TY - JOUR. T1 - Proliferation of mouse primordial germ cells in Vitro. T2 - A key role for cAMP. AU - De Felici, Massimo. AU - Dolci, Susanna. AU - Pesce, Maurizio. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Two agents known to enhance the level of intracellular cAMP (dibutyryl cAMP and forskolin) markedly increase the number of 8.5, 10.5, and 11.5 days postcoitum (dpc) mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) cultured on TM4 cell feeder layers. Forskolin (FRSK) caused a significant increase of PGC number also in monodispersed cell suspensions obtained from PGC-containing tissues of the three embryonic ages studied and in purified 11.5 dpc PGCs cultured without feeder layers. The addition to the culture medium of adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate RP isomer (Rp-cAMPS, a competitive antagonist for cAMP-dependent protein kinases), significantly reduced the effects of FRSK. Last, FRSK stimulated PGC proliferation, as assessed by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridin incorporation. We conclude that cAMP-dependent ...
In Drosophila, the posterior determinant nanos is required for embryonic patterning and for primordial germ cell (PGC) development. We have identified three genes in Caenorhabditis elegans that contain a putative zinc-binding domain similar to the one found in nanos, and show that two of these genes function during PGC development. Like Drosophila nanos, C. elegans nos-1 and nos-2 are not generally required for PGC fate specification, but instead regulate specific aspects of PGC development. nos-2 is expressed in PGCs around the time of gastrulation from a maternal RNA associated with P granules, and is required for the efficient incorporation of PGCs into the somatic gonad. nos-1 is expressed in PGCs after gastrulation, and is required redundantly with nos-2 to prevent PGCs from dividing in starved animals and to maintain germ cell viability during larval development. In the absence of nos-1 and nos-2, germ cells cease proliferation at the end of the second larval stage, and die in a manner ...
Jenn-Fa Liou, Yu-Min Shue, Hsiao-Lung Liu, Chein Tai, Lih-Ren Chen, and Jen-Wen Shiau. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of gonadal migration and characterization for chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) after long-term in vitro culture. Chicken PGCs collected from the primitive gonads of 5.5-day-old White Leghorn chicken embryos were plated together with their own stroma cells as co-culture. The cultured PGCs began to from colonies 7-10 days after plating. The PGC-derived colonies maintained in culture up to 280 days were positively stained with antibodies specific to SSEA-1, SSEA-4, integrin α6 and integrin β1, and also strongly expressed periodic acid Schiff reaction. Their capacities of migration and colonizing in the primary gonadal ridge were further demonstrated by transferring to stage 14-15 (3 days old) recipient embryos. These results suggested that chicken PGCs maintained in long-term culture retains their capacity to express pluripotent markers and to ...
Liu-Xiao-Ping; Gao-Ying-Mao; Xu-Luo; Guo-Fei-Fei; Bing-Lu-Jun, 2007: The effect of transplantation of mouse primordial germ cells on the acute damaged liver
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the precursors of gametes responsible for genetic transmission to the next generation. They provide an ideal system for cryopr...
The directional migration and the following development of primordial germ cells (PGCs) during gonad formation are key steps for germline development. It has been proposed that the interaction between germ cells and genital ridge (GR) somatic cells plays essential roles in this process. However, the in vivo functional requirements of GR somatic cells in germ cell development are largely unknown. Wt1 mutation (Wt1R394W/R394W) results in GR agenesis through mitotic arrest of coelomic epitheliums. In this study, we employed the GR-deficient mouse model, Wt1R394W/R394W, to investigate the roles of GR somatic cells in PGC migration and proliferation. We found that the number of PGCs was dramatically reduced in GR-deficient embryos at embryonic day (E) 11.5 and E12.5 due to decreased proliferation of PGCs, involving low levels of BMP signaling. In contrast, the germ cells in Wt1R394W/R394W embryos were still mitotically active at E13.5, while all the germ cells in control embryos underwent mitotic arrest at
TY - JOUR. T1 - Zebrafish primordial germ cell cultures derived from vasa::RFP transgenic embryos. AU - Fan, Lianchun. AU - Moon, Jesung. AU - Wong, Ten Tsao. AU - Crodian, Jennifer. AU - Collodi, Paul. PY - 2008/6/1. Y1 - 2008/6/1. N2 - Although embryonic germ (EG) cell-mediated gene transfer has been successful in the mouse for more than a decade, this approach is limited in other species due to the difficulty of isolating the small numbers of progenitors of germ cell lineage (PGCs) from early-stage embryos and the lack of information on the in vitro culture requirements of the cells. In this study, methods were established for the culture of PGCs obtained from zebrafish embryos. Transgenic embryos that express the red fluorescent protein (RFP) under the control of the PGC-specific vasa promoter were used, making it possible to isolate pure populations of PGCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and to optimize the culture conditions by counting the number of fluorescent PGC colonies ...
Although mutations are the force of evolution, most mutations are deleterious. Faithful inheritance of genetic information is the key to evolutionary success. The only cell lineage that is capable of transferring genetic information is the germ line. Therefore, refined control of mutation frequency in germ cells is of great importance. The control mechanism mainly involves the DNA damage response (DDR), since DNA damage is the major source of mutations. In mammals, most studies on germ line mutation and DDR focus on meiosis. In contrast, little is known about these processes in primordial germ cells (PGCs). In particular, checkpoint signaling has not been characterized in PGCs. Multiple analysis showed that the mutation rate in germ cells is consistently lower than that in somatic cells. Therefore, it has been proposed that there is a fundamental difference in DDR between germ cells and somatic cells. Indeed, a few DDR mutants have revealed a hypersensitivity of PGCs to DNA damage. In this ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High-resolution DNA methylome analysis of primordial germ cells identifies gender-specific reprogramming in mice. AU - Kobayashi, Hisato. AU - Sakurai, Takayuki. AU - Miura, Fumihito. AU - Imai, Misaki. AU - Mochiduki, Kentaro. AU - Yanagisawa, Eikichi. AU - Sakashita, Akihiko. AU - Wakai, Takuya. AU - Suzuki, Yutaka. AU - Ito, Takashi. AU - Matsui, Yasuhisa. AU - Kono, Tomohiro. PY - 2013/4. Y1 - 2013/4. N2 - Dynamic epigenetic reprogramming occurs during mammalian germ cell development, although the targets of this process, including DNA demethylation and de novo methylation, remain poorly understood. We performed genomewide DNA methylation analysis in male and female mouse primordial germ cells at embryonic days 10.5, 13.5, and 16.5 by whole-genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing. Our high-resolution DNA methylome maps demonstrated gender-specific differences in CpG methylation at genome-wide and gene-specific levels during fetal germline progression. There was extensive intra- ...
