Thanks to their expertise in single-molecule imaging of RNAs, researchers from the group of Jeff Chao at the FMI helped to reveal the biological mechanism of a small molecule that restricts Ewings sarcoma cell growth. The study - published in Nature Chemical Biology - is further evidence that each step of the gene expression pathway may be druggable, and a great example of a Novartis-FMI collaboration.
The immediate-early response mediates cell fate in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli and is dysregulated in many cancers.
Bogdans Gallery EMBO Practical Course on Advanced Analysis and Informatics of Microarray Data, 2006 comparison of PDGFBB and FGF2 gene expression regulation at 1h and 24h ...
Inflammation involves timed gene expression, suggesting that the fine-tuned onset, amplitude, and termination of expression of hundreds of genes is of critical importance to organismal homeostasis. Recent study of post-transcriptional regulation of inflammatory gene expression led to the suggestion of a regulatory role for pre-mRNA splicing. Here, using a hybrid capture approach to purify incompletely spliced, chromatin-associated pre-mRNAs, we use deep sequencing to study pre-mRNA splicing of the NF-kB transcriptome. By freezing transcription and examining subsequent splicing of complete transcripts, we find many introns splice tens to hundreds of times slower than average. In many cases, this is attributable to poor splice donor sequences that are evolutionarily conserved. When these introns were altered by ~2 base pairs to yield stronger splice donors, gene expression levels increased markedly for several genes in the context of a reporter system. We propose that such splice sites represent a ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
We developed m:Explorer for identifying process-specific transcription factors (TFs) from multiple genome-wide sources, including transcriptome, DNA-binding and chromatin data. m:Explorer robustly outperforms similar techniques in finding cell cycle TFs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We predicted and experimentally tested regulators of quiescence (G0), a model of ageing, over a six-week time-course. We validated nine of top-12 predictions as novel G0 TFs, including Δmga2, Δcst6, Δbas1 with higher viability and G0-essential TFs Tup1, Swi3. Pathway analysis associates longevity to reduced growth, reprogrammed metabolism and cell wall remodeling. m:Explorer (http://biit.cs.ut.ee/mexplorer/) is instrumental in interrogating eukaryotic regulatory systems using heterogeneous data.
Introduction: Lung cancer is the number one cancer killer in the United States accounting for nearly 30% of all cancer deaths. Survival rates continue to be abysmal with 5-year survival only 15% despite contemporary therapies, making it clear that novel therapeutic agents need to be discovered. The translation of mRNA into protein, a central control point in the gene expression pathway, has been increasingly implicated as a critical checkpoint in tumor genesis and progression. This checkpoint serves as a traffic signal at the intersection of cell pathways controlling cell division and survival. The cell machinery controlling the first step in protein synthesis, a hetero-trimer designated eIF4F, is stuck in the on position in many human cancers. When this happens cells evade restraints on proliferation and survival. The activation state of eIF4F is controlled at multiple levels with the primary mechanism being negative regulation by the 4E binding proteins (4E-BPs). 4E-BPs are inactivated when ...
The eukaryotic gene expression pathway involves a number of interlinked steps, with messenger RNA (mRNA) being the key intermediate. The precursor mRNA is transcribed from DNA, processed by removal of
Publications - Jeremy Sanford - Page 1 - MyScienceWork:Our work attempts to dissect the myriad roles of RNA binding proteins in mammalian gene expression. RNA p
Translational contributions to tissue specificity in rhythmic and constitutive gene expression. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
When using the gene expression search we felt it would be most valufuable if high quality images appeared near the top of your search results. That is why we have developed a way to allow our users to vote on the quality of an image. You can change your vote for a given image as many times as you want, but only your last vote is counted. Additionally,weve provided a comment box if you want to tell us why you think a specific image is good or bad ...
The Cologne Cluster of Excellence in Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-associated Diseases provides an extremely dynamic environment for research into the aging process and its diseases.
The answer, though, is differences in gene expression in a cell. Clones have identical DNA, but the way the DNA is transcribed to RNA, and the way the RNA is translated to making a protein, can be specific to the cell. There are epigenetic factors - basically, chemicals that adhere to certain parts of the genome - that dictate NOT whether the DNA is there, but how often the DNA is read to make RNA and how efficiently that is made into functional proteins. Think about a fertilized egg. It divides into two cells, then 4 cells, then 8 cells, then 16 cells, then 32 cells, etc. Every time the cell divides, it has to make a perfect copy of its DNA. The cell machinery isnt always perfect and little changes in DNA can occur. Also, those chemicals that can affect gene expression can get added or subtracted as cells divide. Many of them, however, are passed on to the daughter cells. Thats how identical cells can have different levels of gene expression, and how people and horses and dogs with identical ...
