Genetic mapping is a powerful method to identify mutations that cause drug resistance and other phenotypic changes in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. For efficient mapping of a target gene, it is often necessary to genotype a large number of polymorphic markers. Currently, a community effort is underway to collect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from the parasite genome. Here we evaluate polymorphism detection accuracy of a high-density tiling microarray with 2.56 million probes by comparing single feature polymorphisms (SFP) calls from the microarray with known SNP among parasite isolates. We found that probe GC content, SNP position in a probe, probe coverage, and signal ratio cutoff values were important factors for accurate detection of SFP in the parasite genome. We established a set of SFP calling parameters that could predict mSFP (SFP called by multiple overlapping probes) with high accuracy (≥ 94%) and identified 121,087 mSFP genome-wide from five parasite isolates
The fight against Plasmodium falciparum, the species responsible for 90 % of the lethal forms of human malaria, took a new direction with the publication of its genome in 2002. However, the hopes that the genome should help bringing to the foreground the expected new vaccines candidates or targets of new medicines were disappointed by the low number of genes that could be functionally annotated - less than 40 % upon the genome publication, just over 50 % eight years later. This 10 % gain of knowledge was made possible by the efforts of the entire scientific community in many directions which include: the production of transcriptomic and proteomic profiles at various stages of the parasite development and in response to drug or stress treatments; the proteomic study of subcellular compartments; the sequencing of numerous Plasmodium related species (allowing whole genome comparisons) and the sequencing of numerous P. falciparum strains (allowing investigations of gene polymorphism). In parallel with
It is important to remember that this is the best annotated protein database out there. These are manually verified. Databases that are annotated via automated processes (like TREMBL?) are probably going to be a whole lot more dynamic than this one, so all these thoughts go out the window. For example, the PlasmoDB (malaria) database is the complete other side of the spectrum. It changes constantly. (It has to, the global Plasmodium genome has probably went through millions of changes since I started writing this entry ...
Evolution had a few more drinks once again, according to a new paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences which wants to prompts a rethink of what it means to be an animal.
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Browse the database consisting of PfEMP1 from seven P. falciparum genomes (3D7, DD2, HB3, IT4, PFCLIN, IGH, RAJ116) and related proteins (see reference below for details). Press submit to see all proteins with all homology blocks, or filter output by filling one or more fields below ...
We have an immediate opening for a Post-doctoral Scientist to work on a Leishmania genome sequencing project at Seattle Biomedical Research Institute. We have recently received NIH funding to sequence 10-20 Mb of the Leishmania genome over the next 5 years. Leishmania is a protozoan parasite with a total genome size of 36 Mb, spread over 36 chromosomes. Specific duties will include cloning, template prep, mapping, sequencing, analysis, and supervision of several research technicians. Experiences with database development and genome informatics will be essential, and familiarity with MS Access and Visual Basic would be an advantage. SBRI is an Equal Opportunity Employer and offers a full benefit package. Interested parties should send a resume via e-mail, FAX or mail to: Peter J. Myler, Ph.D. Seattle Biomedical Research Institute 4 Nickerson Street Seattle, WA 98109-1651 e-mail: mylerpj at sbri.org Phone: (206)-284-8846x332 FAX: (206)-284-0313 -- ======================================= Peter J. ...
