-PAGE
Effect of OsKO2 regulation on plant height. Plant architecture is of major agronomic importance as it determines the adaptability of plant to cultivation, its harvest index and potential grain yield. Rice plant architecture is mainly determined by tiller pattern, plant height, leaf shape and arrangement, and panicle architecture. Plant height is an important agronomic trait which directly influences harvest index and yield potential. A number of genes have been identified which affect the plant height. Most of these genes encode for gibberellic acid (GA) and brassinosteroid biosynthetic or signalling pathway components. OsKO2 is one of the GA biosynthetic gene in rice, which encodes for ent-kaurene oxidase. This gene is a target of many transcription factors which are involved in controlling plant height.. References:. Chen X, Lu S, Wang Y, Zhang X, Lv B, Luo L, Xi D, Shen J, Ma H, Ming F (2015) OsNAC2 encoding a NAC transcription factor that affects plant height through mediating the ...
DELLA protein RGA; Probable transcriptional regulator that acts as a repressor of the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway. Probably acts by participating in large multiprotein complexes that repress transcription of GA-inducible genes. Positively regulates XERICO expression in seeds. Upon GA application, it is degraded by the proteasome, allowing the GA signaling pathway. Compared to other DELLA proteins, it is the most sensitive to GA application. No effect of the BOI proteins on its stability. Its activity is probably regulated by other phytohormones such as auxin and ethylene, attenu [...] (587 aa ...
To further our understanding of the role of the AtGAMYBs in the regulation of floral development we took advantage of the recent identification of a microRNA (miR159) exhibiting substantial sequence homology with mRNAs encoding AtMYB33, AtMYB65 and AtMYB101 (Gocal et al., 2001; Reinhart et al.,2002). MicroRNAs are single-stranded RNA molecules of 20-22 nucleotides that can cause complementarity-dependent cleavage (e.g. Llave et al., 2002a) or translational inhibition (Chen,2004; Aukerman and Sakai,2003) of target mRNA molecules. More than one hundred distinct small RNAs have been identified in plants, although only a minority of these are microRNAs (Llave et al.,2002b; Reinhart et al.,2002). Most of the predicted targets of these microRNAs are members of transcription factor gene families involved in developmental patterning or cell differentiation(Rhoades et al., 2002; Kidner and Martienssen, 2003). In this paper we describe experiments showing that miR159 directs the cleavage of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A gibberellin insensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Koornneef, M.. AU - Elgersma, A.. AU - Hanhart, C.J.. AU - van Loenen-Martinet, E.P.. AU - van Rijn, L.. AU - Zeevaart, J.A.D.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. U2 - 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1985.tb02355.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1985.tb02355.x. M3 - Article. VL - 65. SP - 33. EP - 39. JO - Physiologia Plantarum. JF - Physiologia Plantarum. SN - 0031-9317. ER - ...
by Cristina Ferrándiz Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas. CSIC-UPV.Valencia, Spain In spite of what their sessile lifestyle could suggest, or maybe perhaps as a consequence of it, plants appear to be big decision-makers. Developmental decisions such as dormancy/germination, growth/arrest, branching/suppression-of-branches, vegetative-growth/flowering, senescence, fate … are key factors for their survival and reproductive…
A plant growth enhancing composition comprising as an active ingredient a synergistic mixture of (a) gibberellins, (b) the heteroauxin indole-3-acetic acid and the cytokinin 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-tr
Phytochrome regulates lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids) seed germination via the control of the endogenous level of bioactive gibberellin (GA). In addition to the previously identified LsGA20ox1, LsGA20ox2, LsGA3ox1, LsGA3ox2, LsGA2ox1, and LsGA2ox2, five cDNAs were isolated from lettuce seeds: LsCPS, LsKS, LsKO1, LsKO2, and LsKAO. Using an Escherichia coli expression system and functional assays, it is shown that LsCPS and LsKS encode ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase and ent-kaurene synthase, respectively. Using a Pichia pastoris system, it was found that LsKO1 and LsKO2 encode ent-kaurene oxidases and LsKAO encodes ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase. A comprehensive expression analysis of GA metabolism genes using the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction suggested that transcripts of LsGA3ox1 and LsGA3ox2, both of which encode GA 3-oxidase for GA activation, were primarily expressed in the hypocotyl end of lettuce seeds, were expressed at much lower levels than the ...