Germ cell development involves formation of the spermatogenic or oogenic lineages from the bipotential primordial germ cells. Signaling mechanisms in the fetal testis and ovary determine whether germ cells enter the male or female developmental pathway, respectively. These signaling processes underpin an important phase of germ cell development, disruption of which can lead to failed germ cell function resulting in infertility or the formation of germ cell tumours. In this study we have developed a small molecule screening protocol combined with flow cytometry to identify signaling pathways that direct male-specific development of germ cells. Here we provide a detailed method for this screening protocol, which we have used to identify signaling pathways important for male germ cell development. This method will be of particular use in screening inhibitors of signaling pathways, endocrine disruptors or other chemicals for their ability to disrupt testis and germ cell development, thereby providing
Directional cell migration is an intensively studied process relevant for both normal development of an organism as well as for a number of pathological conditions such as chronic inflammation and cancer. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) in Xenopus laevis embryos can be used as a model system to study cell migration, since during embryogenesis they actively migrate within the endoderm towards genital ridges. Transition to active cell migration is a highly regulated process important for the normal PGC development in many species. This study is focused on molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in initiation of active PGC migration within the endoderm of X. laevis embryos. Analysis of cell shape fluctuations demonstrated that in comparison to pre-migratory neural stage, PGCs isolated from tailbud stage embryos are characterized by an increased cellular dynamics due to formation of bleb-like protrusions and migration via bleb-associated mechanism. Analysis of intracellular PIP3 distribution that ...
Epigenetic reprogramming in mammalian germ cells, zygote and early embryos, plays a crucial role in regulating genome functions at critical stages of development. Germ line epigenetic reprogramming assures erasure of all the imprinting marks and epi-mutations and establishment of new sex-specific gametic imprints. The presented work focuses on the erasure of epigenetic modifications that occur in mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) between day 10.5 to 13.5 post coitum (dpc). Contrary to previous assumptions, our results show that as they enter the genital ridge the PGCs still possess DNA methylation marks comparable to those found in somatic cells. Shortly after the entry of PGCs into the gonadal anlagen the DNA methylation marks associated with imprinted and non-imprinted genes are erased. For most genes the erasure commences simultaneously in PGCs of both male and female embryos and is completed within only one day of development. The kinetics of this process indicates that is an active ...
Stochastic specification of primordial germ cells from mesoderm precursors in axolotl embryos[7] A common feature of development in most vertebrate models is the early segregation of the germ line from the soma. For example, in Xenopus and zebrafish embryos primordial germ cells (PGCs) are specified by germ plasm that is inherited from the egg; in mice, Blimp1 expression in the epiblast mediates the commitment of cells to the germ line. How these disparate mechanisms of PGC specification evolved is unknown. Here, in order to identify the ancestral mechanism of PGC specification in vertebrates, we studied PGC specification in embryos from the axolotl (Mexican salamander), a model for the tetrapod ancestor. In the axolotl, PGCs develop within mesoderm, and classic studies have reported their induction from primitive ectoderm (animal cap). We used an axolotl animal cap system to demonstrate that signalling through FGF and BMP4 induces PGCs. The role of FGF was then confirmed in vivo. We also ...
Stem cells in adult animal tissues have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into functional cells that replenish lost cells. Their self-renewal and differentiation are controlled by concerted actions of extrinsic factors and intrinsic factors (1, 2). Although a plethora of intrinsic factors has been identified for their roles in stem cell regulation, it remains largely unclear how differentiation factors are functionally repressed in stem cells. In this study, we show that a translation initiation factor eIF4A maintains germline stem cell (GSC) self-renewal in the Drosophila ovary by antagonizing the differentiation factor BAM.. In the Drosophila ovary, 2 or 3 GSCs are located at the tip of the germarium, where they are directly anchored to cap cells through E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion (3). In addition, GSCs are also laterally wrapped around by escort stem cells (4). After GSC division, the daughter attaching to cap cells/escort stem cells renews as a stem cell, while the other ...
As with cultures of mouse ES cells, human ES cells begin to differentiate if they are removed from feeder layers and grown in suspension culture on a non-adherent surface. The human ES cells form embryoid bodies which, in the early stages, may be simple or cystic and filled with fluid. Although human embryoid bodies vary in their cellular content, many include cells that look like neurons and heart muscle cells [14, 25, 26].. After the human embryoid bodies form, they can be dissociated and replated in monolayer cultures which are then exposed to specific growth factors that influence further cell differentiation. Some growth factors induce cell types that would normally be derived from ectoderm in the embryo; these include retinoic acid, epidermal growth factor (EGF), bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Other growth factors, such as activin-A and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-ß1) trigger the differentiation of mesodermally derived cells. Two ...
Germ cell development is a step-wise process that ensures the progression of the life cycle due to their unique ability to transmit their genome from one generation to the next. In the mouse, the precursors of germ cells, the Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs), arise at the onset of gastrulation. Here we discuss how PGCs acquire their fate in the epiblast and outline their development until their arrival into the gonads. Male germ cell tumors (GCTs) have a similar gene expression pattern to that of fetal germ cells and to pluripotent cells, suggesting that GCT originate from an alteration of gonocyte normal development. We evaluate coincidences and differences in germ cell development in mouse and humans and on this basis, we speculate future research perspectives.
We have developed a technology to efficiently produce infertile fish by disrupting primordial germ cell development in fish embryos. The technology uses a bath immersion to administer a Morpholino oligomer (MO) against Deadend (Dnd), an essential protein for early germ cell development in fish. This approach has been successfully used in the zebrafish, trout and salmon. The goal of this proposal is to examine the feasibility of applying this technology to sablefish. ...
We have developed a technology to efficiently produce infertile fish by disrupting primordial germ cell development in fish embryos. The technology uses a bath immersion to administer a Morpholino oligomer (MO) against Deadend (Dnd), an essential protein for early germ cell development in fish. This approach has been successfully used in the zebrafish, trout and salmon. The goal of this proposal is to examine the feasibility of applying this technology to sablefish. ...
Background Dmrt1 is a highly conserved gene involved in the determination and early differentiation phase of the primordial gonad in vertebrates. In the fish medaka dmrt1bY, a functional duplicate of...
Germ cell sex is defined by factors derived from somatic cells. CYP26B1 is known to be a male sex-promoting factor that inactivates retinoic acid (RA) in somatic cells. In CYP26B1-null XY gonads, germ cells are exposed to a higher level of RA than in normal XY gonads and this activates Stra8 to induce meiosis while male-specific gene expression is suppressed. However, it is unknown whether meiotic entry by an elevated level of RA is responsible for the suppression of male-type gene expression. To address this question, we have generated Cyp26b1/Stra8 double knockout (dKO) embryos. We successfully suppressed the induction of meiosis in CYP26B1-null XY germ cells by removing the Stra8 gene. Concomitantly, we found that the male genetic program represented by the expression of NANOS2 and DNMT3L was totally rescued in about half of dKO germ cells, indicating that meiotic entry causes the suppression of male differentiation. However, half of the germ cells still failed to enter the appropriate male pathway
Click to launch & play an online audio visual presentation by Prof. Michael Buszczak on Legacy of drosophila genetics: female germline stem cells, part of a collection of multimedia lectures.
