Two-component signal transduction systems enable bacteria to sense, respond, and adapt to changes in their environment or in their intracellular state. Each two-component system consists of a sensor protein-histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR). In the prototypical two-component pathway, the sensor HK phosphorylates its own conserved His residue in response to a signal(s) in the environment. Subsequently, the phosphoryl group of HK is transferred onto a specific Asp residue on the RR. The activated RR can then effect changes in cellular physiology, often by regulating gene expression. Two-component pathways thus often enable cells to sense and respond to stimuli by inducing changes in transcription ...
Two-component signal transduction systems enable bacteria to sense, respond, and adapt to changes in their environment or in their intracellular state. Each two-component system consists of a sensor protein-histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR). In the prototypical two-component pathway, the sensor HK phosphorylates its own conserved His residue in response to a signal(s) in the environment. Subsequently, the phosphoryl group of HK is transferred onto a specific Asp residue on the RR. The activated RR can then effect changes in cellular physiology, often by regulating gene expression. Two-component pathways thus often enable cells to sense and respond to stimuli by inducing changes in transcription ...
The relative representation of each mutant was determined by calculating the fold change (sequence reads/insertion in cholesterol divided by sequence reads/insertion in glycerol) for each gene. Statistical significance was determined by t-test. Each insertion site in each replicate sample was treated as a separate data point. The hyperbola used for defining genes specifically required for growth in cholesterol was defined by the formula, y = 3.8/x+0.7. Genes above this line are annotated as required for growth on cholesterol. - Griffin JE, Gawronski JD, Dejesus MA, Ioerger TR, Akerley BJ, Sassetti CM, High-resolution phenotypic profiling defines genes essential for mycobacterial growth and cholesterol catabolism. PLoS Pathog (2011) 7(9). ...
Zhu J, Miller MB, Vance RE, Dziejman M, Bassler BL, Mekalanos JJ. Quorum-sensing regulators control virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 ;99(5):3129-34. ...
Citation Gómez-Mejia A, Gámez G, Hirschmann S, Kluger V, Rath H, Böhm S, Voss F, Kakar N, Petruschka L, Völker U, Brückner R, Mäder U, Hammerschmidt S. 2018. Pneumococcal metabolic adaptation and colonization are regulated by the two-component regulatory system 08. mSphere 3:e00165-18. https://doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00165-18. ...
E coli rssB protein: negative regulator of sigma(S) factor, Rpos; isolated from E. coli; this two-component response regulator affects sigma S-dependent proteins; it is implicated in the control of protein stability; has been sequenced; homologous proteins, namely, Mvia and Hnr found in other bacteria
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Sindromul hiperactivitate/deficit de atenție (ADHD) este o afecțiune neuropsihiatrică frecvent întâlnită la vârsta pediatrică. La școlari, frecvența ADHD este de 4-12% (Brown 2001, Faraone 2003), dar sindromul poate afecta copiii de toate vârstele și manifestările pot persista până la vârsta adultă.
Signal transductionRegulatory functionsDNA interactionsphosphonate utilization transcriptional regulator PhnR (TIGR03337; HMM-score: 32.5) ...
E. Bouffartigues, I. Si Hadj Mohand, R. Duchesne, O. Maillot, N. Orange, et al.. Insight into the mechanism controlling the activity of the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor SigX in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. XIeme Congrès de la SFM, 2015, PARIS, France. ⟨hal-02386341⟩ ...
H-NS family proteins are nucleoid-associated proteins that form oligomers on DNA and function as global regulators. They are found in both bacterial chromosomes and plasmids, and were suggested to be candidate effectors of the interaction between them. TurA and TurB are the predominantly expressed H-NS family proteins encoded on the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440, while Pmr is encoded on the carbazole-degradative incompatibility group P-7 plasmid pCAR1. Previous transcriptome analyses suggested that they function cooperatively, but play different roles in the global transcriptional network. In addition to differences in protein interaction and DNA-binding functions, cell expression levels are important in clarifying the detailed underlying mechanisms. Here, we determined the precise protein amounts of TurA, TurB, and Pmr in KT2440 in the presence and absence of pCAR1. The intracellular amounts of TurA and TurB in KT2440 and KT2440(pCAR1) were determined by quantitative western blot analysis
Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) play fundamental roles in bacterial survival and pathogenesis and have been proposed as targets for the development of novel classes of antibiotics. A new coupled assay was developed and applied to analyse the kinetic mechanisms of three new kinds of inhibitors of TCS function. The assay exploits the biochemical properties of the cognate HpkA-DrrA histidine kinase-response regulator pair from Thermotoga maritima and allows multiple turnovers of HpkA, linear formation of phosphorylated DrrA, and Michaelis-Menten analysis of inhibitors. The assay was validated in several ways, including confirmation of competitive inhibition by adenosine 5′-β,γ-imidotriphosphate (AMP-PNP). The coupled assay, autophosphorylation and chemical cross-linking were used to determine the mechanisms by which several compounds inhibit TCS function. A cyanoacetoacetamide showed non-competitive inhibition with respect to ATP concentration in the coupled assay. The
The general stress response comprises approximately 200 genes and is driven by the alternative sigma factor SigB. Besides the process of sporulation with approximately 500 involved gene products under initial control of Spo0A are the two most significant and extensive cellular responses that can be observed in B. subtilis. The general stress response provides vegetative growing as well as non-growing and non-sporulating cells with a comprehensive cross-protective and preventive multiple stress resistance to various hostile environmental conditions. In contrast, the endospore is the most resistant but also dormant cell type produced by B. subtilis. The scope of this study was the identification of regulatory cascades driven by the general stress response sigma factor SigB to further elucidate the structure and function of the general stress regulon itself and to uncover potential intersections between the SigB response and other major developmental programs in the regulatory network of B. ...