In enzymology, an ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (EC 5.5.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, and one product, ent-copalyl pyrophosphate. This enzyme participates in gibberellin biosynthesis. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically the class of intramolecular lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme class is ent-copalyl-diphosphate lyase (decyclizing). Other names in common use include ent-kaurene synthase A, and ent-kaurene synthetase A. ent-Copalyl diphosphate synthases from fungi and mosses also have a distinct ent-kaurene synthase activity associated with the same protein molecule. The reaction catalyzed by ent-kaurene synthase is the next step in the biosynthetic pathway to gibberellins. The two types of enzymic activity are distinct, and site-directed mutagenesis to suppress the ent-kaurene synthase activity of the protein leads to build up of ent-copalyl pyrophosphate. ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Suzy Stoodley.. Sugar beet, Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris, is the UKs local source of sugar and provides for half of our domestic sugar needs. Sugar beet is a biennial plant, grown as an annual spring-sown crop. The roots, a product of the vegetative phase of growth, contain up to 19% sugar and are harvested in the autumn. Bolting (stem elongation) and flowering of crops reduces root yield and occurs after crops experience prolonged cold temperatures (vernalization) in the spring. The gibberellin plant growth regulators have roles in cell expansion and division, and the control of reproductive growth. In biennial sugar beet, the amount of bioactive gibberellins increases at the shoot tip after vernalization, and bolting has been shown to be a GA-limited process. What is not yet clear is the mechanism of interaction between vernalization, gibberellin and bolting or flowering. I will show how qPCR has revealed a vernalization-regulated GA ...
The widespread agricultural problem of pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) could potentially be overcome by improving seed dormancy. Here, we report that miR156, an important grain yield regulator, also controls seed dormancy in rice. We found that mutations in one MIR156 subfamily enhance seed dormancy and suppress PHS with negligible effects on shoot architecture and grain size, whereas mutations in another MIR156 subfamily modify shoot architecture and increase grain size but have minimal effects on seed dormancy. Mechanistically, mir156 mutations enhance seed dormancy by suppressing the gibberellin (GA) pathway through de-represssion of the miR156 target gene Ideal Plant Architecture 1 (IPA1), which directly regulates multiple genes in the GA pathway. These results provide an effective method to suppress PHS without compromising productivity, and will facilitate breeding elite crop varieties with ideal plant architectures. Pre-harvest sprouting reduces the yield of agriculturally important crops such as
Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that play fundamental roles in plant growth and development. Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2ox) plays a direct role in determining the levels of bioactive GAs by catalyzing bioactive GAs or their immediate precursors to inactive forms. In this study, a GA2ox gene, designated JcGA2ox6, was isolated from Jatropha curcas. JcGA2ox6 is expressed in all tissues of adult Jatropha, with the highest expression level in male flowers and the lowest expression level in young leaves. Overexpression of JcGA2ox6 in Arabidopsis resulted in a typical dwarf phenotype, along with late flowering, smaller leaves and flowers, shorter siliques and smaller seeds. Similarly, when JcGA2ox6 was overexpressed in Jatropha, the transgenic plants exhibited a dwarf phenotype with dark-green leaves and smaller inflorescences, flowers, fruits and seeds. However, the flowering time of Jatropha was not affected by overexpression of JcGA2ox6, unlike that in the transgenic Arabidopsis. Moreover, the ...
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Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that are essential for many developmental processes in plants, including seed germination, stem elongation, leaf expansion, trichome development, pollen maturation and the induction of flowering (Achard and Genschik, 2009). Hence, mutant plants that are deficient in GA exhibit a dwarf and late-flowering phenotype, and treating these plants with GA restores normal growth. Historically, GA was first identified in the pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi, the causal agent of the foolish-seedling disease of rice, causing excessive elongation of infected plants (Yabuta and Sumiki, 1938). Since its original discovery, ,130 GAs have been identified in plants, fungi and bacteria, although only a few GAs have biological activity (Yamaguchi, 2008); many non-bioactive GAs exist in plants, and these act as precursors for the bioactive forms or are de-activated metabolites. The major bioactive GAs, which include GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7, are derived from a basic ...