The homeostasis of self-renewal and differentiation in stem cells is strictly controlled by intrinsic signals and their niche. We conducted a large-scale RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Drosophila testes and identified 221 genes required for germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance or differentiation. Knockdown of these genes in transit-amplifying spermatogonia and cyst cells further revealed various phenotypes. Complex analysis uncovered that many of the identified genes are involved in key steps of protein synthesis and degradation. A group of genes that are required for mRNA splicing and protein translation contributes to both GSC self-renewal and early germ cell differentiation. Loss of genes in protein degradation pathway in cyst cells leads to testis tumor with overproliferated germ cells. Importantly, in the Cullin 4-Ring E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4) complex, we identified multiple proteins that are critical to GSC self-renewal. pic/DDB1, the linker protein of CRL4, is not only required for ...
Background The regulation of gene expression via a 3′ untranslated region (UTR) plays essential roles in the discrimination of the germ cell lineage from somatic cells during embryogenesis. This is fundamental to the continuation of a species. Mouse NANOS3 is an essential protein required for the germ cell maintenance and is specifically expressed in these cells. However, the regulatory mechanisms that restrict the expression of this gene in the germ cells is largely unknown at present. Methodology/Principal Findings In our current study, we show that differences in the stability of Nanos3 mRNA between germ cells and somatic cells is brought about in a 3′UTR-dependent manner in mouse embryos. Although Nanos3 is transcribed in both cell lineages, it is efficiently translated only in the germ lineage. We also find that the translational suppression of NANOS3 in somatic cells is caused by a 3′UTR-mediated mRNA destabilizing mechanism. Surprisingly, even when under the control of the CAG promoter
Witschi E. Rat Development. In: Growth Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. (1962) Altman PL. and Dittmer DS. ed. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington DC, pp. 304-314 ...
In animals like Drosophila, C. elegans, zebrafish and Xenopus, the primordial germ cells (PGC), the precursors of the gametes, are specified through the inheritance of germ plasm. Early PGC development is regulated by the genetic program coded by unique maternal factors in the germ plasm. However, the biological functions of these germ plasm components and their molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that Dzip1 (Daz-interacting protein1) is a novel component of germ plasm in Xenopus oocytes and embryos. The loss-of-function analysis showed that Dzip1 regulates the first wave of PGC proliferation. Overexpression of Dzip1 and Xvelo stabilize each other in the germ plasm during oocyte maturation. In vitro analysis suggests that Dzip1 decreases the solubility of Xvelo and induces Xvelo to form aggregates in the cytoplasm. Therefore we argue that Dzip1, by interacting and stabilizing Xvelo, regulates the integrity of germ plasm. In addition, our results reveal that Dzip1, by interacting ...
Clusters of primordial germ cells (PGCs) with somatic cells come closer to form ovigerous cords, which is first discernible in the fetal ovary upon establishment of initial contact between germ cells and somatic cells near the surface of the ovarian epithelium.. The first mechanistic difference between an XX and an XY germ cell in the genital ridge is reactivation of the inactive X in the female PGCs. The XX germ cells continue to divide and then enter meiosis at around E12.5. Subsequently, the female germ cells arrest at the diplotene stage of meiosis I and do not resume meiosis until postnatal ovarian folliculogenesis.. Folliculogenesis: Before formation of an ovarian follicle, oocytes are present within germ cell clusters (cysts or nests). The first stage of ovarian folliculogenesis involves the formation of the primordial follicle, which occurs when oocytes that survive the process of germ cell cluster breakdown are individually surrounded with squamous pre-granulosa cells. This takes place ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prospects for transgenesis in the chick. AU - Sang, Helen. PY - 2004/9. Y1 - 2004/9. N2 - Research to develop a useful method for genetic modification of the chick has been on-going since the first demonstrations in the mouse in the 1980s that genetic modification is an invaluable tool for the study of gene function. Manipulation of the chick zygote is possible but inefficient. Considerable progress has been made in developing potentially pluripotent embryo stem cells and their contribution to somatic chimeric birds well-established. Germ line transmission of gametes derived from genetically modified embryo cells has not been described. Transfer of primordial germ cells from a donor embryo to a recipient and production of functional gametes from the donor-derived cells is possible. Genetic modification of primordial germ cells before transfer and their recovery through the germ line has not been achieved. The first transgenic birds described were generated using retroviral ...
Nanos is expressed in multipotent cells, stem cells, and primordial germ cells (PGCs) of organisms as diverse as jellyfish and humans. It functions together with Pumilio to translationally repress targeted mRNAs. Here we show by loss-of-function experiments that Xenopus Nanos1 is required to preserve PGC fate. Morpholino knockdown of maternal Nanos1 resulted in a striking decrease in PGCs and loss of germ cells from the gonads. Lineage tracing and TUNEL staining reveals that Nanos1 deficient PGCs fail to migrate out of the endoderm. They appear to undergo apoptosis rather than convert to normal endoderm. Whereas normal PGCs do not become transcriptionally active until neurula, Nanos1 depleted PGCs prematurely express a hyperphosphorylated RNA Pol II-CTD at the mid-blastula transition. Furthermore, they now inappropriately express somatic genes characteristic of endoderm regulated by maternal VegT including Xsox17-alpha, Bix4, Mixer, GATA4, and Edd. We further demonstrate that Pumilio specifically
Chromatin epigenetics participate in control of gene expression during metazoan development. DNA methylation and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones have been extensively characterised in cell types present in, or derived from, mouse embryos. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from blastocysts, factors involved in deposition of epigenetic marks regulate properties related to self-renewal and pluripotency. In the germ lineage, changes in histone PTMs and DNA demethylation occur during formation of the primordial germ cells (PGCs) to reset the epigenome of the future gametes. Trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3K27me3) by Polycomb group proteins is involved in several epigenome-remodelling steps, but it remains unclear whether these epigenetic features are conserved in non-mammalian vertebrates. To investigate this question, we compared the abundance and nuclear distribution of the main histone PTMs, 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in chicken ESCs,
To estimate the developmental toxicity of environmental chemicals on the formation of primordial germ cells (PGCs), Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed to caffeine at 200 mg/l during the migratory stage of presumptive PGCs. The PGC-containing region of the larvae at stage 46, which corresponds to genital ridge, was illuminated by cold light using a halogen lamp and photographed using a digital camera under a dissecting microscope. The length along the cephalocaudal axis and area of the PGC-containing region were measured using image-measuring software. The length and area of the PGC-containing region as well as its relative length compared to the 100-µn;m body length of caffeine-exposed larvae were significantly shorter and smaller, respectively, than those of the control. Though further studies concerning the effect of caffeine on PGC formation are needed, these findings suggest that the Xenopus embryo and larva system examined in this study is useful as a simple, rapid and low-cost ...
