The fight against Plasmodium falciparum, the species responsible for 90 % of the lethal forms of human malaria, took a new direction with the publication of its genome in 2002. However, the hopes that the genome should help bringing to the foreground the expected new vaccines candidates or targets of new medicines were disappointed by the low number of genes that could be functionally annotated - less than 40 % upon the genome publication, just over 50 % eight years later. This 10 % gain of knowledge was made possible by the efforts of the entire scientific community in many directions which include: the production of transcriptomic and proteomic profiles at various stages of the parasite development and in response to drug or stress treatments; the proteomic study of subcellular compartments; the sequencing of numerous Plasmodium related species (allowing whole genome comparisons) and the sequencing of numerous P. falciparum strains (allowing investigations of gene polymorphism). In parallel with
It is important to remember that this is the best annotated protein database out there. These are manually verified. Databases that are annotated via automated processes (like TREMBL?) are probably going to be a whole lot more dynamic than this one, so all these thoughts go out the window. For example, the PlasmoDB (malaria) database is the complete other side of the spectrum. It changes constantly. (It has to, the global Plasmodium genome has probably went through millions of changes since I started writing this entry ...
Evolution had a few more drinks once again, according to a new paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences which wants to prompts a rethink of what it means to be an animal.
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Browse the database consisting of PfEMP1 from seven P. falciparum genomes (3D7, DD2, HB3, IT4, PFCLIN, IGH, RAJ116) and related proteins (see reference below for details). Press submit to see all proteins with all homology blocks, or filter output by filling one or more fields below ...
We have an immediate opening for a Post-doctoral Scientist to work on a Leishmania genome sequencing project at Seattle Biomedical Research Institute. We have recently received NIH funding to sequence 10-20 Mb of the Leishmania genome over the next 5 years. Leishmania is a protozoan parasite with a total genome size of 36 Mb, spread over 36 chromosomes. Specific duties will include cloning, template prep, mapping, sequencing, analysis, and supervision of several research technicians. Experiences with database development and genome informatics will be essential, and familiarity with MS Access and Visual Basic would be an advantage. SBRI is an Equal Opportunity Employer and offers a full benefit package. Interested parties should send a resume via e-mail, FAX or mail to: Peter J. Myler, Ph.D. Seattle Biomedical Research Institute 4 Nickerson Street Seattle, WA 98109-1651 e-mail: mylerpj at sbri.org Phone: (206)-284-8846x332 FAX: (206)-284-0313 -- ======================================= Peter J. ...
Plasmodium falciparum is one of four species known to cause malaria in humans and is the species that is associated with the most virulent form of the disease. Malaria causes nearly two million deaths each year, many of these occurring among children in under-developed countries of the world. One reason for this is the prevalence of drug resistant strains of malaria that mitigate the efficacy of existing drugs. Hence, the identification of a new generation of pharmacological agents for malaria is extremely urgent. The recent identification of a group of novel protein kinases within the Plasmodium falciparum genome has provided researchers with a basis for what many hope to be new potential drug targets for malaria. Identified within the Plasmodium genome and a few select apicomplexans, these novel proteins have been predicted to be protein kinases based solely on certain sequence features shared with other eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs). However, to date, no significant studies to determine the
The completion of the Plasmodium falciparum genome sequence has recently promoted the search for new antimalarial drugs. More specifically, metabolic pathways of the apicoplast, a key organelle for survival of the parasite, have been recognized as potential targets for the development of specific new antimalarial agents. As most apicomplexan parasites, P. falciparum displays a plant-type ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, yielding reduced ferredoxin for essential biosynthetic pathways in the apicoplast. Here we report a molecular, kinetic and ligand binding characterization of the recombinant ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase from P. falciparum, in the light of current data available for plant ferredoxin-NADP+ reductases. In parallel with the functional characterization, we describe the crystal structures of P. falciparum ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase in free form and in complex with 2′-phospho-AMP (at 2.4 and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively). The enzyme displays structural properties likely to be unique to plasmodial
Drug resistance is a recurrent problem in the fight against malaria. Genetic and epidemiological surveillance of antimalarial resistant parasite alleles is crucial to guide drug therapies and clinical management. New antimalarial compounds are currently at various stages of clinical trials and regulatory evaluation. Using ∼2000 Plasmodium falciparum genome sequences, we investigated the genetic diversity of eleven gene-targets of promising antimalarial compounds and assessed their potential efficiency across malaria endemic regions. We determined if the loci are under selection prior to the introduction of new drugs and established a baseline of genetic variance, including potential resistant alleles, for future surveillance programmes. ...