The gram-negative bacterial envelope is a complex extracytoplasmic compartment responsible for numerous cellular processes. Among its most important functions is its service as the protective layer separating the cytoplasmic space from the ever-changing external environment. To adapt to the diverse conditions encountered both in the environment and within the mammalian host, Escherichia coli and Salmonella species have evolved six independent envelope stress response systems . This review reviews the sE response, the CpxAR and BaeSR two-component systems (TCS) , the phage shock protein response, and the Rcs phosphorelay system. These five signal transduction pathways represent the most studied of the six known stress responses. The signal for adhesion to abiotic surfaces enters the pathway through the novel outer membrane lipoprotein NlpE, and activation on entry into the exponential phase of growth occurs independently of CpxA . Adhesion could disrupt NlpE causing unfolding of its unstable N-terminal
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ECF sigma factor sigC is required for lethality in mice and for the conditional expression of a defined gene set. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Shop Leucine-responsive regulatory protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Leucine-responsive regulatory protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Although Escherichia coli is generally considered to be predominantly a commensal of the gastrointestinal tract, a number of recent studies suggest that it is also capable of long-term survival and growth in environments outside the host. As the extraintestinal physical and chemical conditions are often different from those within the host, it is possible that distinct genetic adaptations may be required to enable this transition. Several studies have shown a trade-off between growth and stress resistance in nutrient-poor environments, with lesions in the rpoS locus, which encodes the stress sigma factor RpoS (σS). In this study, we investigated a unique collection of long-term soil-persistent E. coli isolates to determine whether the RpoS-controlled general stress response is altered during adaptation to a nutrient-poor extraintestinal environment. The sequence of the rpoS locus was found to be highly conserved in these isolates, and no nonsense or frameshift mutations were detected. Known ...
Member of the two-component regulatory system PhoP/PhoQ which regulates the expression of genes involved in virulence, adaptation to acidic and low Mg(2+) environments and resistance to host defense antimicrobial peptides. Essential for intramacrophage survival of S.typhimurium. In low periplasmic Mg(2+), PhoQ phosphorylates PhoP, resulting in the expression of PhoP-activated genes (PAG) and repression of PhoP-repressed genes (PRG). In high periplasmic Mg(2+), PhoQ dephosphorylates phospho-PhoP, resulting in the repression of PAG and may lead to expression of some PRG. Essential for transcription of spiC inside macrophages by controlling the expression of the two-component regulatory system SsrB/SpiR (SsrA) and Pir at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels respectively. Promotes expression of the two-component regulatory system PmrA/PmrB via activation of pmrD gene. Is required to attenuate bacterial growth within fibroblast cells and to enhance bacterial resistance to bile in intestinal cells.
CategoryTree ,Parents= * 3. [[Information processing]] ** 3.4. [[Regulation of gene expression]] ,Neighbours= * 3.4.1. [[Sigma factors and their control]] * 3.4.2. [[Transcription factors and their control]] * 3.4.3. [[Trigger enzymes]] * 3.4.4. [[RNA binding regulators]] * 3.4.5. [[Regulators of core metabolism]] * 3.4.6. [[Transition state regulators]] * 3.4.7. [[Phosphorelay]] * 3.4.8. [[Quorum sensing]] * 3.4.9. [[Other regulators]] ,Related= none ,}} == Genes in this functional category == * [[abh]] * [[abrB]] * [[salA]] * [[scoC]] * [[sinI]] * [[sinR]] * [[slrA]] * [[slrR]] =Back to [[categories ...
This unit provides a chronological in‐depth description of all protocols needed for quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (Q‐RT‐PCR) analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression within infected mouse tissues
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The two-component signal transduction system (TCS) BarA/UvrY activates transcription of CsrB and CsrC noncoding RNAs, which act by sequestering the RNA-binding global regulatory protein CsrA. Here, we show that the metabolic end products formate and acetate provide a physiological stimulus for this TCS and thus link posttranscriptional regulation by the Csr system to the metabolic state of the cell. ...
An adaptive response to environmental stimuli is essential for life. The most widespread response mechanism involves the transfer of a phosphoryl group amongst the proteins in a signalling process. Two-component signal transduction systems are the chief signalling devices in bacteria and archaea. Actually, they are found in all life domains, although not in animals. A single bacteria can contain tens to hundreds of two-component systems controlling vital processes such as metabolism, development, motility, response to stress or virulence. These systems offer enormous possibilities for the development of new antimicrobials because they play a paramount role in bacterial physiology and in virulence processes, allowing adaptation of a parasite to its human host, or even triggering resistance to known antibiotics.. Although there are numerous variations in the details, two components systems obey the same basic pattern. The prototype consists of two proteins. One of them is a homodimeric membrane ...