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against the N332 supersite of the HIV envelope (Env) trimer are the most common bnAbs induced during infection, making them promising leads for vaccine design. Wild-type Env glycoproteins lack detectable affinity for supersite-bnAb germline precursors and are …
TY - JOUR. T1 - zif-1 translational repression defines a second, mutually exclusive OMA function in germline transcriptional repression. AU - Guven-Ozkan, Tugba. AU - Robertson, Scott M.. AU - Nishi, Yuichi. AU - Lin, Rueyling. PY - 2010/10/15. Y1 - 2010/10/15. N2 - Specification of primordial germ cells requires global repression of transcription. In C. elegans, primordial germ cells are generated through four rounds of asymmetric divisions, starting from the zygote P0, each producing a transcriptionally repressed germline blastomere (P1-P4). Repression in P2-P4 requires PIE-1, which is provided maternally in oocytes and segregated to all germline blastomeres. We have shown previously that OMA-1 and OMA-2 repress global transcription in P0 and P1 by sequestering TAF-4, an essential component of TFIID. Soon after the first mitotic cycle, OMA proteins undergo developmentally regulated degradation. Here, we show that OMA proteins also repress transcription in P2-P4 indirectly, through a completely ...
link:javascript:doSearch(\u0027chicken\u0027);,weight:27.00,text:chicken},{link:javascript:doSearch(\u0027Chicken\u0027);,weight:19.00,text:Chicken},{link:javascript:doSearch(\u0027primordial germ cell\u0027);,weight:7.00,text:primordial germ cell},{link:javascript:doSearch(\u0027gamete biology\u0027);,weight:6.00,text:gamete biology},{link:javascript:doSearch(\u0027ovary\u0027);,weight:6.00,text:ovary},{link:javascript:doSearch(\u0027oviduct\u0027);,weight:6.00,text:oviduct},{link:javascript:doSearch(\u0027embryo\u0027);,weight:5.00,text:embryo},{link:javascript:doSearch(\u0027germline chimera\u0027);,weight:5.00,text:germline chimera},{link:javascript:doSearch(\u0027Oviduct\u0027);,weight:5.00,text:Oviduct},{link:javascript:doSearch(\u0027primordial germ cells\u0027);,weight:5.00,text:primordial germ ...
The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is activated in follicle stem cells of animals lacking boi (CIL# 13757), relative to wild-type Drosophila (this image), base...
Background Expressing several markers of migrating primordial germ cells (PGCs), the rare population of quiescent, bone tissue marrow (BM)-residing really small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) could be given like PGCs into hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). talk about an operating EpoR. Conclusions Our data offer even more proof a potential developmental hyperlink between germline cells, VSELs, and sheds and HSCs more light in the developmental hierarchy from the stem cell area in adult tissue. civilizations that murine PGCs isolated from embryos, stem cells isolated Kenpaullone from murine testes [4], and teratocarcinoma cell lines could be given into hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) [11]. Our latest work demonstrated the current presence of little, quiescent, Sca-1+Lin-CD45- stem cells in adult murine BM and little Compact disc133+Lin-CD45- cells in individual BM and umbilical cable bloodstream (UCB) [12-16]. These cells, under suitable co-culture circumstances with OP-9 ...
ESRP1 regulates alternative splicing, producing multiple transcripts from its target genes in epithelial tissues. It is upregulated during mesenchymal to epithelial transition associated with reprogramming of fibroblasts to iPS cells and has been linked to pluripotency. Mouse fetal germ cells are the founders of the adult gonadal lineages and we found that Esrp1 mRNA was expressed in both male and female germ cells but not in gonadal somatic cells at various stages of gonadal development (E12.5-E15.5). In the postnatal testis, Esrp1 mRNA was highly expressed in isolated cell preparations enriched for spermatogonia but expressed at lower levels in those enriched for pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids ...
Germ cells occupy a central position in development, heredity, and evolution. In mammals, germ cells are first recognizable outside the portion of the embryo that will form the body. These primordial germ cells invade the developing body and migrate to the gonads, which at that stage are indistinguishable in males and females. The gonads differentiate into ovaries or testes. In parallel, the primordial germ cells become committed to give rise to oocytes or sperm. We use genetic tools to explore the development of the mammalian reproductive tract. While much of our research has focused on the mechanism by which the ovarian or testicular fate of the embryonic gonad is decided, our studies are increasingly directed toward understanding the mechanisms by which primordial germ cells give rise to gametes.. Germ Cell Development and Male Infertility: Three percent of men are infertile because of severe defects in sperm production. In few cases has the cause of spermatogenic failure been identified. We ...
We focus on the development of a single tissue, the germline, in the model organism C. elegans. This small nematode provides two key advantages: an excellent genetic system for understanding how cell fate is specified, and a completely sequenced and well-annotated genome. We use functional genomics tools to dissect the molecular mechanisms governing germ cell maintenance and differentiation in the model organism C. elegans. Conserved regulatory pathways, such as the Notch, Ras, and Retinoblastoma pathways, act to control proliferation and differentiation in these cells. The developing C. elegans germline requires tight spatial and temporal control of gene activity for proper formation. Epigenetic control of gene expression plays an important role in governing germ cell fate through the post-translational modification of histones and by RNAi-mediated post-transcriptional control. Projects in the lab investigate the mechanisms controlling germ cell specification in the early embryo, as well as the ...
Abortion obviously produces aborted fetuses. The taboo of using aborted fetal tissue for research is not a deterrent for some researchers; such tissue is just another tool in their toolbox. West freely admits that he has used aborted fetal tissue to advance his research. By scrambling around and persuading, I found a means of getting early human fetal testes and tried to grow the human embryonic germ cell in a dish. But, for his research, those germ cells were too old. In his words, I needed five week old fetuses. But where could I get those? Women do not abort fetuses that early, when they are just learning they are pregnant. 9. It is not just testes from aborted male babies that researchers want. Some want eggs from aborted female babies as well. The much-ignored reality of therapeutic cloning is this: to become a viable commercial therapy, an enormous amount of human eggs are required. For every attempt at cloning to harvest embryonic stem cells, it usually requires more than one human egg. ...