Plasmodium falciparum is one of four species known to cause malaria in humans and is the species that is associated with the most virulent form of the disease. Malaria causes nearly two million deaths each year, many of these occurring among children in under-developed countries of the world. One reason for this is the prevalence of drug resistant strains of malaria that mitigate the efficacy of existing drugs. Hence, the identification of a new generation of pharmacological agents for malaria is extremely urgent. The recent identification of a group of novel protein kinases within the Plasmodium falciparum genome has provided researchers with a basis for what many hope to be new potential drug targets for malaria. Identified within the Plasmodium genome and a few select apicomplexans, these novel proteins have been predicted to be protein kinases based solely on certain sequence features shared with other eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs). However, to date, no significant studies to determine the
Many parasites use multicopy protein families to avoid their hosts immune system through a strategy called antigenic variation. RIFIN and STEVOR proteins are variable surface antigens uniquely found in the malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and P. reichenowi. Although these two protein families are different, they have more similarity to each other than to any other proteins described to date. As a result, they have been grouped together in one Pfam domain. However, a recent study has described the sub-division of the RIFIN protein family into several functionally distinct groups. These sub-groups require phylogenetic analysis to sort out, which is not practical for large-scale projects, such as the sequencing of patient isolates and meta-genomic analysis. We have manually curated the rif and stevor gene repertoires of two Plasmodium falciparum genomes, isolates DD2 and HB3. We have identified 25% of mis-annotated and ~30 missing rif and stevor genes. Using these data sets, as well as sequences
The completion of the Plasmodium falciparum genome sequence has recently promoted the search for new antimalarial drugs. More specifically, metabolic pathways of the apicoplast, a key organelle for survival of the parasite, have been recognized as potential targets for the development of specific new antimalarial agents. As most apicomplexan parasites, P. falciparum displays a plant-type ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, yielding reduced ferredoxin for essential biosynthetic pathways in the apicoplast. Here we report a molecular, kinetic and ligand binding characterization of the recombinant ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase from P. falciparum, in the light of current data available for plant ferredoxin-NADP+ reductases. In parallel with the functional characterization, we describe the crystal structures of P. falciparum ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase in free form and in complex with 2′-phospho-AMP (at 2.4 and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively). The enzyme displays structural properties likely to be unique to plasmodial
Drug resistance is a recurrent problem in the fight against malaria. Genetic and epidemiological surveillance of antimalarial resistant parasite alleles is crucial to guide drug therapies and clinical management. New antimalarial compounds are currently at various stages of clinical trials and regulatory evaluation. Using ∼2000 Plasmodium falciparum genome sequences, we investigated the genetic diversity of eleven gene-targets of promising antimalarial compounds and assessed their potential efficiency across malaria endemic regions. We determined if the loci are under selection prior to the introduction of new drugs and established a baseline of genetic variance, including potential resistant alleles, for future surveillance programmes. ...
Citation Zhang C, Xiao B, Jiang Y, Zhao Y, Li Z, Gao H, Ling Y, Wei J, Li S, Lu M, Su Z, Cui H, Yuan J. 2014. Efficient editing of malaria parasite genome using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. mBio 5(4):e01414-14. doi:10.1128/mBio.01414-14. ...
I am trying to generate a summary of parasites in human metagenomic samples. I have been looking into Kraken2 and its databases built from Refseq (which should contain all parasite sequences annotated). Have also noticed this DB available from EuPathDB:. https://ccb.jhu.edu/data/eupathDB/. Is it a good approach to solely use EupathDB or should I be looking into other DBs for any missing parasites that might not be included there?. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
A group of single-celled organisms organises its DNA in a similar way to higher organisms such as plants, animals, and fungi. However, the way packaged DNA is read out differs between the two related groups, Bram Henneman discovered. PhD defence on 5 December.
Jafnréttisþing föstudaginn 16. janúar kl. 9-17 á Hilton Nordica.. Félags- og tryggingamálaráðherra og Jafnréttisráð boða til Jafnréttisþings í samræmi við lög um jafnan rétt og jafna stöðu kvenna og karla nr. 10/2008.. Á jafnréttisþingi leggur félags- og tryggingamálaráðherra fram skýrslu um stöðu og þróun jafnréttismála og drög að framkvæmdaáætlun í jafnréttismálum, en við endanlega gerð hennar skal samkvæmt jafnréttislögum taka mið af umræðum á jafnréttisþingi. Á þinginu verður fjallað um helstu svið jafnréttismála í fyrirlestrum, pallborðsumræðum og málstofum þar sem vænst er þátttöku og hugmynda frá þeim sem þingið sækja.. Forseti ASÍ, Gylfi Arnbjörnsson er meðal þátttakenda ...
