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Read Genomic structure, cDNA mapping, and chromosomal localization of the mouse homeobox gene, Hex, Mammalian Genome on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of HOX gene expression patterns in human breast cancer. AU - Hur, Ho. AU - Lee, Ji Yeon. AU - Yun, Hyo Jung. AU - Park, Byeong Woo. AU - Kim, Myoung Hee. PY - 2014/1. Y1 - 2014/1. N2 - HOX genes are highly conserved transcription factors that determine the identity of cells and tissues along the anterior-posterior body axis in developing embryos. Aberrations in HOX gene expression have been shown in various tumors. However, the correlation of HOX gene expression patterns with tumorigenesis and cancer progression has not been fully characterized. Here, to analyze putative candidate HOX genes involved in breast cancer tumorigenesis and progression, the expression patterns of 39 HOX genes were analyzed using breast cancer cell lines and patient-derived breast tissues. In vitro analysis revealed that HOXA and HOXB gene expression occurred in a subtype-specific manner in breast cancer cell lines, whereas most HOXC genes were strongly expressed in most cell lines. Among the 39 ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Molecular Sequence Data ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Molecular Sequence Data Subjects RNA, Messenger ✖Remove constraint Subjects: RNA, Messenger Genre Articles ✖Remove constraint Genre: Articles Titles Murine Hox-1.11 Homeobox Gene Structure and Expression ✖Remove constraint Titles: Murine Hox-1.11 Homeobox Gene Structure and Expression Dates by Range 1950-1999 ✖Remove constraint Dates by Range: 1950-1999 ...
Ultrabithorax (Ubx) is a Drosophila homeotic gene that determines the segmental identities of parts of the thorax and abdomen. Appropriate Ubx transcription requires a long upstream control region (UCR) that is defined genetically by the bithoraxoid (bxd) and postbithorax (pbx) subfunction mutations. We have directly analyzed UCR functions by the examination of beta-galactosidase expression in flies containing Ubx-lacZ fusion genes. 35 kb of UCR DNA confers upon beta-galactosidase an expression pattern that closely parallels normal Ubx expression throughout development. In contrast, 22 kb of UCR DNA confers fewer features of normal Ubx expression, and with 5 kb of UCR DNA the expression pattern has no resemblance to Ubx expression except in the visceral mesoderm. We have also shown that bxd chromosome breakpoint mutants form a comparable 5′ deletion series in which the severity of the effect on Ubx expression correlates with the amount of upstream DNA remaining in the mutant. In Ubx-lacZ ...
PubMed journal article: Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling Improves Endometrial Homeobox Gene Expression in PCOS. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
A Xenopus laevis homeobox gene, Xhox3, has been isolated using the homeobox of the Drosophila pair-rule gene even skipped as a hybridization probe. Xhox3 is first transcribed at the midblastula transition; RNA levels peak at the early neurula stage and decrease thereafter. During the early period of Xhox3 expression, the gastrula and neurula stages, transcripts are found in a graded fashion along the anteroposterior (A-P) axis in the mesoderm and are most concentrated at the posterior pole. In the late period of expression, the tailbud and tadpole stage, transcripts are concentrated at the two ends of the embryo: in the anterior nervous system and posterior tail bud. Analysis of Xhox3 expression in experimentally perturbed embryos shows that different A-P fates in the mesoderm are correlated with different levels of Xhox3 expression. Based on these results and those with other frog homeobox genes, we propose a role for homeobox genes in the patterning of the A-P embryonic axis.. ...
Homeobox genes are transcription factors primarily involved in embryonic development. Several homeobox gene families have so far been identified: Hox, EMX, PAX, MSX as well as many isolated divergent homeobox genes. Among these, Hox genes are most intriguing for having a regulatory network structure …
The amino acid sequence of the Muscle segment homeobox (MSH) homeodomain is highly homologous to the homeodomains of the Drosophila s59/NK1 and empty spiracles genes and the Hox 7 and Hox 8 family of vertebrate homeobox genes. In addition, the 5 end of MSH has 52% sequence identity to the 5 end of the Empty spiracles protein, encoding several stretches of amino acids rich in serine, alanine, proline, glutamine, and acidic amino acids, and thus indicating potential domains of regulatory activity (Lord, 1995). The conservation of developmental functions exerted by Antp-class homeoproteins in protostomes and deuterostomes has suggested that homologs with related functions are present in diploblastic animals, in particular, in Hydra. Phylogenetic analyses show that Antp-class homeodomains belong either to non-Hox or to Hox/paraHox families. See Phylogenetic relationships among 200 Antp-class genes. Among the 13 non-Hox families, 9 reported here have diploblastic homologs: Msx, Emx, Barx, Evx, Tlx, ...