Common sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants, with antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, composed mainly of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone and camphor, is responsible for some of these effects. Gibberellins regulate diverse physiological processes in plants, such as seed germination, shoot elongation and cell division. In this study, we analyzed the effect of exogenously applied plant growth regulators, namely gibberellic acid (GA(3)) and daminozide, on leaf morphology and essential oil formation of two leaf stages during the period of leaf expansion. Essential oil content increased with increasing levels of gibberellins and decreased when gibberellin biosynthesis was blocked with daminozide. With increasing levels of gibberellins, 1,8-cineole and camphor contents increased. Daminozide blocked the accumulation of ...
Tuber formation in potato (Solanum tuberosum) is promoted by short photoperiods and is inhibited by gibberellins (GAs). Endogenous levels of GA1 were shown to decrease in stolons and leaves of potato plants induced to tuberize, which suggests that photoperiodic regulation of GA biosynthesis may play a role in tuber induction. We report the isolation of three potato cDNA clones (StGA20ox1-3) encoding GA 20-oxidase, a key regulatory enzyme in the GA-biosynthetic pathway. Using northern analysis, we detected a differential pattern of tissue-specific expression of the mRNAs corresponding to these clones. StGA20ox mRNAs were also very abundant in leaves of the potato ga1 mutant, which is blocked in the 13-hydroxylation step, and were strongly down-regulated by gibberellic acid, suggesting a feedback regulation of these genes. In plants grown in short-day (inductive) conditions, levels of the StGA20ox transcripts in leaves fluctuated during a 24-h period, with a peak of accumulation observed about 4 h ...
Plant growth and development are coordinated by several groups of small-molecule hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs) and gibberellins (GAs). Physiological and molecular studies have suggested the existence of crosstalk between BR and GA signaling. We report that BZR1, a key transcription factor activated by BR signaling, interacts in vitro and in vivo with REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA), a member of the DELLA family of transcriptional regulators that inhibits the GA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analyses of plants with mutations in the genes encoding RGA and BZR1 revealed that RGA suppressed root and hypocotyl elongation of the gain-of-function mutant bzr1-1D. Ectopic expression of proteins of the DELLA family reduced the abundance and transcriptional activity of BZR1. Reporter gene analyses further indicated that BZR1 and RGA antagonize each others transcriptional activity. Our data indicated that BZR1 and RGA served as positive and negative regulators, respectively, of ...
4LIX: Crystal structure of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana in complex with (S)-15-aza-14,15-dihydrogeranylgeranyl thiolodiphosphate at 1.55 A resolution
The effects of pre-harvest and post-harvest applications of gibberellin (GA3) at different concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g L‑1 on appearance quality of Guifei mango were investigated. The results showed that: (1) When application with GA3 during pre-harvest, lower GA3 treatments could delay the change of a* value, inhibit degradation of chlorophyll and the accumulation of carotenoid and anthocyanin, and decrease the activities of chlorophyllase (Chlase) and chalcone isomerase (CHI). However, higher concentration (,1.0 g L‑1) treatment could result in incomplete change in peel color until ripening. (2) When application with GA3 during post-harvest, the degradation of chlorophyll, the synthesis of anthocyanin and carotenoid, and the change of peel color were retarded greatly by GA3 treatment. Thus, the higher concentration (,2.0 g L‑1) could make mangoes not turning color completely at the end of storage period. Therefore, it is suggested that unsuitable GA3 concentration ...
Sonja received her undergraduate education at Augsburg College in Minneapolis, Minnesota and the University of Wisconsin-River Falls with a major in Plant Science and a minor in Chemistry. She received her Masters and Doctoral degrees from the University of Minnesota in Horticulture with a minor in Plant Physiology and a Collateral Field in Cell Biology, conducting research on gibberellin metabolism and fruit development under Dr. Mark Brenner. She conducted post-doctoral research with Dr. Susan Singer at Carleton College in developmental biology and genetics.
Shoub, J.; Hertogh, A.A.D., 1974: Effects of ancymidol and gibberellins A3 and A4+7 on Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Paul Richter during development in the greenhouse
대전광역시 유성구 대학로 245 한국과학기술정보연구원TEL : 042.869.1234 서울시 동대문구 회기로 66NDSL고객센터 : 080.969.4114E-mail : [email protected] 대표자 : 한선화사업자등록번호 : 205-82-04043 ...
