A known 40 kbp bacteriophage insertion [2586000-2626000] is, surprisingly, not among the genomic fragments selected in the SWGB using this filter. Although the prophage is still perceptible on the Gene Map view (see a figure in the supplementary help web-pages), the OU parameters of the region do not differ markedly enough from the core sequence to be isolated automatically as a horizontally transferred region.. As the SWGB uses parameters that are based on comparison of local fragments to the global genomic average, strains with abundant insertions of homogenous DNA can confound this form of analysis. One example is the Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A genome which is composed of an estimated 25% of putatively horizontally acquired DNA, one of the highest amounts discovered to date [11]. As a result of these insertions, the genomic signature has been strongly influenced, resulting in a large amount of scatter and a poorly defined core genome on the plots. On the other hand, this type of ...
Eight of Fourteen gvp Genes Are Sufficient for Formation of Gas Vesicles in Halophilic Archaea: The minimal number of genes required for the formation of gas ve
Methanococcus maripaludis ATCC ® BAA-1332D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Methanococcus maripaludis strain C6 TypeStrain=False Application:
Methanococcus maripaludis ATCC ® BAA-1331D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Methanococcus maripaludis strain C7 TypeStrain=False Application:
Methanogenesis, the biological production of methane, plays a pivotal role in the global carbon cycle and contributes significantly to global warming. The majority of methane in nature is derived from acetate. Here we report the complete genome sequence of an acetate-utilizing methanogen, Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A. Methanosarcineae are the most metabolically diverse methanogens, thrive in a broad range of environments, and are unique among the Archaea in forming complex multicellular structures. This diversity is reflected in the genome of M. acetivorans. At 5,751,492 base pairs it is by far the largest known archaeal genome. The 4524 open reading frames code for a strikingly wide and unanticipated variety of metabolic and cellular capabilities. The presence of novel methyltransferases indicates the likelihood of undiscovered natural energy sources for methanogenesis, whereas the presence of single-subunit carbon monoxide dehydrogenases raises the possibility of nonmethanogenic growth. ...
The factors controlling the relative abundances of Archaea and Bacteria in marine sediments are poorly understood. We determined depth distributions of archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes by quantitative PCR at eight stations in Aarhus Bay, Denmark. Bacterial outnumber archaeal genes 10-60-fold in uppermost sediments that are irrigated and mixed by macrofauna. This bioturbation is indicated by visual observations of sediment color and faunal tracks, by porewater profiles of dissolved inorganic carbon and sulfate, and by distributions of unsupported 210Pb and 137Cs. Below the depth of bioturbation, the relative abundances of archaeal genes increase, accounting for one third of 16S rRNA genes in the sulfate zone, and half of 16S rRNA genes in the sulfate-methane transition zone and methane zone. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a strong shift in bacterial and archaeal community structure from bioturbated sediments to underlying layers. Stable isotopic analyses on organic matter and porewater ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51JgzulwPHL._SL160_PIsitb-sticker-arrow-dp,TopRight,12,-18_SH30_OU01_.jpg|/div|Archaea Dain White (Author) http://g-ecx.images-amazon.com/images/G/01/detail/stars-4-0._V192261413_.gif(30) Download: $0.00 (Visit the Top Free in Action & Adventure
While ubiquitous among Archaea, and common in bacteria, the S-layers of diverse organisms have unique structural properties, including symmetry and unit cell dimensions, due to fundamental differences in their constituent building blocks.[14] Sequence analyses of S-layer proteins have predicted that S-layer proteins have sizes of 40-200 kDa and may be composed of multiple domains some of which may be structurally related. Since the first evidence of a macromolecular array on a bacterial cell wall fragment in the 1950s[15] S-layer structure has been investigated extensively by electron microscopy and medium resolution images of S-layers from these analyses has provided useful information on overall S-layer morphology. High-resolution structures of an archaeal S-layer protein (MA0829 from Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A) of the Methanosarcinales S-layer Tile Protein family and a bacterial S-layer protein (SbsB), from Geobacillus stearothermophilus PV72, have recently been determined by X-ray ...
Mae testun y dudalen ar gael dan drwydded Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike; gall fod telerau ychwanegol perthnasol. Gweler Telerau Defnyddior Drwydded am fanylion pellach ...
The cytoplasmic hydrogenase (SHI) of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus is an NADP(H)-dependent heterotetrameric enzyme that contains a nickel-iron catalytic site, flavin, and six iron-sulfur clusters. It has potential utility in a range of bioenergy systems in vitro, but a major obstacle in its use is generating sufficient amounts. We have engineered P. furiosus to overproduce SHI utilizing a recently developed genetic system. In the overexpression (OE-SHI) strain, transcription of the four-gene SHI operon was under the control of a strong constitutive promoter, and a Strep-tag II was added to the N terminus of one subunit. OE-SHI and wild-type P. furiosus strains had similar rates of growth and H 2 production on maltose. Strain OE-SHI had a 20-fold higher transcription of the polycistronic hydrogenase mRNA encoding SHI, and the specific activity of the cytoplasmic hydrogenase was ∼10-fold higher when compared with the wild-type strain, although the expression levels of genes
The genes encoding the three subunits of the primary ABC transporter Ota of the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 were cloned in an expression vector (pBAD24) and transformed into the glycine betaine transport-negative mutant Escherichia coli MKH13. Ota was produced as demonstrated by Western blotting. Uptake studies revealed that Ota catalyzed the transport of glycine betaine in E. coli MKH13(pBAD-Ota) with a Km of 10±5 μM and a maximal velocity of 1.5±0.5 nmol min⁻¹ mg protein⁻¹. Transport was ATP dependent. Ota was activated by salinity gradients, but only marginally by sugar gradients across the membrane. Glycine betaine transport was inhibited to a small extent by an excess of dimethylglycin or proline betaine, but not by sarcosine or glycine ...
