This article analyses neuronal determinism (neurodeterminism) and mentions that at first sight it appears to be a type of qualified determinism. Neurodeterminism is better conceived as determinism tout court when it is applied to human beings. It differs importantly from genetic determinism, together the two views that are often regarded as similar in form if not in content. Moreover, the article examines the question of genetic determinism, because it is a paradigm of qualified determinism. It then explains the meaning of determinism tout court, its relation with the notions of
Coynes main assertion really is that all critics of the selfish gene are sensationalizing evidence against genetic determinism and (I think its sometimes called) panselectionism as evidence against the selfish gene, which is natural selection solely for personal gain. His only evidence against this is a bald assertion that Dawkins denied this. Since people can be diplomatic in presenting their views, I think the only effective rebuttal would be to rehearse the well-known ways that the selfish gene metaphor is entirely independent of genetic determinism. Perhaps the problem is that theyre not so well-known? Maybe, maybe not. But epistasis, methylation, gene expression, genetic assimilation, epigenesis, the whole rogues gallery of failed assassins who aimed at the selfish gene, are all evidence against genetic determinism. (Neutral and nearly-neutral evolution are irrelevant apparently.) In this context, I disagree Coynes vituperation of motive is effective. I cant even feel that its a real ...
Theological determinism is a form of determinism which states that all events that happen are pre-ordained, or predestined to happen, by a monotheistic deity, or that they are destined to occur given its omniscience. Two forms of theological determinism exist, here referenced as strong and weak theological determinism.[21] The first one, strong theological determinism, is based on the concept of a creator deity dictating all events in history: "everything that happens has been predestined to happen by an omniscient, omnipotent divinity".[22] The second form, weak theological determinism, is based on the concept of divine foreknowledge - "because Gods omniscience is perfect, what God knows about the future will inevitably happen, which means, consequently, that the future is already fixed".[23] There exist slight variations on the above categorisation. Some claim that theological determinism requires predestination of all events and outcomes by the divinity (i.e. they do not classify the weaker ...
Written By Johanna Ahola-Launonen. University of Helsinki. In bioethical discussion, it is often debated whether or not some studies espouse genetic determinism. A recent study by Tuomas Aivelo and Anna Uitto[1] give important insight to the matter. They studied main genetics education textbooks used in Finnish upper secondary school curricula and compared the results to other similar studies from e.g. Swedish and English textbooks. The authors found that gene models used in the textbooks are based on old "Mendelian law"-based gene models not compatible with current knowledge on gene-gene-environment-interaction. The authors also identified several types of genetic determinism, that is, weak determinism and strong determinism, which both were present in the textbooks. The somewhat intuitive remark is that genetic education has to have a strong trickle-down effect on how people understand genes, and that we should be careful not to maintain these flawed conceptions. Furthermore, it would be ...
Figure 4 Comparison of recombination (rec.) rates in Soay and Lacaune populations. Left: scatterplot of posterior means of rec. rates (on a log scale). The green line is the line y = x and the red line is a lowess smoothed line (f = 0.05). Right: Scatterplot of the ratio of posterior variance (Soay/Lacaune) as a function of the average of the posterior mean rec. rates in the two populations (on a log scale). The green line corresponds to equal variances and the red line is a lowess smoothed line (f = 0.05). Points in gray on both panels correspond to intervals with average rec. rate , 1.5 cM/Mb. ...
Despite its potential utility for predicting cows milk yield responses to once-daily milking (ODM), the genetic basis of cow milk trait responses to ODM has been scarcely if ever described in the literature, especially for short ODM periods. This study set out to (1) estimate the genetic determinism of milk yield and composition during a 3-wk ODM period, (2) estimate the genetic determinism of milk yield responses (i.e., milk yield loss upon switching cows to ODM and milk yield recovery upon switching them back to twice-daily milking; TDM), and (3) seek predictors of milk yield responses to ODM, in particular using the first day of ODM ...
Two men buried in the same grave in the predynastic burial ground of Adaima (Upper Egypt, around 3400 B.C. evince thoracic anomalies. One man had a bifid rib and the other a sternal perforation. Amplification and sequencing of mitochondrial DNA suggested they were maternally related. In the light of these findings, we therefore sought the genetic determinism of these characteristics; they may be minor developmental anomalies arising from a similar genetic determinism with epigenic control of development. This hypothesis raises a number of implications for anthropobiological study.