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The CERS (or LASS) homeobox gene class is highly unusual and encodes proteins that seem to be transmembrane in nature (Mizutani and Kihara 2005; Pewzner-Jung et al. 2006). The function of the homeodomain in these proteins is unknown. There are six CERS (ceramide synthase) genes in the human genome, but only five of these include a homeobox sequence and are therefore included in the CERS homeobox gene class (Holland et al. 2007). Amphioxus has a single CERS homeobox gene ...
The CERS (or LASS) homeobox gene class is highly unusual and encodes proteins that seem to be transmembrane in nature (Mizutani and Kihara 2005; Pewzner-Jung et al. 2006). The function of the homeodomain in these proteins is unknown. There are six CERS (ceramide synthase) genes in the human genome, but only five of these include a homeobox sequence and are therefore included in the CERS homeobox gene class (Holland et al. 2007). Amphioxus has a single CERS homeobox gene ...
J:31312 Davis CA, Noble-Topham SE, Rossant J, Joyner AL, Expression of the homeo box-containing gene En-2 delineates a specific region of the developing mouse brain. Genes Dev. 1988 Mar;2(3):361-71 ...
The transcription factor HB9, encoded by the homeobox gene B9 (is recurrently rearranged in young children with acute myeloid leukemia characterized by a chromosomal translocation t(7;12)-and concomitant high expression of the unrearranged, wild-type allele. (motor neuron and pancreas homeobox 1) belongs to the family of homeobox genes and is usually located on chromosome 7q36 (1). It is usually composed of three exons comprising 1206 bp and encodes the 401-amino acid transcription factor HB9. The homeobox encodes for the homeodomain, a well explained DNA-binding domain name in many transcription factors. The homeodomain is usually structured in three helices, which are involved in DNA conversation (2), and is usually highly homologous to a homeodomain consensus sequence (1). HB9 harbors a polyalanine stretch (16) and two glycine stretches (7 and 5) as additional Plau structural features, but a functional impact on DNA-binding or gene rules has not been experimentally shown yet. In mice, HB9 is ...
Mouse Hox 1.11 homeobox DNA was cloned and sequenced. Hox 1.11 poly A+ RNA is expressed in 12 to 14 day-old mouse embryos in the hind brain up to, but not including, the pons. Hox 1.11 poly A+ RNA also was expressed in the spinal cord, the VIIth and VIIIth cranial ganglia, spinal ganglia, larynx, lungs, vertebrae, sternum, and intestine. A mouse homeobox gene, mNK-1, was cloned and approximately 5.2 kb of DNA was sequenced. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the mouse and Drosophila NK-1 revealed 95% homology. Hox 4.1 cDNA and genomic DNA were cloned and sequenced; comparison of Hox 4.1 and Hox 2.7 proteins revealed 59% homology. Hox 4.9 also was cloned and partially sequenced. Four Pou-domain genes expressed in embryonic and adult mouse brain were cloned and sequenced: Brain-1, Brain-2, Brain-4, and Scip. Similar amino acid sequences were found in various regions of the proteins. No introns were detected in the coding regions of the 4 Pou-domain genes which suggests that the genes ...
Start Over You searched for: Formats Text ✖Remove constraint Formats: Text Subjects Amino Acid Sequence ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Amino Acid Sequence Subjects Molecular Sequence Data ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Molecular Sequence Data Titles Hox-1.11 and Hox-4.9 Homeobox Genes ✖Remove constraint Titles: Hox-1.11 and Hox-4.9 Homeobox Genes Publication Year 1992 ✖Remove constraint Publication Year: 1992 ...
Abstract-Homeodomain-containing transcription factors are critical in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration, and they play an important role in organogenesis and pattern formation during embryogenesis. There is evidence that some of them are oncogenes or tumor suppressors. The cardiovascular system undergoes extensive remodeling during embryogenesis and disease states such as atherosclerosis and tumor-induced angiogenesis, and homeobox genes may play an important role in regulating these processes. Recently, homeobox genes have been detected in both vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and they are implicated in pathological processes such as arterial restenosis after balloon angioplasty and tumor-induced angiogenesis. The cellular function of some of these genes is beginning to be elucidated. Therefore, we briefly review what is currently known about the involvement of homeobox transcription factors in both physiological and pathological vascular ...