The coordinated activities of AlaAT and GDH have been proposed to play an important role in the maintenance of the redox balance during fermentative growth of P. furiosus(19). These activities result in a change in the relative flux of pyruvate to acetate formation toward alanine formation. Pyruvate is therefore used as a catabolic electron sink. Due to the important role AlaAT plays in this pathway, this enzyme was purified from P. furiosus and represents the first AlaAT purified from either an archaeon or a hyperthermophile.. Similar to the AlaAT from mesophilic sources, the active form of the enzyme was found to be a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of 43.5 kDa (22, 34, 36). It has been reported that the AlaATs have a high substrate specificity and are only able to transaminate alanine or glutamate (22, 34, 36). The P. furiosus enzyme, however, was capable of utilizing aspartate and, to a much lesser extent, the branched-chain amino acids with α-ketoglutarate as the amino acceptor, ...
ID METM5_1_PE1212 STANDARD; PRT; 137 AA. AC METM5_1_PE1212; A4FZ95; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE SubName: Full=CBS domain containing protein; (METM5_1.PE1212). GN OrderedLocusNames=MmarC5_1231; OS METHANOCOCCUS MARIPALUDIS C5. OC Archaea; Euryarchaeota; Methanococci; Methanococcales; Methanococcaceae; OC Methanococcus. OX NCBI_TaxID=402880; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS METM5_1.PE1212. CC Methanococcus maripaludis C5, complete genome. CC sequence. CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:A4FZ95_METM5 CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000187907 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot; A4FZ95; -. DR EMBL; CP000609; ABO35529.1; -; Genomic_DNA. DR RefSeq; YP_001097743.1; NC_009135.1. DR ProteinModelPortal; A4FZ95; -. DR SMR; A4FZ95; 4-136. DR STRING; A4FZ95; -. DR GeneID; 4929035; -. DR GenomeReviews; CP000609_GR; MmarC5_1231. DR KEGG; mmq:MmarC5_1231; -. DR ...
A new study has affirmed the hypothesis that microorganisms which produce methane swim toward the hydrogen gas they need to stay alive.
Archaea are best known in their capacities as extremophiles, i.e. micro-organisms able to thrive in some of the most drastic environments on Earth. The protein-based surface layer that envelopes many archaeal strains must thus correctly assemble and maintain its structural integrity in the face of the physical challenges associated with, for instance, life in high salinity, at elevated temperatures or in acidic surroundings. Study of archaeal surface-layer (glyco)proteins has thus offered insight into the strategies employed by these proteins to survive direct contact with extreme environments, yet has also served to elucidate other aspects of archaeal protein biosynthesis, including glycosylation, lipid modification and protein export. In this mini-review, recent advances in the study of archaeal surface-layer (glyco)proteins are discussed.
View Notes - chapter+19 from BIOL 2051 at LSU. Chapter 19 Archaeal Diversity Archaeal Traits and Diversity Widest temperature range 2C121C Widest range of environments pH 0, high pressure,
Usually the primary challenge that follows the sequencing of anything from a small segment of DNA to a complete genome is to establish where the location functional elements such as: genes (intron/exon boundaries) promoters, terminators etc DNA sequences that may potentially encode proteins are called Open Reading Frames (ORFs) The situation in prokaryotes is relatively straightforward since scarcely any eubacterial and archaeal genes contain introns
Our division studies the Biology of Archaea as well as bacterial symbioses with a focus on ecological, physiological and evolutionary aspects to shed light on the diversity and fundamental distinctions between these two prokaryotic groups. In particular we are interested in: - The ecological distribution of archaea from terrestrial, aquatic and hot environments - The phylogeny of archaea - The metabolism and genomes of ammonia oxidizing thaumarchaeota - virus-defense (CRISPR-) systems of hyperthermophilic archaea - physiology and biotechnological application of methanogenic archaea - bacterium-nematode symbioses ...
Our division studies the Biology of Archaea as well as bacterial symbioses with a focus on ecological, physiological and evolutionary aspects to shed light on the diversity and fundamental distinctions between these two prokaryotic groups. In particular we are interested in: - The ecological distribution of archaea from terrestrial, aquatic and hot environments - The phylogeny of archaea - The metabolism and genomes of ammonia oxidizing thaumarchaeota - virus-defense (CRISPR-) systems of hyperthermophilic archaea - physiology and biotechnological application of methanogenic archaea - bacterium-nematode symbioses ...
Structure of a two-domain N-terminal fragment of ribosomal protein L10 from Methanococcus jannaschii reveals a specific piece of the archaeal ribosomal ...
Introduction: Archaea comes from the greek word, archaio, meaning ancient (billions of years, and if you dont call that old, then I dont know what is). In order to fully understand the origins of Archaea, we must look at evolutionary history. From what we understand, all living forms have descended from a Universal ancestor, which appeared through spontaneous generation. The term spontaneous generation is generally used to explain what Europeans before 1668 believed to be the cause of life, indicating that every day, living organisms were created by non living things (such as mud). This should not be confused with the modern theory of the origin of life, that abiotic amino acids were generated in the primordial soup and spontaneously joined together to form LUCA ...
Archea (or Ancient) Messene was the most fascinating place we saw, even more than the Acropolis. Its huge, there are lots of remains, especially columns. and the stadium area is simply marvellous.
An evolutionary classification of genes from sequenced genomes that distinguishes between orthologs and paralogs is indispensable for genome annotation and evolutionary reconstruction. Shortly after multiple genome sequences of bacteria, archaea, and unicellular eukaryotes became available, an attempt on such a classification was implemented in Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs). Rapid accumulation of genome sequences creates opportunities for refining COGs but also represents a challenge because of error amplification. One of the practical strategies involves construction of refined COGs for phylogenetically compact subsets of genomes. New Archaeal Clusters of Orthologous Genes (arCOGs) were constructed for 41 archaeal genomes (13 Crenarchaeota, 27 Euryarchaeota and one Nanoarchaeon) using an improved procedure that employs a similarity tree between smaller, group-specific clusters, semi-automatically partitions orthology domains in multidomain proteins, and uses profile searches for
The archaeon Halobacterium NRC-1 is an extreme halophile that thrives in saturated brine environments such as the Dead Sea and solar salterns. It offers a versatile and easily assayed system for an array of well-coordinated physiologies that are necessary for survival in its harsh environment [1]. It has robust DNA repair systems that can efficiently reverse the damages caused by a variety of mutagens including UV radiation and desiccation/re-hydration cycles [2, 3]. Halobacterium NRC-1 adapts its metabolism to anaerobic conditions with the synthesis of bacterorhodopsin, which facilitates the conversion of energy from light into ATP. The completely sequenced genome of Halobacterium NRC-1 (containing ~2,600 genes) has provided insights into many of its physiological capabilities, however nearly half of all genes encoded in the halobacterial genome have no known function [4-7].. This work is intended to be a prototype for the development of a biological data integration system with a focus on ...