Hard Determinism is subject to cause and effect. Hard Determinists argue that we live in a mechanistic universe, supported by Newtonian physics. Newton argues that everything is governed by the laws of nature which can be determined by social, biological or political matters; therefore hard determinism negates free will. Within this framework, Hard Determinists argue that the laws of cause and effect also apply to human behaviour. For example, in the field of Psychology Watson argued that out behaviour is determined by pre-controlled factors. Our behaviour and actions are involuntary reflexes to a prior condition. If this is to be so, then Hard Determinism does indeed negate freedom of will. Key thinkers such as Skinner and Loche have both contributed to the hard determinism argument. Skinners psychological findings show that our behaviour is modified by positive and negative factors. These actions in contrast to Watson are voluntary; however they are still determined by prior causes; therefore ...
Scepticism about technological determinism emerged alongside increased pessimism about techno-science in the mid-20th century, in particular around the use of nuclear energy in the production of nuclear weapons, Nazi human experimentation during World War II, and the problems of economic development in the third world. As a direct consequence, desire for greater control of the course of development of technology gave rise to disenchantment with the model of technological determinism in academia.. Modern theorists of technology and society no longer consider technological determinism to be a very accurate view of the way in which we interact with technology, even though determinist assumptions and language fairly saturate the writings of many boosters of technology, the business pages of many popular magazines, and much reporting on technology[citation needed]. Instead, research in science and technology studies, social construction of technology and related fields have emphasised more nuanced ...
As a scientist and a believer in human progress, I have been concerned about how well the established process of teshuvah (repentance) has worked. Yom Kippur after Yom Kippur - in fact, since the 11th century - we have recited the same confessional prayer, "Al Chet." If we were any good at repentance, shouldnt the list have changed in 1,000 years? Even if we dont want to change the ancient formula, shouldnt we be able to feel that we had eliminated or reduced at least a few on the list? Yet the list of sins remains the same, as does the ritual for expunging them. Why havent we improved?. Perhaps we are genetically stuck. The newspapers and scientific journals are full of genetic determinism. Human geneticists, aided by the massive investment in the human genome project, have identified hundreds of genes in which specific alterations cause conditions that range from mental retardation to dyslexia. Mouse geneticists have created models not only of human disease, but also of mating and mental ...
Abstract: New discoveries of detailed mechanisms underlying genome expression (overlapping genes and gene sharing, antisense transcription, trans-splicing, RNA editing, to name just a few), genome regulation (via transcription factors, digital RNA regulatory network, epigenetic system), and (post) translational processes (e.g. ribosomal slippage) show two things: how surprisingly complex life processes are at the genomic level, and how little causal power is being asserted by a single, autonomous gene, if defined as a stretch of DNA. Genetic information is developmentally constituted. The main argument against genetic determinism has always been that the actual activity of the gene and hence its contribution to the phenotype depends on environmental elements outside the transcription unit. The genomic processes referred to in this talk prove the ultimate truth of that saying, and show that often you wont need to look outside the traditional gene to find the environment.s logical syntax ...
Bad genetics and bad evolutionary psychology make for a dangerous cocktail, says Gabby Dover Dear Mr Darwin, Ive been stimulated to write to you again. You might recall how I suggested that our previous correspondence on modern genetics and evolution be published, with your permission. You never got back to me on that, I suspect because we were immersed in a discussion on the genetic determinism of human nature, which did not leave us much time to make plans for the future. That discussion ended on the high falsetto note of desire of the great Russian bass singer, Feodor Chaliapin, as he spontaneously exercised an act of free will in the rendition of a particular song on a particular day, without so much as a glance at his genetic makeup or at his cultural upbringing. No nature; no nurture - just Chaliapin. That was my way of expressing the argument that our particular behaviours and psychologies are singular acts of free will, day on day, exercised by uniquely formed individuals. A person is ...