Gellon, G., et al. (1997). A genetic screen for modifiers of Deformed homeotic function identifies novel genes required for head development. Development 124(17): 3321-3331 Gerasimova, T. I. and Corces, V. G. (1998). Polycomb and trithorax group proteins mediate the function of a chromatin insulator. Cell 92(4): 511-521 Gindhart, J. G. and Kaufman, T. C. (1995a). Identification of Polycomb and trithorax group responsive elements in the regulatory region of the Drosophila homeotic gene Sex combs reduced. Genetics 139: 797-814 Gindhart, J. G., Jr., King, A. N. and Kaufman, T. C. (1995b). Characterization of the cis-regulatory region of the Drosophila homeotic gene Sex combs reduced. Genetics 139: 781-795. 7713432 Gleason, J. E., Korswagen, H. C. and Eisenmann, D. M. (2002). Activation of Wnt signaling bypasses the requirement for RTK/Ras signaling during C. elegans vulval induction. Genes Dev. 16: 1281-1290. 12023306 Gonzalez-Reyes, A., Macias, A. and Morata, G. (1992). Autocatalysis and ...
Homeobox protein Meis1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MEIS1 gene. Homeobox genes, of which the most well-characterized category is represented by the HOX genes, play a crucial role in normal development. In addition, several homeoproteins are involved in neoplasia. This gene encodes a homeobox protein belonging to the TALE (three amino acid loop extension) family of homeodomain-containing proteins. MEIS1 has been shown to interact with PBX1 and HOXA9. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000143995 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Moskow JJ, Bullrich F, Huebner K, Daar IO, Buchberg AM (Oct 1995). Meis1, a PBX1-related homeobox gene involved in myeloid leukemia in BXH-2 mice. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 15 (10): 5434-43. PMC 230793 . PMID 7565694. Entrez Gene: MEIS1 Meis homeobox 1. Shen WF, Rozenfeld S, Kwong A, Köm ves LG, Lawrence HJ, Largman C (Apr 1999). HOXA9 forms triple complexes with PBX2 and MEIS1 in myeloid cells. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 19 ...
There are several subsets of homeotic genes. They include many of the Hox and ParaHox genes that are important for segmentation.[5] Hox genes are found in bilateral animals, including Drosophila (in which they were first discovered) and humans. Hox genes are a subset of the homeobox genes. The Hox genes are often conserved across species, so some of the Hox genes of Drosophila are homologous to those in humans. In general, Hox genes play a role of regulating expression of genes as well as aiding in development and assignment of specific structures during embryonic growth. This can range from segmentation in Drosophila to central nervous system (CNS) development in vertebrates.[6] Both Hox and ParaHox are grouped as HOX-Like (HOXL) genes, a subset of the ANTP class (named after the Drosophila gene, Antennapedia).[7] They also include the MADS-box-containing genes involved in the ABC model of flower development.[8] Besides flower-producing plants, the MADS-box motif is also present in other ...
Gene product distribution is often used to infer developmental similarities and differences in animals with evolutionarily diverse body plans. However, to address commonalties of developmental mechanisms, what is really needed is a method to assess and compare gene function in divergent organisms. This requires mutations eliminating gene function. Such mutations are often difficult to obtain, even in organisms amenable to genetic analysis. To address this issue we have investigated the use of double-stranded RNA interference to phenocopy null mutations. We show that RNA interference can be used to phenocopy mutations of the Deformed orthologues in Drosophila and Tribolium. We discuss the possible use of this technique for comparisons of developmental mechanisms in organisms with differing ontogenies. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spatially regulated expression of homeotic genes in Drosophila. AU - Harding, Katherine. AU - Wedeen, Cathy. AU - McGinnis, William. AU - Levine, Michael. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - The sites of transcript accumulation for six different homeotic loci of the Antennapedia and bithorax gene complexes (ANT-C and BX-C) were identified within embryo tissue sections by in situ hybridization. These six loci belong to the Antennapedia class of the homeo box gene family. Transcripts encoded by each locus are detected primarily in discrete, nonoverlapping regions of the embryonic central nervous system (CNS). The regions of the CNS that contain transcripts encoded by each of these loci correspond to the embryonic segments that are disrupted in mutants for these genes. The maintenance of spatially restricted expression of each ANT-C and BX-C locus could involve hierarchical, cross-regulatory interactions that are mediated by the homeo box protein domains encoded by these ...
