Dr. Millers laboratory studies the mechanisms underlying the switch between latency and lytic replication of two oncogenic herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Current experiments explore how viral and cellular transcription factors that selectively bind to methylated DNA control expression of viral and cellular genes, how cellular gene expression is selectively inhibited while viral gene expression is enhanced, and how viral DNA replication is regulated by cellular proteins. Recent studies focus on a new class of anti-viral agents that inhibit reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus from latency into lytic infection.. ...
Dr. Millers laboratory studies the mechanisms underlying the switch between latency and lytic replication of two oncogenic herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Current experiments explore how viral and cellular transcription factors that selectively bind to methylated DNA control expression of viral and cellular genes, how cellular gene expression is selectively inhibited while viral gene expression is enhanced, and how viral DNA replication is regulated by cellular proteins. Recent studies focus on a new class of anti-viral agents that inhibit reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus from latency into lytic infection.. ...
Viral replication and maturation rely on a complex interplay between viral and cellular proteins. During the replication cycles of herpesviruses, a number of host immune defense mechanisms have to be overcome and, in particular, innate immune barriers that are poorly defined so far have to be circumvented in order to achieve high efficiencies of replication and dissemination in host tissues. Previous work by Cristea et al. (20) has shown that very early during infection, pp65 and IFI16 interact at the HCMV MIEP, thereby triggering an increase in IE protein expression, which is accompanied by a concomitant decrease in antiviral cytokine production. Consistent with this observation, an increase in IFI16 expression during the first steps of HCMV infection has been reported previously by our group (16), confirming that HCMV triggers IFI16 expression with the scope of increasing IE gene expression early during infection.. Based on these observations, the aim of the present study was to investigate ...
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Nuclear mRNA export is a highly complex and regulated process in cells. Cellular transcripts must undergo successful maturation processes, including splicing, 5-, and 3-end processing, which are essential for assembly of an export competent ribonucleoprotein particle. Many viruses replicate in the nucleus of the host cell and require cellular mRNA export factors to efficiently export viral transcripts. However, some viral mRNAs undergo aberrant mRNA processing, thus prompting the viruses to express their own specific mRNA export proteins to facilitate efficient export of viral transcripts and allowing translation in the cytoplasm. This review will focus on the Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 protein, a multifunctional protein involved in all stages of viral mRNA processing and that is essential for virus replication. Using the example of ORF57, we will describe cellular bulk mRNA export pathways and highlight their distinct features, before exploring how the virus has evolved to exploit
Viral infection of mammalian cells entails the regulated induction of viral gene expression. The induction of many viral genes, including the herpes simplex virus gene encoding thymidine kinase (tk), depends on viral regulatory proteins that act in trans. Because recognition of the tk promoter by cellular transcription factors is well understood, its trans induction by viral regulatory proteins may serve as a useful model for the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. A comprehensive set of mutations was therefore introduced into the chromosome of herpes simplex virus at the tk promoter to directly analyze the effects of promoter mutations on tk transcription. The promoter domains required for efficient tk expression under conditions of trans induction corresponded to those important for recognition by cellular transcription factors. Thus, trans induction of tk expression may be catalyzed initially by the interaction of viral regulatory proteins with cellular transcription factors. ...
Gene expression during productive infection by the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) occurs in an ordered and sequential manner, beginning with immediate early (IE), then early (E) and finally late (L) gene expression. Significant work has addressed the regulation of IE and E gene expression while relatively little work has addressed the control of late gene expression. In order to further address HCMV late gene expression, the promoter of the HCMV UL75 (glycoprotein H, gH) late gene was characterized. The data obtained in this study were combined with observations made in two other studies that have addressed HCMV late gene expression to develop a model of the regulation of HCMV late gene expression. The gH promoter and numerous promoter mutants were cloned into a reporter vector to address sequences responsible for the regulation of gene expression. These gH promoter constructs were transfected into human fibroblasts and subsequently infected with HCMV. Our data revealed that viral infection was necessary
DELETION OF THE CARBOXY TERMINUS OT SIMIAN VIRUS 40 LARGE T ANTIGEN AFFECTS VIRAL LATE GENE EXPRESSION A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Terryl Stacy DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Hanover, New Hampshire March 8,1990 ...