Citation Zhang C, Xiao B, Jiang Y, Zhao Y, Li Z, Gao H, Ling Y, Wei J, Li S, Lu M, Su Z, Cui H, Yuan J. 2014. Efficient editing of malaria parasite genome using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. mBio 5(4):e01414-14. doi:10.1128/mBio.01414-14. ...
Trypanosomatids utilise polycistronic transcription for production of the vast majority of protein-coding mRNAs, which operates in the absence of gene-specific promoters. Resolution of nascent transcripts by polyadenylation and trans-splicing, together with specific rates of mRNA turnover, serve to generate steady state transcript levels that can differ in abundance across several orders of magnitude and can be developmentally regulated. We used a targeted oligonucleotide microarray, representing the strongly developmentally-regulated T. brucei membrane trafficking system and ~10% of the Trypanosoma brucei genome, to investigate both between-stage, or differentiation-dependent, transcriptome changes and within-stage flexibility in response to various challenges. 6% of the gene cohort are developmentally regulated, including several small GTPases, SNAREs, vesicle coat factors and protein kinases both consistent with and extending previous data. Therefore substantial differentiation-dependent remodeling
I am trying to generate a summary of parasites in human metagenomic samples. I have been looking into Kraken2 and its databases built from Refseq (which should contain all parasite sequences annotated). Have also noticed this DB available from EuPathDB:. https://ccb.jhu.edu/data/eupathDB/. Is it a good approach to solely use EupathDB or should I be looking into other DBs for any missing parasites that might not be included there?. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Jafnréttisþing föstudaginn 16. janúar kl. 9-17 á Hilton Nordica.. Félags- og tryggingamálaráðherra og Jafnréttisráð boða til Jafnréttisþings í samræmi við lög um jafnan rétt og jafna stöðu kvenna og karla nr. 10/2008.. Á jafnréttisþingi leggur félags- og tryggingamálaráðherra fram skýrslu um stöðu og þróun jafnréttismála og drög að framkvæmdaáætlun í jafnréttismálum, en við endanlega gerð hennar skal samkvæmt jafnréttislögum taka mið af umræðum á jafnréttisþingi. Á þinginu verður fjallað um helstu svið jafnréttismála í fyrirlestrum, pallborðsumræðum og málstofum þar sem vænst er þátttöku og hugmynda frá þeim sem þingið sækja.. Forseti ASÍ, Gylfi Arnbjörnsson er meðal þátttakenda ...
The pond-dwelling ciliate Oxytricha trifallax is a model system for the study of gene regulatory mechanisms. It possesses a heterochromatin-rich germline micronucleus, and a transcriptionally active somatic macronucleus (MAC). The MAC genome is highly fragmented, consisting of ,16,000 unique "nanochromosomes", with a mean size of 3.2kb. Consequently, only a limited number of nucleosomes can be accommodated in short nanochromosomes. Nanochromosome size does not vary in multiples of ~147bp corresponding to mono-nucleosome-sized DNA, suggesting that nucleosome depleted regions may be especially prevalent. This unusual genome architecture presents novel challenges for the regulation of gene expression. The efficacy and prevalence of chromatin-mediated gene regulation thus remain unclear in Oxytricha. In addition, the paucity of non-coding DNA suggests that promoters in Oxytricha are highly compact, and may be organized differently from other eukaryotes. Our study aims to uncover how the chromatin ...
Knowledge of the origins, distribution, and inheritance of variation in the malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) genome is crucial for understanding its evolution; however the 81% (A+T) genome poses challenges to high-throughput sequencing technologies. We explore the viability of the Roche 454 Genome Sequencer FLX (GS FLX) high throughput sequencing technology for both whole genome sequencing and fine-resolution characterization of genetic exchange in malaria parasites. We present a scheme to survey recombination in the haploid stage genomes of two sibling parasite clones, using whole genome pyrosequencing that includes a sliding window approach to predict recombination breakpoints. Whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing generated approximately 2 million reads, with an average read length of approximately 300 bp. De novo assembly using a combination of WGS and 3 kb paired end libraries resulted in contigs ≤ 34 kb. More than 8,000 of the 24,599 SNP markers identified between parents were genotyped
TY - JOUR. T1 - An α-proteobacterial type malate dehydrogenase may complement LDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. T2 - Cloning and biochemical characterization of the enzyme. AU - Tripathi, Abhai. AU - Desai, Prashant V.. AU - Pradhan, Anupam. AU - Khan, Shabana I.. AU - Avery, Mitchell A.. AU - Walker, Larry A.. AU - Tekwani, Babu L.. PY - 2004/9. Y1 - 2004/9. N2 - Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) may be important in carbohydrate and energy metabolism in malarial parasites. The cDNA corresponding to the MDH gene, identified on chromosome 6 of the Plasmodium falciparum genome, was amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant PfMDH was purified to homogeneity and biochemically characterized as an NAD +(H)-specific MDH, which catalysed reversible interconversion of malate to oxaloacetate. PfMDH could not use NADP/NADPH as a cofactor, but used acetylpyridine adenine dinucleoide, an analogue of NAD. The enzyme exhibited strict substrate and cofactor specificity. ...