GT:ID BAD55842.1 GT:GENE BAD55842.1 GT:PRODUCT putative two-component system response regulator GT:DATABASE GIB00210CH01 GT:ORG nfar0 GB:ACCESSION GIB00210CH01 GB:LOCATION 1103586..1104263 GB:FROM 1103586 GB:TO 1104263 GB:DIRECTION + GB:PRODUCT putative two-component system response regulator GB:PROTEIN_ID BAD55842.1 LENGTH 225 SQ:AASEQ MTAVLLAEDDEAIAAPLSRALGREGYTVTVESFGPAVLRRALEGNHDLLILDLGLPGMDGLEVCRQVRARGADLAVLMLTARTDEVDFVVGLDAGADDYVGKPFRLAELLARVRALLRRSGIGDEAVEVGGIRLEPAARRVLVNGVEVGLANKEYELLKVLIDRAGQVVPRETILREVWGDAELRGSKTLDMHMSWLRRKIGDEGPMAERRIVTVRGVGFRLNTD GT:EXON 1,1-225:0, BL:SWS:NREP 1 BL:SWS:REP 1-,222,REGX3_MYCTU,4e-41,41.4,220/227, SEG 105-,119,rlaellarvrallrr, BL:PDB:NREP 1 BL:PDB:REP 2-,222,2oqrA,5e-41,41.1,219/226, RP:PDB:NREP 1 RP:PDB:REP 1-,219,3c3wB,1e-22,25.4,205/210, RP:PFM:NREP 2 RP:PFM:REP 4-,104,PF00072,4e-15,43.6,101/111,Response_reg, RP:PFM:REP 145-,222,PF00486,2e-11,53.2,77/77,Trans_reg_C, HM:PFM:NREP 2 HM:PFM:REP 4-,114,PF00072,8.6e-28,36.9,111/112,Response_reg, HM:PFM:REP ...
GT:ID BAD55509.1 GT:GENE BAD55509.1 GT:PRODUCT putative two-component system response regulator GT:DATABASE GIB00210CH01 GT:ORG nfar0 GB:ACCESSION GIB00210CH01 GB:LOCATION complement(685615..686331) GB:FROM 685615 GB:TO 686331 GB:DIRECTION - GB:PRODUCT putative two-component system response regulator GB:PROTEIN_ID BAD55509.1 LENGTH 238 SQ:AASEQ MGGVSTSPTPTVLVVDDDEDVLASVERGLRLSGFHVLVARDGAAALRSVNADCPDAVVLDMNMPVLDGAGVVTALRALGNDVPICVLSARASVDDRISGLESGADDYLVKPFVLAELVARIKALLRRRTDAPAAAATPGAITVGPLEVDEAGYRALLHGREIELTKREFELLSTLARNAGVVLSRERLLELVWGYDFAADTNVVDVFVGYLRRKLEADGTPRLLHTIRGVGFVLRAPK GT:EXON 1,1-238:0, BL:SWS:NREP 1 BL:SWS:REP 27-,235,PRRA_MYCTU,5e-65,65.2,207/233, SEG 4-,26,vstsptptvlvvdddedvlasve, SEG 123-,140,allrrrtdapaaaatpga, SEG 181-,192,vvlsrerllelv, BL:PDB:NREP 1 BL:PDB:REP 27-,235,1ys6B,2e-65,65.2,207/227, RP:PDB:NREP 1 RP:PDB:REP 27-,231,3c3wB,2e-24,20.9,187/210, RP:PFM:NREP 2 RP:PFM:REP 33-,122,PF00072,6e-17,45.6,90/111,Response_reg, RP:PFM:REP ...
Escherichia coli is transformed from a commensal organism into a pathogen by acquisition of genetic elements called pathogenicity islands (PAIs). Katsowich et al. investigated how the PAI virulence genes of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) respond when the bacterium attaches to a host gut cell. EPEC first sticks to the host by means of pili and then uses a PAI-encoded type 3 secretion system (T3SS) to inject multiple effectors into the host cell. But not all virulence mediators are injected. For example, CesT, a bacterial chaperone, delivers virulence effectors into the T3SS apparatus. Then, within the bacterial cytoplasm, it interacts with a gene repressor called CsrA, which reprograms bacterial gene expression to help the bacteria to adapt to epithelial cell-associated life.. Science, this issue p. 735 ...
Reliable identification of targets of bacterial regulators is necessary to understand bacterial gene expression regulation. These targets are commonly predicted by searching for high-scoring binding sites in the upstream genomic regions, which typically leads to a large number of false positives. In contrast to the common approach, here we propose a novel concept, where overrepresentation of the scoring distribution that corresponds to the entire searched region is assessed, as opposed to predicting individual binding sites. We explore two implementations of this concept, based on Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) and Anderson-Darling (AD) tests, which both provide straightforward P value estimates for predicted targets. This approach is implemented for pleiotropic bacterial regulators, including σ70 (bacterial housekeeping σ factor) target predictions, which is a classical bioinformatics problem characterized by low specificity. We show that KS based approach is both faster and more accurate, departing from
complex with c-di-GMP. C-di-GMP binds to the protein as an intercalated dimer, displacing the C-terminal 310 helix found in the apo form. The N-terminal part of ...
There could be an interesting connection here with another resent paper where in yeast it was shown that the cost of GFP is dramatically different for stable and denaturation-prone variants (for brilliant discussion of this paper see this post in It Takes 30). Is GFP equally stable in E. coli during the early and late exponential phase? Could it be that the effects observed here are reflecting mere change in GFP stability? Intracellular conditions do change in E. coli under different conditions, so it is possible that GFP is not always equally stable, and this may affect its physiological cost. Surprisingly, another report claims that in E. coli aggregated and soluble LacZ have very similar cost, which to some extent dispels my worries about GFP stability and cost ...