Abortion obviously produces aborted fetuses. The taboo of using aborted fetal tissue for research is not a deterrent for some researchers; such tissue is just another tool in their toolbox. West freely admits that he has used aborted fetal tissue to advance his research. By scrambling around and persuading, I found a means of getting early human fetal testes and tried to grow the human embryonic germ cell in a dish. But, for his research, those germ cells were too old. In his words, I needed five week old fetuses. But where could I get those? Women do not abort fetuses that early, when they are just learning they are pregnant. 9. It is not just testes from aborted male babies that researchers want. Some want eggs from aborted female babies as well. The much-ignored reality of therapeutic cloning is this: to become a viable commercial therapy, an enormous amount of human eggs are required. For every attempt at cloning to harvest embryonic stem cells, it usually requires more than one human egg. ...
Topoisomerase IIIα (topo IIIα), a member of the conserved Type IA subfamily of topoisomerases, is required for the cell proliferation in mitotic tissues, but has a lesser effect on DNA endoreplication. The top3α gene encodes two forms of protein by utilizing alternative translation initiation sites: one (short form) with the nuclear localization signal only, exclusively localized in the nuclei, and the other (long form), retaining a mitochondrial import sequence at the N-terminus and the nuclear localization sequence at the C-terminus, localized primarily in the mitochondria, though with a small portion in the nuclei. Both forms of topo IIIα can rescue the viability of null mutants of top3α. No apparent defect is associated with the flies rescued by the long form; short-form-rescued flies (referred to as M1L), however, exhibit defects in fertilities. M1L females are sterile. They can lay eggs but with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and ATP content decreased by 20- and 2- to 3-fold, ...
Background Avian primordial germ cells (PGCs) have significant potential to be utilized as a cell-based system for the research and preservation of bird germplasm, and the hereditary modification of the bird genome. development of ovum and semen in the adult patient. In mammals, PGCs are described at the starting of gastrulation. In comparison, in bird varieties the bacteria cell family tree can be segregated from somatic cell lineages in the epiblast of the placed egg [1]. Early bacteria cell precursors in poultry embryos can become determined by the phrase of the bacteria cell-specific proteins, chicken breast PD173074 vasa homologue (CVH) [2]. From a placement in the central epiblast, PGCs migrate to an extraembryonic area to the potential mind area anterior, called the germinal crescent. From right here, at three times of advancement (stage 15 HH, [3]), the PGCs invade the developing vascular program, congregate in the horizontal dish mesoderm conjoining the potential gonadal area, and ...
Embryo formation requires tight regulation and coordination of adhesion in multiple cell types. By imaging, 3D reconstructions and genetic analysis during posterior midgut morphogenesis in Drosophila we find a novel requirement for the conserved FGF signaling pathway in maintenance of epithelial cell adhesion, by modulation of zygotic E-cadherin. During Drosophila gastrulation, primordial germ cells (PGC) are transported with the posterior midgut while it undergoes dynamic cell shape changes. In Branchless and Breathless mutant embryos zygotic E-cadherin is not targeted to AJs causing midgut pocket collapse impacting on PGC movement. We find that the ventral midline also requires FGF signaling to maintain cell-cell adhesion. We show that FGF signaling regulates the distribution of zygotic E-cadherin during early embryonic development to maintain cell-cell adhesion in the posterior midgut and the ventral midline, a role that is likely crucial in other tissues undergoing active cell shape changes ...
Additionally, Silman et al. identified that there is an abrupt reduction in melatonin amounts amongst boys just prior to a increase in testosterone stages with
We have here reported the generation of a transgenic strain that recapitulates the endogenous expression and subcellular localization of NANOS3, and rescues the germ cell-less phenotype of Nanos3 homozygous−/− mutant mice. Nanos is an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein essential for germ cell development and is a component of germ plasm in organisms, in which germ cells are specified by germ plasm-based preformation (Wang & Lehmann 1991, Subramaniam & Seydoux 1999, Seydoux & Braun 2006). NANOS3 is a mammalian homolog of Nanos, whose function is critical for the survival of PGCs immediately after their specification (Tsuda et al. 2003). However, the mechanism by which NANOS3 functions in PGCs remains totally unresolved. The Nanos3-EGFP transgenic strain, which, for the first time, revealed the precise subcellular localization of NANOS3 in PGCs and spermatogonia, should thus serve as a critical model for exploring the mechanisms of action of conserved RNA-binding proteins in PGCs ...
1998 Thomson et al., derive human ES cells from the inner cell mass of normal human blastocysts donated by couples undergoing treatment for infertility. The cells are cultured through many passages, retain their normal karyotypes, maintain high levels of telomerase activity, and express a panel of markers typical of human EC cells non-human primate ES cells. Several (non-clonal) cell lines are established that form teratomas when injected into immune-deficient mice. The teratomas include cell types derived from all three primary germ layers, demonstrating the pluripotency of human ES cells. Gearhart and colleagues derive human embryonic germ (EG) cells from the gonadal ridge and mesenchyma of 5- to 9-week fetal tissue that resulted from elective abortions. They grow EG cells in vitro for approximately 20 passages, and the cells maintain normal karyotypes. The cells spontaneously form aggregates that differentiate spontaneously, and ultimately contain derivatives of all three primary germ ...
Following primordial germ cell (PGC) specification, global, as well as parent-specific, methylation marks are erased, to be subsequently re-established in a sex-dependent manner during gametogenesis. Identification of key regulators that participate in the global remodeling of the epigenome, together with genome-wide sequencing maps of the dynamic epigenome landscape from the post-implantation embryo through gametogenesis, significantly enhanced our understanding of these key events. Yet, a full understanding of the developmental timing, kinetics and mechanisms of these processes at different loci is still far from complete. Furthermore, as previous studies mostly applied bulk population sequencing approaches, the levels of cell-to-cell variations was not fully appreciated. We will utilize our allele-specific DNA methylation reporter systems to monitor sex-specific methylation erasure and establishment, at single cell resolution. Our unique experimental systems, which allow the monitoring and ...
Segregation of the germ line from the soma is an essential event for transmission of genetic information across generations in all sexually reproducing animals. Although some well-studied systems such as Drosophila and Xenopus use maternally inherited germ determinants to specify germ cells, most animals, including mice, appear to utilize zygotic inductive cell signals to specify germ cells during later embryogenesis. Such inductive germ cell specification is thought to be an ancestral trait of Bilateria, but major questions remain as to the nature of an ancestral mechanism to induce germ cells, and how that mechanism evolved. We previously reported that BMP signaling-based germ cell induction is conserved in both the mouse Mus musculus and the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, which is an emerging model organism for functional studies of induction-based germ cell formation. In order to gain further insight into the functional evolution of germ cell specification, here we examined the Gryllus ...