by Ignacio M. Durante, Pablo E. La Spina, Santiago J. Carmona, Fernán Agüero, Carlos A. Buscaglia. Background The Trypanosoma cruzi genome bears a huge family of genes and pseudogenes coding for Mucin-Associated Surface Proteins (MASPs). MASP molecules display a mosaic structure, with highly conserved flanking regions and a strikingly variable central and mature domain made up of different combinations of a large repertoire of short sequence motifs. MASP molecules are highly expressed in mammal-dwelling stages of T. cruzi and may be involved in parasite-host interactions and/or in diverting the immune response.. Methods/Principle findings High-density microarrays composed of fully overlapped 15mer peptides spanning the entire sequences of 232 non-redundant MASPs (~25% of the total MASP content) were screened with chronic Chagasic sera. This strategy led to the identification of 86 antigenic motifs, each one likely representing a single linear B-cell epitope, which were mapped to 69 different ...
Dicty, as scientists call it, lives in soil as a single-cell creature for most of its life. If food becomes scarce, it has a unique survival strategy. It converges with other single-cell amoebas to create a multi-cellular organism that will mature and release spores for reproduction.. Dicty sits at the interface between single and multi-cellular organisms, says molecular biologist Rex Chisholm of Northwestern University in Chicago, Illinois. From an evolutionary point thats an interesting place to be.. Chisholm is spearheading a new public database for organizing genetic information about the organism. Chromosome two will contribute some of the first data included in Dictybase, whose design is based on other model organism databases like mouse and yeast.. With its 8.1 million base pairs, chromosome two represents about 25 percent of the Dictyostelium genome. Based on the surprisingly large number of genes in chromosome two, scientists predict the entire genome contains about 11,000 genes ...
Avhandlingar om LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT LCA. Sök bland 78317 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet på Avhandlingar.se.
The genus Plasmodium consists of all eukaryotes in the phylum Apicomplexa that both undergo the asexual replication process of merogony inside host red blood cells and produce the crystalline pigment hemozoin as a byproduct of digesting host hemoglobin.[2] Plasmodium species contain many features that are common to other eukaryotes, and some that are unique to their phylum or genus. The Plasmodium genome is separated into 14 chromosomes contained in the nucleus. Plasmodium parasites maintain a single copy of their genome through much of the life cycle, doubling the genome only for a brief sexual exchange within the midgut of the insect host.[3] Attached to the nucleus is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which functions similarly to the ER in other eukaryotes. Proteins are trafficked from the ER to the Golgi apparatus which generally consists of a single membrane-bound compartment in Apicomplexans.[4] From here proteins are trafficked to various cellular compartments or to the cell surface.[4] ...
Due to its central role in both evolutionary change and human disease, mutation has been the focus of intensive research. The probability that a spontaneous mut...
Antiparasitic drugs have been used successfully to control parasitic diseases in animals for many years, as they are safe, cheap and effective against a broad spectrum of parasites. One drawback of this success appears to be the emergence of drug resistance in many target parasites. Moreover, issues of residues in the food chain and environment have arisen, which threaten their sustained use. Control methods in which vaccines would have a central role provide attractive alternatives. However, while attenuated parasite vaccines have been successful, sub-unit vaccines are still rare. The advent of new techniques in molecular biology allows the elucidation of entire parasite genomes and the identification of individual genes. It is envisaged that a further understanding of parasite genes and the role of their products in parasite biology may lead to the identification of useful antigens, which could then be produced in recombinant systems. However, for this aim to be realised, continued investment ...
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The TWiP professors solve the case of the Ugandan Child with Splenomegaly, and reveal that mutations in the P. falciparum genome that confer artemisinin resistance interfere with endocytic uptake of hemoglobin.. ...