Steinrück M. The Influence of Sequence Context on the Evolution of Bacterial Gene Expression. IST Austria; 2018. doi:10.15479/AT:ISTA:th1059 ...
De Gentaur Oxford expressie Technologies afzonderlijke Eia Tool validatred met die in biologische monsters te onderscheiden, zoals celmedium dat verschilt. Bij de producent Oxford expressie Technologies met Genprice aanvoernummer 514 voor protocolspecificaties. The Oxford expressie Technologies Laboratoria in gb. Gentaur levert de Oxford uitdrukking Technologies test volgende dag in je Labo. De Oxford expression Technologies produkten worden het snelst en goedkoopst geleverd door Gentaur Bvba te Kampenhout voor Belgie en Gentaur BV te Eersel voor Nederland. Indien u Oxford expression Technologies kits bestelt voor vrijdag 14 uur worden die reeds de dinsdag erop in uw laboratorium afgeleverd in een koelpaket van Gentaur.. ...
Wilson, Philip, Welsh Assembly Government (Wales), corp creator. (2011) A rapid evidence assessment : investigating the drop in attainment during the transition phase with a particular focus on child poverty. ...
Getting a woman to spread her legs for you depends on your ability to smoothly navigate her through the 4 transition phases of seduction. Lets hammer out the first 2.
Transcription initiation is a critical step in bacterial gene regulation and is often controlled by transcription regulators. The alternate sigma factor (sigma54) is one such regulator that facilitates activator-dependent ...
Barrett, J. F., Goldschmidt, R. M., Lawrence, L. E., Foleno, B., Chen, R., Demers, J. P., Johnson, S., Kanojia, R., Fernandez, J., Bernstein, J., Licata, L., Donetz, A., et al. Antibacterial agents that inhibit two-component signal transduction systems Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1998 95:5317-5322 DOI:10.1073/pnas.95.9.5317 PMID:9560273 ...
During infection, senses and responds to stress; such responses may be modulated by MisRS (NGO0177 and NGO0176), a two-component system that is a homolog of CpxRA. In , CpxRA senses and responds to envelope stress; CpxA is a sensor kinase/phosphatase for CpxR, a response regulator. When a mutant is grown in medium containing glucose, CpxR is phosphorylated by acetyl phosphate but cannot be dephosphorylated, resulting in constitutive activation. Kandler and coworkers (J. L. Kandler, C. L. Holley, J. L. Reimche, V. Dhulipala, J. T. Balthazar, A. Muszynski, R. W. Carlson, and W. M. Shafer, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 60:4690-4700, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00823-16) showed that MisR (CpxR) is required for the maintenance of membrane integrity and resistance to antimicrobial peptides, suggesting a role in gonococcal survival Here, we evaluated the contributions of MisR and MisS (CpxA) to gonococcal infection in a murine model of cervicovaginal colonization and identified MisR-regulated genes ...
4IHT: The DNA-binding domain of BenM reveals the structural basis for the recognition of a T-N11-A sequence motif by LysR-type transcriptional regulators.
Degree of conservation of fungal oxidative stress regulators. (A) Orthologues of S. cerevisiae oxidative stress regulators in the fungi analysed. As before, the
Event SWPAs Pumping Systems & Controls Training. The pinnacle of SWPA’s Training and Educational programs is our Semi -Annual Pumping Systems Training ...
A magnetic carrier and a two-component developer are provided which have remedied blank areas, fog after leaving, carrier sticking during running, and image density variations before and after runnin
A 4-man rap group from Finland. Enjoying a a fairly big cult following despite being officially formed as late as fall 2000. Members: Davo MC, producer,...
31 May 2018 marked the end of the final transition phase for registration of substances in the low-tonnage bands under REACH. Kerstin Heitmann from UMCO says what do companies need to consider.
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MetabolismFatty acid and phospholipid metabolismBiosynthesisfatty acid metabolism transcriptional regulator FadR (TIGR02812; HMM-score: 17.4) ...
Motivated by recent experimental advances, we study two-component spin-orbit coupled ultracold bosonic atoms in two dimensions on a square optical lattice. Using a Bose-Hubbard model with spin-conserving and non-spin-conserving ...
