DEKALB Genetics Corporation, the fastest growing agricultural seed company in the U.S., has an opening for an independent PhD level scientist in the area of PLANT GENE EXPRESSION. The successful candidate will join the Agronomic Traits Program of DEKALBs biotechnology research facility in Mystic, CT, a scenic shoreline community on Long Island Sound. The research focus of the position will be aimed towards understanding and manipulating factors that affect the expression of transgenes in plants, identifying suitable promoters and enhancers, and employing this technology in the development of transgenic plant products. Other responsibilities may include cloning agronomically important genes. Candidates should have a Ph.D. in a relevant biological science, more than three years experience in plant molecular biology and demonstrated expertise in the area of plant gene expression. Post-doctoral experience is preferred. In addition to a stimulating scientific environment, DEKALB offers excellent ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Analysis of Plant Gene Expression Using Flow Cytometry and Sorting. AU - Galbraith, David W. PY - 2007/5/21. Y1 - 2007/5/21. KW - Analysis of plant gene expression. KW - Combining flow and image cytometry. KW - Defining cellular states. KW - Flow cytometry. KW - Flow sorting. KW - Methods. KW - Technologies. KW - Use of protoplasts for confirmatory studies. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=46449131685&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=46449131685&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1002/9783527610921.ch17. DO - 10.1002/9783527610921.ch17. M3 - Chapter. AN - SCOPUS:46449131685. SN - 9783527314874. SP - 405. EP - 422. BT - Flow Cytometry with Plant Cells: Analysis of Genes, Chromosomes and Genomes. PB - Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. ER - ...
Plants progress from a juvenile vegetative phase of development to an adult vegetative phase of development before they enter the reproductive phase. miR156 has been shown to be the master regulator of the juvenile-to-adult transition in plants. However, the mechanism of how miR156 is transcriptionally regulated still remains elusive. In a forward genetic screen, we identified that a mutation in the SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling ATPase BRAHMA (BRM) exhibited an accelerated vegetative phase change phenotype by reducing the expression of miR156, which in turn caused a corresponding increase in the levels of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE genes. BRM regulates miR156 expression by directly binding to the MIR156A promoter. Mutations in BRM not only increased occupancy of the -2 and +1 nucleosomes proximal to the transcription start site at the MIR156A locus but also the levels of trimethylated histone H3 at Lys 27. The precocious phenotype of brm mutant was partially suppressed by a second ...
This proposed research project seeks to understand environmental stress-responsive gene expression mediated through Heat Shock Transcription Factor (HSF). This project will involve the following three components: 1) a study of the DNA-binding properties of HSF to different stress-responsive promoters using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay to determine the relative binding affinity, and chemical cross linking reagents to determine the multimerization state of HSF; 2) map the sites of phosphorylation on HCF in response to different cellular stress; 3) determine the importance of the phosphorylation of HCF in regulating stress-responsive gene expression in vivo by constructing site directed mutations in the HCF phosphorylation sites and replacing the endogenous copy of HCF with each mutated HCF. Cells expressing the mutationally altered HCF molecules will be tested for their ability to activate CUP transcription in response to heat and oxidative stress. For the first research goal, DNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - RNA commutes to work. T2 - Regulation of plant gene expression by systemically transported RNA molecules. AU - Ueki, Shoko. AU - Citovsky, Vitaly. PY - 2001/12/1. Y1 - 2001/12/1. N2 - Although long-distance movement of endogenous mRNAs in plants is well established, the functional contributions of these transported RNA molecules has remained unclear. In a recent report, Kim et al. showed that systemically transported mRNA is capable of causing phenotypic change in developing tissue. Here, this finding and its significance are reviewed and discussed in detail. In addition, in order to give proper perspective, long-distance transport of other types of RNAs, e.g., RNA elicitors of post-transcriptional gene silencing and RNA genomes of plant viruses, and its possible regulation are discussed.. AB - Although long-distance movement of endogenous mRNAs in plants is well established, the functional contributions of these transported RNA molecules has remained unclear. In a recent report, ...
A collection of biotic and abiotic stress responsive genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa L. It uses HMM-based models to identify binding sites of transcription factors in their promoters ...
My research interests focus on the regulation of plant gene expression in response to abiotic stress and extreme environments, with particular interest in chromatin structure, genome organization and epigenetic change. Venues associated with spaceflight provide an opportunity to explore plant genomic responses to an environment that is outside the evolutionary experience of terrestrial organisms. This unique platform presents a background by which adaptive metabolisms can be observed as they are crafted to cope with a stress de novo; providing a window into the origins of adaptive processes.. ...