The pond-dwelling ciliate Oxytricha trifallax is a model system for the study of gene regulatory mechanisms. It possesses a heterochromatin-rich germline micronucleus, and a transcriptionally active somatic macronucleus (MAC). The MAC genome is highly fragmented, consisting of ,16,000 unique nanochromosomes, with a mean size of 3.2kb. Consequently, only a limited number of nucleosomes can be accommodated in short nanochromosomes. Nanochromosome size does not vary in multiples of ~147bp corresponding to mono-nucleosome-sized DNA, suggesting that nucleosome depleted regions may be especially prevalent. This unusual genome architecture presents novel challenges for the regulation of gene expression. The efficacy and prevalence of chromatin-mediated gene regulation thus remain unclear in Oxytricha. In addition, the paucity of non-coding DNA suggests that promoters in Oxytricha are highly compact, and may be organized differently from other eukaryotes. Our study aims to uncover how the chromatin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An α-proteobacterial type malate dehydrogenase may complement LDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. T2 - Cloning and biochemical characterization of the enzyme. AU - Tripathi, Abhai. AU - Desai, Prashant V.. AU - Pradhan, Anupam. AU - Khan, Shabana I.. AU - Avery, Mitchell A.. AU - Walker, Larry A.. AU - Tekwani, Babu L.. PY - 2004/9. Y1 - 2004/9. N2 - Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) may be important in carbohydrate and energy metabolism in malarial parasites. The cDNA corresponding to the MDH gene, identified on chromosome 6 of the Plasmodium falciparum genome, was amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant PfMDH was purified to homogeneity and biochemically characterized as an NAD +(H)-specific MDH, which catalysed reversible interconversion of malate to oxaloacetate. PfMDH could not use NADP/NADPH as a cofactor, but used acetylpyridine adenine dinucleoide, an analogue of NAD. The enzyme exhibited strict substrate and cofactor specificity. ...
by Ignacio M. Durante, Pablo E. La Spina, Santiago J. Carmona, Fernán Agüero, Carlos A. Buscaglia. Background The Trypanosoma cruzi genome bears a huge family of genes and pseudogenes coding for Mucin-Associated Surface Proteins (MASPs). MASP molecules display a mosaic structure, with highly conserved flanking regions and a strikingly variable central and mature domain made up of different combinations of a large repertoire of short sequence motifs. MASP molecules are highly expressed in mammal-dwelling stages of T. cruzi and may be involved in parasite-host interactions and/or in diverting the immune response.. Methods/Principle findings High-density microarrays composed of fully overlapped 15mer peptides spanning the entire sequences of 232 non-redundant MASPs (~25% of the total MASP content) were screened with chronic Chagasic sera. This strategy led to the identification of 86 antigenic motifs, each one likely representing a single linear B-cell epitope, which were mapped to 69 different ...
Dicty, as scientists call it, lives in soil as a single-cell creature for most of its life. If food becomes scarce, it has a unique survival strategy. It converges with other single-cell amoebas to create a multi-cellular organism that will mature and release spores for reproduction.. Dicty sits at the interface between single and multi-cellular organisms, says molecular biologist Rex Chisholm of Northwestern University in Chicago, Illinois. From an evolutionary point thats an interesting place to be.. Chisholm is spearheading a new public database for organizing genetic information about the organism. Chromosome two will contribute some of the first data included in Dictybase, whose design is based on other model organism databases like mouse and yeast.. With its 8.1 million base pairs, chromosome two represents about 25 percent of the Dictyostelium genome. Based on the surprisingly large number of genes in chromosome two, scientists predict the entire genome contains about 11,000 genes ...
Background Parasite biology, by its very nature, cant be comprehended without integrating it with that of the host, nor can the host response be adequately explained without considering the activity of the parasite. consisting of a series of cyclical and state-transitioning temporal patterns. In addition, we contextualized these parasite data in relation to the concurrent dynamics of the sponsor transcriptome. Comparative analyses using uninfected cells and different sponsor strains exposed the influence of parasite development on sponsor gene transcription as well as the influence of the sponsor environment on parasite gene transcription. We also critically evaluated the life-cycle transcriptome of by comparing developmental phases in the mosquito relative to those in the mammalian sponsor, providing insight into gene manifestation changes underpinning the mosquito-borne parasitic way of life of this heteroxenous parasite. Conclusions/Significance The data presented herein provide the analysis ...