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Gibberellic acid and dwarfism effects on the growth dynamics of B73 maize (Zea mays L.) leaf blades: a transient increase in apoplastic peroxidase activity prec
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of gibberellic acid (GA3) combined with homobrassinolide (HBR) treatment to improve fruit anthocyani
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AbstractReduced height 8 (Rht8) is the main alternative to the GA-insensitive Rht alleles in hot and dry environments where it reduces plant height without…
TY - JOUR. T1 - PICKLE acts throughout the plant to repress expression of embryonic traits and may play a role in Giberellin-Dependent responses. AU - Henderson, J.. AU - Li, H.C.. AU - Mordhorst, A.P.. AU - Romero-Severson, J.. AU - Cheng, J.C.. AU - Robey, J.. AU - Sung, Z.R.. AU - de Vries, S.C.. AU - Ogas, J.. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - A seed marks the transition between two developmental states; a plant is an embryo during seed formation, whereas it is a seedling after emergence from the seed. Two factors have been identified in Arabidopsis that play a role in establishment of repression of the embryonic state: PKL (PICKLE), which codes for a putative CHD3 chromatin remodeling factor, and gibberellin (GA), a plant growth regulator. Previous observations have also suggested that PKL mediates some aspects of GA responsiveness in the adult plant. To investigate possible mechanisms by which PKL and GA might act to repress the embryonic state, we further characterized the ability of PKL and GA ...
is usually a mushroom with traditional medicinal properties that has been widely used in China and other countries in Eastern Asia. GAs, low GA yield from both field cultivation and fermentation limits its wide-spread use. Many attempts have been made to increase GA biosynthesis. Those works can be divided into two branches. Most reports focus on the environmental conditions during fermentation. The optimal medium (carbon source, nitrogen source, mineral source, and initial pH) was elucidated by an orthogonal design study that tested one factor at a time [8]. By studying the effect of the fed-batch fermentation process (pH-shift and dissolved oxygen tension-shift) around AMG 900 the GA content, strategies were identified that resulted in a significant synergistic enhancement of GA accumulation [9]. Recently, the use of an inducer to enhance the activity components in fungi fermentation has drawn great interest [10], [11]. For GA production, methyl jasmonate, phenobarbital and H2O2 were added to ...
Phytohormones are known for their pivotal roles in promoting normal growth and development of the plants and contributing to the mechanism of defense. Although an over simplification, however, they may be categorized as stress specific and growth promoting. SA and JA/Ethylene are implicated in stress responses while auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins are involved in developmental processes. Phytohormones from the above perspective got much attention in the last few decades; however their reciprocal role is currently in focus. It is because of the reason that plant pathogens cause overall hormonal imbalance at host pathogen interface and alter host physiology for the sake of pathogenecity. Despite their importance in growth and development, cytokinins are among the most neglected phytohormones that are usually noticed as consequence rather than a cause of pathogen infection. Results presented in this thesis are based on the hypothesis that elevated levels of CKs embody plants with resistance ...
The idea that a specific chemical stimulus is involved in some processes of plant development was introduced by European plant scientists in the early 20th century. After the discovery of auxin by Went in 1926, this hormone became a subject of intensive studies in the physiology of plant growth and development. In Japan, studies on auxin started in the middle of the 1930s. At that time, gibberellin was discovered in Japan. Unfortunately, gibberellin was regarded as a fungal toxin and no special attention was paid to its physiological significance. The first paper on auxin in Japan was published by Masayuki Nagao in 1936, dealing with its transport in the root, which was then a subject of dispute. Before World War II (~1940) there were only about ten auxin researchers, excluding those in applied areas. In this article I will introduce their studies and some of the applied studies. I will also pay special attention to a series of work by Sadao Yasuda who was a pioneer researcher of plant ...
Stove, B. B., andT. Yamaki: Annual Rev. Plant Physiol.8, 181 (1957).White, P. R.: The cultivation of animal and plant cells. New York 1954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
The [email protected] Centre provides a platform for research students to deposit their Ph.D. theses and make it available to the entire scholarly community in open access. Shodhganga Mirror Site ...
MIG / MAG welding refers to a group of arc welding processes that use the heat generated by a DC electric arc to fuse the metal in the joint area.