Regulation of gene expression can be accomplished in cis by several regulatory elements exerting their action on physically linked genes on the same...
Cellular heterogeneity is present in almost all gene expression profiles. However, transcriptome analysis of tissue specimens often ignores the cellular heterogeneity present in these samples. Standard deconvolution algorithms require prior knowledge of the cell type frequencies within a tissue or their in vitro expression profiles. Furthermore, these algorithms tend to report biased estimations. Here, we describe a Digital Sorting Algorithm (DSA) for extracting cell-type specific gene expression profiles from mixed tissue samples that is unbiased and does not require prior knowledge of cell type frequencies. The results suggest that DSA is a specific and sensitivity algorithm in gene expression profile deconvolution and will be useful in studying individual cell types of complex tissues.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Universal features of post-transcriptional gene regulation are critical for Plasmodium zygote development. AU - Mair, Gunnar R.. AU - Lasonder, Edwin. AU - Garver, Lindsey S.. AU - Franke-Fayard, Blandine M.D.. AU - Carret, Céline K.. AU - Wiegant, Joop C.A.G.. AU - Dirks, Roeland W.. AU - Dimopoulos, George. AU - Janse, Chris J.. AU - Waters, Andrew P.. N1 - Funding information: This study was supported by a BioMalPar Network of Excellence and a Wellcome Trust Functional Genomics Initiative grant to APW and a Netherlands Genomics Initiative HORIZON Project (050-71-061) to GRM; CKC is recipient of an Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (SFRH/BPD/40965/2007) fellowship. APW is a Wellcome Trust Principal Research Fellow. This work has been supported by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease 1R01AI061576-01A1, the Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute and Johns Hopkins School of Public Health (GD). LSG was supported by a ...
You need to be familiar with all of the different ways and levels at which cells can control gene expression, including gene expression, Chromatin packing, DNA methylation, Histone acetylation, control elements and transcription factors, alternative RNA splicing, mRNA degredation, translational control by regulatory proteins, proteasomic protein degradation, etc. (Damn, that s a lot of control ...
Biological tissues consist of various cell types that differentially contribute to physiological and pathophysiological processes. Determining and analyzing cell type-specific gene expression under diverse conditions is therefore a central aim of biomedical research. The present study compares gene expression profiles in whole tissues and isolated cell fractions purified from these tissues in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The expression profiles of the whole tissues were compared to computationally reconstituted expression profiles that combine the expression profiles of the isolated cell fractions (macrophages, fibroblasts, and non-adherent cells) according to their relative mRNA proportions in the tissue. The mRNA proportions were determined by trimmed robust regression using only the most robustly-expressed genes (1/3 to 1/2 of all measured genes), i.e. those showing the most similar expression in tissue and isolated cell fractions. The relative mRNA proportions were
RBF1 and E2F2 are components of the Drosophila, Rb, E2F, and Myb‐associated protein (dREAM) complex, a transcriptional silencing complex that represses many E2F target genes (Korenjak et al, 2004). To determine whether components of the Pum complex are targets for dREAM‐mediated repression, we analyzed datasets of published genome‐wide dREAM ChIP experiments from Drosophila Kc cells (Georlette et al, 2007) and found a strong ChIP enrichment for all of the dREAM components (E2F2, Myb, Mip120, Mip130, and Lin‐52) on the pumilio, nanos, and brat genes (Supplementary Fig S1B). To establish the functional significance of E2F2/RBF1 binding to these promoters, we assayed gene expression levels from Drosophila S2 cells and flies containing dsRNA or RNAi sequences targeting E2F/RBF family members. Depletion of RBF1 or E2F2 (but not E2F1) strongly induced the expression of nanos and modestly elevated the levels of pum and brat (Fig 1C, Supplementary Figs S1C and S2A and B). To further assess the ...
Systems biology aims to understand the behavior of and interaction between various components of the living cell, such as genes, proteins, and metabolites. A large number of components are involved in these complex systems and the diversity of relationships between the components can be overwhelming, and there is therefore a need for analysis methods incorporating data integration. We here present a method for exploring gene regulatory mechanisms which integrates various types of data to assist the identification of important components in gene regulation mechanisms. By first analyzing gene expression data, a set of differentially expressed genes is selected. These genes are then further investigated by combining various types of biological information, such as clustering results, promoter sequences, binding sites, transcription factors and other previously published information regarding the selected genes. Inspired by Information Fusion research, we also mapped functions of the proposed method ...