December 2019 Authors: Kelsi A. Lindblad, Jananan S. Pathmanathan, Sandrine Moreira, John R. Bracht, Robert P. Sebra, Elizabeth R. Hutton & Laura F. Landweber Info: Researchers sequenced the whole genome of Oxytricha trifallax, a model protozoan ciliate, using long read … more ». ...
Avhandlingar om LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT LCA. Sök bland 78317 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet på Avhandlingar.se.
The genus Plasmodium consists of all eukaryotes in the phylum Apicomplexa that both undergo the asexual replication process of merogony inside host red blood cells and produce the crystalline pigment hemozoin as a byproduct of digesting host hemoglobin.[2] Plasmodium species contain many features that are common to other eukaryotes, and some that are unique to their phylum or genus. The Plasmodium genome is separated into 14 chromosomes contained in the nucleus. Plasmodium parasites maintain a single copy of their genome through much of the life cycle, doubling the genome only for a brief sexual exchange within the midgut of the insect host.[3] Attached to the nucleus is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which functions similarly to the ER in other eukaryotes. Proteins are trafficked from the ER to the Golgi apparatus which generally consists of a single membrane-bound compartment in Apicomplexans.[4] From here proteins are trafficked to various cellular compartments or to the cell surface.[4] ...
Plasmodium knowlesi has risen in importance as a zoonotic parasite that has been causing regular episodes of malaria throughout South East Asia. The P. knowlesi genome sequence generated in 2008 highlighted and confirmed many similarities and differences in Plasmodium species, including a global view of several multigene families, such as the large SICAvar multigene family encoding the variant antigens known as the schizont-infected cell agglutination proteins. However, repetitive DNA sequences are the bane of any genome project, and this and other Plasmodium genome projects have not been immune to the gaps, rearrangements and other pitfalls created by these genomic features. Today, long-read PacBio and chromatin conformation technologies are overcoming such obstacles. Here, based on the use of these technologies, we present a highly refined de novo P. knowlesi genome sequence of the Pk1(A+) clone. This sequence and annotation, referred to as the MaHPIC Pk genome sequence, includes manual ...
Due to its central role in both evolutionary change and human disease, mutation has been the focus of intensive research. The probability that a spontaneous mut...
Antiparasitic drugs have been used successfully to control parasitic diseases in animals for many years, as they are safe, cheap and effective against a broad spectrum of parasites. One drawback of this success appears to be the emergence of drug resistance in many target parasites. Moreover, issues of residues in the food chain and environment have arisen, which threaten their sustained use. Control methods in which vaccines would have a central role provide attractive alternatives. However, while attenuated parasite vaccines have been successful, sub-unit vaccines are still rare. The advent of new techniques in molecular biology allows the elucidation of entire parasite genomes and the identification of individual genes. It is envisaged that a further understanding of parasite genes and the role of their products in parasite biology may lead to the identification of useful antigens, which could then be produced in recombinant systems. However, for this aim to be realised, continued investment ...
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The TWiP professors solve the case of the Ugandan Child with Splenomegaly, and reveal that mutations in the P. falciparum genome that confer artemisinin resistance interfere with endocytic uptake of hemoglobin.. ...
The latest Paper of the Month from Parasitology is by Amanda F. Francisco, Shiromani Jayawardhana, Michael D. Lewis, Martin C. Taylor, and John M. Kelly.
The Browsing Genomes module uses the parasite Toxoplasma as an example to show how anyone who has internet access can use experimental results from scientists. Making data publicly available through databases like ToxoDB helps science move forward much more quickly than what would be possible without them. Like libraries, databases store and organize information in a structured way that allows users to find and use existing information as well as contribute new research findings for others to use. Browsing Genomes gives you a tour of the ToxoDB database and a tool to explore its genome-related information. Then, it leads you through an activity using real data from an experiment that studied gene expression in different life stages of the Toxoplasma parasite ...
The malaria parasites success is owed to stripping down its genome to the bare essential genes, scientists at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and their collaborators have found. In the first ever large-scale study of malaria gene function, scientists analyzed more than half of the genes in the parasites genome and found that two thirds of these genes were essential for survival -- the largest proportion of essential genes found in any organism studied to date.