Qiu, X.X., Zhao, M.L., Han, D., Zhang, W.J., Dyall-Smith, M.L., Cui, H.L. (2013) "Taxonomic study of the genera Halogeometricum and Halosarcina: transfer of Halosarcina limi and Halosarcina pallida to the genus Halogeometricum as Halogeometricum limi comb. nov. and Halogeometricum pallidum comb. nov., respectively." Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 63: 3915-3919 ...
Qiu, X.X., Zhao, M.L., Han, D., Zhang, W.J., Dyall-Smith, M.L., Cui, H.L. (2013) "Taxonomic study of the genera Halogeometricum and Halosarcina: transfer of Halosarcina limi and Halosarcina pallida to the genus Halogeometricum as Halogeometricum limi comb. nov. and Halogeometricum pallidum comb. nov., respectively." Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 63: 3915-3919 ...
The enzyme, characterized from the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus voltae, participates in the N-glycosylation of proteins. Dolichol used by archaea is different from
Codons consist of six bases and there are six reading frames for each DNA strand, so ... so researchers must evaluate six open reading frames.
3JSY: Structure of a two-domain N-terminal fragment of ribosomal protein L10 from Methanococcus jannaschii reveals a specific piece of the archaeal ribosomal stalk
More than one member of the not domain of prokaryotes. The term, archaea, that is, is a , and also is less formal a term than Archaea, or even Archaea with the but without the ...
Some Archaea thrive in extreme places such as in thermal pools, hot vents at the bottom of the sea, extremely salty water, and even in underground oil reserves. This book examines the diverse Archaea kingdom and the division of these organisms by their unusual biology into three main groups. It also explains why little in general is known about them, and why further classification of Archaea is so difficult.
The coupled nitrification-denitrification process plays a pivotal role in cycling and removal of nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, the communities of ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers in the sediments of 2 basins (Guozhenghu Basin and Tuanhu Basin) of a large urban eutrophic lake (Lake Donghu) were determined using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene and the nitrite reductase gene. At all sites of this study, the archaeal amoA gene predominated over the bacterial amoA gene, whereas the functional gene for denitrification nirK gene far outnumbered the nirS gene. Spatially, compared with the Tuanhu Basin, the Guozhenghu Basin showed a significantly greater abundance of the archaeal amoA gene but less abundance of the nirK and nirS genes, while there was no significant difference of bacterial amoA gene copy numbers between the 2 basins. Unlike the archaeal amoA gene, the nirK gene showed a significant difference in community structure between the 2 basins. Archaeal ...
Arahal, D. R., Dewhirst, F. E., Paster, B. J., Volcani, B. E., & Ventosa, A. (1996). Phylogenetic analyses of some extremely halophilic archaea isolated from Dead Sea water, determined on the basis of their 16S rRNA sequences. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62(10), 3779-3786. Ding, J. Y., Chiang, P. W., Hong, M. J., Dyall-Smith, M., & Tang, S. L. (2014). Complete genome sequence of the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula hispanica strain N601. Genome announcements, 2(2), e00178-14. Juez, G., Rodriguez-Valera, F., Ventosa, A., & Kushner, D. J. (1986). Haloarcula hispanica spec. nov. and Haloferax gibbonsii spec, nov., two new species of extremely halophilic archaebacteria. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 8(1), 75-79. Li, M., Wang, R., Zhao, D., & Xiang, H. (2014). Adaptation of the Haloarcula hispanica CRISPR-Cas system to a purified virus strictly requires a priming process. Nucleic Acids Research, 42(4), 2483-2492. Liu, H., Wu, Z., Li, M., Zhang, F., Zheng, H., Han, J., & ...
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Methane is a key intermediate in the carbon cycle and biologically produced by methanogenic archaea. Most methanogens are able to conserve energy by reducing CO2 to methane using molecular hydrogen as electron
Archaea is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles dealing with all aspects of archaea, including environmental adaptation, enzymology, genetics and genomics, metabolism, molecular biology, molecular ecology, phylogeny, and ultrastructure. Published since 2002, Archaea provides a unique venue for exchanging information about these extraordinary prokaryotes.
Euryarchaeota ya iku filum Archaea.[1] Euryarchaeota bisa urip ing lingkungan ekstrem.[1] Tuladha Euryarchaeota ya iku Archaea halofil ekstrem (haloarchaea), metanogen, lan pirang-pirang jinis archaea thermofilik lan asidofilik.[1] Haloarchaea bisa urip ing lingkungan kang duwé kadar uyah dhuwur.[1] Organisme kang kagolong ing golongan iki mbutuhkake paling ora 9& NaCl kanggo urip.[1] Kanggo urip optimale, mbutuhake 12-23% NaCl, nanging bisa urip nganti kadar NaCl 32%.[1] Salah siji golongan Euryarchaeota ya iku bakteri metanogen, ya iku mikroorganisme kang bisa mroduksi metana minangka pérangan integral saka metabolisme energine, asipat anaerob obligat.[1] Adhedhasar keragaman karakter dinding sel, metanogen kapérang dadi Methanobacterium, Methanosarcina, Methanocaldococcus, Methanoplanus, lan Methanospirillum.[1] Bakteri metanogen dhéwé bisa tinemu ing usus manungsa..[2]. ...