Nashun B, Hill PW, Hajkova P, 2015, Reprogramming of cell fate: epigenetic memory and the erasure of memories past., EMBO Journal, Vol: 34, Pages: 1296-1308, ISSN: 0261-4189 Cell identity is a reflection of a cell type-specific gene expression profile, and consequently, cell type-specific transcription factor networks are considered to be at the heart of a given cellular phenotype. Although generally stable, cell identity can be reprogrammed in vitro by forced changes to the transcriptional network, the most dramatic example of which was shown by the induction of pluripotency in somatic cells by the ectopic expression of defined transcription factors alone. Although changes to cell fate can be achieved in this way, the efficiency of such conversion remains very low, in large part due to specific chromatin signatures constituting an epigenetic barrier to the transcription factor-mediated reprogramming processes. Here we discuss the two-way relationship between transcription factor binding and ...
Mammalian genomic imprinting is an epigenetic gene regulatory mechanism that results in parental‐specific gene expression of a small number of genes in diploid somatic cells (Beechey et al., 2001; Reik and Walter, 2001; Li, 2002; Sleutels and Barlow, 2002). Several features of the imprinting mechanism have been identified; however, it is not yet clear whether imprinting is regulated by a unique process or whether it is part of the general epigenetic apparatus used to regulate mammalian gene expression. Clustering and coordinate regulation is one feature imprinted genes share with non‐imprinted genes (Engemann et al., 2000; Onyango et al., 2000), and it is now clear that many imprinted genes are functionally grouped such that imprinted expression of several genes is regulated by one long‐range imprint control element (Thorvaldsen et al., 1998; Horike et al., 2000; Zwart et al., 2001; Fitzpatrick et al., 2002). The frequent occurrence of an imprinted non‐coding RNA within an imprinted gene ...
On 3 September 2020 Sanquin researcher Benoit Nicolet will defend his PhD thesis You only live twice: Gene expression regulation in hematopoiesis and T cells at the University of Amsterdam
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Critical ReviewsTM in Eukaryotic Gene Expression (CRE) publishes original research findings and critical reviews that contribute to advances in mechanistic understanding for genetic and epigenetic control of gene expression, organization and structure within the contexts of biological control and the diagnosis/treatment of disease. Contributions include molecular, cellular, biochemical, genetic, genomic, proteomic and bioinformatic approaches to eukaryotic gene expression. The relationship between gene structure and function is stressed, with emphasis on coordinate control of integration of biological processes. Regulatory mechanisms are explored from the perspective of sequences and regulatory molecules that influence organization and expression of eukaryotic genes as well as in relation to cellular architecture and development of cell specialization and tissue organization. Processes that include genetic and epigenetic control, cell cycle regulation, differentiation, transformation and tumorigenesis,
Over several decades, the therapeutic use of glucocorticoids have established these molecules as potent inflammation suppressors. The description of transcriptional repression of pro-inflammatory genes as a nuclear receptor mediated mechanism represents a more recent topic of glucocorticoid signaling. However, new evidences suggest that steroidal regulation of inflammation is more complex, including epigenetic and receptor-independent pathways. It is also likely that sets of genes behaves in contradictory ways, making gene repression not a rule, but rather one of the possible modulatory modes. A similar level of complexity might apply to other steroidal hormones, such as those involved in sexually dimorphic immune responses. In fact, some autoimmune diseases are much more prevalent in one gender compared to the other. In addition to well-known steroid hormones, including aldosterone and vitamin D, this review topic intends to cover also non-canonical steroid signaling, including oxysteroids and
Pancreatic transcriptome studies of bulk-sorted endocrine cell fractions have revealed important insights into cell type-specific gene expression signatures (36,37). In our study, we obtained RNA-seq data from well-annotated single cells from multiple organ donors covering children, healthy adults, and individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We developed a robust pipeline to ensure that each cell is correctly assigned to a specific cell type and that artifacts and cell doublets were removed. We also demonstrate several clear advantages in analyzing data from single cells versus the entirety of a population, even when cells are FACS sorted prior to RNA extraction.. A particularly striking result from our study is the discovery that the transcriptomes of both α- and β-cells from donors with type 2 diabetes exhibit features of expression profiles of their juvenile counterparts, indicating partial regression to an immature state, as exhibited by upregulation of several cell cycle genes (Figs. ...