Artist: Powerworld Title: Human Parasite Genre: Melodic Power Metal Release date: 2010 Audio codec: MP3 Format: tracks Quality: 320 kbps Time: 53:26 Tracklist: 01. Cleansed By Fire (04:28) 02. Stand Up (04:19) 03. Evil In Me (05:00) 04. Time Will Change (04:59) 05. Human Parasite (05:19) 06.
It was thought that polycistronic transcription is a characteristic of bacteria and archaea, where many of the genes are clustered in operons composed of two to more than ten genes. By contrast, the genes of eukaryotes are generally considered to be monocistronic, each with its own promoter at the 5 …
Hi everyone, For the past three months I have had a complete loss of appetite and persistent extreme nausea that has caused me to lose over 40lbs in just that short.
Threadworm is the common human parasites that infect the intestine. Check out pictures, symptoms and treatment of Threadworm in humans.
Chromosome 2 of Plasmodium falciparum was sequenced; this sequence contains 947,103 base pairs and encodes 210 predicted genes. In comparison with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, chromosome 2 has a lower gene density, introns are more frequent, and proteins are markedly enriched in nonglobular domains. A family of surface proteins, rifins, that may play a role in antigenic variation was identified. The complete sequencing of chromosome 2 has shown that sequencing of the A+T-rich P. falciparum genome is technically feasible.. ...
The total number of kinases, i.e. the kinome size, is markedly reduced in P. falciparum and other apicomplexans in comparison with other model eukaryotes. This reduction of the kinome is in line with an overall gene loss observed in the Plasmodium genome. Gene loss and general compaction of the genome (loss of introns, smaller intergenic regions) have been noted as the dominant mode of genomic evolution in obligate intracellular parasites such as the Apicomplexa [76] (see figure 3 for a comparison of ePK group counts across eukaryotes). From a superficial comparison, the kinome of P. falciparum, consisting of roughly 91 ePKs [24] plus at least five aPKs [22], appears to constitute a percentage of the total proteome (1.7% of 5228 protein-coding genes) that is similar to that found in other, non-parasitic eukaryotes: the kinome of the bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprises 117 ePKs (2% of 5770 genes; plus 14 or 10 aPKs, depending on the study) [77,78], the fruitfly Drosophila ...
Cellular Communication in YeastsThe first life on our planet consisted of single-celled prokaryotic organisms that had limited interaction with each other. While some external signaling occurs between different species of single-celled organisms, the majority of signaling within bacteria and yeasts concerns only other members of the same species. The evolution of cellular communication is an absolute necessity for the development of multicellular organisms, and this innovation is thought to have required approximately 2.5 billion years to appear in early life forms.. Yeasts are single-celled eukaryotes, and therefore have a nucleus and organelles characteristic of more complex life forms. Comparisons of the genomes of yeasts, nematode worms, fruit flies, and humans illustrate the evolution of increasingly complex signaling systems that allow for the efficient inner workings that keep humans and other complex life forms functioning correctly.. Kinases are a major component of cellular ...
Estienne C. Swart; John R. Bracht; Vincent Magrini; Patrick Minx; Xiao Chen; Yi Zhou; Jaspreet S. Khurana; Aaron D. Goldman; Mariusz Nowacki; Klaas Schotanus; Seolkyoung Jung; Robert S. Fulton; Amy Ly; Sean McGrath; Kevin Haub; Jessica L. Wiggins; Donna Storton; John C. Matese; Lance Parsons; Wei-Jen Chang; Michael S. Bowen; Nicholas A. Stover; Thomas A. Jones; Sean R. Eddy; Glenn A. Herrick; Thomas G. Doak; Richard K. Wilson; Elaine R. Mardis; Laura F. Landweber (2013-01-29). The Oxytricha trifallax Macronuclear Genome: A Complex Eukaryotic Genome with 16,000 Tiny Chromosomes. PLOS Biology. 11 (1): e1001473. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001473. PMC 3558436. PMID 23382650 ...