View Notes - 22 from BIOL 4125 at LSU. PROKARYOTIC DIVERSITY BIOL 4125 SPRING 2009 LECTURE 22 Hyperthermophilic Archaea Part II The early overview of archaeal diversity was exemplified by a
Background Differential RNA-Seq (dRNA-Seq) is a recently developed method of performing primary transcriptome analyses that allows for the genome-wide mapping of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) and the identification of novel transcripts. Although the transcriptomes of diverse bacterial species have been characterized by dRNA-Seq, the transcriptome analysis of archaeal species is still rather limited. Therefore, we used dRNA-Seq to characterize the primary transcriptome of the model archaeon Haloferax volcanii. Results Three independent cultures of Hfx. volcanii grown under optimal conditions to the mid-exponential growth phase were used to determine the primary transcriptome and map the 5′-ends of the transcripts. In total, 4749 potential TSSs were detected. A position weight matrix (PWM) was derived for the promoter predictions, and the results showed that 64 % of the TSSs were preceded by stringent or relaxed basal promoters. Of the identified TSSs, 1851 belonged to protein-coding genes. ...
Provided herein are genetically engineered archaea. A genetically engineered archaea includes a heterologous polynucleotide that has a promoter operably linked to a coding region, where the coding region encodes a polypeptide having optimal activity below the optimum growth temperature (T.sub.opt) of the genetically engineered archaeon. Also provided herein are methods for using genetically engineered archaea and cell-free extracts of such genetically engineered archaea. In one embodiment, the methods include culturing a genetically engineered archaeon at a temperature that is at least 20.degree. C. below the T.sub.opt of the genetically engineered archaeon, such that the activity in the genetically engineered archaeon of a polypeptide encoded by the coding region is increased compared to the activity in the genetically engineered archaeon of the polypeptide during growth at a second temperature that is at or near the T.sub.opt of the genetically engineered archaeon.
Relative abundance of archaeal OTUs defined using the 16S rRNA gene hyper-variable region V3V4. The bar chart shows the diversity of Archaea at the lowest relia
The three types of archaea are the crenarchaeota, the euryarchaeota and the korarchaeota. Archaea is a group of single-celled microorganisms that come in a variety of shapes and survive extreme...
The EHB3600 is a bio ethanol burner insert that can convert an existing fireplace into a clean-burning one that never produces ash or soot.
FALL IN ARCHAEA Lyrics - A selection of 6 Fall In Archaea lyrics including Machines, Blasphemy, Anxiety, High Tides, Gatherings ...
Homologous recombination plays a central role in the repair of double-strand DNA breaks, the restart of stalled replication forks and the generation of genetic diversity. Regulation of recombination is essential since defects can lead to genome instability and chromosomal rearrangements. Strand exchange is a key step of recombination - it is catalysed by RecA in bacteria, Rad51/Dmc1 in eukaryotes and RadA in archaea. RadB, a paralogue of RadA, is present in many archaeal species. RadB has previously been proposed to function as a recombination mediator, assisting in RadA-mediated strand exchange. In this study, we use the archaeon Haloferax volcanii to provide evidence to support this hypothesis. We show that RadB is required for efficient recombination and survival following treatment with DNA-damaging agents, and we identify two point mutations in radA that suppress the ΔradB phenotype. Analysis of these point mutations leads us to propose that the role of RadB is to act as a recombination ...
Different environmental samples reveal that methanogenic Archaea are part of a multi-species biofilm on corroding metallic structures. Studies on microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) focus mainly on sulphate reducing Bacteria (SRB), leading to the assumption that they are exclusively responsible for metal corrosion. In fact, methanogenic Archaea are known to be involved in metal corrosion as well (e.g. Methanococcus maripaludis DSM 2067). In some cases SRB and methanogenic Archaea have comparable high corrosion rates. However, the underlying mechanisms causing corrosion are still unknown. The goal of this study is to develop suitable methods for analyzing two environmental isolates (M. maripaludis DSM 2067, M. maripaludis KA1) and two human-related isolates (Methanobrevibacter oralis and Methanobrevibacter smithii) for their ability to deteriorate/transform metals, which are relevant for technical and clinical applications. Moreover, the studies will provide essential information on the interaction
Methane is metabolized principally by methanotrophs and methanogens in the global carbon cycle. Methanotrophs consume methane as the only source of carbon, while methanogens produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Methylotrophs, which are microorganisms that can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing one-carbon compounds, such as methanol and methane, are situated between methanotrophs and methanogens. Methanogens can obtain energy for growth by converting a limited number of substrates to methane under anaerobic conditions. Three types of methanogenic pathways are known: CO2 to methane [MD:M00567], methanol to methane [MD:M00356], and acetate to methane [MD:M00357]. Methanogens use 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (CoM; coenzyme M) as the terminal methyl carrier in methanogenesis and have four enzymes for CoM biosynthesis [MD:M00358]. Coenzyme B-Coenzyme M heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), requiring for the final reaction steps of methanogenic pathway, is divided into two types: cytoplasmic HdrABC in ...
The single cubane cluster ferredoxin (Fd) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf) possesses several unique properties when compared even to Fds from other hyperthermophilic archaea or bacteria. These include an equilibrium molecular heterogeneity, a six- to seven-residue increase in size, an Asp rather than the Cys as one cluster ligand, and a readily reducible disulfide bond. NMR assignments and determination of both secondary structure and tertiary contacts remote from the paramagnetic oxidized cluster of Pf 3Fe Fd with an intact disulfide bond reported previously (Teng Q., Zhou, Z. H., Smith, E. T., Busse, S.C., Howard, J. B. Adams, M. W. W., and La Mar, G. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 6316-6328) are extended here to the 4Fe oxidized cluster WT (1H and 15N) and D14C (1H only) Fds with an intact disulfide bond and to the 4Fe oxidized WT Fd (1H and 15N) with a cleaved disulfide bond. All forms are shown to possess a long (13-member) α-helix, two β-sheets (one double-, one triple
Author: Kliefoth, Michael et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2012-02; Keywords: Methanosarcina acetivoran; Carbon monoxide; Acclimation; Aldehyde dehydrogenase; Sensing; Regulation; Title: Genetic analysis of MA4079, an aldehyde dehydrogenase homolog, in Methanosarcina acetivorans
Archaeal integrases facilitate the formation of two distinctive types of integrated element within archaeal chromosomes: the SSV type and pNOB8 type. The former carries a smaller N-terminal and a larger C-terminal integrase gene fragment, and the latter an intact integrase gene. All integrated elements overlap tRNA genes that were target sites for integration. It has been demonstrated that SSV (Sulfolobus spindle virus) viruses, carrying an SSV-type integrase gene, and conjugative plasmids, carrying a pNOB8-type integrase, are integrative elements. Two mechanisms have been proposed for stably maintaining an integrated element within archaeal chromosomes. There is also evidence for changes having occurred in the captured integrated elements present in archaeal genomes. Thus we infer that site-specific integration constitutes an important mechanism for horizontal gene transfer and genome evolution.. ...