Oftentimes parents insist that in spite of treating their children the same they have turned out to be quite different. Does this prove the overbearing influence of genetics on personality? The authors of Separate Lives make a convincing argument that the answer to that question is that it does not. As ones first child develops, it `s easy to point out the effects of environment. But since subsequent children are so different from the first born and from each other, the proponents of nurture become converts to genetic determinism. Identical twin studies have shown the importance of heredity, but the authors claim that it also shows the importance of environment since even though those twins have 100% genetic similarity, they are only about 50% similar in personality. This source of dissimilarity, they believe, can only have one origin and that has to be the environment.. But are not these siblings brought up in the same environment? The authors thesis is that the environment only seems the ...
Richard Charles "Dick" Lewontin (born March 29, 1929) is an American evolutionary biologist, mathematician, geneticist, and social commentator. A leader in developing the mathematical basis of population genetics and evolutionary theory, he pioneered the application of techniques from molecular biology, such as gel electrophoresis, to questions of genetic variation and evolution. In a pair of seminal 1966 papers co-authored with J.L. Hubby in the journal Genetics, Lewontin helped set the stage for the modern field of molecular evolution. In 1979 he and Stephen Jay Gould introduced the term "spandrel" into evolutionary theory. From 1973 to 1998, he held an endowed chair in zoology and biology at Harvard University, and since 2003 has been a research professor there. Lewontin opposes genetic determinism. Lewontin was born in New York City to parents descended from late 19th-century Eastern European Jewish immigrants. He attended Forest Hills High School and the École Libre des Hautes Études in ...
Im not one to be worried about "genetic determinism" (usually just an insult which describes very few scholars), but this is a bit ridiculous. First, the primary research, of which you can find a pre-print online, seems to indicate that around ~30% of the outcome of financial decisions are heritable. That is, that ~30% of the variation in financial decisions within the population can be accounted for by variation in genes within the population. Additionally, theres some context missing. The researcher expresses surprise that monozygotic twins converge in behavior as they age, and that parental influence tends to wear off as people leave the home. I dont know if the researcher was taken out of context, but this is a totally unsurprising result. Over time shared home environment, what your parents model and teach you, tends to wear off, and gene-environment correlation increases the correspondences between particular genetic makeups and behaviors (i.e., identical twins resemble each other more ...
What might these two trends suggest about the future of parenthood? If they seem like trends that run counter to each other-"back" to nature and away from it-I would suggest that in fact both reflect a similar acceptance of the idea that parents do not need a dramatic physical bond with their newborn child. In an age of genetic determinism, this seems a somewhat strange attitude, but maybe it is precisely because these days we imagine ourselves as so linked to our biological offspring through our chemical codes that we downplay the power of cultural processes-experiences we ourselves must go through-- that teach us about how our childrens bodies came from our own and are intimately and deeply connected to us ...
Maybe, but heres the beauty of the genetic profiling: Its not going to lead to a genetic determinism like that," he said. "You are not going to develop stroke, all right? You now know that you have three times the possibility of the average individual to develop stroke. So you have a strong incentive to take measures to prevent stroke. One of them is to make sure that you dont have high blood pressure; one of them is that you will not smoke. One of them is you will drink alcohol only moderately." ...
By Sheldon Krimsky, Visit Amazons Jeremy Gruber Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Jeremy Gruber, , Ruth Hubbard, Stuart Newman, Evelyn Fox Keller, Visit Amazons David S. Moore Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, David S. Moore. Can genes verify which fifty-year-old will succumb to Alzheimers, which citizen will end up on balloting day, and which baby could be marked for a lifetime of crime? convinced, in accordance with the web, a couple of medical experiences, and a few within the biotechnology who may still understand higher. Sheldon Krimsky and Jeremy Gruber assemble a staff of genetic specialists to argue that treating genes because the holy grail of our actual being is a patently unscientific undertaking. Genetic Explanations urges us to exchange our religion in genetic determinism with clinical wisdom approximately how DNA really contributes to human development.. the idea that of the gene has been gradually revised due to the fact that Watson and Crick ...
Play media In biology, motility is the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process. It is not to be confused with mobility, which describes the ability of an object to be moved. Motility is genetically determined (see genetic determinism) but may be affected by environmental factors. For instance, muscles give animals motility but the consumption of hydrogen cyanide (the environmental factor in this case) would adversely affect muscle physiology causing them to stiffen leading to rigor mortis. Most animals are motile but the term applies to unicellular and simple multicellular organisms, as well as to some mechanisms of fluid flow in multicellular organs, in addition to animal locomotion. Motile marine animals are commonly called free-swimming. Motility may also refer to an organisms ability to move food through its digestive tract, i.e. peristalsis (gut motility, intestinal motility, etc.). An example of intestinal motility is the contraction of smooth muscles ...