Prof. TANG Fuchou from Boidynamic Optical Imaging Center, Peking University visited Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IHB) on Nov. 16, 2016. During his visit, Prof. Tang gave a lecture on the Single-cell functional genomic studies of the human early embryo development. Human primordial germ cell generates from early stage of early embryos. The primordial germ cells are the common origins of spermatozoa and oocytes and thus represent the ancestors of the germline. The genetic material is passed on to the offspring. Therefore, studies on human early embryos and development of primordial germ cell are essential to understand the recurrent abortion, embryo damage, infertility or other reproduction diseases. Prof. Tang and his team developed the single cell RNA-Seqs, single-cell reduced-representation bisulfite sequencing and single-cell triple omics technology, and overcame the limitations to get large amount of human early embryos cells. Using these methods, they dissected ...
Notch signaling is mainly regulated by Notch1 during development of chicken germ stem cells; however, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to generation of these germ stem cells have not been thoroughly investigated. In our studies, Overexpression of the Notch1 NICD promoted development of the reproductive ridge, but inhibited the formation of seminiferous tubules. The formation efficiency of PGCs in the reproductive ridge following overexpression of NICD (7.5% ± 0.11) was significantly higher than that (4.9% ± 0.17, p | 0.05) following inhibition of NICD, While the formation efficiency of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in the testes (12.7% ± 0.08) was significantly lower after NICD overexpression than that after inhibition of NICD (16.3% ± 0.16, p | 0.05). Using co-immunoprecipitation, we found that this anomaly stemmed from the reversal of dissociation of the Notch-regulated transcription factor CBF-1/RBP co-suppression complex during the differentiation of PGCs into SSCs. This dissociation
Maintenance of stem cells requires spatially restricted, niche-associated signals. In the Drosophila female germline stem cell (GSC) niche, Decapentaplegic (DPP) is the primary niche-associated factor and functions over a short range to promote GSC self-renewal rather than differentiation. Here, we show that the GSC lineage and, more specifically, the stem cells themselves participate in the spatial restriction of DPP function by activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in the surrounding somatic cells. EGFR-MAPK signaling in somatic cells repressed the expression of dally, which encodes a glypican required for DPP movement and stability. Consequently, only GSCs close to the DPP source (the somatic cells in the niche) showed high signal activation and were maintained as stem cells, whereas cystoblasts outside the niche showed low signal activation and initiated differentiation. Thus, our data reveal that the reciprocal crosstalk between ...
University of Idaho VIVO is a discovery tool that enables anyone to find experts, research, and associated activities at the University of Idaho.
This is a combined protocol for the generation of embryonic germ cells (EGCs) or male gametes from embryoid bodies (EBs) constructed from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). The induced primordial germ cells mature into haploid male gametes that can be injected into oocytes and develop into blastocysts ...
No gene has yet been identified that generates an ovary from an undifferentiated gonad. It is only in the absence of the sex-determining region of the Y gene (SRY) that the gonad develops into an ovary. (For more details, see the discussion of sexual differentiation in Chapter 14.) Primordial germ cells, which give rise to oocytes or spermatogonia, are first identifiable in the yolk sac endoderm (hindgut) at 3 to 4 weeks gestation. Once specified, they migrate and proliferate en route through the dorsal mesentery into the gonadal ridge, which is located lateral to the dorsal mesentery of the gut and medial to the mesonephros (Figure 13-1). Studies in mice have suggested that the process of proliferation and navigation to the gonad depends on several genes, including Steel (kit ligand and receptor), β1 integrin, pog (proliferation of germ cells), and many cytokines. Failure of primordial germ cells to develop or migrate into the gonadal ridge results in failure of ovarian development. In ...
There must however be a tradeoff in keeping totipotent stem cell genes expressed in germ cells such as nanog, sox2, oct4. Quite likely that tradeoff is the risk of teratocarcinoma, which is the bizarre cancers deriving from germ cells. Great measures are taken to control germ cells and stop them from either differentiating into somatic cells or turning into cancers. Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs) are mostly transciptionally silent. They have vast changes in their chromatin structure, and very specific changes in histone and DNA methylation. In fact their embryonic precursors dont even express the stemness genes, those need to be reactivated by the BMP signal. To simplify, the stemness of the ES cell is a great liability and is quickly erased by down regulating master genes, only later does the germ cell regain this ability but at the cost of becoming transcriptionally silent. Futhermore, the migration of PGCs to the gonadal ridge acts as a second barrier to weed out potentially defective germ ...
Reconstitution of female germ cell development in vitro is a key challenge in reproductive biology and medicine. We show here that female (XX) embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells in mice are induced into primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs), which, when aggregated with female gonadal somatic cells as reconstituted ovaries, undergo X-reactivation, imprint erasure, and cyst formation, and exhibit meiotic potential. Upon transplantation under mouse ovarian bursa, PGCLCs in the reconstituted ovaries mature into germinal vesicle-stage oocytes, which then contribute to fertile offspring after in vitro maturation and fertilization. Our culture system serves as a robust foundation for the investigation of key properties of female germ cells, including the acquisition of totipotency, and for the reconstitution of whole female germ cell development in vitro. ...
Estrogen production within the testis has been a subject of substantial interest for years. Testicular germ cells and epididymal sperm have been hypothesized to be capable of synthesizing active P450 aromatase (P450arom), the estrogen synthesizing enzyme. This investigation was undertaken to establish that testicular germ cells and epididymal sperm contain active P450arom, to determine if P450arom mRNA is synthesized in germ cells, and to examine if there is a difference in the transcription of the P450arom gene between male germ cells and somatic cells. Specifically, the objectives of this research were: (1) to determine if adult mouse epididymal sperm contain active P450arom; (2) to determine if adult rat testicular germ cells and epididymal sperm contain active P450arom; (3) to determine if P450arom mRNA is expressed in adult rat germ cells; and (4) to determine if differences exist between germ cell and somatic cell P450arom transcripts. The major findings were: (1) adult mouse epididymal ...
Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigen-4 (SSEA-4) cell surface embryonic antigen of human teratocarcinoma stem cells (EC), human embryonic germ cells (EG) and human embryonic stem cells (ES) which is down-regulated following differentiation of human EC cells. Antigen not expressed on undifferentiated murine EC, ES and EG cells but upregulated on differentiation of murine EC and ES cells. Can be identified by Davor Solter monoclonal antibody MC-813-70 (SSEA-4 ...
Germ cells are unique in undergoing meiosis to generate oocytes and sperm. In mammals, meiosis onset is before birth in females, or at puberty in males, and recent studies have uncovered several regulatory steps involved in initiating meiosis in each sex. Evidence suggests that retinoic acid (RA) induces expression of the critical pre-meiosis gene Stra8 in germ cells of the fetal ovary, pubertal testis and adult testis. In the fetal testis, CYP26B1 degrades RA, while FGF9 further antagonises RA signalling to suppress meiosis. Failsafe mechanisms involving Nanos2 may further suppress meiosis in the fetal testis. Here, we draw together the growing knowledge relating to these meiotic control mechanisms, and present evidence that they are co-ordinately regulated and that additional factors remain to be identified. Understanding this regulatory network will illuminate not only how the foundations of mammalian reproduction are laid, but also how mis-regulation of these steps can result in infertility ...