In the reproduction of HSV-1, the temporal profile of the viral gene expressions and the molecular mechanisms regulating the expressions are extensively studied. Functional roles of the temporally ordered gene expressions has not yet been clarified. We construct a simple mathematical model for the intracellular replication of HSV-1 to investigate the function of the ordered gene expressions. We obtain the condition for the explosion of the virus from our model. The expression ratio of the early gene to the late gene must be higher than the ratio of the reaction rate of the encapsidation to that of the viral DNA replication for viruses to reproduce successfully. The preceded accumulation of the early gene product prevents the growth arrest. Further, as promoter activity of the early gene becomes higher, the replication speed of virus becomes faster. The structure of early gene promoter that has many binding motif to transcription factor accelerates the replication speed of HSV-1. This structure ...
BACKGROUND:. Despite progress in understanding the pathophysiology of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, its manifestations in the immune compromised host are frequently associated with high morbidity and mortality. In this setting, HCMV disease can develop e.g. following immune suppression as a result of reactivation of latent HCMV acquired earlier in life. The mechanisms leading to establishment of latent infections and their subsequent reactivation are not clear. It is also unknown whether HCMV exists in a latent form with limited viral gene expression or as a persistent infection with normal virus transcription.. DESIGN NARRATIVE:. The specific aims of the study were to: 1) examine the percentage of HCMV positive donors whose bone marrow progenitors contained HCMV DNA using nested PCR and determine if virus could be rescued from those cells. 2) Analyze the HCMV life cycle in hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells. 3) identify and analyze HCMV gene expression in in vivo infected ...
The goal of our studies is to understand the mechanisms that regulate viral late gene expression and genome amplification during the productive life cycle of on...
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Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was first isolated 50 years ago, when the new technology of cell culture became available. The pathogenesis of HCMV disease is complex, involving contributions from the host as well as from the virus. Increasing knowledge about the genetic composition of the virus can help to illuminate this complex series of relationships and provide a rational basis for therapeutic intervention and prevention of disease. The major immediate-early promoter (MIEP) enhancer contains multiple recognition sites for the transcription factors. Additionally, the MIEP is specifically transactivated by the tegument protein pp71, which is released as soon as incoming virions are uncoated. Thus, HCMV employs multiple methods independent of de novo viral gene expression to induce an intracellular milieu favorable to the initiation of immediate-early (IE) gene transcription. Humoral immunity could reduce the level of HCMV replication and reduce disease without being able to eliminate infection entirely.
To verify the assignment of performance of a distinct viral gene, it is actually probably needed to restore the mutation back to the wild form sequence and deter mine irrespective of whether the phenotype in the rescuant viruses is similar to that of the parental virus. Having said that, the rescue procedures could potentially introduce adventitious muta tions that arise elsewhere in the genome. Meanwhile, it truly is doable the deletion of the target ORF could possibly impact the expression of other viral genes, like individuals in close by regions, since the deleted area may well func tion as a regulatory component vital for that expression of those genes, additionally to encoding the target ORF. Substantial research are necessary to demonstrate that the dele tion does not affect every other gene expression in the viral genome.. Alternatively, a viral mutant that contains a sub tle mutation, such as stage mutations, to inactivate the ORF could be info generated. Examination with the phenotype ...
Researchers have discovered a hidden viral gene lurking in many commercial GMO crops, raising possible concerns about its impact on human health.
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I dont know If this topic was picked before, but giving a look at old threads something came to my mind. We all know this game is ruled by TEs, and luna is
Alkalno - tremalni izvor kraškog porekla, Lađevac, među meštanima poznat je i kao toplo vrelo, jer temepratura vode konstantno se kreće od 15 do 18 stepeni
The regulatory cyclin, Cyclin T1 (CycT1), is a host factor essential for HIV-1 replication in CD4 T cells and macrophages. The importance of CycT1 and the Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) complex for HIV replication is well-established, but regulation of CycT1 expression and protein levels during HIV replication and latency establishment in CD4 T cells is less characterized. To better define the regulation of CycT1 levels during HIV replication in CD4 T cells, multiparameter flow cytometry was utilized to study the interaction between HIV replication (intracellular p24) and CycT1 of human peripheral blood memory CD4 T cells infected with HIV in vitro. CycT1 was further examined in CD4 T cells of human lymph nodes. In activated (CD3+CD28 costimulation) uninfected blood memory CD4 T cells, CycT1 was most significantly upregulated in maximally activated (CD69+CD25+ and HLA.DR+CD38+) cells. In memory CD4 T cells infected with HIV in vitro, two distinct infected populations of p24+CycT1+
TY - BOOK. T1 - Viral genome replication. AU - Cameron, Craig Eugene. AU - Raney, Kevin D.. AU - Götte, Matthias. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - Provides the first comprehensive review of viral genome replication strategies, emphasizing not only pathways and regulation but also the structure-function, mechanism, and inhibition of proteins and enzymes required for this process Currently, there is no single source that permits comparison of the factors, elements, enzymes and/or mechanisms employed by different classes of viruses for genome replication. As a result, we (and our students) often restrict our focus to our particular system, missing out on the opportunity to define unifying themes in viral genome replication or benefit from the advances in other systems. For example, extraordinary biological and experimental paradigms that have been established over the past five years for the DNA replication systems of bacteriophage T4 and T7 will likely be of great value to anyone interested in ...