Who do you think you are? And is the answer in your genes? This month were delving into genes and genealogy. Plus, putting an end to genetic determinism, and an ancient Egyptian gene of the month.
It is well over a decade since John Fischer and Mark Ravizza - and before them, Jay Wallace and Daniel Dennett - defended responsibility from the threat of determinism. But defending responsibility from determinism is a potentially endless and largely negative enterprise; it can go on for as long
Guest Opinion by Dr. Tim Ball. Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.. George Santayana (Original quote from his book The Life of Reason, much paraphrased.). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and its supporters urge action because the planet and humans are threatened by global warming. We must modify our behavior, mitigate the warming, or die by the millions. In the centuries prior to the First World War (WWI) these reactions were classified as climatic determinism, the idea that human behavior is dictated by climate. As one research group explains.. Climatic determinism has a very long and checkered history. It gave a framework for thinking about the relationship between the human and natural environments by making the climate a demiurge of social universe.. Later, they explain why they are discussing the concept.. While most of such thinking has been discredited, in recent years, the omnipresence of anthropogenic climate change has caused a resurgence ...
We can be determined by predetermined causes or we can be determined by probabilistic random causes. To me, either one qualifies as determinism, but usually the former is qualified as being hard determinism because there is no possible deviation from the path of unfolding events. If we type 1+1 into a calculator, we always get an output of 2 because its just a sequence of switches that always give the same result. But whether a photon travels through the left slit or right slit cannot be known until it happens. John Bell proved that there are no variables somehow hidden in the universe that determines which slit the photon will go through and it is actually a causeless event, so hard determinism is out. If the universe were rewound, it would almost certainly unfold differently ...
In feminist theory and gender studies, gender essentialism is the attribution of a fixed essence to women.[6] Womens essence is assumed to be universal and is generally identified with those characteristics viewed as being specifically feminine.[6] These ideas of femininity are usually related to biology and often concern psychological characteristics such as nurturance, empathy, support, non-competitiveness, etc.[6] Feminist theorist Elizabeth Grosz states in her 1995 publication, Space, Time and Perversion: Essays on the Politics of Bodies, that essentialism "entails the belief that those characteristics defined as womens essence are shared in common by all women at all times. It implies a limit of the variations and possibilities of change-it is not possible for a subject to act in a manner contrary to her essence. Her essence underlies all the apparent variations differentiating women from each other. Essentialism thus refers to the existence of fixed characteristic, given attributes, and ...
Soft Determinism (or compatibilism) is the view that determinism is true, but free will exists nevertheless. Soft determinists have two critics: hard determinists and incompatibilists. Although the arguments against soft determinism seem insurmountable, there are several ways to reply to the critics. One way is to challenge the truth of incompatibilism. For example, some philosophers disagree that we would need to violate a law of nature in order to have free will. One such philosopher is David Lewis, who argues that we might be able to do things that require a law of nature to be broken without ourselves breaking a law of nature. Lewis calls such an action a "divergence miracle" because it requires that a miracle occurs, but not that we are the ones conducting the miracles. For example, God could render a law of nature false so that one of us can act in a way that violates a law of nature.[2]. Another way to reply to the critics is to argue that while determinism is true, the interpretation of ...
This paper proposes determinism measure (DET) based on recurrence plot, which is capable of showing the recurrence property of a deterministic dynamical sy
Griffiths (1999), Okasha (2002), and LaPorte (2004) have suggested a form of species essentialism which can be called relational essentialism. According to relational essentialism, certain relations among organisms, or between organisms and the environment, are necessary and sufficient for membership in a species. Such relations, argue Griffiths, Okasha, and LaPorte, are species essences. For example, they suggest that being descendent from a particular ancestor is necessary and sufficient for being a member of a species.. Devitt (2008) rejects relational essentialism. He argues that relational essentialism fails to answer two crucial questions. The taxon question: Why is organism O a member of species S? The trait question: Why do members of species S typically have trait T? Devitt suggests that to answer these questions species need intrinsic essences; and because relational essentialism only posits relational essences, relational essentialism fails to answer these questions. Devitts target ...