99 Tumorigenesis is often attributed to aberrant gene expression control leading to altered cell cycle control, resistance to apoptosis, abnormal differentiation, decreased genomic stability and inefficient DNA repair. The activity of chromatin remodeling complexes is vital to maintaining proper control of gene expression. The SWI/SNF complex is conserved from yeast to man and is responsible for remodeling up to 6% of the human genome, with many of those genes known to be associated with cell cycle control. Therefore, impaired or defective activity of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, involved in regulation of gene transcription, could encourage tumor development. The complex is composed of 10 or more members but requires only three core members to do the basic task of remodeling nucleosomes: BRG1/BRM, SNF5, and BAF155. BRG1 and SNF5 both lead to tumor development in haploinsufficient mice and embryonic lethality in null mice, and are mutated or inactivated in human tumors. The third and ...
Cancer can be understood as a disease of dysfunctional gene expression control. Research in Chris Vakocs lab investigates how transcription factors and chromatin regulators cooperate to control gene expression and maintain the cancer cell state. This work makes extensive use of genetic screens to reveal cancer-specific functions for transcriptional regulators, as well as genomic and biochemical approaches to identify molecular mechanisms. One theme that has emerged from their efforts is that blood cancers are often vulnerable to targeting transcriptional coactivators, such as BRD4 and the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Vakocs team demonstrated that chemical inhibition of BRD4 exhibits therapeutic effects in mouse models of leukemia, a finding that has motivated ongoing clinical trials in human leukemia patients. The Vakoc lab has also developed a CRISPR-Cas9 screening approach that can reveal individual protein domains that sustain cancer cells. Their lab is now deploying this ...
The present study describes a novel cell type-specific mechanism of transcriptional regulation of TSP-1 in vascular cells in response to glucose. We report here that unlike our recently identified short promoter region (−280/+66) responsible for the increased THBS1 transcription in ECs, a longer promoter fragment (−1270/+66) is required for THBS1 regulation in HASMCs, as was described for specialized pericytes and mesangial cells.27 Interestingly, glucose responsiveness in ECs was in fact inhibited by the distal fragment of the promoter,10 suggesting the presence of an inhibitory element in this region, which is not active in either VSMCs or mesangial cells.27 The longer promoter region, −1270/+66, responsible for the increased THBS1 transcription in HASMCs contained distinctly different binding elements, as identified by MatInspector, located in the distal end of the promoter. These binding elements had no similarity to those in the EC-specific THBS1 promoter fragment, −280/+66, ...
Abstract: Interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene regulation was investigated in primary cultures of highly purified human peripheral blood CD28+T cells. Two discrete mechanisms for induction of T-cell proliferation could be distinguished by examining cell cycle progression and the expression of the IL-2 gene. Stimulation of cells by CD3 MoAb induced only transiently expressed, small amounts of IL-2 mRNA that was completely suppressed by cyclosporine. Costimulation of T cells with CD3 MoAb and either CD28 MoAb or PMA, but not calcium ionophore, induced a 50-100-fold increased in IL-2 gene expression and secretion. High levels of IL-2 gene expression could also be achieved by stimulation with calcium ionophore and PMA or CD28 MoAb and PMA, but not by CD28 MoAb plus calcium ionophore. IL-2 gene expression and T-cell proliferation induced by CD3 MoAb plus PMA or calcium ionophore plus PMA were completely suppressible by cyclosporine. In contrast, IL-2 gene expression and T-cell proliferation induced by CD28 MoAb ...
Our appreciation of the critical role of the genomes 3D organization in gene regulation is steadily increasing. Recent 3C-based deep sequencing techniques elucidated a hierarchy of structures that underlie the spatial organization of the genome in the nucleus. At the top of this hierarchical organization are chromosomal territories and the megabase-scale A/B compartments that correlate with transcriptional activity within cells. Below them are the relatively cell-type-invariant topologically associated domains (TADs), characterized by high frequency of physical contacts between loci within the same TAD, and are assumed to function as regulatory units. Within TADs, chromatin loops bring enhancers and target promoters to close spatial proximity. Yet, we still have only rudimentary understanding how differences in chromatin organization between different cell types affect cell-type-specific gene expression programs that are executed under basal and challenged conditions. Here, we carried out a large-scale
Buffo, A., Carulli, D., Rossi, F. and Strata, P. (2003), Extrinsic regulation of injury/growth-related gene expression in the inferior olive of the adult rat. European Journal of Neuroscience, 18: 2146-2158. doi: 10.1046/j.1460-9568.2003.02940.x ...