The latest Paper of the Month from Parasitology is by Amanda F. Francisco, Shiromani Jayawardhana, Michael D. Lewis, Martin C. Taylor, and John M. Kelly.
The Browsing Genomes module uses the parasite Toxoplasma as an example to show how anyone who has internet access can use experimental results from scientists. Making data publicly available through databases like ToxoDB helps science move forward much more quickly than what would be possible without them. Like libraries, databases store and organize information in a structured way that allows users to find and use existing information as well as contribute new research findings for others to use. Browsing Genomes gives you a tour of the ToxoDB database and a tool to explore its genome-related information. Then, it leads you through an activity using real data from an experiment that studied gene expression in different life stages of the Toxoplasma parasite ...
The malaria parasites success is owed to stripping down its genome to the bare essential genes, scientists at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and their collaborators have found. In the first ever large-scale study of malaria gene function, scientists analyzed more than half of the genes in the parasites genome and found that two thirds of these genes were essential for survival -- the largest proportion of essential genes found in any organism studied to date.
Artist: Powerworld Title: Human Parasite Genre: Melodic Power Metal Release date: 2010 Audio codec: MP3 Format: tracks Quality: 320 kbps Time: 53:26 Tracklist: 01. Cleansed By Fire (04:28) 02. Stand Up (04:19) 03. Evil In Me (05:00) 04. Time Will Change (04:59) 05. Human Parasite (05:19) 06.
Hi everyone, For the past three months I have had a complete loss of appetite and persistent extreme nausea that has caused me to lose over 40lbs in just that short.
Threadworm is the common human parasites that infect the intestine. Check out pictures, symptoms and treatment of Threadworm in humans.
The total number of kinases, i.e. the kinome size, is markedly reduced in P. falciparum and other apicomplexans in comparison with other model eukaryotes. This reduction of the kinome is in line with an overall gene loss observed in the Plasmodium genome. Gene loss and general compaction of the genome (loss of introns, smaller intergenic regions) have been noted as the dominant mode of genomic evolution in obligate intracellular parasites such as the Apicomplexa [76] (see figure 3 for a comparison of ePK group counts across eukaryotes). From a superficial comparison, the kinome of P. falciparum, consisting of roughly 91 ePKs [24] plus at least five aPKs [22], appears to constitute a percentage of the total proteome (1.7% of 5228 protein-coding genes) that is similar to that found in other, non-parasitic eukaryotes: the kinome of the bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprises 117 ePKs (2% of 5770 genes; plus 14 or 10 aPKs, depending on the study) [77,78], the fruitfly Drosophila ...
Estienne C. Swart; John R. Bracht; Vincent Magrini; Patrick Minx; Xiao Chen; Yi Zhou; Jaspreet S. Khurana; Aaron D. Goldman; Mariusz Nowacki; Klaas Schotanus; Seolkyoung Jung; Robert S. Fulton; Amy Ly; Sean McGrath; Kevin Haub; Jessica L. Wiggins; Donna Storton; John C. Matese; Lance Parsons; Wei-Jen Chang; Michael S. Bowen; Nicholas A. Stover; Thomas A. Jones; Sean R. Eddy; Glenn A. Herrick; Thomas G. Doak; Richard K. Wilson; Elaine R. Mardis; Laura F. Landweber (2013-01-29). "The Oxytricha trifallax Macronuclear Genome: A Complex Eukaryotic Genome with 16,000 Tiny Chromosomes". PLOS Biology. 11 (1): e1001473. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001473. PMC 3558436. PMID 23382650 ...