Tlr elements are a novel family of ~30 putative mobile genetic elements that are confined to the germ line micronuclear genome in Tetrahymena thermophila. Thousands of diverse germ line-limited sequences, including the Tlr elements, are specifically eliminated from the differentiating somatic macronucleus. Macronucleusretained sequences flanking deleted regions are known to contain cis-acting signals that delineate elimination boundaries. It is unclear whether sequences within deleted DNA also play a regulatory role in the elimination process. In the current study, an in vivo DNA rearrangement assay was used to identify internal sequences required in cis for the elimination of Tlr elements. Multiple, nonoverlapping regions from the ~23-kb Tlr elements were independently sufficient to stimulate developmentally regulated DNA elimination when placed within the context of flanking sequences from the most thoroughly characterized family member, Tlr1. Replacement of element DNA with macronuclear or
Eisen JA, Coyne RS, Wu M, Wu D, Thiagarajan M, Wortman JR, Badger JH, Ren Q, Amedeo P, Jones KM, Tallon LJ, Delcher AL, Salzberg SL, Silva JC, Haas BJ, Majoros WH, Farzad M, Carlton JM, Smith RK Jr, Garg J, Pearlman RE, Karrer KM, Sun L, Manning G, Elde NC, Turkewitz AP, Asai DJ, Wilkes DE, Wang Y, Cai H, Collins K, Stewart BA, Lee SR, Wilamowska K, Weinberg Z, Ruzzo WL, Wloga D, Gaertig J, Frankel J, Tsao CC, Gorovsky MA, Keeling PJ, Waller RF, Patron NJ, Cherry JM, Stover NA, Krieger CJ, del Toro C, Ryder HF, Williamson SC, Barbeau RA, Hamilton EP, Orias E. Macronuclear genome sequence of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a model eukaryote. PLoS Biol. 2006 Sep;4(9):e286. PubMedhttp://bobcat.genomecenter.ucdavis.edu/mediawiki/images/0/08/Pdf-logo.jpg[Eisen-2006] ...
An international research team led by scientists at the University of California, Riverside, and the La Jolla Institute for Immunology has found that malaria parasite genomes are shaped by parasite-specific gene families, and that this genome organization strongly correlates with the parasites virulence.
ID J9IB24_9SPIT Unreviewed; 1230 AA. AC J9IB24; DT 31-OCT-2012, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 31-OCT-2012, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 19. DE SubName: Full=Serine/Threonine protein kinase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJY71208.1}; GN ORFNames=OXYTRI_07921 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJY71208.1}; OS Oxytricha trifallax. OC Eukaryota; Alveolata; Ciliophora; Intramacronucleata; Spirotrichea; OC Stichotrichia; Sporadotrichida; Oxytrichidae; Oxytrichinae; Oxytricha. OX NCBI_TaxID=1172189 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJY71208.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000006077}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJY71208.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000006077} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=SB310 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000006077}; RX PubMed=23382650; DOI=10.1371/journal.pbio.1001473; RA Swart E.C., Bracht J.R., Magrini V., Minx P., Chen X., Zhou Y., RA Khurana J.S., Goldman A.D., Nowacki M., Schotanus K., Jung S., RA Fulton R.S., Ly A., McGrath S., Haub K., Wiggins J.L., Storton D., RA Matese J.C., ...
The invasive stages (zoites) of most apicomplexan parasites are polarised cells that use their actinomyosin-powered gliding motility or
This paper presents a development of the US Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) based on life-cycle concept of the Generalized Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology (GERAM) framework/ISO 15704:2000 requirements. Previous research has identified areas of concern within DoDAF by analyzing and evaluating DoDAF against GERAM and potentially assisting in its future development. This paper aims to extend existing architecture description process and artifacts within DoDAF that match the scope of the GERAM life-cycle phases. For this development we use life-cycle aspect of three well-known reference architectures (including PERA, CIMOSA, and GRAI-GIM) that were the basis in formation of GERAM.. ...
Protozoa are single-celled organisms without cell walls. They are believed to be a part of the microbial world as they are unicellular and microscopic. There is a great deal to know about their classification, characteristics and more.
Protists are single-celled eukaryotes (which are organisms with a nucleus).The term Protista was. Protisten sind zu den Eukaryoten gehörende, ein- bis mehrzellige Lebewesen, die in
Buy or Rent Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle as an eTextbook and get instant access. With VitalSource, you can save up to 80% compared to print.