T. gondii is an important zoonotic Apicomplexan parasite, but no drugs could eliminate the pathogen from the host effectively. In recent studies, DNA vaccines have shown the potential to defend against T. gondii infection in view of their abilities to induce long-term humoral and cellular immune responses in animal models. Many rhoptry proteins (ROP5, ROP13, ROP16 and ROP18) [16-19] are identified to be potential candidates for development of T. gondii DNA vaccines. TgROP38, a new member of the rhoptry protein family, was firstly identified by the phylogenomic approach and was found to regulate the expression of host transcription factors, signaling pathways and cell proliferation, and apoptosis that sum up about 1200 host genes [21]. These key biological roles of TgROP38 in T. gondii infection of the host have stimulated us to evaluate whether TgROP38 could elicit effective immune responses against infection with T. gondii in the mice model. Therefore, we constructed the recombinant plasmid ...
This study was initiated in order to define the relevance of ND10 domains for HCMV replication. Experimental results of previous studies suggested that ND10 domains may play a pivotal role for the initiation of HCMV IE gene expression. Arguments that could be interpreted in favor of such a proviral role of ND10 were as follows: (i) viral genomes were found to be deposited at the periphery of ND10 (29, 31); (ii) several regulatory proteins of HCMV at least transiently colocalize with PML and other ND10 components (2, 26, 32, 37); (iii) an immediate transcript environment consisting of viral IE transcripts, the IE2 protein, and SC35 domains was reported to form adjacent to ND10-localized HCMV genomes, suggesting that this spatial association is critical for the correct initiation of viral gene expression (31); (iv) only ND10-associated viral genomes were shown to develop into viral replication compartments (4, 48).. As an experimental approach to study the role of ND10 for HCMV replication, we ...
Dr. Verma research involves understanding the pathogenesis of tumor viruses, specifically Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) and Kaposis sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Both viruses undergo lytic replication in epithelial cells during primary infection and during reactivation from latent infection in B-lymphocytes. Epstein Barr virus SM is an RNA binding protein essential for viral replication that enhances EBV gene expression by enhancing RNA stability and RNA export. Dr. Verma has shown that SM interacts with cellular splicing factors and influences splicing of both EBV and cellular pre-mRNAs. Like EBV SM, KSHV ORF57 is also a post-transcriptional regulatory protein, essential for KSHV lytic replication and has high degree of gene specificity. His current research is focused on regulation of gene expression and antiviral drug screening in the following areas ...
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The 72 kDa IE1 protein of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of a few viral regulatory proteins expressed immediately after infection of a host cell. Although it is now well-established that IE1 is a potent transcriptional activator of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) long terminal repeat (LTR), the identity of the nucleotide sequence responsive to IE1 remains elusive and the molecular mechanism of this interaction is not well-understood. We have constructed various LTR mutants and tested them for their ability to be activated by IE1 using transient transfection assays. Mutations in the NF-κB sites, of either a few changes in the nucleotide sequence or a deletion of the entire region, abrogated IE1-driven transactivation. Deletion of the Tat-responsive element (TAR) had no significant effect on reporter expression. Mutations in the Sp1 sites or the TATA box significantly lowered LTR activity, but this is probably due to an effect on the general transcription system, as these elements are also
The life cycle of Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) consists of two phases, latent and lytic. The virus establishes latency as a strategy for avoiding host immune surveillance and fusing symbiotically with the host for lifetime persistent infection. However, latency can be disrupted and KSHV is reactivated for entry into the lytic replication. Viral lytic replication is crucial for efficient dissemination from its long-term reservoir to the sites of disease and for the spread of the virus to new hosts. The balance of these two phases in the KSHV life cycle is important for both the virus and the host and control of the switch between these two phases is extremely complex. Various environmental factors such as oxidative stress, hypoxia, and certain chemicals have been shown to switch KSHV from latency to lytic reactivation. Immunosuppression, unbalanced inflammatory cytokines and other viral coinfections also lead to the reactivation of KSHV. This review article summarizes the current
Kaposis sarcoma (KS) is a vascular tumor predominantly found in the immunosuppressed. Epidemiologic studies suggest that an infective agent is the etiologic culprit. Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), or human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), is a gamma human herpesvirus present in all epidemiol …
Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus vOX2 protein: inhibits neutrophil function and can contribute to immune dysfunction and could have anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential
Ringold, G M., "Glucocorticoid regulation of mouse mammary tumor virus gene expression." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 3076 ...