Acute infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces a wide range of innate and adaptive immune responses. A total of 20-50% of acutely HCV-infected individuals permanently control the virus, referred to as spontaneous hepatitis C clearance, while the infection progresses to chronic hepatitis C in the majority of cases. Numerous studies have examined host genetic determinants of hepatitis C infection outcome and revealed the influence of genetic polymorphisms of human leukocyte antigens, killer immunoglobulin-like receptors, chemokines, interleukins and interferon-stimulated genes on spontaneous hepatitis C clearance. However, most genetic associations were not confirmed in independent cohorts, revealed opposing results in diverse populations or were limited by varying definitions of hepatitis C outcomes or small sample size. Coordinated efforts are needed in the search for key genetic determinants of spontaneous hepatitis C clearance that include well-conducted candidate genetic and ...
Kant (on one reading) holds that the initial conditions of the universe and the laws of nature depend on us (noumenally speaking). This reconciles determinism with freedom: sure, our actions are determined by the laws and initial conditions, but the laws and initial conditions are up to us. Kant also thinks that a further merit of this view is that one can blame people whose misdeeds come from a bad upbringing, because noumenally speaking they were responsible for their own upbringing.. Lewis holds that freedom is compatible with determinism, and in a deterministic world had one acted otherwise, the laws would have been different.. Everybody agrees that the view I ascribe to Kant is crazy (though not everybody agrees that the ascription is correct). But Lewiss view is supposed to be much saner than Kants.. How? The obvious suggestion is that Lewis only makes the laws depend counterfactually on our actions (assuming determinism) while Kant makes the laws depend explanatorily on our actions. But ...
Ayala, Francisco (2008) What the Biological Sciences Can and Cannot Contribute to Ethics. [Preprint] Ballinger, Clint (2008) Determinism and the Antiquated Deontology of the Social Sciences. [Preprint] Ballinger, Clint (2008) Determinism and the Antiquated Deontology of the Social Sciences. [Preprint] Biddle, Justin and Leuschner, Anna (2015) Climate Skepticism and the Manufacture of Doubt: Can Dissent in Science be Epistemically Detrimental? [Preprint] Birch, Jonathan (2017) Animal Cognition and Human Values. [Preprint] Deem, Michael (2016) Dehorning the Darwinian Dilemma for Normative Realism. [Preprint] Dorato, Mauro (2002) Determinism, Chance and Freedom. [Preprint] Dorato, Mauro (2012) THE NATURAL AMBIGUITY OF THE NOTION OF NATURAL, AND HOW TO OVERCOME IT. [Preprint] Ellerman, David (2014) On Property Theory. [Preprint] Elliott, Kevin (2010) Direct and Indirect Roles for Values in Science. [Preprint] Elliott, Kevin (2013) Douglas on Values: From Indirect Roles to Multiple Goals. ...
I was pleased to find John Hartungs prescient article, "Prospects for Existence," in the last Skeptic. He neatly expressed many of my thoughts on morality in the age of modern science. However, I believe that Hartung is wrong in his assertion that free will and determinism are mutually exclusive propositions. Its true that, in the usual sense, freedom and determinism are antonyms. But I have found that upon closer inspection, most apparent paradoxes can be seen to coexist peacefully on a higher level of abstraction. Like matter and antimatter, they can both exist at the same time as long as they stay in separate orbits, so to speak. The key is to realize that determinism and free will are located on opposite ends of the same logical continuum. Let me illustrate what Im talking about by describing an epiphany from my youth. At the Seattle Worlds Fair in the 1950s I came across a mathematics exhibit. One display that particularly caught my eye was a dynamic demonstration of the statistical ...