transcriptional regulator [Snora] GTGTGCCGTCCGCGTGACCACCGGGCGTCGGTGCAGGTGGTCACGCCTGGCGCAAGTTCG AAGGAAAAACGGGAGGAAGACTTGGAATTTCGACTGCTGGGTCCGGTTGAAATACTCTGG CAGGGGCGCAACATCATGCCGACGGCTCCCAAGCCGCGGCAGGTCATATCCCTTCTGATG CTCCGTCACAACACAGTCGTGCAGGCTGCGGAGCTGATCGACGAATTATGGCCGGAGCTG CCGCCGCCGAGCGCGATCACCACCCTCCAGACCTACATCTACAAATTCCGGAAGATTCTC ATGAAGCAGGGGGCCGATGATCTTCTGCGTACCCAGCCGGGCGGATACATCCTGACGATC CCGCCCTCCACCGTCGACGTCAACCGGTTCGAACGGGACGCCGACGACGGGCAGGAACTG CTGCAGCGCGGTGACGCCGCCGGCGGGACGAAGCTCGGCCACGCCCTGGCCCTGTGGCGG GGCCCAGCACTGGCCGATGTCGTCGCCAGCGGACGCCTGTTCTCGTACGTCACGCGGCTG GAGGAGCTGCGGTTTCGCATCCTCGAACTGCGCATCGAGGCGGACCTCGCGACCGGGCGG CACCGGGAACTCGTGAGCGAGCTGAAATCGCTGGTACTGGCACACCCCCTCCACGAGCAC CTGCACGGGCTGCTGATGCTGGCCCTGCACCGGTCGGGGCGGCCCCACGAGGCGTTGGAG GTCTACCGGAGCGTACGCCACAAGATGATCGAGGACCTCGCCCTGGAACCCGCCCAGGAC TTCGCCACTTTGCACCACACCCTGCTGTCCGACTCCCCGCCCGAGGCACCCGAACCCCTC TGGCCGGCACAGCACCTGACGACCAAGCAGCCGGAACGCGTCACCATCGCCCGCGAACCA GCCCCGGACACCGCCCCCAGCCCGCTGGCCAGACCGGCCCAATTGCCCGCCGACATCGTG ...
The cell envelope of bacteria is of pivotal importance for growth and survival, and hence it is often the target of antimicrobial compounds. One of the main components involved in CESRs are extracytoplasmic function (ECF) [sigma] factors. The genome of B. subtilis encodes for seven ECF [sigma] factors, [sigma]M, [sigma]W, [sigma]X, [sigma]Y, [sigma]V, [sigma]Z and [sigma]YlaC. Several studies have been conducted to understand the role that these ECF [sigma] factors play in CESR in B. subtilis, one of the challenges found is that they display significant redundancy within their regulons. In this study, we have performed an in depth analysis of one of the ECF [sigma] factors of B. subtilis, [sigma]V, which had been previously uncharacterized. We have described the regulon of [sigma]V, the role that it plays in lysozyme resistance, and provided evidence for a novel promoter element important for [sigma]V recognition. Additionally, we have studied the role that [sigma]M plays in moenomycin ...
The bacterial cell envelope is the first and major line of defence against threats from the environment. It is an essential and vulnerable structure that gives the cell its shape and counteracts the high internal osmotic pressure. It also provides an important sensory interface and molecular sieve, mediating both information flow and controlled transport of solutes. The cell envelope is also the target for numerous antibiotics. Therefore, the monitoring and maintaining of cell envelope integrity in the presence of envelope perturbating agents and conditions is crucial for survival. In Bacillus subtilis a complex regulatory network, consisting of 7 signal transducing systems, orchestrates the cell envelope stress response. Two forms of regulatory systems can be found: ECF-sigma factors and two component systems (TCS). One of these TCS is the LiaRS system that responds to cell wall antibiotics that interfere with the undecaprenol cycle and to perturbation of the cytoplasmic me! mbrane. It is ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen in all age groups worldwide that causes a variety of diseases, ranging from life threatening septicaemia and meningitis to less severe sinusitis and otitis media. The factors that determine the virulence of S. pneumoniae are very complex but a key aspect of the organisms disease causing potential is the ability of the bacteria to regulate virulence factor expression and activity. In this study two main approaches were taken to investigate virulence gene expression in S. pneumoniae. Firstly, the feasibility of Recombinase based In vivo Expression Technology, RIVET, for use in S. pneumoniae to study gene expression in vitro, and then in vivo was assessed. However, the system was found to be unsuitable for use in this study. Secondly, the requirement for and the role of virulence gene regulators identified by Signature Tagged Mutagenesis were investigated. The requirement for different virulence gene regulators varied according to the murine ...
Background The expression of genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive non-pathogenic bacterium used mainly for the industrial production of amino acids, is regulated by seven different sigma factors of RNA polymerase, including the stress-responsive ECF-sigma factor SigH. The sigH gene is located in a gene cluster together with the rshA gene, putatively encoding an anti-sigma factor. The aim of this study was to analyze the transcriptional regulation of the sigH and rshA gene cluster and the effects of RshA on the SigH regulon, in order to refine the model describing the role of SigH and RshA during stress response. Results Transcription analyses revealed that the sigH gene and rshA gene are cotranscribed from four sigH housekeeping promoters in C. glutamicum. In addition, a SigH-controlled rshA promoter was found to only drive the transcription of the rshA gene. To test the role of the putative anti-sigma factor gene rshA under normal growth conditions, a C. glutamicum rshA deletion ...
The molecular determinants necessary and sufficient for recognition of its specific DNA target are contained in the C-domain (H-NSctd) of nucleoid-associated protein H-NS. H-NSctd protects from DNaseI cleavage a few short DNA segments of the H-NS-sensitive hns promoter whose sequences closely match the recently identified H-NS consensus motif (tCGt/aTa/tAATT) and, ... read more alone or fused to the protein oligomerization domain of phage λ CI repressor, inhibits transcription from the hns promoter in vitro and in vivo. The importance of H-NS oligomerization is indicated by the fact that with an extended hns promoter construct (400 bp), which allows protein oligomerization, DNA binding and transcriptional repression are highly and almost equally efficient with native H-NS and H-NSctd::λCI and much less effective with the monomeric H-NSctd. With a shorter (110 bp) construct, which does not sustain extensive protein oligomerization, transcriptional repression is less effective, but native H-NS, ...