Tlr elements are a novel family of ~30 putative mobile genetic elements that are confined to the germ line micronuclear genome in Tetrahymena thermophila. Thousands of diverse germ line-limited sequences, including the Tlr elements, are specifically eliminated from the differentiating somatic macronucleus. Macronucleusretained sequences flanking deleted regions are known to contain cis-acting signals that delineate elimination boundaries. It is unclear whether sequences within deleted DNA also play a regulatory role in the elimination process. In the current study, an in vivo DNA rearrangement assay was used to identify internal sequences required in cis for the elimination of Tlr elements. Multiple, nonoverlapping regions from the ~23-kb Tlr elements were independently sufficient to stimulate developmentally regulated DNA elimination when placed within the context of flanking sequences from the most thoroughly characterized family member, Tlr1. Replacement of element DNA with macronuclear or
Eisen JA, Coyne RS, Wu M, Wu D, Thiagarajan M, Wortman JR, Badger JH, Ren Q, Amedeo P, Jones KM, Tallon LJ, Delcher AL, Salzberg SL, Silva JC, Haas BJ, Majoros WH, Farzad M, Carlton JM, Smith RK Jr, Garg J, Pearlman RE, Karrer KM, Sun L, Manning G, Elde NC, Turkewitz AP, Asai DJ, Wilkes DE, Wang Y, Cai H, Collins K, Stewart BA, Lee SR, Wilamowska K, Weinberg Z, Ruzzo WL, Wloga D, Gaertig J, Frankel J, Tsao CC, Gorovsky MA, Keeling PJ, Waller RF, Patron NJ, Cherry JM, Stover NA, Krieger CJ, del Toro C, Ryder HF, Williamson SC, Barbeau RA, Hamilton EP, Orias E. Macronuclear genome sequence of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a model eukaryote. PLoS Biol. 2006 Sep;4(9):e286. PubMedhttp://bobcat.genomecenter.ucdavis.edu/mediawiki/images/0/08/Pdf-logo.jpg[Eisen-2006] ...
ID J9IB24_9SPIT Unreviewed; 1230 AA. AC J9IB24; DT 31-OCT-2012, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 31-OCT-2012, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 19. DE SubName: Full=Serine/Threonine protein kinase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJY71208.1}; GN ORFNames=OXYTRI_07921 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJY71208.1}; OS Oxytricha trifallax. OC Eukaryota; Alveolata; Ciliophora; Intramacronucleata; Spirotrichea; OC Stichotrichia; Sporadotrichida; Oxytrichidae; Oxytrichinae; Oxytricha. OX NCBI_TaxID=1172189 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJY71208.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000006077}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJY71208.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000006077} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=SB310 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000006077}; RX PubMed=23382650; DOI=10.1371/journal.pbio.1001473; RA Swart E.C., Bracht J.R., Magrini V., Minx P., Chen X., Zhou Y., RA Khurana J.S., Goldman A.D., Nowacki M., Schotanus K., Jung S., RA Fulton R.S., Ly A., McGrath S., Haub K., Wiggins J.L., Storton D., RA Matese J.C., ...
The invasive stages (zoites) of most apicomplexan parasites are polarised cells that use their actinomyosin-powered gliding motility or
This paper presents a development of the US Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) based on life-cycle concept of the Generalized Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology (GERAM) framework/ISO 15704:2000 requirements. Previous research has identified areas of concern within DoDAF by analyzing and evaluating DoDAF against GERAM and potentially assisting in its future development. This paper aims to extend existing architecture description process and artifacts within DoDAF that match the scope of the GERAM life-cycle phases. For this development we use life-cycle aspect of three well-known reference architectures (including PERA, CIMOSA, and GRAI-GIM) that were the basis in formation of GERAM.. ...
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Apicomplexans are responsible for major human diseases such as toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and the deadliest form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). The genomes of these pathogens are now sequenced ushering in a new era of drug development. A major hurdle to exploiting this genome resource is that a large number of the encoded genes are hypotheticals and have yet to be characterized. Hypothetical proteins comprise roughly half of the predicted gene complement of T. gondii and P. falciparum and represent the largest class of uniquely functioning proteins in these parasites. Following the idea that functional relationships can be informed by the timing of gene expression, we devised a strategy to identify the core set of apicomplexan cell division cycling genes with important roles in parasite division, which includes many uncharacterized proteins. We assembled an expanded list of orthologs from the T. gondii and P. falciparum genome sequences (2781
a b Estienne C. Swart,John R. Bracht,Vincent Magrini,Patrick Minx,Xiao Chen,Yi Zhou,Jaspreet S. Khurana,Aaron D. Goldman,Mariusz Nowacki,Klaas Schotanus,Seolkyoung Jung,Robert S. Fulton,Amy Ly,Sean McGrath,Kevin Haub,Jessica L. Wiggins,Donna Storton,John C. Matese,Lance Parsons,Wei-Jen Chang,Michael S. Bowen,Nicholas A. Stover,Thomas A. Jones,Sean R. Eddy,Glenn A. Herrick,Thomas G. Doak,Richard K. Wilson,Elaine R. Mardis,Laura F. Landwebe. "The Oxytricha trifallax Macronuclear Genome: A Complex Eukaryotic Genome with 16,000 Tiny Chromosomes". PLOS. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001473. Diakses tanggal $1 $2. Unknown parameter ...