Kusakabe T., Yoshida, R., Ikeda, Y., Tsuda, M. (2004). Computational discovery of DNA motifs associated with cell type-specific gene expression in Ciona. Dev Biol 276:563-580. (PUBMED ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in negative regulation of gene expression pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Gene regulation at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels has been the central focus of my research program. While transcription initiation begins the process of gene expression, the post-transcriptional steps of RNA splicing, cleavage polyadenylation, transport and stability all contribute to the type and final levels of protein that will be produced. In addition, these steps are coupled to each other, which can contribute to overall regulation. My lab has been studying several different model systems that allow us to address aspects of gene regulation including immunoglobulin gene expression during B lymphocyte development and, in collaboration with the lab of Brett Spear, liver development and disease. In liver, we have identified Zhx2 as a regulator of genes involved in lipid metabolism and genes that are misregulated during liver cancer.. ...
Ca(2+)-dependent gene expression is critical for cell growth, proliferation, plasticity, and adaptation [1-3]. Because a common mechanism in vertebrates linking cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signals with activation of protein synthesis involves the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors [4, 5], we have quantified protein expression in single cells following physiological Ca(2+) signals by using NFAT-driven expression of a genetically encoded fluorescent protein. We find that gene expression following CRAC channel activation is an all-or-nothing event over a range of stimulus intensities. Increasing agonist concentration recruits more cells but each responding cell does so in an essentially digital manner. Furthermore, Ca(2+)-dependent gene expression shows both short-term memory and strong synergy, where two pulses of agonist, which are ineffectual individually, robustly activate gene expression provided that the time interval between them is short. Such temporal filtering
Is there a gene or genes that are activated at age 1 that signal to the other genes to perform gene expression appropriate for a one year old? Futhermore, is there a gene or genes that are activated at age 20 that signal to the other genes to perform gene expression appropriate for a twenty year old? Lastly, if there were a gene or genes that signals for twenty year old gene expression regulation, then if that gene were activated in an 80 year old, would the body of the 80 year old begin to exhibit the physiology of a 20 year old, thus increasing lifespan and healthspan? DE. ...
The discovery of the obese gene in the mouse and its conserved homologue in humans has led to important discoveries in energy metabolism. One of the chief findings was the fact that the expression of the leptin gene was regulated and that it, in turn, could regulate metabolism and behavior. Much of the literature has focused on the physiological role of leptin in driving processes as diverse as reproduction, starvation defence, feeding behavior or body weight, all dependent on expression levels of the ob gene. Here, we will describe our work, in which we have begun to elucidate the regulatory processes controlling obese gene expression.. Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation ; Obesity. ...
Summary Basic biological processes require gene expression. Tightly regulated molecules known as transcription factors mediate the expression of genes in development and disease. Signal transduction pathways, which respond to environmental cues or stressors are major regulators of the transcription factors. Use of macromolecular synthesis inhibitors in models of normal neurodevelopment and neurodegenerative cell death has led to the discovery that gene expression is required for these processes to occur (Martin et. al.,(1988), J Cell Biol 106 p829). To date, however, the identities of very few of the genes required in these events have been revealed. Hence, the activation or requirement of specific signaling pathways leading to the expression of known apoptotic genes is not well established. Utilizing the neurothrophic factor deprivation and neurotoxin models of programmed cell death we address these gaps in our understanding of the molecular mechanism of apoptosis as it occurs in neuronal cell death.
3. The big picture of eukaryotic gene regulation. Search. Ø Feedback inhibition is a specific type of allosteric enzymatic activity regulation mechanism in cells. homeostasis [ho″me-o-sta´sis] the tendency of biological systems to maintain relatively constant conditions in the internal environment while continuously interacting with and adjusting to changes originating within or outside the system. Homeostasis. Effective regulation definition: Regulation is the controlling of an activity or process, usually by means of rules. ADVERTISEMENTS: Let us discuss about the two types of gene expression regulation. Learn more. Biology Article. 5. The two types of gene expression regulation are: (1) Negative Regulation and (2) Positive Regulation. Homeostasis is an organisms process of maintaining a stable internal environment suitable for sustaining life. Find more ways to say regulation, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the worlds most trusted free ...
Author: Yampolsky, Pessah et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2019-07-23; Title: Augmentation of myocardial If dysregulates calcium homeostasis and causes adverse cardiac remodeling
Comparison of gene expression from transgenes and endogenous genes with or without introns reveals a time-regulating role of introns in natural biological systems.
Sreenivas was awarded PhD in Biotechnology in 2009 by University of Pune, India for his research work on understanding the genetic determinants of human diseases, undertaken at CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, India. Subsequently, he undertook postdoctoral studies investigating the role of gene expression regulation in human diseases at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.. He came to Cambridge in November 2010 as Career Development Fellow to MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology and has subsequently become an EMBO long-Term fellow. He currently investigates the role of genetic variation on the gene expression regulation and different observable traits in diverse organisms from yeast to humans. He aims to extend the general principles derived by such comprehensive studies to understand the molecular determinants of human diseases.. ...
Utilize species-agnostic, lipid-based tagging compatible with cells or nuclei to load up to 12 samples onto one GEM well. Click here to learn more ...
This study provides a genome-wide screen of neuronal activity-driven gene expression in response to different chemical stimuli and downstream of four important PRTFs (CREB, SRF, EGR1, and FOS). The use of a common approach to manipulate the activity of different PRTFs, making their transactivation activity independent of the upstream signaling cascades that normally would regulate it, provides an alternative and innovative way to explore the neuronal gene programs downstream of these TFs under highly comparable conditions. Furthermore, the integration of PRTF- and stimulation-dependent patterns through meta-analysis has allowed us to gain novel insight into the transcriptional networks underlying neuronal activity-dependent gene expression, which is usually disregarded in single-molecule reductionist approaches.. Our screen identified hundreds of novel stimulus-specific activity-regulated transcripts, including novel stimulus-associated miRNAs and candidate genes that may be differentially ...
Bacterial 50 untranslated regions of mRNA (UTR) involve in a complex regulation of gene expression; however, the exact sequence features contributing to gene regulation are not yet fully understood. In this study, we ...
This study has confirmed the long-held view that integration of Ca2+ and kinase signaling is needed for efficient activation of inducible gene expression in T cells. We found that for many immune response genes, both signals are needed to open up the chromatin and activate transcription. However, the immune system encompasses other genes that are induced in a range of cell types, by a wide variety of other receptors linked to kinase but not Ca2+ signaling pathways. These include proinflammatory receptors, such as Toll family receptors, and receptors that respond to cytokines such as IL-1 and TNF, which also lead to induction of the TFs AP-1 and NF-κB. For these reasons it makes sense that we find a subset of genes that are induced by PMA via PKC-dependent pathways, in the absence of Ca2+ signaling. Significantly, we found that two-thirds of all of the genes induced 5-fold by TNF were also induced 5-fold by PMA (Table I). In contrast, there appear to be fewer gene-inducing signaling pathways ...
Background Variation in gene expression is extensive among tissues, individuals, strains, populations and species. The interactions among these sources of variation are relevant for physiological...
Effect of the stem-loop element on gene expression in different gene contexts. (A) Cell lines were generated which expressed luciferase under the control of a
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins. [from MeSH] ...
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Transcription factor that is involved in embryonic development, establishment of tissue-specific gene expression and regulation of gene expression in…
IKKα-targeting miRNAs affects noncanonical and canonical NF-κ.B gene expression(a) Real time PCR analysis of ELC mRNA in monocytes and macrophages, normalized
J:99346 Lee CS, Friedman JR, Fulmer JT, Kaestner KH, The initiation of liver development is dependent on Foxa transcription factors. Nature. 2005 Jun 16;435(7044):944-7 ...
J:112202 Krizhanovsky V, Soreq L, Kliminski V, Ben-Arie N, Math1 target genes are enriched with evolutionarily conserved clustered E-box binding sites. J Mol Neurosci. 2006;28(2):211-29 ...
21:47, 20 November 2012 (diff , hist) . . (+4,409)‎ . . N Structural Biochemistry/Modulation of Translation ‎ (Created page with ==Introduction== An effective way gene expression can be controlled is by regulating the translation of RNA. By controlling RNA (primarily mRNA) certain genes can be expresse...) ...
Sex differences in gene expression are important contributors to normal physiology and mechanisms of disease. This is increasingly apparent in understanding and potentially treating chronic pain where molecular mechanisms ...
Gene regulation Following terms are used in gene regulation: 1) Split genes :The non-essential or non-coding parts intermixed with essential or coding
Scientists have made a medical breakthrough which may help bring new insights on how genes are activated. Roughly 3 metres of DNA is tightly folded into the nucleus of every cell in our body. This folding allows some genes to be expressed, or activated, while excluding others.