Ben Abdelkhalek, H.; Beckers, A.; Schuster-Gossler, K.; Pavlova, M. N.; Burkhardt, H.; Lickert, H.; Rossant, J.; Reinhardt, R.; Schalkwyk, L. C.; Mueller, I. et al.; Herrmann, B. G.; Ceolin, M.; Rivera-Pomar, R.; Gossler, A.: The mouse homeobox gene Not is required for caudal notochord development and affected by the truncate mutation. Genes and Development 18 (14), doi:10.1101/gad.303504, S. 1725 - 1736 (2004 ...
sine oculis homeobox homolog 6 (Drosophila), sine oculis homeobox (Drosophila) homolog 6, Sine oculis homeobox homolog 6, Homeodomain protein OPTX2, Six9, Homeobox protein SIX6, MCOPCT2, Optic homeobox 2, OPTX2, SIX9, SIX6 ...
Brd2 is a member of the bromodomain-containing BET family of transcriptional co-regulators and is known to induce or repress transcription. The Drosophila homolog fs(1)h is known to control homeotic gene expression during development. In zebrafish, reduced levels of Brd2 result in morphological abno.... Full description. ...
Genetic patterning of ectoderm and endoderm in amphioxus: from homeobox genes to hormones. In: Advances in Comparative Endocrinology (ed. S. Kawashima and S. Kikuyama ...
The gut of vertebrates exhibits a common anteroposterior regional differentiation. The role of homeobox genes in establishing this pattern is inferred by their sites of expression. It is suggested that the primary source of positional information is in the endoderm, which subsequently establishes a dialogue with the surrounding visceral layer of the lateral plate mesoderm. This results in the anatomical and physiological specialization of the adult gut ...
INTRODUCTION: SUM-6 is a human homeobox gene that encodes for a transcription factor, which plays a key role in normal embryogenesis. Overexpression of both the gene and nuclear protein has been shown to occur in a variety of cancers such as breast, colorectal, and pancreatic, and has been demonstrated to promote tumorigenesis. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the expression of the SUM-6 protein, its clinical relevance, and biological function in melanoma.. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES: Immunohistochemistry using a specific SUM-6 antibody was performed on a tissue microarray consisting of 438 patient biopsies, which included benign and malignant melanocytic tumors. Double-blinded scoring of distinct nuclear and cytoplasmic SUM-6 staining was performed. SPSS 16.0 statistical package and Microsoft Excel were used to carry out the analyses of data. Analyses included the χ2 test and univariate analysis by the log-rank test in conjunction with the Kaplan-Meier survival curve for ...
This gene is a member of the Antp homeobox family and encodes a nuclear protein with a homeobox DNA-binding domain. It is included in a cluster of homeobox B genes located on chromosome 17. The encoded protein functions as a sequence-specific transcription factor that is involved in development. Increased expression of this gene is associated with a distinct biologic subset of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Spalt encodes an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger protein of novel structure which provides homeotic gene function in the head and tail region of the Drosophila embryo. ...
Homeobox (HOX) genes are contributed in the genetic control of development of the body plan, pattern formation, and cell fate determination and the other several key developmental processes. HOX genes are also known as selector genes because expression within a given section of the embryo will cause its cells to choose ...
Shop BarH-like 2 homeobox protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and BarH-like 2 homeobox protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
The vertebrate Six genes are homologues of the Drosophila homeobox gene sine oculis (so), which is essential for development of… Expand ...
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edit this panel. Genetics: the new craze in drugs? Check out this interesting article using genetically altered goats to produce medications, now approved by the FDA!. ...
Homeobox genes of the ANTP and PRD classes play important roles in body patterning of metazoans, and a large diversity of these genes have been described in bilaterian animals and cnidarians. Trichoplax adhaerens (Phylum Placozoa) is a small multicellular marine animal with one of the simplest body organizations of all metazoans, showing no symmetry and a small number of distinct cell types. Only two ANTP class genes have been described from Trichoplax: the Hox/ParaHox gene Trox-2 and a gene related to the Not family. Here we report an extensive screen for ANTP class genes in Trichoplax, leading to isolation of three additional ANTP class genes. These can be assigned to the Dlx, Mnx and Hmx gene families. Sequencing approximately 12-20 kb around each gene indicates that none are part of tight gene clusters, and in situ hybridization reveals that at least two have spatially restricted expression around the periphery of the animal. The low diversity of ANTP class genes isolated in Trichoplax can be
Sloths are one of only two exceptions to the mammalian rule of seven vertebrae in the neck. As a striking case of breaking the evolutionary constraint, the explanation for the exceptional number of cervical vertebrae in sloths is still under debate. Two diverging hypotheses, both ultimately linked to the low metabolic rate of sloths, have been proposed: hypothesis 1 involves morphological transformation of vertebrae due to changes in the Hox gene expression pattern and hypothesis 2 assumes that the Hox gene expression pattern is not altered and the identity of the vertebrae is not changed. Direct evidence supporting either hypothesis would involve knowledge of the vertebral Hox code in sloths, but the realization of such studies is extremely limited. Here, on the basis of the previously established correlation between anterior Hox gene expression and the quantifiable vertebral shape, we present the morphological regionalization of the neck in three different species of sloths with aberrant cervical
We investigated the function of Lhx2, a LIM homeobox gene expressed in developing B-cells, forebrain and neural retina, by analyzing embryos deficient in functional Lhx2 protein. Lhx2 mutant embryos are anophthalmic, have malformations of the cerebral cortex, and die in utero due to severe anemia. In Lhx2−/− embryos specification of the optic vesicle occurs; however, development of the eye arrests prior to formation of an optic cup. Deficient cellular proliferation in the forebrain results in hypoplasia of the neocortex and aplasia of the hippocampal anlagen. In addition to the central nervous system malformations, a cell non-autonomous defect of definitive erythropoiesis causes severe anemia in Lhx2−/− embryos. Thus Lhx2 is necessary for normal development of the eye, cerebral cortex, and efficient definitive erythropoiesis. ...