In this study, we demonstrated that a mutant strain lacking a functional slyA gene in D. dadantii 3937 had pleiotropic effects: (i) diminished virulence in potato tubers; (ii) decreased survival ability in its host, potato; (iii) increased sensitivity to the CAMP polymyxin B, sodium hypochlorite, and oxidative stress; (iv) reduced exopolysaccharide production; (v) inability to form pellicles; and (vi) failure of hyperinduction of pectate lyase production while normal levels of polygalacturonases, cellulases, and proteases were observed. Changes in these phenotypes in the ΔslyA mutant were restored by introducing the slyA homologue of D. dadantii 3937 on a multicopy vector, pGEM-T Easy [ΔslyA(pSlyA)]. Thus, SlyA is a global transcriptional regulator involved in the regulation of the synthesis of a large group of virulence-associated factors in D. dadantii 3937.. SlyA was originally identified as an S. enterica serovar Typhimurium gene product by screening for cytolysin on blood agar plates and ...
HilA activates the expression of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium invasion genes. To learn more about regulation of hilA, we isolated Tn5 mutants exhibiting reduced hilA and/or invasion gene expression. In addition to expected mutations, we identified Tn5 insertions in pstS, fadD, flhD, flhC, and fliA. Analysis of the pstS mutant indicates that hilA and invasion genes are repressed by the response regulator PhoB in the absence of the Pst high-affinity inorganic phosphate uptake system. This system is required for negative control of the PhoR-PhoB two-component regulatory system, suggesting that hilA expression may be repressed by PhoRPhoB under low extracellular inorganic phosphate conditions. FadD is required for uptake and degradation of long-chain fatty acids, and our analysis of the fadD mutant indicates that hilA is regulated by a FadDdependent, FadR-independent mechanism. Thus, fatty acid derivatives may act as intracellular signals to regulate hilA expression. flhDC and fliA encode
Sensor kinases play a key role in sensing and responding to environmental and physiological signals in bacteria. In this study we characterized a previously unknown orphan hybrid sensor kinase from Pseudomonas putida, which is conserved in several Pseudomonads. Inactivation of the gene coding for this sensor kinase, which we have named HskA, modified the expression of at least 85 genes in cells growing in a complete medium. HskA showed a strong influence on the composition of the electron transport chain. In cells growing exponentially in a complete medium, the absence of HskA led to a significant reduction in the expression of the genes coding for the bc1 complex and for the CIO and Cbb3-1 terminal oxidases. In stationary phase cells, however, lack of HskA caused a higher expression of the Cyo terminal oxidase and a lower expression of the Aa3 terminal oxidase. The HskA polypeptide shows two PAS (signal-sensing) domains, a transmitter domain containing the invariant phosphorylatable histidine ...
The LysR-family regulator MexT modulates the expression of the MexEF-OprN efflux system in the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Recently, we demonstrated that MexT regulates certain virulence phenotypes, including the type-three secretion system and early attachment independent of its role in regulating MexEF-OprN. In this study, transcriptome profiling was utilized to investigate the global nature of MexT regulation in P. aeruginosa PAO1 and an isogenic mexEF mutant. Twelve genes of unknown function were highly induced by overexpressing MexT independent of MexEF-OprN. A well-conserved DNA motif was identified in the upstream regulatory region of nine of these genes and upstream of mexE. Reporter fusion analysis demonstrated that the expression of the genes was significantly induced by MexT in P. aeruginosa and a heterogenous Escherichia coli strain and that the conserved sequence was required for this induction. The conserved DNA motif was further characterized as the MexT binding site by ...
SlyA is a member of the MarR family of bacterial transcriptional regulators. Previously, SlyA has been shown to directly regulate only two operons in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655, fimB and hlyE (clyA). In both cases, SlyA activates gene expression by antagonizing repression by the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS. Here, the transcript profiles of aerobic glucose-limited steady-state chemostat cultures of E. coli K-12 MG1655, slyA mutant and slyA over-expression strains are reported. The transcript profile of the slyA mutant was not significantly different from that of the parent; however, that of the slyA expression strain was significantly different from that of the vector control. Transcripts representing 27 operons were increased in abundance, whereas 3 were decreased. Of the 30 differentially regulated operons, 24 have previously been associated with sites of H-NS binding, suggesting that antagonism of H-NS repression is a common feature of SlyA-mediated transcription regulation. Direct binding of
Bibliographic details on RegulonDB (version 5.0): Escherichia coli K-12 transcriptional regulatory network, operon organization, and growth conditions.
An anti-sigma factor for extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor SigK. ECF sigma factors are held in an inactive form by an anti-sigma factor until released by regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). RIP occurs when an extracytoplasmic signal triggers a concerted proteolytic cascade to transmit information and elicit cellular responses. The membrane-spanning regulatory substrate protein is first cut extracytoplasmically (site-1 protease, S1P), then within the membrane itself (site-2 protease, S2P, Rip1), while cytoplasmic proteases finish degrading the regulatory protein, liberating the sigma factor.