Stem cells maintain populations of highly differentiated, short-lived cell-types, including blood, skin and sperm, throughout adult life. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate stem cell behaviour is crucial for realizing their potential in regenerative medicine. A fundamental characteristic of …
RNA localization is a cellular mechanism used to localize proteins to sub-cellular domains and to control protein synthesis regionally. In oocytes, RNA localization has profound implications for development, generating asymmetric protein distributions that promote morphological and functional cell polarization and establish regional fates in the future embryo. One such fate is that of the germ cell lineage. In Drosophila, germ cell formation depends on maternal inherited factors localized in the posterior pole region of oocytes and early embryos, named germ plasm. Oskar (Osk), a key determinant of germ plasm assembly, is both necessary and sufficient for germ-line formation and posterior patterning The localization of oskar (osk) mRNA starts during oogenesis and it is mediated by trans-acting factors several of which have been shown to have roles in post-transcriptional regulation of RNA, such as splicing, translational control and degradation. However, most of the molecular mechanisms ...
p,Messenger RNA localization is a conserved mechanism for spatial control of protein synthesis, with key roles in generating cellular and developmental asymmetry. Whereas different transcripts may be targeted to the same subcellular domain, the extent to which their localization is coordinated is unclear. Using quantitative single-molecule imaging, we analysed the assembly of Drosophila germ plasm mRNA granules inherited by nascent germ cells. We find that the germ-cell-destined transcripts nanos, cyclin B and polar granule component travel within the oocyte as ribonucleoprotein particles containing single mRNA molecules but co-assemble into multi-copy heterogeneous granules selectively at the posterior of the oocyte. The stoichiometry and dynamics of assembly indicate a defined stepwise sequence. Our data suggest that co-packaging of these transcripts ensures their effective segregation to germ cells. In contrast, compartmentalization of the germline determinant oskar mRNA into different ...
Our aims for RC1-00137 entitled Human Oocyte Development for Genetic, Pharmacological and Reprogramming Applications are as follows: Aim 1) Assess and compare the potential of multiple nonfederal hESC lines to contribute to the germ cell lineage. Aim 2) Differentiate hESCs to oocytes. Aim 3) Assay the ability of differentiated germ cells to reprogram a somatic nucleus. In the last funding cycle, we have succeeded in extending our analysis of human embryonic stem cell lines and differentiation of the germ cell lineage (that gives rise ultimately to oocytes or eggs) to 11 lines (initially, we proposed 12 lines in total). We have demonstrated that we can control or regulate germ cell differentiation in vitro to increase numbers of germ cells via external and internal induction, and we have succeeded in differentiating germ cells that enter and progress through meiosis, in multiple lines. We have developed the ability to use transplantation to promote mouse oocyte (egg) differentiation (in ...
In the present study, we have shown that DNMT3L, a fetal specific DNMT-like protein, is a novel marker and essential for the growth of human EC: immunohistochemical detection of DNMT3L is highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of human EC. Suppression of DNMT3L in EC cells results in growth inhibition through apoptosis.. In mice, Dnmt3L is expressed in ES cells and is downregulated in differentiated embryonic body (10). In germ cells, Dnmt3L is expressed in testes during a brief perinatal period in the nondividing precursors of spermatogonial stem cells at a stage in which retrotransposons undergo de novo methylation (11). Expression of Dnmt3L declines rapidly after birth and is extinguished by 6 days postpartum, when most prospermatogonia have differentiated into dividing spermatogonial stem cells (11). Targeted disruption of Dnmt3L causes azoospermia in homozygous male mice (12). In detail, loss of Dnmt3L from early germ cells leads to meiotic failure in spermatocytes, which do not ...
Global cell line development market size is expected to reach USD 6.24 billion by 2022, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. The Increasing demand for monoclonal antibodies and patent expiration of blockbuster biologics are expected to drive the cell line development industry over the forecast period.. Increasing prevalence of autoimmune diseases and cancer are likely to increase the demand for accurate and cost effective treatment options which is expected to render a positive impact on market growth. In addition, improving healthcare infrastructure, economic development and favorable government initiatives promoting the growth of the biotechnology industry are factors contributing towards the growth of the cell line development market.. Ongoing R&D for stable & authentic cell lines and the introduction of technologically advanced processes such as single use bioreactor and micro bioreactor for large scale bioproduction are further expected to provide this market with ...
Pluripotent cells give rise to the germ line and the soma. The expression of the Nanog orthologue axNanog is required to establish pluripotency during axolotl development and has a conserved role interacting with axSMAD2 and DPY30 to deposit H3K4me3 through COMPASS. Transcriptome analysis has revealed a second Nanog orthologue: EggNog. EggNog possesses a nearly identical intron- exon structure and yet has a profoundly different role to axNanog, acting to suppress primordial germ cell specification. We aimed to identify whether axNanog and EggNog exhibit different translational regulation or biochemical properties. We also aimed to further define AOE reprogramming of mammalian cells. AOE was probed using western blotting for the presence of axNanog and EggNog proteins. We explored the biochemical properties of axNanog and EggNog using a series of luciferase assays. RT-qPCR and ChIP-qPCR were used to investigate the changes to gene expression and chromatin structure of cells treated with AOE. ...
Biology of Reproduction contains original scientific research on a broad range of topics in the field of reproductive biology, as well as minireviews.
Best Price Cialis Canadian Pharmacy Best Price for High Quality and Guaranteed Effect! Delivery of the Order from 3 Days, are sold Without Prescriptions. Quickly and Conveniently. An affordable way to Best Price Cialis Canadian Pharmacy is a potent .
Regulation of Sertoli cell and germ cell differentation. Animals; Cell Differentiation/physiology*; Germ Cells/cytology; Germ Cells/physiology*; Germinoma/.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mouse Piwi interactome identifies binding mechanism of Tdrkh Tudor domain to arginine methylated Miwi. AU - Chen, Chen. AU - Jin, Jing. AU - James, D. Andrew. AU - Adams-Cioaba, Melanie A.. AU - Park, Jin Gyoon. AU - Guo, Yahong. AU - Tenaglia, Enrico. AU - Xu, Chao. AU - Gish, Gerald. AU - Min, Jinrong. AU - Pawson, Tony. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/12/1. Y1 - 2009/12/1. N2 - Tudor domains are protein modules that mediate protein-protein interactions, potentially by binding to methylated ligands. A group of germline specific single and multiTudor domain containing proteins (TDRDs) represented by drosophila Tudor and its mammalian orthologs Tdrd1, Tdrd4/RNF17, and Tdrd6 play evolutionarily conserved roles in germinal granule/nuage formation and germ cell specification and differentiation. However, their physiological ligands, and the biochemical and structural basis for ligand recognition, are largely unclear. Here, by ...