5E5A: Crystal structure of the chromatin-tethering domain of Human cytomegalovirus IE1 protein bound to the nucleosome core particle
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Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the herpesvirus group, is species specific and can establish both persistent and latent infections. The virus appears to be able to infect a number of cell...
Das Immediate-Early Protein 2 (IE2) des humanen Zytomegalievirus ist ein essentieller Regulationsfaktor des lytischen Infektionszyklus. Es aktiviert verschiedene early Promotoren, autoreprimiert seine eigene Expression und besitzt darüber hinaus auch zellzyklusregulatorische Aktivitäten. Um einzelne Funktionen des IE2 Proteins gezielt analysieren zu können, ist eine genaue Kenntnis seiner regulatorischen Domänen unabdingbar. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde daher eine Struktur-Funktionsanalyse des IE2 Proteins durchgeführt mit dem Ziel, seine funktionellen Domänen genauer zu charakterisieren. Hierfür wurden verschiedene IE2-Mutanten hergestellt und ihre Aktivität im Hinblick auf Transaktivierung, Autorepression und DNA-Bindung sowie Zellzylusarrestinduktion bestimmt. Die Untersuchungen ergaben, dass innerhalb einer Core-Region im C-Terminus des Proteins (AS 450-544) die regulatorischen Domänen der untersuchten Funktionen überlappen und hier schon kleinere Mutationen zu einem ...
Das Immediate-Early Protein 2 (IE2) des humanen Zytomegalievirus ist ein essentieller Regulationsfaktor des lytischen Infektionszyklus. Es aktiviert verschiedene early Promotoren, autoreprimiert seine eigene Expression und besitzt darüber hinaus auch zellzyklusregulatorische Aktivitäten. Um einzelne Funktionen des IE2 Proteins gezielt analysieren zu können, ist eine genaue Kenntnis seiner regulatorischen Domänen unabdingbar. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde daher eine Struktur-Funktionsanalyse des IE2 Proteins durchgeführt mit dem Ziel, seine funktionellen Domänen genauer zu charakterisieren. Hierfür wurden verschiedene IE2-Mutanten hergestellt und ihre Aktivität im Hinblick auf Transaktivierung, Autorepression und DNA-Bindung sowie Zellzylusarrestinduktion bestimmt. Die Untersuchungen ergaben, dass innerhalb einer Core-Region im C-Terminus des Proteins (AS 450-544) die regulatorischen Domänen der untersuchten Funktionen überlappen und hier schon kleinere Mutationen zu einem ...
Nakamura Y, Sakuma S, Ohta Y, Kawano K, Hashimoto T. Detection of the human cytomegalovirus gene in placental chronic villitis by polymerase chain reaction. Hum Pathol. 1994 Aug;25(8):815-8. PMID: #8056423# ...
VIRUS GENES publishesstudies on analysis of virus genes, gene products and functions, regulation of virus gene function, cell biology of virus infectionfunctional studies of genes and gene families, encoded by eukaryotic, ...
VIRUS GENES publishesstudies on analysis of virus genes, gene products and functions, regulation of virus gene function, cell biology of virus infectionfunctional studies of genes and gene families, encoded by eukaryotic, ...
Trial Team members review FOREO LUNA 3. Read the reviews to find out how our Trial Team rated this multi-tasking skincare tool....
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type I (ARCL type I) is characterized by generalized cutis laxa with pulmonary emphysema and/or vascular complications. Rarely, mutations can be identified in FBLN4 or FBLN5. Recently, LTBP4 mutations have been implicated in a similar phenotype. Studying FBLN4, FBLN5, and LTBP4 in 12 families with ARCL type I, we found bi-allelic FBLN5 mutations in two probands, whereas nine probands harbored biallelic mutations in LTBP4. FBLN5 and LTBP4 mutations cause a very similar phenotype associated with severe pulmonary emphysema, in the absence of vascular tortuosity or aneurysms. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract involvement seems to be more severe in patients with LTBP4 mutations. Functional studies showed that most premature termination mutations in LTBP4 result in severely reduced mRNA and protein levels. This correlated with increased transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) activity. However, one mutation, c.4127dupC, escaped nonsense-mediated decay. The ...
Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is thought to be an oncogenic member of the γ-herpesvirus subfamily. The virus usually establishes latency upon infection as a default infection pattern. The viral genome replicates according to the host cell cycle by recruiting the host cellular replication machinery. Among the latently expressing viral factors, LANA seems to play pivotal roles in viral genome replication, partitioning, and maintenance. LANA binds with two LANA-binding sites (LBS1/2) within a terminal repeat sequence and is indispensable for viral genome replication in latency. The nuclear matrix region seems to be important as a replication site, since LANA as well as cellular replication factors accumulate there and recruit the viral replication origin in latency (ori-P) by its binding activity to LBS. KSHV ori-P consists of LBS followed by a 32 bp GC-rich segment (32GC). Although it has been reported that LANA recruits cellular pre-replication complexes (pre-RC) such as origin
Persistence of latent, replication-competent provirus in CD4+ T cells of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals on antiretroviral treatment (ART) is the main obstacle for virus eradication. Methylation of the proviral 5′ long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter region has been proposed as a possible mechanism contributing to HIV latency; however, conflicting observations exist regarding its relevance. We assessed 5′-LTR methylation profiles in total CD4+ T cells from blood of 12 participants on short-term ART (30 months) followed up for 2 years, and a cross-sectional group of participants with long-term ART (6-15 years), using next generation sequencing. We then looked for associations between specific 5′-LTR methylation patterns and baseline and follow-up clinical characteristics. 5′-LTR methylation was observed in all participants and behaved dynamically. The number of 5′-LTR variants found per sample ranged from 1 to 13, with median sequencing depth of 16270× (IQR 4107×-46760
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a frequent cause of major disease following primary infection or reactivation from latency in immunocompromised patients. Infection of non-permissive mononuclear cells is used for analyses of HCMV latency in vitro. Using this approach, it is shown here that repression of lytic gene expression following experimental infection of CD34+ cells, a site of HCMV latency in vivo, correlates with recruitment of repressive chromatin around the major immediate-early promoter (MIEP). Furthermore, long-term culture of CD34+ cells results in carriage of viral genomes in which the MIEP remains associated with transcriptionally repressive chromatin. Finally, specific differentiation of long-term cultures of infected CD34+ cells to mature dendritic cells results in acetylation of histones bound to the MIEP, concomitant loss of heterochromatin protein 1 and the reactivation of HCMV. These data are consistent with ex vivo analyses of latency and may provide a model for further analyses of
During malignant progression, tumor cells need to acquire novel characteristics that lead to uncontrolled growth and reduced immunogenicity. In the Bovine Leukemia Virus-induced ovine leukemia model, silencing of viral gene expression has been proposed as a mechanism leading to immune evasion. However, whether proviral expression in tumors is completely suppressed in vivo was not conclusively demonstrated. Therefore, we studied viral expression in two selected experimentally-infected sheep, the virus or the disease of which had features that made it possible to distinguish tumor cells from their nontransformed counterparts. In the first animal, we observed the emergence of a genetically modified provirus simultaneously with leukemia onset. We found a Tax-mutated (TaxK303) replication-deficient provirus in the malignant B-cell clone while functional provirus (TaxE303) had been consistently monitored over the 17-month aleukemic period. In the second case, both non-transformed and transformed BLV-infected
In the context of gene regulation: transactivation is the increased rate of gene expression triggered either by biological processes or by artificial means, through the expression of an intermediate transactivator protein. In the context of receptor signaling, transactivation occurs when one or more receptors activate yet another; receptor transactivation may result from the crosstalk of signaling cascades. Transactivation can be triggered either by endogenous cellular or viral proteins, also called transactivators. These protein factors act in trans (i.e., intermolecularly). HIV and HTLV are just two of the many viruses that encode transactivators to enhance viral gene expression. These transactivators can also be linked to cancer if they start interacting with, and increasing expression of, a cellular proto-oncogene. HTLV, for instance, has been associated with causing leukemia primarily through this process. Its transactivator, Tax, can interact with p40, inducing overexpression of ...