The first major grants, beginning in 1984, established the Consortium on the Biology of Parasitic Diseases. Researchers at eleven institutions worked together to establish and legitimize the field of molecular parasite biology by recruiting established cellular and molecular biologists, turning their technologies and experience to the study of parasites, and training the next generation of molecular parasite biologists. The Consortiums work was augmented by grants for equipment, problem-solving workshops, a summer course at the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, and the World Health Organizations Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases.. The Consortium did more than establish molecular parasite biology as a credible and exciting area of research. It also helped stimulate greatly increased funding for research in the field, especially by the federal National Institutes of Health, created a cadre of well-trained young researchers, and created a spectrum of new ...
Evaluation of P. falciparum antigen Pf332 as a target for parasite neutralizing immune responses. This project is based on the P. falciparum antigen Pf332, which we identified in 1989 together with Mattei et al. at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Subsequent data on Pf332, obtained mainly by our groups by laboratory experiments and epidemiological investigations, indicate that the antigen stands out as an attractive target for vaccine development. However, the previous research on Pf332 has involved mainly a 157 amino acids long fragment (EB200) of the antigen; the complete 5506 a.a. sequence became recently available from the sequencing of the P. falciparum genome.. ...
The National Center for Biomedical Ontology was founded as one of the National Centers for Biomedical Computing, supported by the NHGRI, the NHLBI, and the NIH Common Fund under grant U54-HG004028.. ...
Arfgef1 - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN301478G1|/strong|, Arfgef1 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
Human malaria is a devastating disease and a major cause of poverty in resource-limited countries. To develop and adapt within hosts Plasmodium falciparum undergoes drastic switches in gene expression. To identify regulatory regions in the parasite genome, we performed genome-wide profiling of chromatin accessibility in two culture-adapted isogenic subclones at four developmental stages during the intraerythrocytic cycle by using the Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin by sequencing (ATAC-seq). Tn5 transposase hypersensitivity sites (THSSs) localize preferentially at transcriptional start sites (TSSs). Chromatin accessibility by ATAC-seq is predictive of active transcription and of the levels of histone marks H3K9ac and H3K4me3. Our assay allows the identification of novel regulatory regions including TSS and enhancer-like elements. We show that the dynamics in the accessible chromatin profile matches temporal transcription during development. Motif analysis of stage-specific ATAC-seq ...
Autophagy is a eukaryotic catabolic pathway that degrades and recycles cellular components to maintain homeostasis. It can target protein aggregates, superfluous biomolecular complexes, dysfunctional and damaged organelles, as well as pathogenic intracellular microbes. Autophagy is a dynamic process in which the different stages from initiation to final degradation of cargo are finely regulated. Therefore, the study of this process requires the use of a palette of techniques, which are continuously evolving and whose interpretation is not trivial. Here, we present the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum as a relevant model to study autophagy. Several methods have been developed based on the tracking and observation of autophagosomes by microscopy, analysis of changes in expression of autophagy genes and proteins, and examination of the autophagic flux with various techniques. In this review, we discuss the pros and cons of the currently available techniques to assess autophagy in this organism.
University of California - Riverside. Findings by UC Riverside researchers could help build a new drug to kill the deadly parasite that is becoming resistant to existing drugs. Say "malaria" and most people think "mosquito," but the buzzing, biting insect is merely the messenger, delivering the Plasmodium parasites that sickened more than 200 million people globally in 2010 and killed about 660,000. Worse, the parasite is showing resistance to artemisinin, the most effective drug for treating infected people.. Now University of California, Riverside researchers who are trying to understand the biology of the parasite have discovered a potential weakness-low levels of DNA methylation in Plasmodiums genome "that may be critical to the survival of the parasite," said Karine Le Roch, an associate professor of cell biology, who led the research.. DNA methylation is a biochemical process involving the modification of DNA that plays an important role in development and disease.. A paper about the ...
The number of available Plasmodium genomes has increased considerably during recent years. This wealth of genomic information creates an unprecedented opportunity to study the unique genomic qualities of this genus using comparative genomics. There have been tremendous achievements in malaria treatment and control strategies. Thanks to worldwide efforts, there has been a significant reduction in the number of malaria cases and malaria-related deaths between 2000 and 2015. By 2015, it was estimated that the number of malaria cases decreased from 262 million to 214 million, and the number of malaria-related deaths from 839,000 to 438,000 [12]. However, there are still numerous aspects of malaria research that need to be further addressed. The intricacies of parasite-host relations in Plasmodium infection might be more complex than previously considered [13]. Humans have recently been infected by Plasmodium species classically considered specific to non-human primates (e.g. a single infection with ...