Soil-dwelling Streptomyces bacteria such as S.coelicolor have to constantly adapt to the nitrogen (N) availability in their habitat. Thus, strict transcriptional and post-translational control of the N-assimilation is fundamental for survival of this species. GlnR is a global response regulator that controls transcription of the genes related to the N-assimilation in S. coelicolor and other members of the Actinomycetales. GlnR represents an atypical orphan response regulator that is not activated by the phosphorylation of the conserved aspartate residue (Asp 50). We have applied transcriptional analysis, LC-MS/MS analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) to understand the regulation of GlnR in S. coelicolor M145. The expression of glnR and GlnR-target genes was revisited under four different N-defined conditions and a complex N-rich condition. Although, the expression of selected GlnR-target genes was strongly responsive to changing N-concentrations, the glnR expression itself ...
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Although proteins fulfil most of the requirements that biology has for structural and functional components such as enzymes and receptors, RNA can also serve in these capacities. For example, RNA has sufficient structural plasticity to form ribozyme1,2 and receptor3,4 elements that exhibit considerable enzymatic power and binding specificity. Moreover, these activities can be combined to create allosteric ribozymes5,6 that are modulated by effector molecules. It has also been proposed7,8,9,10,11,12 that certain messenger RNAs might use allosteric mechanisms to mediate regulatory responses depending on specific metabolites. We report here that mRNAs encoding enzymes involved in thiamine (vitamin B1) biosynthesis in Escherichia coli can bind thiamine or its pyrophosphate derivative without the need for protein cofactors. The mRNA-effector complex adopts a distinct structure that sequesters the ribosome-binding site and leads to a reduction in gene expression. This metabolite-sensing regulatory system
CsgD, the master regulator of biofilm formation, activates the synthesis of curli fimbriae and extracellular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli. To obtain insights into its regulatory role, we have identified a total of 20 novel regulation target genes on the E. coli genome by using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip analysis with a high-density DNA microarray. By DNase I footprinting, the consensus CsgD-binding sequence predicted from a total of 18 target sites was found to include AAAAGNG(N(2))AAAWW. After a promoter-lacZ fusion assay, the CsgD targets were classified into two groups: group I genes, such as fliE and yhbT, are repressed by CsgD, while group II genes, including yccT and adrA, are activated by CsgD. The fliE and fliEFGH operons for flagellum formation are directly repressed by CsgD, while CsgD activates the adrA gene, which encodes an enzyme for synthesis of cyclic di-GMP, a bacterial second messenger, which in turn inhibits flagellum production and rotation. Taking these
This chapter summarizes studies that led to identification and characterization of the Cpx envelope stress response and highlights recent work that hints at a diverse range of Cpx-influenced cellular phenotypes. Silverman and colleagues provided the kernels for our current understanding of the Cpx envelope stress response. The Cpx envelope stress response is regulated by a typical two-component regulatory system. In addition to functioning as an activator and a repressor, a new role for CpxR~P in transcription has recently been put forth, that of potentiator. Researchers have shown by microarray analysis of biofilm and planktonic populations of cells that the Cpx-regulated genes cpxP and spy were highly up-regulated in biofilms and that cpxP and cpxR mutants formed biofilms with reduced mass and substrate coverage. It has been shown that CpxR homologues in Legionella pneumophila and Yersinia enterocolitica are likely involved in transcription of the icm-dot genes encoding the type IV secretion system
Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatl …
Two-component signal transduction systems that respond to the presence of inducer peptide pheromones are known to regulate a variety of processes: bacteriocin production, competence for transformation, biofilm formation, and virulence (30). The results presented here and those from previous studies (14, 15) show that S. mutans uses one and the same TCSTS to control at least three of these at first sight unrelated processes. Mutants in comA, comC, and comDE are competence deficient (14), form biofilms that are different from those formed by wild-type strains (15), and do not produce bacteriocins (this study; 32, 36).. Unlike competence, which exhibits an optimum during a short interval of the exponential phase (data not shown) (19, 23), expression of nlmAB′-lacZ was lowest in this period but reached a maximum in the stationary phase. Since both activities are controlled by the same regulatory system, the question arises as to how this differential regulation is established. The key to the ...
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The RcsCDB phosphorelay system controls an extremely large regulon in Enterobacteriaceae that involves processes such as biofilm formation, flagella production, synthesis of extracellular capsules and cell division. Therefore, fine-tuning of this system is essential for virulence in pathogenic microorganisms of this group. The final master effector of the RcsCDB system is the response regulator (RR) RcsB, which activates or represses multiple genes by binding to different promoter regions. This regulatory activity of RcsB can be done alone or in combination with additional transcriptional factors in phosphorylated or dephosphorylated states. The capacity of RcsB to interact with multiple promoters and partners, either dephosphorylated or phosphorylated, suggests an extremely conformational dynamism for this RR. To shed light on the activation mechanism of RcsB and its implication on promoter recognition, we solved the crystal structure of full-length RcsB from Salmonella enterica serovar ...