Sarnowska, E.; Rolicka, A. T.; Bucior, E.; Cwiek, P.; Tohge, T.; Fernie, A. R.; Jikumaru, Y.; Kamiya, Y.; Franzen, R.; Schmelzer, E. et al.; Porri, A.; Sacharowski, S.; Gratkowska, D. M.; Zugaj, D. L.; Taff, A.; Zalewska, A.; Archacki, R.; Davis, S. J.; Coupland, G.; Koncz, C.; Jerzmanowski, A.; Sarnowski, T. J.: DELLA-Interacting SWI3C Core Subunit of Switch/Sucrose Nonfermenting Chromatin Remodeling Complex Modulates Gibberellin Responses and Hormonal Cross Talk in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 163 (1), pp. 305 - 317 (2013 ...
SePRO Corporation has announced the introduction of Cutless Granular, a landscape growth regulator. Cutless Granular is registered with the U.S. EPA for systemic growth suppression of woody ornamental plants and perennial ground covers, resulting in a more compact growth form and reduced need for trimming.. According to SePRO, Cutless Granular contains the active ingredient flurprimido, which interferes with the biosynthesis of gibberellic acid (GA), a plant growth hormone responsible for cell elongation and division. By disrupting GA biosynthesis, cell elongation and division are suppressed, resulting in reduced shoot growth and internode length in landscape ornamentals.. Also according to SePRO, Cutless Granular improves the overall shrub shape and generates fuller more attractive plants by stimulating branching and promoting darker green foliage. Plants treated with Cutless Granular will require less trimming and will reduce annual labor costs for maintaining landscaped shrubs, hedges and ...
that cell b. Thus cells need external signals to coordinate growth and development c. Plant hormones do this coordination 2. How hormones work: a. Act in low concentrations b. Function as internal signals c. How plant hormones initiate their effects is not fully understood d. Effects of hormones overlap e. Plant hormones coordinate: (1) Cell division - new cell production as a result of mitosis (2) Cell growth - increases in cell size and organ size (3) Differentiation - specialization in structure and function of the cell 3. Five classes of hormones: a. Auxins b. Gibberellins c. Cytokinins d. Ethylene e. Abscisic Acid B. Auxins 1. First detected in the coleoptiles of grass because auxin stimulated elongation of the ...
These past weeks we have been seeing some beautiful autumn colours on trees and shrubs, as well as a good deal of falling leaves. You might be curious to know about the biochemical changes that are happening inside plants that make for these attractive autumn displays. To understand these changes horticulturalists learn about five important plant hormones and how they effect the plant.. There are the growth hormones, the auxins which cause cell division and enlargement, the gibberellins which control stem extension growth and dormancy, and the cytokinins with stimulate cell division and are responsible for the bushy side growth plants put on once the growing tip of the main stem has been removed, for example when you pinch out the tip of your young sweet pea plants because you want to encourage the plants to become more bushy. These three hormone groups are responsible for regulating the growth of a plant.. The other two hormones are abscisic acid and ethylene, and these are not growth ...
askIITians offers revision notes on Plant Growth & Development including phytohormones, auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins for NEET (AIPMT) & Medical Exams. Download here:
GCSE biology multiple choice questions (MCQs), GCSE biology quiz questions and answers pdf for online courses. GCSE A level biology MCQs with answers, A level biology topics: molecular biology and biochemistry, cell structure, ultrafiltration and proximal convoluted tubule, genetic diseases and cell divisions, auxin, gibberellins and abscisic acid with answers.
Arabidopsis plants that only reach half their normal height have a mutation in the biosynthesis of the plant growth factor gibberellin.
La Societ Italiana di Genetica Agraria, dora in poi indicata con la sigla SIGA, stata costituita a Rieti il 13 Ottobre 1964 con scrittura privata autenticata dal dr. Angelo Gianfelice, notaio in Rieti, e registrata il 2 Novembre 1964 allUfficio del Registro di Rieti al n 808, volume 165. La SIGA unassociazione scientifica non avente fini di lucro. La SIGA ha sede presso il domicilio del Segretario in carica. Variazioni di indirizzo della sede non comportano procedure di modifica del presente statuto. La SIGA ha lo scopo di promuovere il progresso della Genetica nelle sue applicazioni al sistema agricolo e la cooperazione tra gli interessati siano essi persone fisiche o enti pubblici o privati, svolgendo attivit nel settore della ricerca scientifica, dellistruzione e della formazione, nel settore della tutela e della valorizzazione dellambiente, nel settore della promozione della cultura della genetica e delle sue applicazioni.