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In recent years several laboratories have developed effective plating techniques, identifying genetic markers that do not target cell wall synthesis, fusing archaeal promoters with recombinant genes, and isolating native vectors and promiscuous nonnative vectors. This chapter focuses on tractable systems that are currently available for the Archaea. Due to fundamental differences between gene transfer systems for each archaeal branch, the chapter is divided into three inclusive sections covering the halophilic and methanogenic Euryarchaeota and the hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeota. Despite varying degrees of difficulty growing Archaea, all three systems are routinely used by laboratories conducting research on archaeal genetics and can be mastered by anyone with a fundamental knowledge of microbial genetic techniques. Under low oxygen tension, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 induces purple membrane patches in the cell membrane and buoyant gas vesicles intracellularly, which increases the availability of light
Extreme halophilic, "salt-loving," Archaea are members of the third Domain of Life, thriving in hypersaline environments reaching saturating levels of sodium chloride, nine times the salinity of seawater. The unique position of Archaea in the Tree of Life makes these organisms fascinating. Archaea have characteristics of both Bacteria and Eukarya. For example, the archaeal genome structure is more similar to bacteria, while the information transfer macromolecules are eukaryotic-like. With the release of several haloarchaeal genomes I am using comparative genomics to identify haloarchaeal conserved proteins that likely play key roles in these organisms unique environmental adaptations as well as the conservation of the information transfer system of halophilic archaea. ...
N-glycosylation is a metabolic process found in all three domains of life. It is the attachment of a polysaccharide glycan to asparagine (Asn) residues within the amino acid motif, Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr. In the archaeon, Methanococcus maripaludis, a tetrasaccharide glycan was isolated from purified flagella and its structure determined by mass spectrometry analysis. The linking sugar to the protein is surprisingly, N-acetylgalactosamine (β-GalNAc), with the next proximal sugar a derivative of N-acetylglucosamine (β-GlcNAc), being named β-GlcNAc3Ac, and the third sugar a derivative of N-acetylmannosamine (β-ManNAc), with an attached threonine residue on the C6 carbon (β-ManNAc3NAm). The terminal sugar is an unusual diglycoside of aldulose ((5S)-2-acetamido-2,4-dideoxy-5-O-methyl-α-L-erythro-hexos-5-ulo-1,5-pyranose). Previous genetic analyses identified the glycosyltransferases (GTs) responsible for the transfer of the second and third sugars of the glycan, as well as the ...
This grouping is largely consistent with the evolutionary division of prokaryotic organisms based on 16S rRNA sequences. Furthermore, the evolutionary relationship within the subgroups agrees well with the evolutionary grouping of the corresponding organisms (Fig. 3). However, the significant number of exceptions to regular grouping could reflect lateral gene transfer. Lateral interkingdom gene transfer is consistent with the finding that the deep-branching members of the domainBacteria such as Aquifex aeolicus andThermotoga maritima contain many genes like archaeal genes (16 and 24%, respectively) (61). Alternatively, irregular grouping of the homologues could reflect statistical fluctuations caused by the small size of the RelE proteins, rather than a true evolutionary relationship.. One striking finding is that several chromosomes contain two or morerelBE homologues (paralogues). The complex relationship between multiple paralogues and orthologues as described by Tatusov et al. (89) is not ...
Their phytanyl tails are primarily hooked to their glycerols using ether, not ester, linkages (see 2, above), which resist destruction better than esters. And their glycerols have opposite handedness to the glycerols in our membrane lipids (note mirror orientation in the bacterial and archaeal lipids in figure).. Molecular handedness -- chirality in chemistry-speak -- is not a thing changed easily by evolution. For instance, the vast majority of protein building blocks called amino acids used by life on Earth are exclusively "left-handed". Why? No one really knows, although some have guesses. Once lefty amino acids took over, though, there was no going back biochemically -- the enzymes were set up a certain way and that was that. Thus, that archaeal and bacterial enzymes use glycerols with opposite handedness implies that bacteria and archaea parted ways long, long ago.. Some archaeal lipids have a property that is rarely or never seen in bacteria or eukaryotes. Bacteria and eukaryotes have ...
Jung J-H, Seo D-H, Holden JF, Park C-S. 2014. Maltose-forming α-amylase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus sp. ST04.. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 98(5):2121-31. ...
Ti Archaea ket buklen ti domimio wenno pagarian dagiti agmaymaysa a selula a mikroorganismo. Dagitoy a mikrobio ket awananda ti pagtengngaan a selula wenno dagiti dadduma pay a mangbedbed a kulanit nga organulo iti kaunegan dagiti selula. Iti napalabas ti Archaea ket naiklase idi kadagiti bakteria a kas dagiti prokaryote (wenno Pagarian ti Monera) ken nanganan iti archaebakteria, ngem daytoy a pannakaidasig ket naikeddengen a duog.[5] Iti kinapudno, ti Archaea ket adda ti nawaya nga ebolusionario a pakasaritaan ken mangipakpakita kadagiti adu a paggigiddiatan kadagiti bukodda a biokimika manipud kadagiti sabali a porma ti biag, ken isu a tattan ket naidasigda a kas maysa a nailasin a dominio iti sistema ti tallo a dominio. Iti daytoy a sistema, ti maipapan ti pilohenetiko a naisangayan a sangsanga iti ebolusionario a tinaudan ket ti Archaea, Bakteria ken ti Eukaryota. Itan ket ti Archaea ket nabingbingay pay kadagiti uppat a mabigbigan a pilo; mabalin pay nga adu kadagiti pilo ti mabangon ...