Plans for a Transition Phase, which would help ensure a seamless transition from UN Environments environmental assessment to the clean-up of oil contamination, were presented to a meeting of the Presidential Implementation Committee in Abuja in February 2011. The United Nations prepared a Transition Phase proposal at the request of the Presidential Implementation Committee. The Transition Phase would include steps such as preparing clean-up plans and detailed designs; the preparation of bidding documents; seeking agreement between key partners on legal and financial matters; and consultations with key stakeholders. The proposal also recommended to identify the sites for potential treatment centres in Ogoniland, design monitoring programmes and regimes, and develop laboratory procedures and protocols. In 2018, building on its 2011 environmental assessment of Ogoniland, UN Environment began a new project that aims to strengthen the Hydrocarbon Pollution Remediation Project (HYPREP) and its
Bacillus subtilis uses two-component signal transduction systems to sense intra- and extracellular stimuli to adapt to fluctuating environmental situations. Regulator aspartate phosphatases (Raps) have important roles in these processes, as they can dephosphorylate certain response-regulators, and are themselves subject to cell-density-controlled inhibition by secreted Phr (phosphate regulator) peptides. Eleven chromosomal genes encode this family of phosphatases, but in addition, certain strains contain endogenous plasmids with genes for homologous Rap-Phr systems. Plasmid pTA1060 encodes Rap60 and its antagonistic signalling molecule Phr60. Strikingly, expression of Rap60 in B. subtilis 168 strongly repressed the production of proteolytic enzymes. In fact, the transcription of the aprE gene, encoding a major extracellular protease, was shown to be decreased upon Rap60 expression, whereas this effect could be antagonized by the extracellular addition of synthetic Phr60 pentapeptide. Finally,
ID A0A0H2ZLT6_PSEAB Unreviewed; 210 AA. AC A0A0H2ZLT6; DT 16-SEP-2015, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 16-SEP-2015, sequence version 1. DT 30-AUG-2017, entry version 17. DE SubName: Full=Putative two-component response regulator {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABJ15565.1}; GN Name=uhpA {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABJ15565.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=PA14_07840 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABJ15565.1}; OS Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain UCBPP-PA14). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Pseudomonadales; OC Pseudomonadaceae; Pseudomonas. OX NCBI_TaxID=208963 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABJ15565.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000653}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABJ15565.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000653} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=UCBPP-PA14 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABJ15565.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000653}; RX PubMed=17038190; DOI=10.1186/gb-2006-7-10-r90; RA Lee D.G., Urbach J.M., Wu G., Liberati N.T., Feinbaum R.L., Miyata S., RA Diggins L.T., He J., Saucier M., Deziel E., Friedman L., Li L., ...
Negative regulation of germination-arrest factor production in Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6 by a putative extracytoplasmic function sigma factor ...
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A number of bacteria and some plants produce large quantities of indole, which is widespread in animal intestinal tracts and in the rhizosphere. Although it ha...
The Pm promoter of the TOL plasmid of Pseudomonas putida is expressed at high level along the growth curve. This transcription is dependent on the positive regulator XylS activated by 3-methylbenzoate. The sigma factor sigma 38 is required for expression in early stationary phase and thereafter. To …
Vern Schramm, Ph.D.Most antibiotics initially work extremely well, killing more than 99.9% of microbes they target. But through mutation and the selection pressure exerted by the antibiotic, a few bacterial cells inevitably manage to survive, repopulate the bacterial community, and flourish as antibiotic-resistant strains.. Vern L. Schramm, Ph.D., professor and Ruth Merns Chair of Biochemistry at Einstein and senior author of the paper, hypothesized that antibiotics that could reduce the infective functions of bacteria, but not kill them, would minimize the risk that resistance would later develop. Dr. Schramms collaborators at Industrial Research Ltd. earlier reported transition state analogues of an enzyme that interferes with quorum sensing - the process by which bacteria communicate with each other by producing and detecting signaling molecules known as autoinducers. These autoinducers coordinate bacterial gene expression and regulate processes - including virulence - that benefit the ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Regulation systems of toxin expression. AU - Locht, Camille. AU - Lereclus, Didier. AU - Rood, Julian Ian. AU - Fournier, Benedicte. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Chapter (Book). SN - 0120884453. SP - 64. EP - 82. BT - The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins. A2 - Alouf, J. A2 - Popoff, M R. PB - Academic Press. CY - USA. ER - ...
1) Kunst F, et al. (1997) The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis.. Nature 390(6657):249-56 PubMed: 9384377 ...
Exposure to environmental insults generally occurs at low levels, making it challenging to measure bacterial responses to such interactions. Additionally, microbial behaviour and phenotype varies in differing bacterial types or growth phases, likely giving rise to growth- or species-specific responses to environmen
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Type-III secretion systems (T3SSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of flagella, and the interaction of many animal and plant pathogens with eukaryotic cells. T3SSs consist of multiple proteins which assemble to form an apparatus capable of exporting proteins through both membranes of Gram-negative bacteria in one step. Proteins conserved amongst T3SSS can be used for analysis of these systems using computational homology searching. By using tools including BLAST and HMMER in conjunction phylogenetic analysis this thesis examines the range of T3SSs, both in terms of the proteins they contain, and also the bacteria which contain them. In silico analysis of several of the conserved components of T3SSs shows similarities between them and other secretion systems, as well as components of ATPases. Use of conserved components allows for identification of T3SS loci in diverse bacteria, in order to assess in the different proteins used by different T3SSs, and to see where, in evolutionary space, ...
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Impact of mutations in individual protease genes/operons on biofilm formation in vitro. The relative capacity to form a biofilm was assessed using a microtiter
Many bacteria, including V. fischeri, recognize and respond to their environments using two-component regulatory systems (Fig. 2A, reviewed in Stock et al.
LB broth is used for maintaining and cultivating recombinant strains of Escherichia coli. The ingredients of LB broth are tryptone, yeast extract and Sodium Chloride. We show you how to prepare the LB medium. - LB Medium Preparation - AbVideo™ - Support - Abnova
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