Specific Tandem 3UTR Patterns and Gene Expression Profiles in Mouse Thy1 Germline Stem Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
I did my undergraduate and masters studies in the field of Biochemistry from the University of Delhi, India and then went on to do a PhD in Genetics and Development from Columbia University, New York. My current projects involve understanding the mechanisms by which non-canonical Wnt signaling regulates development of the reproductive system including, gonad development, sex differentiation and duct morphogenesis. I am also interested in understanding the process of oogenesis with an aim to develop methods to promote the differentiation of ES cell or iPS cell derived primordial germ cell like cells into meiotic germ cells.. Funding/Fellowships: California Institute of Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) training grant, 2012-2015; UCSF Program in Breakthrough Biomedical Research Postdoc Fellowship; T32 Training Grant ...
The sex chromosomes of mammalian germ cells must match those of the surrounding soma in order for the germ cells to successfully complete development as sperm o...
p53 is a key regulator of the DNA damage-induced checkpoint in mammals (reviewed in Sancar et al., 2004). cep-1, the C. elegans homolog of p53, is required for DNA damage-induced apoptosis in the C. elegans germ line, but not for programmed cell death occurring during worm development nor physiological (radiation-independent) germ cell death (Schumacher et al., 2001; Derry et al., 2001). Despite the differences in the three-dimensional structure of the DNA binding domain between CEP-1 and human p53 (Huyen et al., 2004) its role in the DNA damage checkpoint appears to be conserved. Furthermore, CEP-1 can induce apoptosis in mammalian cells and this induction can be inhibited by iASPP, an evolutionarily conserved inhibitor of p53 (Bergamaschi et al., 2003). Several genes have been identified that either regulate cep-1 activity or are regulated by cep-1. The C.elegans iASPP ortholog, ape-1 (apoptotic enhancer) is a conserved inhibitor of cep-1. ape-1(RNAi) results in an increase in cep-1-mediated ...
Copying of this document in whole or in part is allowable only for scholarly purposes. It is understood, however, that any copying or publication of this documentation for commercial purposes, or for financial gain, shall not be allowed without the authors written permission.. ...
What is Germ Cell Ovarian Cancer? Get the facts about Germ Cell Ovarian Cancer symptoms, testing, treatment and care options from trusted sources.
RNA-mediated genetic interference (RNAi) has become a very useful tool for analyzing gene function in development and other processes. RNAi can be used as a complement to traditional genetic studies or as a primary means of determining biological function. However, the efficacy of RNAi depends on a variety of factors that the researcher must take into consideration. This review focuses on germline development in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and discusses the uses and limitations of RNAi in providing new information about gene function as well as the possible endogenous role RNAi plays in germline physiology.
A cancerous neoplasm, or abnormal growth, of the ovary which is thought to arise from primordial germ line cells while the individual is still an embryo...
Novel, optimized, and innovative - with Chinas growing and increasingly competitive biologics market, industry players are seeking out innovative and practical methods to develop a successful cell line and perfect production processes.. The 9th Cell Line Development & Engineering Asia is the regions leading conference for bringing together the brightest minds, innovators and industry players to uncover novel techniques, optimize workflows, and accelerate CLD for commercial success.. Hear from global and regional cell line experts on best practices and the latest case studies for improving yields, cell line expression, as well as discuss up-and-coming topics for genomics, therapeutic cells, technology and more.. 2020 Themes ...
Igor: Our Gene to GMP service offering brings together the collective expertise of both KBI and Selexis to deliver a seamless process for fast development of protein therapeutics without sacrificing quality or analytics. For conventional mAbs and more readily-expressible proteins, a partner provides us with their gene sequence and we advance the development process all the way to clinical grade API, active pharmaceutical ingredient, in nine months. The Selexis team brings more than 17 years of cell line development technology and experience to this collaboration. With our accelerated research cell bank program, we can generate stable and high expressing RBCs in 14 weeks.. Tim: Dovetailing off of what Igor said about no sacrifice in quality or analytics, at KBI, we are driven by data. We believe that reliable high quality manufacturing can only be achieved with a thorough understanding of the protein at the biochemical and structural level. As a result, we have built deep analytics capabilities ...
SAL Scientific offer a comprehensive range of services including cell culture, stable cell line development, media development and bulk cell production.
Cellaria provides patient specific, custom cell line development for successful achievements in cancer research. Partner with Cellaria today!
Profacgen provides professional cell line development for industrial manufacturing service to help your preliminary studies in the drug development process. Our service can be tailored according to your specialized requirements.
Read user reviews, compare products & request pricing from manufacturers of Yeast Cell Lines | Cell Lines, Stem Cells and Primary Cells
Abe, M., Y. Kobayashi, S. Yamamoto, Y. Daimon, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Ikeda, H. Ichinoki, M. Notaguchi, K. Goto and T. Araki. 2005. FD, a bZIP protein mediating signals from the floral pathway integrator FT at the shoot apex. Science 309: 1052-1056. Ainsworth, C. 2015. Sex defined. Nature 518: 288-291.. Anderson, E. L., A. E. Baltus, H. L. Ropers-Gajadien, T. J. Hassold, D. G. de Rooij, A. M. van Pelt and D. C. Page. 2008. Stra8 and its inducer, retinoic acid, regulate meiotic initiation in both spermatogenesis and oogenesis in mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105: 14976-14980.. PubMed Link. Anderson, R., T. K. Copeland, H. Schöler, J. Heasman and C. Wylie. 2000. The onset of germ cell migration in the mouse embryo. Mech. Dev. 91: 61-68.. PubMed Link. Andersson, S., D. M. Berman, E. P. Jenkins and D. W. Russell. 1991. Deletion of steroid 5a-reductase 2 gene in male pseudohermaphroditism. Nature 354: 159-161.. PubMed Link. Arango, N. A., R. Lovell-Badge and R. R. Behringer. 1999. Targeted mutagenesis ...
Learn how a zygote, the single cell produced by fertilization, divides by mitosis to produce all the tissues of the human body (including germ cells, which can undergo meiosis to make sperm and eggs).
Germ cell research has produced enormous advances in recent years and more recently has entered into an explosive phase of new discoveries with the introduction of transgenic technologies and nuclear
A new method for producing genetically customized chickens will likely lead to important applications in research as well as in agriculture and the pharmaceutical industry, report scientists at Origen Therapeutics and the University of California, Davis. The new system uses primordial germ cells (PGCs) -- the very earliest cells that normally mature into sperm and eggs in the
Scientists at the University of Cambridge working with the Weizmann Institute have created primordial germ cells - cells that will go on to become egg and sperm - using human embryonic stem cells. Although this had already ...