The mechanism responsible for final cell separation at the end of cytokinesis is currently unknown. Knockout strains of the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila lacking the kinesin-II homologous molecular motors, Kin1p and Kin2p are paralyzed due to their complete loss of cilia and undergo frequent cyto …
Apicomplexans are responsible for major human diseases such as toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and the deadliest form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). The genomes of these pathogens are now sequenced ushering in a new era of drug development. A major hurdle to exploiting this genome resource is that a large number of the encoded genes are hypotheticals and have yet to be characterized. Hypothetical proteins comprise roughly half of the predicted gene complement of T. gondii and P. falciparum and represent the largest class of uniquely functioning proteins in these parasites. Following the idea that functional relationships can be informed by the timing of gene expression, we devised a strategy to identify the core set of apicomplexan cell division cycling genes with important roles in parasite division, which includes many uncharacterized proteins. We assembled an expanded list of orthologs from the T. gondii and P. falciparum genome sequences (2781
This week, the MalariaGEN P. falciparum genetic crosses project released a new data resource, comprising whole-genome sequence and genetic variation data from the parents and offspring of three parasite crosses.. This open access resource provides a foundation for further research into how genetic variation and sexual recombination affects parasite biology, at a much higher resolution than previously possible. These data are being made available at a time of intense interest in studying the genetic basis for evolutionary changes in the malaria-causing P. falciparum parasite, such as the emergence and spread of antimalarial drug resistance.. A lot of progress has been made in recent years in mapping out variation in the P. falciparum genome, however there are still big gaps in our knowledge, including many genes that are relevant to vaccine development or drug resistance, explains Alistair Miles, Head of Informatics with the MRC Centre for Genomics and Global Health. These new data on the ...
a b Estienne C. Swart,John R. Bracht,Vincent Magrini,Patrick Minx,Xiao Chen,Yi Zhou,Jaspreet S. Khurana,Aaron D. Goldman,Mariusz Nowacki,Klaas Schotanus,Seolkyoung Jung,Robert S. Fulton,Amy Ly,Sean McGrath,Kevin Haub,Jessica L. Wiggins,Donna Storton,John C. Matese,Lance Parsons,Wei-Jen Chang,Michael S. Bowen,Nicholas A. Stover,Thomas A. Jones,Sean R. Eddy,Glenn A. Herrick,Thomas G. Doak,Richard K. Wilson,Elaine R. Mardis,Laura F. Landwebe. The Oxytricha trifallax Macronuclear Genome: A Complex Eukaryotic Genome with 16,000 Tiny Chromosomes. PLOS. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001473. Diakses tanggal $1 $2. Unknown parameter ...
The first major grants, beginning in 1984, established the Consortium on the Biology of Parasitic Diseases. Researchers at eleven institutions worked together to establish and legitimize the field of molecular parasite biology by recruiting established cellular and molecular biologists, turning their technologies and experience to the study of parasites, and training the next generation of molecular parasite biologists. The Consortiums work was augmented by grants for equipment, problem-solving workshops, a summer course at the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, and the World Health Organizations Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases.. The Consortium did more than establish molecular parasite biology as a credible and exciting area of research. It also helped stimulate greatly increased funding for research in the field, especially by the federal National Institutes of Health, created a cadre of well-trained young researchers, and created a spectrum of new ...
Evaluation of P. falciparum antigen Pf332 as a target for parasite neutralizing immune responses. This project is based on the P. falciparum antigen Pf332, which we identified in 1989 together with Mattei et al. at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Subsequent data on Pf332, obtained mainly by our groups by laboratory experiments and epidemiological investigations, indicate that the antigen stands out as an attractive target for vaccine development. However, the previous research on Pf332 has involved mainly a 157 amino acids long fragment (EB200) of the antigen; the complete 5506 a.a. sequence became recently available from the sequencing of the P. falciparum genome.. ...
The National Center for Biomedical Ontology was founded as one of the National Centers for Biomedical Computing, supported by the NHGRI, the NHLBI, and the NIH Common Fund under grant U54-HG004028.. ...
Some good research links about parasites are at: http://www.intergate.bc.ca/business/thstone/parasite.htm A good treatment is at: http://www.intergate.bc.ca/business/thstone/ ...
Arfgef1 - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN301478G1|/strong|, Arfgef1 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.