Chiefly, however, determinism is self-stultifying. If my mental processes are totally determined, I am totally determined either to accept or to reject determinism. But if the sole reason for my believing or not believing X is that I am causally determined to believe it I have no ground for holding that my judgment is true or false. J. R. Lucas has put the point cogently with reference to Marxist and Freudian forms of determinism thus. The Marxist who says that all ideologies have no independent validity and merely reflect the class interests of those who hold them can be told that in that case his Marxist views merely express the economic interests of his class, and have no more claim to be judged true or valid than any toher view. So too the Freudian, if he makes out that everybody elses philosophy is merely the consequence of childhood experiences, is, by parity of reasoning, revealing merely his delayed response to what happened to him when he was a child. Lucas then makes the same point ...
When Jeffreys spoke at the Andrea Dworkin Commemorative Conference, she credited Dworkin as being her inspiration. Moreover, she spoke at lengths about Dworkins pioneering book, Woman Hating while denigrating the bodies of trans women. During her entire presentation, Jeffreys never once noted that - in the very book Jeffreys cited as being the inspiration for her activism - Dworkin advocated that trans people be given free access to trans medical care or that Dworkin viewed gender identity research as being rightly subversive to patriarchy and the very sex essentialism Jeffreys promotes.[2] Even more telling of the ideological split between TERFs who call themselves Radical Feminists and the actual Radical Feminist movement is the reality that TERFs did 1/3 of the work for a governmental study which effectively ended the coverage of trans medical care under both public and private insurance. In what way does cutting off trans medical access, demonstrably resulting in the death and suffering of ...
The field of epigenetics shows that the genetic structures we inherit from our parents dont remain fixed throughout our lives either, but are altered by our life experiences, so that the biology we pass on to our children will be different from that we inherited. For example, experiments training mice to develop an aversion to a particular smell have shown that this aversion was genetically passed down to their offspring, who became two hundred times more sensitive to the smell than other mice. This new behaviour is reflected in changes to both the genes and brain structure of the mice. Similarly, in human beings, studies show that twins exposed to very different environments and experiences show striking differences in their DNA in later life. Or, in a Swedish study of the descendants of a population which endured famine in the Nineteenth Century, it was found that the men had inherited a much stronger than normal resistance to cardiovascular disease, whilst those women descended from women ...
Some naive arguments are nonetheless sound. ("I know I have two hands, …") But thats not where I want to take this line of thought, though I could try to.. I think there are two kinds of answers to this naive argument. One could simply deny (2), espousing an error theory about what happens when people say "I did A even though I didnt want to." But suppose we want to do justice to common sense. Then we have to accept (2). And (1) seems to be just a consequence of the desire-belief theory. So what to can one say?. Well, one can say that "what I want" is used in a different sense in (1) and (2). The most promising distinction here seems to me to be between what one wants overall and what one has a desire for. The desire-belief theorist has to affirm that if I do something, I have a desire for it. But she doesnt have to say that I desire the thing overall. To make use of this distinction, (2) has to say that I act while doing what I do not overall want.. If this is the only helpful distinction ...
Ive lost track of the number of times Ive sat fuming at presentations by designers extolling the glories of electronic networking. Ive always been a believer in the sloppy old face-to-face method of communication, and the tech geeks, from computer lab support staff to "TEDsters" frustrate me with their hand-held pod-cast technoenthusiasm. I use technology, communicate electronically, even socially network to a modest extent, but Ive never been one to believe that technology, especially "paperless," would be the salvation of western or any other civilization. Forty years ago Robert Heilbronner opened a can of worms when he wondered, "Do Machines Make History?" His essay, later reframed and reissued, was an examination of technological determinism. The term technological determinism has been traced to Thorstein Veblen. It is the concept that technology is self-driven, existing outside of social influences. Heilbronner wondered, following Marx, whether "The hand-mill gives you society with the ...
Authors gravitate to the area of research which fits their surname." Hunts example is an article on incontinence in the British Journal of Urology by A. J. Splatt and D. Weedon. We feel its time to open up this whole issue to rigorous scrutiny. You are invited to send in examples of the phenomenon in the fields of science and technology (with references that check out, please) together with any hypotheses you may have on how it comes about. No prizes, other than seeing your name in print and knowing you have contributed to the advance of human knowledge." ...
Introduction Hi, Im Glenn Fiedler and welcome to Networking for Game Programmers. Lately Ive been doing some research into networking game physics simulations via deterministic lockstep methods. The basic idea is that instead of synchronizing the state of physics objects directly by sending the positions, orientations, velocities etc. over the network, one could synchronize the simulation implicitly by sending just the player inputs. This is a very attractive synchronization strategy because the amount of network traffic depends on the size of the player inputs instead of the amount of physics state in the world.