Surprisingly, our ML analyses indicate that the distribution of mutational effects in T. thermophila is best approximated by the equal effects model (shape parameter, β → ∞). An alternative explanation is that the distribution of mutational effects is complex (e.g., a bimodal distribution including a high probability of slightly deleterious mutations and a second peak of moderately deleterious mutations) and not well approximated by any gamma distribution (Davies et al. 1999; Halligan and Keightley 2009). These hypotheses could be tested by repeating the multiple GE analysis for more MA lines, which would allow us to estimate the variance in mutational effects (Vs) directly.. In a survey of MA studies, Halligan and Keightley (2009) noted that the dominance of new mutations has been studied only in a handful of organisms and is not well understood even in those. Therefore, estimates in additional organisms are valuable. Our estimate of the average dominance coefficient of new mutations (h = ...
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Just as water molecules spontaneously arrange to form geometric snowflakes, the â socialâ amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum transitions from a collection of unicellular organisms to a fruiting body during its life cycle. This aggregation is guided by cyclic AMP (cAMP): when stimulated with cAMP, cells respond by producing and secreting more of the molecule, which, once levels reach a threshold, results in nondissipating waves of cAMP and collective amoeba movement.. Published by Learning Registry #GoOpen. 2 Views, 0 Likes on Docs.com. #Cyclic AMP #NSDL_SetSpec_BEN #nondissipating waves #unicellular organisms #amoeba
A high resolution view of a median longitudinal section through this collecting canal that may be artificially swollen at two sites where it is encirc...
Tetrahymena thermophila ATCC ® 30383™ Designation: B-18686 Isolation: derived from WH-6 X WH-14, Urbana, IL, early 1950s
Hamilton, EP., Kapusta, A., Huvos, PE., Bidwell, SL., Zafar, N., Tang, H., Hadjithomas, M., Krishnakumar, V., Badger, JH., Caler, EV., Russ, C., Zeng, Q., Fan, L., Levin, JZ., Shea, T., Young, SK., Hegarty, R., Daza, R., Gujja, S., Wortman, JR., Birren, BW., Nusbaum, C., Thomas, J., Carey, CM., Pritham, EJ., Feschotte, C., Noto, T., Mochizuki, K., Papazyan, R., Taverna, SD., Dear, PH., Cassidy-Hanley, DM., Xiong, J., Miao, W., Orias, E., Coyne, RS. (2016). Structure of the germline genome of Tetrahymena thermophila and relationship to the massively rearranged somatic genome. Elife. 5 (abstract ...
The Paramecia are single-celled organisms, whilst the rotifers are more complex, and are composed of around a thousand cells. Paramecia are frequently found in large numbers in waters which are heavily polluted with decaying organic matter and densely populated with bacteria, since bacteria are their principal food ...
Blastocystosis is a medical condition caused by infection with Blastocystis, a single-celled parasite that infects the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals.
This little object (which I think may be a species of Peridinium), a mere five one hundredths of a millimetre across, is a dinoflagellate - a single-celled, hardshelled organism thats powered by two rapidly undulating flagellae. One runs on the horizontal groove around the equator of the example you can see here. The other runs in vertical groove, extending from the equator to the apex - its out of sight on the distal side of this image, although you can just see the apex of the vertical groove at the top. It seems like an unlikely means of motive power but it works - this one whizzed all over the slide before it paused for long enough for me to get a photograph. ...
Whether plant or animal, life begins with the cell. Single-celled animals, such as the amoeba, have all they need to survive contained within one flexible cell membrane. More complex plants and...
Embryo and Seed Development Embryogenesis, the formation of a multicellular embryo from a single-celled zygote, is one of the most dramatic and
November 16, 1995Hundreds of thousands of times a year a single-celled zygote, smaller than a grain of sand, transforms into an amazingly complex network of cells, a newborn infant. Through cellular differentiation and growth, this process is completed...
A choanoflagellate is a single-celled organism that is generally believed to be the most closely related to multi-celled animals, and many would classif...
If it werent for mitochondria, scientists argue, wed all still be single-celled bacteria. Indeed, these tiny structures inside our cells are important beyond imagining.