A plants eventual size depends on the integration of its genetic program with environmental cues, which vary on a daily basis. Both efficient carbon metabolism and the plant hormone gibberellin are required to guarantee optimal plant growth. Yet, little is known about the interplay between carbon metabolism and gibberellins that modulates plant growth. Here, we show that sugar starvation in Arabidopsis thaliana arising from inefficient starch metabolism at night strongly reduces the expression of ent-kaurene synthase, a key regulatory enzyme for gibberellin synthesis, the following day. Our results demonstrate that plants integrate the efficiency of photosynthesis over a period of days, which is transduced into a daily rate of gibberellin biosynthesis. This enables a plant to grow to a size that is compatible with its environment. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiple abiotic stimuli are integrated in the regulation of rice gene expression under field conditions. AU - Plessis, Anne. AU - Hafemeister, Christoph. AU - Wilkins, Olivia. AU - Gonzaga, Zennia Jean. AU - Meyer, Rachel Sarah. AU - Pires, Inês. AU - Müller, Christian. AU - Septiningsih, Endang M.. AU - Bonneau, Richard. AU - Purugganan, Michael. PY - 2015/11/26. Y1 - 2015/11/26. N2 - Plants rely on transcriptional dynamics to respond to multiple climatic fluctuations and contexts in nature. We analyzed the genome-wide gene expression patterns of rice (Oryza sativa) growing in rainfed and irrigated fields during two distinct tropical seasons and determined simple linear models that relate transcriptomic variation to climatic fluctuations. These models combine multiple environmental parameters to account for patterns of expression in the field of coexpressed gene clusters. We examined the similarities of our environmental models between tropical and temperate field conditions, ...
Previous studies strongly suggest that changes in plant status for different mineral nutrients are linked to expression of mineral nutrition-related genes in a manner that facilitates mineral nutrient homeostasis (for reviews, see Grossman and Takahashi, 2001; Kochian, 2000; Raghothama, 2000). Therefore, we are interested in identifying genes that may play a role in plant responses to changes in mineral status. Seventeen different mineral deficiency-induced genes were identified and confirmed by RNA gel-blot analysis, along with genes previously reported to be induced specifically by P, K, and Fe deficiency in plants. These previously reported genes include phosphate transporters (LePT1 and LePT2; Liu et al., 1998) induced in response to −P conditions, K transporters (LeHAK5 and LeKC1) induced by K deprivation, and an Fe transporter (LeIRT1, Eckhardt et al., 2001) induced by −Fe conditions. LeKC1 reported here is a different gene from LKT1 (accession no. CAA65254) reported previously ...
Plants are multicellular eukaryotes with tissue systems made of various cell types that carry out specific functions. Plant tissue systems fall into one of two general types: meristematic tissue and permanent (or non-meristematic) tissue. Cells of the meristematic tissue are found in meristems, which are plant regions of continuous cell division and growth. Meristematic tissue cells are either undifferentiated or incompletely differentiated, and they continue to divide and contribute to the growth of the plant. In contrast, permanent tissue consists of plant cells that are no longer actively dividing.. Meristematic tissues consist of three types, based on their location in the plant. Apical meristems contain meristematic tissue located at the tips of stems and roots, which enable a plant to extend in length. Lateral meristems facilitate growth in thickness or girth in a maturing plant. Intercalary meristems occur only in monocots, at the bases of leaf blades and at nodes (the areas where leaves ...
Our study contributes to the literature that show that hyperosmotic stress induces an ER stress‐like response. Water restriction or dDAVP infusion, which both increase medullary osmolality, increased Grp78 and ATF4 expression in the inner medulla (van Balkom et al. 2004; Cai et al. 2006, 2010). Conversely, GRP78 protein abundance decreased in IMCD of animals subjected to vasopressin escape (Hoorn et al. 2005). Expression levels of ER stress‐responsive genes CHOP and ATF3 were increased by either NaCl or urea challenge in cultured IMCD cells (Kultz et al. 1998; Zhang et al. 1999; Tian and Cohen 2002) and several ER stress‐responsive genes were upregulated by NaCl challenge in renal fibroblast cell lines (Dihazi et al. 2011). Our study shows that overall, the extent of induction of ER stress‐responsive genes by either Tg or Tun was significantly higher than that induced by hyperosmolality. However, it should be noted that induction of ER stress by either chemical agent would be expected to ...