Drosophila Antennapedia Homeo-Domain (43-58) - Calbiochem The membrane translocation signal sequence from Drosophila Antennapedia homeo-domain (43-58) that is reported to act as an inhibitor of protein kinase G Iα (Ki = 970 nM). - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
This gene belongs to the homeobox family of genes. The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in all multicellular organisms. Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene clusters, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, which are located on different chromosomes and consist of 9 to 11 genes arranged in tandem. This gene is one of several homeobox HOXC genes located in a cluster on chromosome 12. The product of this gene binds to a promoter element of the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. It also may play a role in early intestinal development. An alternatively spliced variant encoding a shorter isoform has been described but its full-length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The homeobox gene knotted1 (kn1) was first isolated by transposon tagging a dominant leaf mutant in maize. Related maize genes, isolated by virtue of sequence conservation within the homeobox, fall into two classes based on sequence similarity and expression patterns. Here, we report the characterization of two genes, KNAT1 and KNAT2 (for knotted-like from Arabidopsis thaliana) that were cloned from Arabidopsis using the kn1 homeobox as a heterologous probe. The homeodomains of KNAT1 and KNAT2 are very similar to the homeodomains of proteins encoded by class 1 maize genes, ranging from 78 to 95% amino acid identity. Overall, the deduced KNAT1 and KNAT2 proteins share amino acid identities of 53 and 40%, respectively, with the KN1 protein. Intron positions are also fairly well conserved among KNAT1, KNAT2, and kn1. Based on in situ hybridization analysis, the expression pattern of KNAT1 during vegetative development is similar to that of class 1 maize genes. In the shoot apex, KNAT1 transcript is ...
Hox genes encode evolutionarily conserved transcription factors involved in the specification of segmental identity during embryonic development. This specification of identity is thought to be directed by differential Hox gene action, based on differential spatiotemporal expression patterns, protein sequence differences, interactions with co-factors and regulation of specific downstream genes. During embryonic development of the Drosophila brain, the Hox gene labial is required for the regionalized specification of the tritocerebral neuromere; in the absence of labial, the cells in this brain region do not acquire a neuronal identity and major axonal pathfinding deficits result. We have used genetic rescue experiments to investigate the functional equivalence of the Drosophila Hox gene products in the specification of the tritocerebral neuromere. Using the Gal4-UAS system, we first demonstrate that the labial mutant brain phenotype can be rescued by targeted expression of the Labial protein ...
Homeobox protein Hox-D8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD8 gene.[5][6][7] This gene belongs to the homeobox family of genes. The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in all multicellular organisms. Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene clusters, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, located on different chromosomes, consisting of 9 to 11 genes arranged in tandem. This gene is one of several homeobox HOXD genes located in a cluster on chromosome 2. Deletions that remove the entire HOXD gene cluster or the 5 end of this cluster have been associated with severe limb and genital abnormalities. In addition to effects during embryogenesis, this particular gene may also play a role in adult urogenital tract function.[7] ...