SEAS researchers have found that these pink-hued archaea -- called [I]Halobacterium salinarum[/I] -- use the same mechanisms to maintain size as bacteria and eukaryotic life, indicting that cellular division strategy may be shared across all domains of life.
Prosser , J I & Nicol , G W 2012 , Archaeal and bacterial ammonia-oxidisers in soil : the quest for niche specialisation and differentiation Trends in Microbiology , vol 20 , no. 11 , pp. 523-531 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2012.08. ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Archaea; Euryarchaeota; Thermococci; Thermococcales; Thermococcaceae; Thermococcus; Thermococcus ...
Jeanthon, C., LHaridon, S., Reysenbach, A.L., Corre, E., Vernet, M., Messner, P., Sleytr, U.B., and Prieur,D. Methanococcus vulcanius sp. nov., a novel hyperthermophilic methanogen isolated from East Pacific Rise, and identification of Methanococcus sp. DSM 4213T as Methanococcus fervens sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1999) 49:583-589 ...
In her NY Times blog, Olivia Judson gives an ovation to Archaea. This domain of organisms gets none of the recognition of their more famous kin, Bacteria and Eukaryotes despite their unusual biology. As she describes, some members of the group Archaea have extreme tolerance to temperature and pH, thriving in the boiling acids found in hot springs and the bottom of ocean vents. All known methane producing microbes are found among the Archaea.. ...
Nunoura, T.; Takaki, Y.; Kakuta, J.; Nishi, S.; Sugahara, J.; Kazama, H.; Chee, G.J.; Hattori, M.; Kanai, A.; Aatomi, H.; Takai, K. and akami, H. 2011: Insights into the evolution of Archaea and eukaryotic protein modifier systems revealed by the genome of a novel archaeal group. Nucleic Acids Res., 39, 3204-3223. doi: doi: 10.1093/nar/gkq1228 ...
Fall In Archaea Machines lyrics & video : Sleepless nights turn to mornings as these chapters come to an end. We wake with blood shot eyes and bottles at our side. Look what yo...
By employing next generation DNA sequencing of genomes isolated from single cells, great strides are being made in the monumental task of systematically bringing to light and filling in uncharted branches in the bacterial and archaeal tree of life.
Alla scoperta della straordinaria e complessa classificazione degli Archaea https://www.microbiologiaitalia.it/batteriologia/alla-scoperta-della-complessa-classificazione-degli-archaea ...
Eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) is a heterotrimeric protein composed of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, of which the alpha subunit (eIF2 alpha) plays a crucial role in regulation of protein synthesis through phosphorylation at Ser51. All three subunit genes are conserved in Archaea. To examine the properties of archaeal initiation factor 2 alpha (aIF2 alpha), three genes encoding alpha, beta, and gamma subunits of aIF2 from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 were expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and the resulting proteins, aIF2 alpha, aIF2 beta, and aIF2 gamma, were characterized with reference to the properties of eIF2. aIF2 alpha preferentially interacts with aIF2 gamma, but does not interact with aIF2 beta, which is consistent with data obtained with eIF2, of which eIF2 gamma serves as a core subunit, interacting with eIF2 alpha and eIF2 beta. It was found that aIF2 alpha was, albeit to a lower degree, phosphorylated by double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase
Different environmental samples reveal that methanogenic Archaea are part of a multi-species biofilm on corroding metallic structures. Studies on microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) focus mainly on sulphate reducing Bacteria (SRB), leading to the assumption that they are exclusively responsible for metal corrosion. In fact, methanogenic Archaea are known to be involved in metal corrosion as well (e.g. Methanococcus maripaludis DSM 2067). In some cases SRB and methanogenic Archaea have comparable high corrosion rates. However, the underlying mechanisms causing corrosion are still unknown. The goal of this study is to develop suitable methods for analyzing two environmental isolates (M. maripaludis DSM 2067, M. maripaludis KA1) and two human-related isolates (Methanobrevibacter oralis and Methanobrevibacter smithii) for their ability to deteriorate/transform metals, which are relevant for technical and clinical applications. Moreover, the studies will provide essential information on the ...
RNase P, a ribozyme-based ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that catalyzes tRNA 5′-maturation, is ubiquitous in all domains of life, but the evolution of its protein components (RNase P proteins, RPPs) is not well understood. Archaeal RPPs may provide clues on how the complex evolved from an ancient ribozyme to an RNP with multiple archaeal and eukaryotic (homologous) RPPs, which are unrelated to the single bacterial RPP. Here, we analyzed the sequence and structure of archaeal RPPs from over 600 available genomes. All five RPPs are found in eight archaeal phyla, suggesting that these RPPs arose early in archaeal evolutionary history. The putative ancestral genomic loci of archaeal RPPs include genes encoding several members of ribosome, exosome, and proteasome complexes, which may indicate coevolution/coordinate regulation of RNase P with other core cellular machineries. Despite being ancient, RPPs generally lack sequence conservation compared to other universal proteins. By analyzing the relative
In constrast to bacteria, all archaea possess cell walls lacking peptidoglycan and a number of different cell envelope components have also been described. A paracrystalline protein surface layer, commonly referred to as S-layer, is present in nearly all archaea described to date. S-layers are composed of only one or two proteins and form different lattice structures. In this review, we summarise current understanding of archaeal S-layer proteins, discussing topics such as structure, lattice type distribution among archaeal phyla and glycosylation. The hexagonal lattice type is dominant within the phylum Euryarchaeota, while in the Crenarchaeota this feature is mainly associated with specific orders. S-layers exclusive to the Crenarchaeota have also been described, which are composed of two proteins. Information regarding S-layers in the remaining archaeal phyla is limited, mainly due to organism description through only culture-independent methods. Despite the numerous applied studies using bacterial S
Reproduction among Haloferax volcanii occurs when two cells fuse, establish cytoplasmic bridges, and exchange genetic information, forming two daughter cells. While this practice may sound similar to the mating habits of eukaryotes, Haloferax volcanii appears to be indiscriminatory when it comes to choosing prospective reproductive partner cells. They appear to be capable of fusing with the cells of any species within the Haloferax genus; their methods of specificity are virtually unknown. Haloferax volcanii processes carbohydrates for energy. Their cell wall S-layer, like all halobacteria, is made up of a glycoprotein. And in keeping with their halophilic categorization, Haloferax volcanii cells contain proteins to allow them to maintain balance between the cell material and the hypersaline environment. ...