This study provides molecular, cellular, and genetic evidence that SnRK1 activity plays multiple essential roles in plant growth and development and that, from a nuclear location, SnRK1 regulates specific stress-inducible genes involved in physiological adaptation to stress.. The nuclear SnRK1 function in plants was much anticipated from orthologous gene functions in yeast and mammals (Ahuatzi et al., 2007; Bungard et al., 2010). Yeast Hxk2 functions in the nucleus through protein-protein interactions with another nuclear protein, Mig1, which is a protein substrate of Snf1 (Ahuatzi et al., 2007). Under low-Glc conditions, Snf1 phosphorylates Mig1 and the phosphorylated Mig1 exits the nucleus. This exclusion of the phosphorylated Mig1 derepresses Glc-repressed gene expression. Furthermore, using a fluorescent reporter, AMPK activity can be directly measured in the nucleus (Tsou et al., 2011). In this study, we found evidence that not only Arabidopsis SnRK1 (Bitrián et al., 2011) but also rice ...
Sampling the Arabidopsis transcriptome with massively parallel pyrosequencing.: Massively parallel sequencing of DNA by pyrosequencing technology offers much hi
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ERF subfamily transcription factors play an important role in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. A cold responsive ethylene responsive factor (ERF), MfERF1, was isolated from Medicago falcata, an important forage legume that has great cold tolerance. Overexpression of MfERF1 resulted in an increased tolerance to freezing and chilling in transgenic tobacco plants, while down-regulation of the ortholog of MfERF1 in M. truncatula resulted in reduced freezing tolerance in RNAi plants. Higher transcript levels of some stress responsive genes (CHN50, OSM, ERD10C, and SAMS) and those involved in spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) synthesis (SAMDC1, SAMDC2, SPDS1, SPDS2, and SPMS) and catabolism (PAO) were observed in transgenic plants than in WT ...
Organ development in plant meristems requires that boundary domains around the primordia remain stable despite continuous growth and cell division. In Arabidopsis, the establishment and maintenance of the boundary around organ primordia of shoot apical and floral meristems is regulated by three partially redundant transcription factors, CUC1-CUC3. On p. 4311, Laufs et al. examine the interaction between these three transcription factors and a microRNA - miR164 - during boundary regulation. They show that miR164 targets cuc1 and cuc2, but not cuc3, mRNA for degradation, explaining why miR164 overexpression results in similar patterning and floral defects as cuc1 cuc2 double mutants. They also modified cuc2 mRNA to make it resistant to miR164-guided cleavage and found that this expanded the boundary domain. The authors propose that miR164 constrains the expanding boundary by clearing boundary cells of CUC1 and CUC2, thus changing their cell identity.. ...
We developed databases and tools to display and analyze next-gen sequencing data for a number of organisms and related varieties (mainly for plant small RNAs).
Kids love Santa! He brings them toys, and has great songs and stories that they want to hear over and over. Children often enthusiastically agree to visit Santa to tell him about their Christmas lists. But parents are then confronted with the dilemma of taking said kids to visit Santa only to have the same enthusiasm replaced with tears. There is no shortage of images on the web of children dressed in their holiday best, howling on Santas lap with outstretched arms toward a parent who has abandoned them just out of frame. I also remember being wary of a man entering our house unnoticed as a child, even if he was bringing presents. Here are a few tips for parents who want to help their children enjoy this holiday tradition and maybe even ace that holiday photo.. First, recognize that stranger anxiety is a healthy and expected developmental phase for young children. Toddlers and preschoolers are most likely to fear a visit to Santa. As familiar as the character of Santa becomes for young children ...
The project explores the exciting possibility that cells which escape into the blood stream exhibit a phenotype reminiscent of certain developmental phases. Confirmation of this will provide new treatment avenues and new opportunities for diagnosis.
Being sessile, plant are exposed to a range of stresses, of both abiotic and biotic origin, during the course of their life, and often simultaneously.
Leaves are categorized depending on their shapes, whether they are stalked or not, and if the leaves have smooth or jagged edges. All leaves are divided into two main types: simple or...
What should I charge for cleaning up leaves? Some yards still need a couple more mowings but the leaves are starting to come down. So what should I...