The Dlx homeobox gene family is expressed in a complex pattern within the embryonic craniofacial ectoderm and ectomesenchyme. A previous study established that Dlx-2 is essential for development of proximal regions of the murine first and second branchial arches. Here we describe the craniofacial ph …
Appropriate specification of body axes during development requires the precise control of a co-ordinated system of positional cues. How this is achieved by the diverse members of the animal kingdom has been the subject of much research and more speculation for many years. Significant progress came from the discovery of mutations in the Hox family of homeobox genes in Drosophila, where each Hox gene is expressed in a discrete domain along the anteroposterior (AP) axis, its activity confering a distinct identity on that region. Loss of function of a particular Hox gene leads to a predictable change in identity of the region in which the Hox gene was expressed. Defined as homeotic transformation, these findings clearly identified Hox genes as key regulators of positional identity [1-3].. Hox genes code for transcriptional regulators with a highly conserved 180 base-pair homeobox sequence that encodes a 60 amino acid DNA binding domain known as the homeodomain [4-6]. In Drosophila, the Hox genes ...
Buy Anti-Nkx3.1 (Nkx-3.1, BAPX2, Homeobox protein Nkx3.1, Homeobox Protein Nkx-3.1, NK Homeobox (Drosoph, item number: N2850-30K.100 from United States Biological at Biomol!
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States. The high lethality of EOCs stems from rapid peritoneal involvement. EOCs frequently colonize peritoneal surfaces that overlie connective and adipose tissues. However, the mechanisms that enable ovarian cancer cells to readily adapt to the peritoneal environment are poorly understood. HOXA9, a homeobox gene that is normally expressed in the developing female reproductive tract, is aberrantly expressed in EOCs and controls the morphologic features of these tumors. The differentiation pattern of a tumor is an important determinant of its clinical behavior and prognosis. The overall goal of this project is to determine the clinical significance of HOXA9 and its mechanisms in the biological behavior of EOC. In this study, I demonstrated that expression of HOXA9 is strongly associated with poor outcomes in EOC patients and in mouse xenograft models of EOC. Whereas HOXA9 promoted EOC growth in vivo,
Hox transcription factors are extensively investigated in diverse fields of molecular and evolutionary biology. Hox genes belong to the family of homeobox transcription factors characterised by a 60 amino acids region called homeodomain. These genes are evolutionary conserved and play crucial roles in the development of animals. In particular, they are involved in the specification of segmental identity, and in the tetrapod limb differentiation. In vertebrates, this family of genes can be divided into 14 groups of homology. Common methods to classify Hox proteins focus on the homeodomain. Classification is however hampered by the high conservation of this short domain. Since phylogenetic tree reconstruction is time-consuming, it is not suitable to classify the growing number of Hox sequences. The first goal of this thesis is therefore to design an automated approach to classify vertebrate Hox proteins in their groups of homology. This approach classifies Hox proteins on the basis of their scores ...
HOXC6 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_004494), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene belongs to the homeobox family, members of which encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in all multicellular organisms. Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene clusters, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, which are located on different chromosomes and consist of 9 to 11 genes arranged in tandem. This gene, HOXC6, is one of several HOXC genes located in a cluster on chromosome 12. Three genes, HOXC5, HOXC4 and HOXC6, share a 5 non-coding exon. Transcripts may include the shared exon spliced to the gene-specific exons, or they may include only the gene-specific exons. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for HOXC6.
Hox genes are the homologues of the homeobox‐containing genes in the homeotic complex (HOM‐C) of the fruit fly Drosophila and encode transcription factors that play crucial roles in determining positional identity along the anterior-posterior body axis during animal development
First, the model proposes EXD as a required co‐activator for most HOX target elements. All known elements activated in response to HOX proteins also require exd function (Chan et al., 1994, 1996; Rauskolb and Wieschaus, 1994; Popperl et al., 1995; Sun et al., 1995). Based on the phenotypes of exdmz− mutants and of clones of exd mutant cells in adult cuticular structures (Peifer and Wieschaus, 1990; Gonzalez‐Crespo and Morata, 1995; Rauskolb et al., 1995), it seems likely that a great many other HOX target elements also require exd for their activation. The only HOX protein that appears to have some exd‐independent activation function is ABD‐B (Peifer and Wieschaus, 1990). This correlates with the absence of a YPWM motif just upstream of the ABD‐B homeodomain sequence. The YPWM or hexapeptide motif is required for the formation of HOX-EXD or HOX-PBX cooperative binding complexes (Chang et al., 1995; Johnson et al., 1995; Knoepfler and Kamps, 1995; Neuteboom et al., 1995; Phelan et ...