Endosymbiotic Actinidic Archaeal Digoxin Inhibited Sodium Potassium ATPase Mediated ATP Synthesis and Archaeal Ectoatpases Produce Neuro-Immuno- Metabolic-Endocrine/Cell Cycle Regulation
Domain: Archaea Phylum: Euryarchaeota Class: Thermococci Order: Thermococcales Family: Thermococcaceae Genus: Pyrococcus Species: Furiosus A weird litt...
1999 97. Schwerdtfeger, R. M., Chiaraluce, R., Consalvi, V., Scandurra, R., Antranikian, G. (1999) Stability, refolding and Ca2+ binding of pullulanase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus woesei . Eur. J. Biochem. 264:479-487. 96. Linden, A., Niehaus, F., Antranikian, G. (20 00) Single-step purification of a recombinant thermostable α-amylase after solubilization of the enzyme from insoluble aggregates. Journal of Chromtography B. 737: 253-259. 95. Andrade, C.M., Pereira, N. Jr., Antranikian, G. (1999) Extremely thermophilic microorganisms and their polymerhydrolytic enzymes. Revista de Microbiologia 30: 287-298. 94. Stefanova, M. E., Schwerdtfeger, R., Antranikian, G., Scandurra, R. (1999) Heat-stable pullulanase from Bacillus acidopullulyticus : characterization and refolding after guanidinium chloride-induced unfolding. Extremophiles 3: 147-152. 93. Niehaus, F., Bertoldo, C., Kähler, M., Antranikian, G. (1999) Extremophiles as a source of novel enzymes for industrial application. ...
Our approach is based on the assumption that proteins abundant in thermophilic and rare in mesophilic genomes are the most attractive targets for further biochemical investigations to understand the physiology specific for thermophiles in more detail. Consequently, our first goal was to identify such candidates via bioinformatic methods and as the most suitable protein THEP1 was selected for this study. The high ranking thermophile-specificity of THEP1 among procaryotes may be explained by an essential physiological role in thermophiles that is of no functional relevance for almost all mesophilic microorganisms. As an alternative explanation, a function also present in mesophilic organisms could be carried out by a protein that was not able to adapt to higher temperatures and in the course of convergent evolution, THEP1 could have taken over this particular function. Methanosarcina acetivorans str. C2A is the only mesophilic organism containing THEP1 (MA3402). Since the genome of M. acetivorans ...
Constant relative rate of protein evolution and detection of functional diversification among bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic proteins. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Using both electron cryo-tomography and helical reconstruction, the first structure of the entire archaellum machinery with an assembled filament has been determined, providing the structural basis for our understanding of archaeal motility.
Lineage: cellular organisms; Archaea; Euryarchaeota; Methanomada group; Methanococci; Methanococcales; Methanocaldococcaceae; Methanocaldococcus; Methanocaldococcus ...
1J22: X-Ray and Biochemical Anatomy of an Archaeal XPF/Rad1/Mus81 Family Nuclease. Similarity between Its Endonuclease Domain and Restriction Enzymes
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Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein and peptide secretion and traffickingprotein translocase SEC61 complex gamma subunit, archaeal and eukaryotic (TIGR00327; HMM-score: 8.1) ...
Recently, Southern California Gas Co announced the successful installation of a novel biomethanation reactor system that would be used.... ...
1.0 1.1 Ruggiero MA, Gordon DP, Orrell TM, Bailly N, Bourgoin T, Brusca RC, et al. (2015) A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119248. pmid:25923521 ...
1.0 1.1 Ruggiero MA, Gordon DP, Orrell TM, Bailly N, Bourgoin T, Brusca RC, et al. (2015) A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119248. pmid:25923521 ...
Recently, Southern California Gas Co announced the successful installation of a novel biomethanation reactor system that would be used.... ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of temperature on the production of archaeal thermoactive alcohol dehydrogenases from Pyrococcus furiosus with recombinant E. coli. AU - Kube, J.. AU - Brokamp, C.. AU - Machielsen, M.P.. AU - van der Oost, J.. AU - Markl, H.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - The heterologous production of a thermoactive alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhC) from Pyrococcus furiosus in Escherichia coli was investigated. E. coli was grown in a fed-batch bioreactor in minimal medium to high cell densities (cell dry weight 76 g/l, OD600 of 150). Different cultivation strategies were applied to optimize the production of active AdhC, such as lowering the cultivation temperature from 37 to 28°C, heat shock of the culture from 37 to 42°C and from 37 to 45°C, and variation of time of induction (induction at an OD600 of 40, 80 and 120). In addition to the production of active intracellular protein, inclusion bodies were always observed. The maximal activity of 30 U/l (corresponding to 6 mg/l active ...
Phylogenetic distribution analyses of the trm5 genes revealed that three Trm5 subfamilies exist in archaea, and they are subsequently named Trm5a, Trm5b, and Trm5c. Recently, Trm5a from the archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi (PaTrm5a) has been identified and characterized (9). PaTrm5a, but not PaTrm5b, is a unique enzyme in that it catalyzes two methyltransfer reactions on G37 for the tRNAPhe hypermodifications: In the first reaction, it transfers a methyl group to the N1 atom of G37 to produce m1G, whereas in the second reaction, it further methylates the C7 atom of imG-14 to generate imG2, an intermediate along the pathway (Fig. 1A) (12). Therefore, PaTrm5a replaces the enzyme Tyw2 in eukarya and plays double roles in the mimG biosynthesis. The structural basis of the bifunctional substrate specificity of PaTrm5a is of interest but unclear at present.. The first crystal structures of Trm5 were of the Trm5b subfamily, from the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii (MjTrm5b). MjTrm5b in complex ...