People often say: we have to forget what had been because past is past. But dont we realize that our past is what made us to become who we are in the present?
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Read SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 2 controls floral organ development and plant fertility by activating ASYMMETRIC LEAVES 2 in Arabidopsis thaliana, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The plasma membrane-bound peroxidases (PRX) zmprx01, zmprx66 and zmprx70 and the respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOH) rbohA, rbohB, rbohC and rbohD were analysed in this study. The distribution of the genes inside the roots was investigated by real-time qPCR. Therefor four different segments (root tip, elongation zone, differentiation zone and lateral roots) were in focus of the analyses. It could be observed that the genes are differently distributed in the root. The peroxidases were predominantly expressed in the elongation zone and almost not in the root tip. The rboh genes were more inhomogeneous distributed. For each RBOH a specific expression pattern could be detected. rbohA was mostly expressed in the differentiation zone. rbohB was more even expressed in the root. rbohC was even distributed as well but predominantly in the elongation zone. rbohD was mostly expressed in the differentiation zone. For a further investigation of the peroxidases plants were exposed to cadmium (short term and
New DNA Sequences ======================= AC013430 AC013430 88172bp DNA HTG 11-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1 clone F3F9, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 6 unordered pieces. HTG; HTGS_PHASE1. ATF11C1 AL132976 105644bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F11C1 ATF15G16 AL132959 104868bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F15G16 ATF18N11 AL132953 91275bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F18N11 ATF1P2 AL132955 101154bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F1P2 ATF24B22 AL132957 100285bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F24B22 ATF24M12 AL132980 129515bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F24M12 ATF2A19 AL132962 95993bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F2A19 ATF2K15 AL132956 130956bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F2K15 ...
Description of disease Arabidopsis thaliana. Treatment Arabidopsis thaliana. Symptoms and causes Arabidopsis thaliana Prophylaxis Arabidopsis thaliana
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
calphotos.berkeley.edu. Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) is a flowering plant belonging to the family Brassicaceae which contains economically important brassica and mustard species. Arabidopsis thaliana was the first plant to have its genome sequenced. Arabidopsis thaliana is not of economic value itself, but has risen to prominence because of its small size, short generation time and small genome, which make it an ideal plant to use for research. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome has a haploid chromosome number of 5, containing 135 Mb with 32,000 protein-coding genes. The reference proteome is derived from the genome sequence published in 2000 for the ecotype Columbia (http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v408/n6814/full/408796a0.html). ...
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The availability of the complete genome sequence of Arabidopsis thaliana together with those of other organisms provides an opportunity to decipher the genetic factors that define plant form and function. To begin this task, we have classified the nuclear protein-coding genes of Arabidopsis thaliana on the basis of their pattern of sequence similarity to organisms across the three domains of life. We identified 3,848 Arabidopsis proteins that are likely to be found solely within the plant lineage. More than half of these plant-specific proteins are of unknown function, emphasizing the general lack of knowledge of processes unique to plants. Plant-specific proteins that are membrane-associated and/or targeted to the mitochondria or chloroplasts are the most poorly characterized. Analyses of microarray data indicate that genes coding for plant-specific proteins, but not evolutionarily conserved proteins, are more likely to be expressed in an organ-specific manner. A large proportion (13%) of plant
The putative thylakoid lumen immunophilin, FKBP16-3, has not yet been characterized, although this protein is known to be regulated by thioredoxin and possesses a well-conserved CxxxC motif in photosynthetic organisms. Here, we characterized rice OsFKBP16-3 and examined the role of this gene in the regulation of abiotic stress in plants. FKBP16-3s are well conserved in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms, including the presence of a unique disulfide-forming CxxxC motif in their N-terminal regions. OsFKBP16-3 was mainly expressed in rice leaf tissues and was upregulated by various abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, high light, hydrogen peroxide, heat and methyl viologen. The chloroplast localization of OsFKBP16-3-GFP was confirmed through the transient expression of OsFKBP16-3 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis and transgenic rice plants that constitutively expressed OsFKBP16-3 exhibited increased tolerance to salinity, drought and oxidative stresses, but showed no change in
Cellular and molecular aspects of abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana subjected to cold, drought, and high salinity and in two photosynthetic green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Coccomyxa sp. C-169, subjected to nitrogen deprivation were investigated. Cold, drought, and high salinity can negatively affect plant growth and crop production. The first research aimed at determining the physiological functions of the stress-responsive Arabidopsis thaliana RD29A and RD29B genes. Cold, drought, and salt induced both genes; the promoter of RD29Awas found to be more responsive to drought and cold stresses, whereas the promoter of RD29B was highly responsive to salt stress. Therefore, RD29A and RD29B gene sequences have the potential to confer abiotic stress resistance in crop species grown in arid and semi-arid regions. RD29A and RD29B proteins were also found to unlikely serve directly as protective molecules. The second study aimed at investigating the impacts of nitrogen deprivation in
Read Isolation and Gene Expression Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Mutants With Constitutive Expression of ATL2, an Early Elicitor-Response RING-H2 Zinc-Finger Gene, Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Of the many plant genes whose expressions are controlled by the circadian clock, one of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase genes in soya bean (Glycine max) exhibits the unusual property that its control is organ-specific - it is under circadian control in leaves but not in roots. Preliminary experiments suggest that the same is true for at least one gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. It will be important to define the extent and function of this phenomenon and the underlying mechanism.. ...