But Born was more than an outstanding physicist; he will always also be remembered as a very compassionate, conscientious, and kind man. Most of the premier scientists in the world were his personal friends. His relations with his students were always gentle and even deferential. His correspondence with Einstein, a special confidante, is well known and still in print in book form (although Einsteins disagreements with Borns quantum probability is also well-known). When Hitler came to power in 1933, Born, like most others, faced a series of crises. In a time when the doors of fate were shut in the face of the most talented scientists in the world, it was Born who made sure that his students found respectable jobs. It was he who wrote letters to Bohr, to Einstein, and to Robert Millikan (at Caltech) to recommend promising and needy Jewish researchers who could not have gotten jobs anywhere else; and in fact who would certainly have faced worse than simply lack of jobs ...
The theological problem of free will received its first definitive treatment in the later Roman period by Augustine, who was concerned in part with the problem of divine foreknowledge, but above all with the relationship between grace and free will in fallen humanity. His eventual answer, a form of theological determinism coupled with compatibilism, has set the framework for religious discussions of free will ever since, and many of its themes are echoed in secular debates about the problem of freedom and determinism. This volume contatins a set of essays on classical themes in philosophical theology having to do chiefly with free will and providence, which should be of secular as well as religious interest. Together they provide a historical and contemporary overview of problems in the theology of freedom, along with a look at recent work by some important philosophers in the field aimed at resolving those problems. Prominent topics include the nature of free will, predestination, salvation by grace,
This book begins with the ancient parts of classical mechanics: the variational principle, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, and Poisson brackets. The simple pendulum provides a glimpse of the beauty of elliptic curves, which will also appear later in rigid body mechanics. Geodesics in Riemannian geometry are presented as an example of a Hamiltonian system. Conversely, the path of a non-relativistic particle is a geodesic in a metric that depends on the potential. Orbits around a black hole are found. Hamilton-Jacobi theory is discussed, showing a path towards quantum mechanics and a connection to the eikonal of optics. The three body problem is studied in detail, including small orbits around the Lagrange points. The dynamics of a charged particle in a magnetic field, especially a magnetic monopole, is studied in the Hamiltonian formalism. Spin is shown to be a classical phenomenon. Symplectic integrators that allow numerical solutions of mechanical systems are derived. A simplified version of
Ive just finished Sam Harris Free Will. It isnt exactly a book, rather an extended essay. Im also reading The Illusion of Conscious Will by Daniel M. Weg…
Frigg, Roman and Werndl, Charlotte (2017) Equilibrium in Boltzmannian Statistical Mechanics. [Preprint] Frigg, Roman and Werndl, Charlotte (2017) Equilibrium in Gibbsian Statistical Mechanics. [Preprint] Werndl, Charlotte and Frigg, Roman (2017) Mind the Gap: Boltzmannian versus Gibbsian Equilibrium. [Preprint] Werndl, Charlotte (2017) Initial conditions dependence and initial conditions uncertainty in climate science. [Preprint] Werndl, Charlotte and Frigg, Roman (2016) Boltzmannian Equilibrium in Stochastic Systems. [Preprint] Werndl, Charlotte (2016) Determinism. [Preprint] Werndl, Charlotte and Frigg, Roman (2016) When Does a Boltzmannian Equilibrium Exist? [Preprint] Werndl, Charlotte (2015) Determinism and Indeterminism. [Preprint] Werndl, Charlotte (2015) The Diversity of Model Tuning Practices in Climate Science. [Preprint] Steele, Katie and Werndl, Charlotte (2015) Model tuning in engineering: Uncovering the logic. [Preprint] Steele, Katie and Werndl, Charlotte (2015) Model-Selection ...