Pyrococcus is a genus of Thermococcaceaen archaean. Pyrococcus has similar characteristics of other thermoautotrophican archaea such as Archaeoglobus, and Methanococcus in the respect that they are all thermophilic and anaerobic. Pyrococcus differs, however, because its optimal growth temperature is nearly 100 °C and dwells at a greater sea depth than the other archaea. Studying Pyrococcus helps give insight to possible mechanisms used to endure extreme environmental conditions like high temperatures and high pressure. Three of the Pyrococcus species have been sequenced. P. furiosus is the largest containing 1.9Mb followed by P. abyssi with 1.8Mb and P. horikoshii with 1.7Mb.[citation needed] The genomes encode for many different metabolic enzymes which gives themselves a wider spectrum of living conditions because they can transport and metabolize a wide range of organic substances. Variation was detected between species as well. The cells of Pyrococcus are about 0.8-2 μm and are slightly ...
The H+-translocating F420H2 Dehydrogenase (F420H2DH) Family (TC# 3.D.9) is a member of the Na+ transporting Mrp superfamily. A single F420H2 dehydrogenase (also referred to as F420H2:quinol oxidoreductase) from the methanogenic archaeon, Methanosarcina mazei Gö1, has been shown to be a redox driven proton pump. The F420H2DH of M. mazei has a molecular size of about 120 kDa and contains Fe-S clusters and FAD. A similar five-subunit enzyme has been isolated from Methanolobus tindarius. The sulfate-reducing Archaeoglobus fulgidus (and several other archaea) also have this enzyme. Reduction of 2-hydroxyphenazine by F420H2DH is accompanied by the translocation of 1 H+ per 2 electrons transferred. The overall vectorial reaction catalyzed by F420H2DH is Reduced donor (2e−) + H+ (in) ⇌ oxidized acceptor (2e−) + H+ (out) Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis has been isolated from the human gut and requires H2 and methanol or methylamines to produce methane. The organism lacks cytochromes, indicating ...
Hyperthermophilic Archaea and Bacteria are an extraordinarily important class of organisms for which genetic tools remain to be developed. Unique technological obstacles to this goal are posed by the thermophilic and, in some cases, strictly anaerobic nature of these organisms. However, recent advan …
The location of hyperthermophilic organisms in the tree of life has been the source of many exciting discussions during the last two decades. It inspired not only novel hypotheses for the early evolution of the organisms, but also the isolation of many new species of Archaea and Bacteria from hot environments, as well as microbial genome sequencing and phylogenomic analyses. In view of the new wealth of genetic information generated from several analysed genomes of the hyperthermophiles, we can only conclude that the question of their exact phylogenetic location and evolutionary origin is presently as open as ever before.. ...
Empadinhas, N., Marugg, J.D., Borges, N., Santos, H. and da Costa, M.S. (2001). "Pathway for the synthesis of mannosylglycerate in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii. Biochemical and genetic characterization of key-enzymes". J. Biol. Chem. 276: 43580-43588. PMID 11562374. ...
She ream dy vynvioee eh archaea (un.: archaeon). Cha nel çheshvean killag ny mynolt far-chrackanagh erbee elley oc. Traa dy row, vad currit marish bacteyryn myr prokaryota ny myr reeriaght Monera, fon ennym archaebacteria ("shenn vacteyryn"). Ec y traa tayn, cha nel bea-oayllee goaill rish y rang-oardraghey shen.[1] Ta shennaghys aafilleydagh er lheh oc, as shimmey scansh teddyr ocsyn as bioagyn elley; myr shen, ta rang-oardraghey noa oc nish myr ream er lheh sy chorys tree reamyn. Tan corys shoh eddyraghey tree banglaneyn aafilleydagh: Archaea, Bacteria as Eukaryota. Tad rheynn Archaea ayns kiare phyla, agh scosoylagh eh dy vel foddey ny smoo ayn. Cha nel monney studeyrys er ny yannoo orroo. She Crenarchaeota as Euryarchaeota ad ny phyla smoo er studeyrys. Ta archaea jeeaghyn gollrish bacteyryn dy mennick, agh ta cummey goan ec kuse jeu; myr shen, killagyn rea kerrooagh Haloquadratum walsbyi. Ta gientagyn as cassanyn soe oc ta faggys dadsyn tec eukaryota, myr sampleyr, ensymeyn ta ...
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A recently described reverse gyrase from the hyperthermophilic methanogen Methanopyrus kandleri is the only known example of a heterodimeric type I topoisomerase. The enzyme is made up of a 42-kDa subunit which covalently interacts with DNA (RgyA) and a 138-kDa subunit which binds ATP (RgyB). We have now cloned and sequenced the genes for both subunits of this enzyme. Surprisingly, the universally conserved type I topoisomerase domain [Lima, C. D., Wang, J. C. & Mondragon, A. (1994) Nature (London) 367, 138-146] which has been found as a contiguous polypeptide in the prokaryotes and eukaryotes is shared between the protomers ...
One of the three domains of life (together with Bacteria and Eukaryotes). Their morphology is similar to bacteria but many cellular mechanisms are actually closer to eukaryotic than bacterial. They form a distinct clade in the phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequence. Archaea are at least as far from bacteria as from eukaryotes (there is a lot of discussion about exactly what the "tree of life" looks like) but they are often placed with bacteria into the common grouping called prokaryotes. Originally they were discovered in extreme environments and thus are still often thought of as extremophiles. Now archaea are known to be very common in nature, being a dominating group of microorganisms for example in oceans below the photic zone. --Katarzyna Zaremba 15:00, 27 February 2008 (CET) ...
Archaea: A taxonomic domain of single-celled organisms lacking nuclei, formerly called archaebacteria but now known to differ fundamentally from bacteria.