Arabidopsis thaliana + , Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. + , Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) + , Arbisopsis thaliana + , mouse-ear cress + , thale cress + , thale-cress + ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs repressing target gene expression post-transcriptionally and are critically involved in various development processes and responses to environmental stresses. MiR408 is highly conserved in land plants and targets several transcripts encoding copper protei …
Understanding the evolutionary genetics of modern crop phenotypes has a dual relevance to evolutionary biology and crop improvement. Modern upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was developed following thousands of years of artificial selection from a wild form, G. hirsutum var. yucatanense, which bears a shorter, sparser, layer of single-celled, ovular trichomes (fibre). In order to gain an insight into the nature of the developmental genetic transformations that accompanied domestication and crop improvement, we studied the transcriptomes of cotton fibres from wild and domesticated accessions over a developmental time course. Fibre cells were harvested between 2 and 25 days post-anthesis and encompassed the primary and secondary wall synthesis stages. Using amplified messenger RNA and a custom microarray platform designed to interrogate expression for 40,430 genes, we determined global patterns of expression during fibre development. The fibre transcriptome of domesticated cotton is far more dynamic
Chilling stress affects plant growth and productivity. However, the multi-underlying mechanisms of chilling tolerance are not well understood. Arabidopsis PCaP2 is involved in regulating the dynamic of microtubules and F-actin and Ca2+-binding ability. Here, the results showed that the PCaP2 expression was highly induced in roots, cotyledons, true leaves, lateral roots and flowers under cold stress. Compared with the wild type, PCaP2-overexpressing plants displayed the enhanced tolerance, whereas its RNAi and mutant were more sensitive in seed germination, seedling and reproductive growth under chilling stress in Arabidopsis. In addition, PCaP2 was also a positive regulator of ABA signaling pathway by analyzing the expression of PCaP2 and the phenotypes of PCaP2-overexpressing, mutant and RNAi plants under ABA treatment. Interestingly, disruption of PCaP2 inhibited the expression of CBF1, -3 and CBF-target COR genes, while increased the CBF2 expression in response to cold or ABA. Moreover, we found that
The composition of the individual eukaryotes genome and its variation within a species remain poorly defined. Even for a sequenced genome such as that of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0, the large arrays of heterochromatic repeats are incompletely sequenced, with gaps of uncertain size persisting in them. Using geographically separate populations of A. thaliana, we assayed variation in the heterochromatic repeat arrays using two independent methods and identified significant polymorphism among them, with variation by as much as a factor of two in the centromeric 180 bp repeat, in the 45S rDNA arrays and in the Athila retroelements. In the accession with highest genome size as measured by flow cytometry, Loh-0, we found more than a two-fold increase in 5S RNA gene copies relative to Col-0; results from fluorescence in situ hybridization with 5S probes were consistent with the existence of size polymorphism between Loh-0 and Col-0 at the 5S loci. Comparative genomic hybridization
Phytohormones are organic compounds that exist naturally in plants and that even in low concentrations, orchestrate a broad range of physiological processes, including growth and development, as well as responses to abiotic and biotic stresses [1]. These hormones overlap signal transduction pathways or gene expression profiles by rapid induction or by preventing the degradation of transcriptional regulators [2-5].. Among all of the described phytohormones, ethylene, a naturally occurring triple response growth regulator (shoot elongation, stem thickening and horizontal growth habit) in seedlings, has been studied since ancient times [6]. Ethylene is also involved in leaf abscission, fruit ripening and senescence [6, 7] as well as seed germination, growth of adventitious roots under flooding conditions, epinasty stimulation, inhibition of shoot growth and stomatal closing and flowering [8, 9]. Moreover, it is involved in a wide variety of stresses, including wounding, pathogen attack, flooding, ...
Plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling coordinates nuclear gene expression with chloroplast function and is essential for the photoautotrophic life-style of plants. Three retrograde signals have been described, but little is known of their signaling pathways. We show here that GUN1, a chloroplast-localized pentatricopeptide-repeat protein, and ABI4, an Apetala 2 (AP2)-type transcription factor, are common to all three pathways. ABI4 binds the promoter of a retrograde-regulated gene through a conserved motif found in close proximity to a light-regulatory element. We propose a model in which multiple indicators of aberrant plastid function in Arabidopsis are integrated upstream of GUN1 within plastids, which leads to ABI4-mediated repression of nuclear-encoded genes. |P /|
A method for making a genetically modified plant comprising regenerating a whole plant from a plant cell that has been transfected with DNA sequences comprising a first gene whose expression results in an altered plant phenotype linked to a transiently active promoter, the gene and promoter being separated by a blocking sequence flanked on either side by specific excision sequences, a second gene that encodes a recombinase specific for the specific excision sequences linked to a repressible promoter, and a third gene that encodes the repressor specific for the repressible promoter. Also a method for making a genetically modified hybrid plant by hybridizing a first plant regenerated from a plant cell that has been transfected with DNA sequences comprising a first gene whose expression results in an altered plant phenotype linked to a transiently active promoter, the gene and promoter being separated by a blocking sequence flanked on either side by specific excision sequences to a second plant regenerated
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It has been more than 50 years since Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was first introduced as a model organism to understand basic processes in plant biology. A well-organized scientific community has used this small reference plant species to make numerous fundamental plant biology discoveries (Provart et al., 2016). Due to an extremely well-annotated genome and advances in high-throughput sequencing, our understanding of this organism and other plant species has become even more intricate and complex. Computational resources, including CyVerse,3 Araport,4 The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR),5 and BAR,6 have further facilitated novel findings with just the click of a mouse. As we move toward understanding biological systems, Arabidopsis researchers will need to use more quantitative and computational approaches to extract novel biological findings from these data. Here, we discuss guidelines, skill sets, and core competencies that should be considered when developing curricula or ...
Efforts to elucidate the contributions by transcription factors to plant gene expression will require increasing knowledge of their specific in vivo regulatory associations. We are systematically investigating the role of individual TGA factors in the transcriptional control of pathogenesis-related …
Plants have the capacity to continuously produce organs throughout their life because they maintain stem-cell containing structures called meristems. The formation of flowers is an essential step of the plants life-cycle. In order to ensure flower development a new meristem must be formed within the young flower bud. Various data across the literature indicate that the transcription factor LEAFY is involved flower meristem formation in addition to its role as a master regulator of flower identity ...
Successful adaptation and evolution of land plants relied on the acquisition of the stomatal complex, which allows efficient gas exchange for photosynthesis and respiration while minimizing water loss. In the epidermis of higher plants, stomatal complexes differentiate nonrandomly from precursor cells through rounds of asymmetric division. Shpak et al. now find that three Arabidopsis ERECTA-family leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases, which are known to promote cell proliferation and organ growth, play overlapping but distinct roles to control stomatal patterning. The complexity of this signaling pathway illustrates how the interplay of moderate effects can lead to different outcomes in a developmental process. E. D. Shpak, J. M. McAbee, L. J. Pillitteri, K. U. Torii, Stomatal patterning and differentiation by synergistic interactions of receptor kinases. Science 309, 290-293 (2005). [Abstract] [Full Text]. ...
The TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) gene of Arabidopsis serves a key function in the development of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). The specific expression of TFL1 transcripts in the subapical region of the SAM suggests that TFL1 functions non-cell-autonomously and that TFL1 function may involve cell-cell communication. We demonstrate that the TFL1 protein is transmitted from the subapical region to the epidermis, and suggest that this protein trafficking is regulated during the developmental phase of the SAM. Our results suggest that TFL1 protein trafficking gives rise to the interlayer signaling responsible for the coordination of the distinct layers of the meristem ...