Here is where a little bit of Scholastic analysis helps. This paradox is a paradox in words only. A crucial distinction is not being made.. Free choices are not determined by prior events but by posterior events, and the word "determined" is misleading when used for something that determines its own course of action.. Now, while it may be that a sufficiently finely grained analysis could establish the prior causes for a free decision, perhaps by listing every single brain atom in a mans skull, and consulting a billiard expert, and deducing from then the location at a later time of every brain atom. But, this, of course, tells us exactly nothing about the decision of the man whose skull we are examining, unless we have a material-to-thought dictionary which lists the position of each atom group and tells us, not what the physical properties are, but what those positions MEAN. You can find out what the man meant by his actions, if he is honest, by asking him: "The serpent beguiled me, and I ...
Ok, gender in the brain as a result of plasticity, thats going to be interesting - "reflect gendered behavior as learned and incorporated in a social context" is a thing, but please, please dont let this turn into "male socialization" for trans women or "female socialization" for trans men, or either of the above for nonbinary folks. The socialization of "consistently mistaken for X while actually Y" is not the same as the socialization of "X." Ok, individual differences are a thing. Thats good. "Plasticity arguments are extremely interesting as they wage war against both biological and social determinism, reductionism, essentialism, and other -isms." Phew thats not the socialization argument I was worried about, I dont think. ...
Basically, the essentialist position on gender states that there are distinctively feminine and distinctively masculine traits that exist outside of social and cultural conditioning and because of such qualities being wired into our brains, we must irrevocably accept gender oppression simply as part of who we are as a species. This stance is outrageous, primarily because it offers little or no insight as to how women and men can work towards changing or improving the status quo or even human nature, come to think of it. This asinine line of reasoning has been used for thousands of years to perpetuate patriarchy as a universal system rooted in human essence and it has also been used to corroborate sexism and discrimination against women be it financially, emotionally, politically, mentally or physically. It validates the notion that masculine and feminine traits are diametrically opposite but complementary to each other if and only if, men and women act according to conventional gender roles. ...
The notion of natural kinds has been central to contemporary discussions of metaphysics and philosophy of science. Although explicitly articulated by nineteenth-century philosophers like Mill, Whewell and Venn, it has a much older history dating back to Plato and Aristotle. In recent years, essentialism has been the dominant account of natural kinds among philosophers, but the essentialist view has encountered resistance, especially among naturalist metaphysicians and philosophers of science. Informed by detailed examination of classification in the natural and social sciences, this book argues against essentialism and for a naturalist account of natural kinds. By looking at case studies drawn from diverse scientific disciplines, from fluid mechanics to virology and polymer science to psychiatry, the author argues that natural kinds are nodes in causal networks. On the basis of this account, he maintains that there can be natural kinds in the social sciences as well as the natural sciences ...
After the so-called "end of Theory," the intellectual fortunes of anti-humanism dipped disastrously, overwhelmed by a wretched tide of new moralism, ethics, humanitarianism, and aesthetics. The hard-won poststructuralist consensus regarding the inadmissibility of any essentialist, transhistorical concept of "Man," while it may not have been simply rejected, was assailed by a concerted attack from the hard sciences and the Realpolitik of a worldwide neoliberal hegemony. What if the fragile little animal "man," this pathetic cluster of genetic codes, anthropological givens, and precarious affects, were after all the only entity worth defending in the teeth of a pitiless assault from above? Poststructuralisms muted Nietzschean affirmation of a post-human exit velocity looks risibly utopian in our militarized age of camps and homo sacer; nor could the radical historicization of all human qualities survive the onslaught of a revived and extremely aggressive biological determinism backed by corporate ...
Chiang, C.L., Competition and other interactions between species, in O. Kempthorne, T.A. Bancroft, J.W. Gowen, and J.L. Lusk, editors, Statistics and Mathematics in Biology, Iowa State College Press, Ames, Iowa, 1954, pp. 197-215.Google Scholar ...
In actual chess playing programs the program "considers" individual moves and "works out" the consequences of each move. This is a rather high level description of the calculation that is done, but it is fair to say that the program "considers options" and "evaluates consequences". When I say, as a human being, that I have to choose between two options, and that I have not decided yet, this seems no different to me from the situation of a chess playing computer before it has finished its calculation. The computers move is determined - it is a deterministic process - and yet it still has "options". To say "the computer could move pawn to king four" is true provided that we interpret "could do x" as "it is a legal option for the computer to do x".... A chess playing program shows that a determined system can have free will, i.e., can have options. So free will (having options) is compatible with determinism and there is no conflict ...