Our laboratory uses genomics and molecular biology techniques to carry out research in Human Genetics. Overall, there is a strong -long standing- interest in Complement genetics. Since 1983, our laboratory has been involved in the study of the genetics and function of the proteins that regulate the complement system. We described in 1986 the human Regulators of Complement Activation (RCA) gene cluster in chromosome 1q32 and subsequently provided most of our current understanding of the genomic organization of this region of the human genome. Recent work in this area has focussed on the study of the role of RCA proteins in susceptibility to renal and ocular disorders.. Additional contributions of our laboratory to the field of Human Genetics include: The cloning of the gene responsible for alkaptonuria (AKU) and the complete characterization of the molecular, structural and epidemiological basis of this disease; The cloning of the human homeobox gene SIX6 as a gene responsible for anophtalmia ...
The onset of pancreas development in the foregut endoderm is marked by activation from the homeobox gene (expression continues to be only partially elucidated. cell differentiation and an arrest on the primitive duct stage. Evaluating their comparative developmental activity we discover that Foxa2 may be the main regulator to advertise pancreas advancement and cell MK-0457 differentiation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitations (ChIP) and ChIP sequencing (ChIPSeq) of MK-0457 fetal pancreas and islet chromatin we demonstrate that Foxa1 and Foxa2 mostly take up a distal enhancer at ?6.4 kb in accordance with the transcriptional begin site in the gene. Furthermore occupancy from the well-characterized proximal enhancer by Foxa2 and Foxa1 is developmental stage-dependent. Thus the legislation of appearance by Foxa1 and Foxa2 is normally an integral early event managing the extension and differentiation from the pancreatic primordia. ablation causes pancreatic agenesis (Jonsson et al. 1994; Offield et ...
Cux2 refines forelimb field by controlling Raldh2 and Hox expression.Cux2 refines forelimb field by controlling Raldh2 and Hox expression. ...
During development, expression of the Hoxa and Hoxd genes in zebrafish fins and mouse limbs are regulated via a conserved chromatin structure. However, zebrafish lack certain regulatory elements required to produce digits, revealing that radials-the fins bony elements-are likely not homologous to tetrapod digits.
Hox genes encode a family of transcriptional regulators that elicit distinct developmental programmes along the head-to-tail axis of animals. The specific regional functions of individual Hox genes largely reflect their restricted expression patterns, the disruption of which can lead to developmental defects and disease. Here, we examine the spectrum of molecular mechanisms controlling Hox gene expression in model vertebrates and invertebrates and find that a diverse range of mechanisms, including nuclear dynamics, RNA processing, microRNA and translational regulation, all concur to control Hox gene outputs. We propose that this complex multi-tiered regulation might contribute to the robustness of Hox expression during development.. ...
Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Homeobox (Hox) genes are critical regulators of rostro-caudal patterning in the embryo. Mutations in homeobox genes can lead to homeotic transformations. Which ONE of the following statements about Hox genes is CORRECT?. ...
In rice, the flower consists of the pistil, six stamens, and two lodicules and is enclosed in the lemma and palea. The genetic orchestration of floral differentiation has been elaborated to some degree in several angiosperms, including rice, and many of the key homeotic genes that directly underlie floral development prove to encode transcription factors of the MADS box type. On pages 871-884 of this issue, Jeon et al. analyze the results of impairment in the function of the OsMADS1 gene, a rice MADS box gene. Interestingly, the mutant phenotype resembles the leafy hull sterile1 (lhs1) mutant, and the authors verify the lhs1 individuals to result from homeotic mutation of the OsMADS1 gene. The cover shows the phenotypes of the wild-type (upper left) and lhs1 (lower right) panicles. The scanning electron micrograph (boxed) shows that the mutant lhs1 spikelets can be associated with elongated lodicules, a decrease in stamen number, and an additional floret. The mutated MADS box gene in rice thus ...
Just as Hox genes regulate realisator genes, they are in turn regulated themselves by gap genes and pair-rule genes, which are in their turn regulated by maternally-supplied mRNA. This results in a transcription factor cascade: maternal factors activate gap or pair-rule genes; gap and pair-rule genes activate Hox genes; then, finally, Hox genes activate realisator genes that cause the segments in the developing embryo to differentiate. Regulation is achieved via protein concentration gradients, called morphogenic fields. For example, high concentrations of one maternal protein and low concentrations of others will turn on a specific set of gap or pair-rule genes. In flies, stripe 2 in the embryo is activated by the maternal proteins Bicoid and Hunchback, but repressed by the gap proteins Giant and Kruppel. Thus, stripe 2 will only form wherever there is Bicoid and Hunchback, but not where there is Giant and Kruppel.[21]. MicroRNA strands located in Hox clusters have been shown to inhibit more ...