Martins, A. O.; Omena-Garcia, R. P.; Oliveira, F. S.; Silva, W. A.; Hajirezaei, M.-R.; Vallarino, J. G.; Ribeiro, D. M.; Fernie, A. R.; Nunes-Nesi, A.; Araujo, W. L.: Differential root and shoot responses in the metabolism of tomato plants exhibiting reduced levels of gibberellin. Environmental and Experimental Botany 157, S. 331 - 343 (2019 ...
Martins, A. O.; Omena-Garcia, R. P.; Oliveira, F. S.; Silva, W. A.; Hajirezaei, M.-R.; Vallarino, J. G.; Ribeiro, D. M.; Fernie, A. R.; Nunes-Nesi, A.; Araujo, W. L.: Differential root and shoot responses in the metabolism of tomato plants exhibiting reduced levels of gibberellin. Environmental and Experimental Botany 157, S. 331 - 343 (2019 ...
csírázás,fejlődés, N-megkötés gátlása Sok kutatás Növények rendelkeznek egy belső hálózattal, képesek egymást figyelmeztetni a veszélyforrásokra Lóhere,nád,bodza-apró szövevényes kapcsolat futók Lúdfű kórokozótámadás esetén segítségkérés Almasav termelődése(gyökér) Hasznos baktériumok Levél-gyökér kommunikáció Auxintranszport: háncs, óránként 5-15 mm Szervek auxinérzékenysége változó, túlzott auxinkoncentráció gátolja a növekedést Befolyásolják a rügyek differenciálódását (magasabb koncentráció-rövid hajtások, alacsonyabb-hosszú hajtások Ma kb 58 gibberellin Idősebb, differenciálódott szövetek gibberellinre érzéketlenek Természetes inhibitor Mohákban és harasztokban is található Lomb és termésleválás, gyümöcsérés Skoog 1955 - dohány parenchimájából sejtosztódást serkentő anyag (tiszta állapotban) izolálása Kinetin: 6-furfuril-amino-purin (mesterségesen előállítható Természetben is ...
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Della smoothes out her gi, takes a deep breath, and drops into her stance again. She and Jamie begin to circle each other once more. So its not just my footing, shes got a second line of defense. Della waits until just before Jamie is mid-stride - an easy task, as she is stepping slowly and steadily - then darts in with a quick right jab, feinting again. Jamie goes to block it, but blocks across her body with her own right hand, so Della follows up with a left hook. Jamie blocks high, easily, her right arm already in position - exposing her torso to a left roundhouse kick. Just as Della had planned. But as Della turns her hips, Jamie steps in with her left foot and shoves an open left palm right into the joint where Dellas left femur meets her pelvis, sending her off balance again. Della recovers, though, and reaches for Jamies gi. The two grapple briefly, and Della kicks out one of Jamies legs, then sends her tumbling to the mat - and then Della is pulled right along with, watching in slow ...
RICERCHE DI PSICOLOGIA - Metacognizione, obiettivi di apprendimento e successo scolastico in studenti ad alto potenziale della scuola superiore ( Lo scopo di questa ricerca e studiare le relazioni tra obiettivi di apprendimento, metacognizione e successo scolastico in studenti ad alto potenziale del triennio della scuola superiore con la finalita di accrescere le strategie di apprendimento degli studenti e incoraggiare pratiche didattiche efficaci negli insegnanti. Alcuni ricercatori nel campo della plusdotazione hanno ipotizzato che i soggetti ad alto potenziale si distinguano dai loro pari normodotati perche attuano processi cognitivi tipici degli
E12 4W 72-LED 4041SMD 3000-3500K bianco caldo del gel di silice regolabile della luce del cereale (AC 110V) è stato comunemente accettato da vari campi, come ad esempio il centro commerciale, edificio per uffici, illuminazione di mostra e così via.Presenta diverse volte la luminosità della lampada tradizionale di pari potenza.Grazie a materiali di qualità superiore e pregevole fattura, è in grande resistenza agli urti, elevata stabilità, uneccellente dissipazione del calore e della tutela ambientale.Si è così resistente che potrebbe servire per più lungo tempo.Quindi, è la vostra scelta saggia per avere una prova ...
Prodotti della ricerca - Chiara Sinico - Professore Associato - Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dellAmbiente - Università di Cagliari
Prodotti della ricerca - Paolo Follesa - Professore Associato - Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dellAmbiente - Università di Cagliari