Tetrahymena macronuclear genome mapping: colinearity of macronuclear coassortment groups and the micronuclear map on chromosome 1L ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The duplication of entire genomes has long been recognized as having great potential for evolutionary novelties, but the mechanisms underlying their resolution through gene loss are poorly understood. Here we show that in the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium tetraurelia, a ciliate, most of the nearly 40,000 genes arose through at least three successive whole-genome duplications. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the most recent duplication coincides with an explosion of speciation events that gave rise to the P. aurelia complex of 15 sibling species. We observed that gene loss occurs over a long timescale, not as an initial massive event. Genes from the same metabolic pathway or protein complex have common patterns of gene loss, and highly expressed genes are over-retained after all duplications. The conclusion of this analysis is that many genes are maintained after whole-genome duplication not because of functional innovation but because of gene dosage constraints.. ...
Citation. Curto Mde L, Lorenzi HA, Moraes Barros RR, Souza RT, Levin MJ, Da Silveira JF, Schijman AG. Cloning and Expression of Transgenes Using Linear Vectors in Trypanosoma Cruzi.. International Journal for Parasitology. 2014 Jun 01; 44: 447-56.. External Citation. Abstract. The identification of new targets for vaccine and drug development for the treatment of Chagas disease is dependent on deepening our understanding of the parasite genome. Vectors for genetic manipulation in Trypanosoma cruzi basically include those that remain as circular episomes and those that integrate into the parasites genome. Artificial chromosomes are alternative vectors to overcome problematic transgene expression often occurring with conventional vectors in this parasite. We have constructed a series of vectors named pTACs (Trypanosome Artificial Chromosomes), all of them carrying telomeric and subtelomeric sequences and genes conferring resistance to different selection drugs. In addition, one pTAC harbours a ...
Quadrulus membranelle (4 rows of cilia) in the buccal cavity of Paramecium tetraurelia. Microtubules of the axonemes of the cilia and the triplet fibe...
High resolution image of the macronucleus which contains microtubules that lie inside a seemingly intact nuclear envelope. Microtubules orient along t...
GO annotations: Mouse from MGI; Human from GO Annotations @ EBI (GOA); Rat from RGD; Chicken from GOA; Fly from FlyBase; Pfalc from PlasmoDB; Worm from WormBase; Dicty from dictyBase; Yeast from SGD; Zfin from ZFIN; Tair from TAIR/TIGR; Rice from Gramene; Pombe from Sanger GeneDB ...
Scientists studying the sexual transformation of the malaria parasite have solved a long-standing mystery in parasite biology. Two research teams have independently discovered that a single protein acts as the master genetic ...
I recently wondered, in response to an ideas paper in BioEssays, whether animals, fungi, slime moulds etc. actually had a multicellular common ancestor. Dickinson and colleagues argument (partly) hinged on the shared presence of epithelia, barrier cell layers with distinct insides and outsides, in animals and the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. The most recent crop…
The UK/EU Dicty Christmas Meeting 2014 took place on 17th and 18th December in Somerville College, Oxford. Researchers from all over the UK, coming as far afield as Dundee and Cambridge, gathered to discuss a diverse range of biological features of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. The meeting also attracted delegates from Europe with…
Composite image of Didinium nasutum attacking and ingesting a Paramecium. Didinium nasutum is a one-celled, barrel-shaped ciliate characterized by two bands of cilia around its body. It is commonly found in bodies of fresh or brackish water, where it is a voracious predator of its main food source, the much larger unicellular ciliate Paramecium. Didinium attacks with poisonous trichocysts and attachment lines, and the Paramecium ejects its own trichocysts in defense. Didinium then engulfs its prey and digests it within a few hours, ready to hunt again. Composite of scanning electron micrographs (SEM), average magnification 1500x at 8 x10 . - Stock Image C025/2896
Its exciting as usual on the project. Weve submitted the three compounds for in-vivo oral evaluation in a mouse model. The original hits TCMDC-123812 and -123794 were submitted along with one of Zoes near neighbours, ZYH 3-1. Its not the most active of our compounds with an IC50 of 26 nM, but its logP comes in at just under 5 or there abouts (see: http://www.thesynapticleap.org/node/384#comment-798). Its still pretty high so well see how it goes. ...
Scientists have identified the genetic blueprint of a parasite that causes disfigurement and debilitating diseases, an advance which could lead to new treatments, research released Thursday said.
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Buffer-Stock Saving and the Life-Cycle/Permanent Income Hypothesis.
by Merry Youle | Many heterotrophic single-celled eukaryotes are content to let the algae handle photosynthesis and then eat them. Others have opted for the convenience of having the algae residing in-house, living as endosymbionts within their cytoplasm.