This annual report details the main project undertaken by the Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics from the mid-1970s through the 1990s--Cell Recognition and Synapse Formation. Topics include major findings, significance of results, and publications. A detailed summary of work in the laboratory is included. Also of particular interest is the description of the cloning and partial sequencing of four new Drosophila Homeobox genes ...
Consistent with the concept of combinatorial interaction of gene regulatory factors, the coupling of gene regulatory factors to specific effector outputs is not conserved in individual cell types. For example, the lim-6 homeobox gene regulates the expression of the GABA synthesizing enzyme unc-25 and the glutamate receptor glr-1 in the RIS interneuron, but, although expressed in the RME motorneurons, it does not regulate the expression of either gene in this cell type (Tsalik et al., 2003). Other examples are the ttx-3 and ceh-23 homeobox genes whose expression overlaps in both AIY and ADL; ttx-3 regulates ceh-23 in AIY, but not in ADL (Altun-Gultekin et al., 2001). From the perspective of terminal differentiation genes (e.g., unc-25, glr-1), one can therefore conclude that rather than being under control of a common regulatory factor in different cell types, they are under control of cell-type specific combinations of gene regulatory factors. The principle of combinatorial coding also ...
Homeobox: | | | Homeobox domain | | | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
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Dr. Young is primarily interested in the mechanisms and treatments of normal and abnormal wound healing. He is Principal Investigator on a study pertaining to the role of heat shock proteins, homeobox genes, and hypoxia in cutaneous wound healing.. The effects of manipulating of hypoxia inducible proteins, homeobox genes, and heat shock proteins in wound repair are presently under investigation. In vitro and in vivo models of wound repair are used to study the effects of induction and blockage of these proteins on normal and abnormal healing. Expression of many of these proteins is altered in conditions of poor wound healing as found in patients with diabetes.. Dr. Young hopes to understand how these proteins interact during wound healing and to develop novel methods to improve healing. Dr. Youngs research is conducted in the UCSF Surgical Research Laboratory at SFGH. The research is currently funded by a RO-1 grant Diabetes, Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1, and Delayed Wound Healing from the ...
In vertebrates, the genes encoding the class of transcription factors called homeobox genes are found in clusters named A, B, C, and D on four…
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Iroquois homeobox protein 3 antibody [EPR12124] validated for WB, Flow Cyt and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 2…
This is the first systemic report on the expression of 39 HOX genes in both noncancerous esophageal mucosa and in ESCC. In noncancerous mucosa, we found that 5 of 39 HOX genes (HOXA2, HOXA7, HOXA9, HOXC6, and HOXC9) were expressed, and others were not detectable in our study. Three of these five expressed HOX genes (HOXA7, HOXA9, and HOXC6) were also expressed in ESCC, and the expression level is significantly lower in noncancerous mucosa than in cancer tissue. It is widely accepted that HOX genes play a crucial role as molecular address labels in early embryogenesis by conferring cell fate and establishing regional identity in tissues. However, HOX gene expression is not restricted to early development but also observed in differentiated cells of adult tissues. To better understand the functionality of HOX gene expression in adult tissues in physiologic and pathologic phenomena, and the potential role in pathogenesis, it is important to determine the expression profiles of HOX genes in specific ...
pulsating : Calc., kali-c., lyc., sep., sil., sulph.. --- sensitive (See Sore). ++ shooting : Bov., Nat-m.. ++ sore : sc., agar., ambr., ant-c., arn., bar-c., bry., calc-s., calc., camph., Carb-an., fl-ac., graph., hep., Ign., lith., Lyc., med., nat-c., nat-p., nux-v., petr., phos., puls., ran-b., ran-s., rhus-t., sep., Sil., spig., sulph., thu., verat.. ++ stinging : Agar., Alum., am-c., ant-c., bar-c., bor., bov., Bry., calad., Calc-s., Calc., carb-an., caust., hep., ign., kali-c., lyc., mag-m., Nat-c., Nat-m., nat-p., petr., ph-ac., phos., ptel., puls., ran-s., rhod., Rhus-t., rumx., sep., sil., staph., sul-ac., Sulph., thu., verat.. ++ tearing : Am-c., arn., bry., calc-s., calc., cocc., kali-c., Lyc., sep., Sil., sul-ac., Sulph., thu.. ++ Heel : Phos.. ++ Soles horny : Ant-c., ars., calc., kali-ar., sil.. ...
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improved in situ hybridization method for the detection of cellular RNAs in Drosophila tissue sections and its application for localizing transcripts of the homeotic Antennapedia gene complex., An ...
Complete information for PRRX2 gene (Protein Coding), Paired Related Homeobox 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium