Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution. It can be defined as any duplication of a region of DNA that contains a gene. Gene duplications can arise as products of several types of errors in DNA replication and repair machinery as well as through fortuitous capture by selfish genetic elements. Common sources of gene duplications include ectopic recombination, retrotransposition event, aneuploidy, polyploidy, and replication slippage. Duplications arise from an event termed unequal crossing-over that occurs during meiosis between misaligned homologous chromosomes.The chance of this happening is a function of the degree of sharing of repetitive elements between two chromosomes. The products of this recombination are a duplication at the site of the exchange and a reciprocal deletion. Ectopic recombination is typically mediated by sequence similarity at the duplicate ...
We found overall support for the hypothesis that gene duplication and/or retention rates are higher in pancrustaceans, the group with the highest disparity of optical-types. We examined the sensitivity of this overall conclusion in three different ways. First, we compared pancrustaceans to both non-arthropod protostomes and to vertebrates. Second, for each of these comparisons, we estimated gene duplication rates using three different denominators: total gene duplications, overall genetic distance, and divergence time estimates from molecular clock analyses. These different denominators are necessary to understand the influence of different modes of genome evolution on our conclusions, such as the multiple genome duplications known in vertebrates. Third, we examined (both separately and together) duplication rates of genes from different eye-gene categories (developmental versus phototransduction genes), allowing us to test whether one category was the primary driver of the overall rates. For ...
Gene duplication is considered a major driving force for evolution of genetic novelty, thereby facilitating functional divergence and organismal diversity, including the process of speciation. Animals, fungi and plants are major eukaryotic kingdoms and the divergences between them are some of the most significant evolutionary events. Although gene duplications in each lineage have been studied extensively in various contexts, the extent of gene duplication prior to the split of plants and animals/fungi is not clear. Here, we have studied gene duplications in early eukaryotes by phylogenetic relative dating. We have reconstructed gene families (with one or more orthogroups) with members from both animals/fungi and plants by using two different clustering strategies. Extensive phylogenetic analyses of the gene families show that, among nearly 2,600 orthogroups identified, at least 300 of them still retain duplication that occurred before the divergence of the three kingdoms. We further found evidence that
Translocated chromosomal duplications occur spontaneously in many organisms; segmental duplications of large chromosomal regions are expected to result in phenotypic changes because of gene dosage effects. Therefore, experimentally generated segmental duplications in targeted chromosomal regions can be used to study phenotypic changes and determine the functions of unknown genes in these regions. Previously, we performed tandem duplication of a targeted chromosomal segment in Aspergillus oryzae. However, in tandem chromosomal duplication, duplication of chromosomal ends and multiple chromosomal duplication are difficult. In this study, we aimed to generate fungal strains with a translocated duplication or triplication of a targeted chromosomal region via break-induced replication. Double-strand breaks were introduced into chromosomes of parental strains by treating protoplast cells with I-SceI meganuclease. Subsequently, strains were generated by nonreciprocal translocation of a 1.4-Mb duplicated region
Members of the YidC/Oxa1/Alb3 protein family facilitate the insertion, folding and assembly of proteins of the inner membranes of bacteria and mitochondria and the thylakoid membrane of plastids. All homologs share a conserved hydrophobic core region comprising five transmembrane domains. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses, six subgroups of the family can be distinguished which presumably arose from three independent gene duplications followed by functional specialization. During evolution of bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts, subgroup-specific regions were added to the core domain to facilitate the association with ribosomes or other components contributing to the substrate spectrum of YidC/Oxa1/Alb3 proteins. ...
Gene loss pattern after teleost-specific whole genome duplication. Figure 2. Gene loss pattern after teleost-specific whole genome duplication.. A: Species tree showing major vertebrate groups and their evolutionary relationships.. B: The comparison of genomes between two species with the coloured lines showing corresponding genes between human and medaka (upper circle) and between zebrafish and medaka (lower circle). The structure is quite different between human and medaka, while it is similar between zebrafish and medaka.. C: Gene loss pattern showing the two-phase loss of duplicate genes in teleost fishes. A and C use the same timeline.. The results of this study suggest that approximately 80% of the duplicate genes were lost in the first 60 million years after the whole genome duplication event (Fig. 2C). Considering that the first vertebrates appeared on Earth about 500 million years ago (Fig. 2A), 60 million years is a very short time. Dr Inoue states that it is possible that genome ...
Whole-genome duplication (WGD) events have shaped the history of many evolutionary lineages. One such duplication has been implicated in the evolution of teleost fishes, by far the most species-rich vertebrate clade. After initial controversy, there is now solid evidence that such event took place in the common ancestor of all extant teleosts. It is termed teleost-specific (TS) WGD. After WGD, duplicate genes have different fates. The most likely outcome is non-functionalization of one duplicate gene due to the lack of selective constraint on preserving both. Mechanisms that act on preservation of duplicates are subfunctionalization (partitioning of ancestral gene functions on the duplicates), neofunctionalization (assigning a novel function to one of the duplicates) and dosage selection (preserving genes to maintain dosage balance between interconnected components). Since the frequency of these mechanisms is influenced by the genes properties, there are over-retained classes of genes, such as ...
Van de Peer, Y. and Meyer, A. (2005). Large-scale gene and ancient genome duplications. In The Evolution of the Genome (edited by T.R. Gregory). Elsevier, San Diego, pp. 329- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 40 Mb duplication in chromosome band 5p13.1p15.33 with 800 kb terminal deletion in a foetus with mild phenotypic features. AU - Izzo, A.. AU - Genesio, R.. AU - Ronga, V.. AU - Nocera, V.. AU - Marullo, L.. AU - Cicatiello, R.. AU - Sglavo, G.. AU - Paladini, D.. AU - Conti, A.. AU - Nitsch, L.. PY - 2012/2. Y1 - 2012/2. N2 - Large duplication of the short arm of chromosome 5 is a rare condition normally associated to severe phenotype anomalies including heart and brain malformations. We report a prenatal case of a large 5p duplication with sub-telomeric deletion in a foetus with very mild phenotypic abnormalities. Foetal ultrasonographic examination at 22 weeks of gestation showed short femur, clubfeet, pielectasy, and facial dysmorphisms. Chromosome investigations revealed an inverted duplication of the short arm of chromosome 5 from 5p13.1 to 5p15.33 and a 800 kb deletion at 5pter. The absence of severe anomalies such as cardiac and cerebral defects, observed so far in all ...
Gene duplication provide a means to evolve novel biological functions and changes in protein functions may then provide different evolutionary constraints on duplicated genes. Functional divergence of a protein family can occur after major evolutionary events such as gene duplication or speciation. Some of them result in different evolutionary rates at certain amino acid residues, which is termed type I functional divergence [33, 34]. To estimate functional divergence in the vertebrate anoctamin family, we have conducted pair-wise functional divergence analysis between anoctamin paralogous genes using DIVERGE [35]. Table 1 shows the coefficient of functional divergence (θ) of pair-wise comparisons between the members of the anoctamin family. All comparisons showed θ , 0 with p , 0.05, suggesting that a site-specific rate shift after gene duplication is a common phenomenon in the evolution of the anoctamin family. Further analysis was subsequently focused on ano1/ano2, and ano1/ano4. Amino ...
This finding appeared online Oct. 4, 2009, in Nature Genetics and was done by researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, and their colleagues.. "That an inherited duplication of a gene is responsible for the development of a familial form of cancer is an important finding," said Rose Yang, Ph.D., NCI, one of the lead authors of the study.. Usual types of gene mutations and gene duplications are permanent changes to the DNA that a person inherits from parents. These changes often alter the expression of the affected gene in ways that lead to cancer and other diseases. The new finding highlights the importance of CNVs, as well as typical specific genetic mutations, in the genetic development of cancer.. Chordoma affects about 1 in every 1 million people in the United States, with about 300 new cases diagnosed each year. Those affected with the disease usually develop a tumor at the base of the skull, or at any point along the spinal column ...
Results Large duplications involving one complete domain or both domains are associated with either SRS or BWS, depending on the parental origin of the duplication. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies of partial duplications within the telomeric domain demonstrate the prominent role of IGF2, rather than H19, in the control of growth. Furthermore, it highlights the role of CDKN1C within the centromeric domain and suggests that the expected overexpression of KCNQ1OT1 from the paternal allele (in partial paternal duplications, excluding CDKN1C) does not affect the expression of CDKN1C. ...
Background: Duplications are very common in the evolution of plant genomes, explaining the high number of members in plant gene families. New genes born after duplication can undergo pseudogenization, neofunctionalization or subfunctionalization. Rice is a model for functional genomics research, an important crop for human nutrition and a target for biofortification. Increased zinc and iron content in the rice grain could be achieved by manipulation of metal transporters. Here, we describe the ZINC-INDUCED FACILITATOR-LIKE (ZIFL) gene family in plants, and characterize the genomic structure and expression of rice paralogs, which are highly affected by segmental duplication. Results: Sequences of sixty-eight ZIFL genes, from nine plant species, were comparatively analyzed. Although related to MSF_1 proteins, ZIFL protein sequences consistently grouped separately. Specific ZIFL sequence signatures were identified. Monocots harbor a larger number of ZIFL genes in their genomes than dicots, probably ...
While the rise of single-molecule sequencing systems has enabled an unprecedented rise in the ability to assemble complex regions of the genome, long segmental duplications in the genome still remain a challenging frontier in assembly. Segmental duplications are at the same time both gene rich and prone to large structural rearrangements, making the resolution of their sequences important in medical and evolutionary studies. Duplicated sequences that are collapsed in mammalian de novo assemblies are rarely identical; after a sequence is duplicated, it begins to acquire paralog specific variants. In this paper, we study the problem of resolving the variations in multicopy long-segmental duplications by developing and utilizing algorithms for polyploid phasing. We develop two algorithms: the first one is targeted at maximizing the likelihood of observing the reads given the underlying haplotypes using discrete ma- trix completion. The second algorithm is based on correlation clustering and ...
BACKGROUND: Oxidative phosphorylation is central to the energy metabolism of the cell. Due to adaptation to different life-styles and environments, fungal species have shaped their respiratory pathways in the course of evolution. To identify the main mechanisms behind the evolution of respiratory pathways, we conducted a phylogenomics survey of oxidative phosphorylation components in the genomes of sixty fungal species. RESULTS: Besides clarifying orthology and paralogy relationships among respiratory proteins, our results reveal three parallel losses of the entire complex I, two of which are coupled to duplications in alternative dehydrogenases. Duplications in respiratory proteins have been common, affecting 76% of the protein families surveyed. We detect several instances of paralogs of genes coding for subunits of respiratory complexes that have been recruited to other multi-protein complexes inside and outside the mitochondrion, emphasizing the role of evolutionary tinkering. CONCLUSIONS: ...
Article 1 Reciprocal deletion and duplication at 2q23.1 indicates a role for MBD5 in autism spectrum disorder Sureni V Mullegama et al. The European Journal of Human Genetics (2013), 1-7 This article describes a new chromosome duplication syndrome, 2q23.1 duplication. This duplication includes the MBD5 gene, the same gene involved in the 2q23.1 deletion syndrome.…
Xp11.22 duplications have been reported to contribute to nonsyndromic intellectual disability (ID). The HUWE1 gene has been identified in all male Xp11.22 duplication patients and is associated with nonsyndromic ID. Currently, few Xp11.22 duplication cases have been reported in the Chinese population, with limited knowledge regarding the role of other genes in this interval. We investigated four unrelated Chinese male Xp11.22 duplication patients, performed a comprehensive clinical evaluation for the patients and discussed the role of other genes in this interval. All patients presented with similar clinical features, including ID, speech impairments and motor delay, which were mostly consistent with those of the Xp11.22 duplication described previously. We searched and compared all cases and noted that one of the probands (Family 1) and DECIPHER case 263,219, who carried small overlapping duplications at Xp11.22 that only covered the entire HSD17B10 gene, also suffered from ID, suggesting the important
In plants, tandem, segmental and whole-genome duplications are prevalent, resulting in large numbers of duplicate loci. Recent studies suggest that duplicate genes diverge predominantly through the partitioning of expression and that breadth of gene expression is related to the rate of gene duplication and protein sequence evolution. Here, we utilize expressed sequence tag (EST) data to study gene duplication and expression patterns in the monosaccharide transporter (MST) gene family across the land plants. In Arabidopsis, there are 53 MST genes that form seven distinct subfamilies. We created profile hidden Markov models of each subfamily and searched EST databases representing diverse land plant lineages to address the following questions: 1) Are homologs of each Arabidopsis subfamily present in the earliest land plants? 2) Do expression patterns among subfamilies and individual genes within subfamilies differ across lineages? 3) Has gene duplication within each lineage resulted in lineage-specific
BACKGROUND: Genome duplication has played a pivotal role in the evolution of many eukaryotic lineages, including the vertebrates. A relatively recent vertebrate genome duplication is that in Xenopus laevis, which resulted from the hybridization of two closely related species about 17 million years ago. However, little is known about the consequences of this duplication at the level of the genome, the epigenome, and gene expression. RESULTS: The X. laevis genome consists of two subgenomes, referred to as L (long chromosomes) and S (short chromosomes), that originated from distinct diploid progenitors. Of the parental subgenomes, S chromosomes have degraded faster than L chromosomes from the point of genome duplication until the present day. Deletions appear to have the largest effect on pseudogene formation and loss of regulatory regions. Deleted regions are enriched for long DNA repeats and the flanking regions have high alignment scores, suggesting that non-allelic homologous recombination has ...
Sequence variations in the gene products PYPAF1/CIAS1 and NOD2/CARD15 have been associated with several autoinflammatory diseases that, although clinically different, share a similar inflammatory pathophysiology. A multiple sequence alignment of homologous proteins demonstrates that some of the missense variants are located in highly conserved regions of the NTPase domain and possibly impair NTP-hydrolysis. Intriguingly, one of the variations, which is found identically in PYPAF1 and NOD2, is located at the same alignment position. Our findings suggest that evolutionary gene duplication can give rise to disease families because variants affect conserved sequence in a similar fashion ...
P.2205 left column: Gene Duplications: Much of the genomes of flies and worms consists of duplicated genes [investigators] next asked how these paralogs are arranged. The frequency of local gene duplications and the number of their constituent genes differ widely between fly and worm, although in both genomes most paralogs are dispersed. The fly genome contains half the number of local gene duplications relative to C. elegans (ref 4), and these gene clusters are distributed randomly along the chromosome arms in C. elegans there is a concentration of gene duplications in the recombinogenic segments of the autosomal arms (ref 1). In both organisms, approximately 70% of duplicated gene pairs are on the same strand (306 out of 417 for D. melanogaster and 581 out of 826 for C. elegans ...
Sequence related families of genes and proteins are common in bacterial genomes. In Escherichia coli they constitute over half of the genome. The presence of families and superfamilies of proteins suggest a history of gene duplication and divergence during evolution. Genome encoded protein families, their size and functional composition, reflect metabolic potentials of the organisms they are found in. Comparing protein families of different organisms give insight into functional differences and similarities. Equivalent enzyme families with metabolic functions were selected from the genomes of four experimentally characterized bacteria belonging to separate genera. Both similarities and differences were detected in the protein family memberships, with more similarities being detected among the more closely related organisms. Protein family memberships reflected known metabolic characteristics of the organisms. Differences in divergence of functionally characterized enzyme family members accounted for
The process of evolution is of both scientific and medical interest. This thesis presents several studies using complete genomic reference sequences, comparative genomic data, and intraspecific diversity data to study the two key processes of evolution: mutation and selection.. Large duplications, deletions, inversions, and translocations of DNA contribute to genomic variation both between and within species. Human chromosomes 15 and 17 contain a high percentage of dispersed, recently duplicated sequences. Examination of the relationships between these sequences showed that the majority of all duplications within each chromosome could be linked through core sequences that are prone to duplication. Comparison to orthologous sequences in other mammals allowed a reconstruction of the ancestral state of the human chromosomes, revealing that regions of rearrangement specific to the human lineage are highly enriched in chromosome-specific duplications. Comparison to copy number variation data from ...
Abstract Background It is difficult to accurately interpret chromosomal correspondences such as true orthology and paralogy due to significant divergence of genomes from a common ancestor. Analyses are particularly problematic among lineages that have repeatedly experienced whole genome duplication (WGD) events. To compare multiple "subgenomes" derived from genome duplications, we need to relax the traditional requirements of "one-to-one" syntenic matchings of genomic regions in order to reflect "one-to-many" or more generally "many-to-many" matchings. However this relaxation may result in the identification of synteny blocks that are derived from ancient shared WGDs that are not of interest. For many downstream analyses, we need to eliminate weak, low scoring alignments from pairwise genome comparisons. Our goal is to objectively select subset of synteny blocks whose total scores are maximized while respecting the duplication history of the genomes in comparison. We call this "quota-based" ...
Seven times in On the Origin of Species, Darwin invoked the concept that "nature does not make leaps. Over 50 years after Darwins treatise was published, and now 100 years ago, an article published in the first year of the fledgling journal GENETICS discussed a situation in which nature does in fact make leaps-the origin of novel morphologies after a jump in genomic content by genome duplication (Tupper and Bartlett 1916). Genome duplication appears to have shaped vertebrate evolution in two rounds before the divergence of fish and mammalian lineages (Holland et al. 1994; Dehal and Boore 2005). It was previously known that gene families are often larger in teleosts than in mammals, but it was unclear if this condition arose due to excess preservation of tandem duplicates or to an additional genome duplication event, as suggested by S. Ohno (Ohno 1970). To resolve this question, we used genetic mapping to find the genomic locations of duplicated gene pairs in zebrafish. We found that gene pairs ...
Deletion of individual antibiotic resistance genes found within the variable region of integrons is demonstrated. Evidence for gene duplications and rearrangements resulting from the insertion of gene units at new locations is also presented. Deletion, duplication, and rearrangement occur only in the presence of the integron-encoded DNA integrase. These events are precise and involve loss or gain of one or more complete insert units or gene cassettes. This confirms the recent definition of gene cassettes as consisting of the gene coding sequences, all except the last 7 bases of the 59-base element found at the 3 end of the gene, and the core site located 5 to the gene (Hall et al., Mol. Microbiol. 5:1941-1959, 1991) and demonstrates that individual gene cassettes are functional units which can be independently mobilized. Both deletions and duplications can be generated by integrase-mediated cointegrate formation followed by integrase-mediated resolution involving a different pair of sites. ...
Certain types of gene families, such as those encoding most families of transcription factors, maintain their chromosomal syntenic positions throughout angiosperm evolutionary time. Other nonsyntenic gene families are prone to deletion, tandem duplication, and transposition. Here, we describe the chromosomal positional history of all genes in Arabidopsis thaliana throughout the rosid superorder. We introduce a public database where researchers can look up the positional history of their favorite A. thaliana gene or gene family. Finally, we show that specific gene families transposed at specific points in evolutionary time, particularly after whole-genome duplication events in the Brassicales, and suggest that genes in mobile gene families are under different selection pressure than syntenic genes. ...
Schmutz J., Martin J., Terry A., Couronne O., Grimwood J., Lowry S., Gordon L.A., Scott D., Xie G., Huang W., Hellsten U., Tran-Gyamfi M., She X., Prabhakar S., Aerts A., Altherr M., Bajorek E., Black S., Branscomb E., Caoile C., Challacombe J.F., Chan Y.M., Denys M., Detter J.C., Escobar J., Flowers D., Fotopulos D., Glavina T., Gomez M., Gonzales E., Goodstein D., Grigoriev I., Groza M., Hammon N., Hawkins T., Haydu L., Israni S., Jett J., Kadner K., Kimball H., Kobayashi A., Lopez F., Lou Y., Martinez D., Medina C., Morgan J., Nandkeshwar R., Noonan J.P., Pitluck S., Pollard M., Predki P., Priest J., Ramirez L., Retterer J., Rodriguez A., Rogers S., Salamov A., Salazar A., Thayer N., Tice H., Tsai M., Ustaszewska A., Vo N., Wheeler J., Wu K., Yang J., Dickson M., Cheng J.-F., Eichler E.E., Olsen A., Pennacchio L.A., Rokhsar D.S., Richardson P., Lucas S.M., Myers R.M., Rubin E.M.. Chromosome 5 is one of the largest human chromosomes and contains numerous intrachromosomal duplications, yet it ...
Published on 2/1/2010. Vaglio A, Milunsky A, Quadrelli A, Huang XL, Maher T, Mechoso B, Martínez S, Pagano S, Bellini S, Costabel M, Quadrelli R. Clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization of a girl with some clinical features of Down syndrome resulting from a pure partial trisomy 21q22.11-qter due to a de novo intrachromosomal duplication. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2010 Feb; 14(1):57-65. PMID: 20143912.. Read at: PubMed ...
Ive done similar analyses of a variety of ancient genomes. For instance, StoraFörvar11, or SfF11, from Mesolithic Sweden came out 3/4 La Brana-1 and 1/4 MA-1, which translates to 3/4 Western European Hunter-Gatherer (WHG) and 1/4 Ancient North Eurasian (ANE), and lines up well with results reported recently for Swedish hunter-gatherers in scientific literature. You can see the full analysis StoraFörvar11 and a couple of other ancient genomes at the links below ...
QC saga continues.... from bad to worse - posted in Macroarray and Microarray: I wasnt sure whether I should have this in my previous post as this is a different issue. I still havent been able to fix the QC issues and as this is an optional control in the kit were seeing if getting bad QC score still allows us to detect deletion/duplication events. So Ive tried it on control samples that have one gene that contains a duplication/deletion, and did these in duplicates. T...
Some aspects of the work of our group on the human and mouse immunoglobulin κ genes are reviewed. The human κ locus contains a large duplication: a 600 kb C κ-proximal copy with 40 V κ genes is found in the close vicinity of a 440 kb C κ-distal copy with 36 very similar, but not identical, V κ genes. The chimpanzee has only the C κ -proximal copy of the locus. The κ locus of the mouse is close to 3.2 Mb in size, of which 3.1 Mb have been cloned in four contigs, leaving three small gaps of together about 90 kb; 140 V κ genes and pseudogenes were localized and sequenced. In parallel to the elucidation of the structure of the κ loci, the mechanisms of the V-J rearrangement, somatic hypermutation and κ gene expression were studied. Various polymorphisms were detected in the human population and a number of haplotypes defined. in addition to the V κ genes within the loci numerous V κ orphons were localized on different chromosomes. Comparing the κ loci of different species allows some ...
Germline mutations in the CDH1 (E-cadherin gene) gene have been reported in families with a hereditary predisposition to breast cancer and gastric cancer. Sequencing and deletion/duplication analyses of the CDH1 gene will identify individuals at risk for CHD1-related cancers ...
If a word is labeled in RED, that means that it is defined under the Basic Genetics tab. Check out this link, to understand some of these terms better and to gain more genetic knowledge. My child just received a diagnosis of 2q23.1 deletion/duplication disorder. What do I do next? If you have received these results by someone…
This method does not reliably detect mosaic variants; large deletions; large duplications, inversions, or other rearrangements; or deep intronic variants. It may be affected by allele dropout, it may not allow determination of the exact numbers of T/A or microsatellite repeats, and it does not allow any conclusion as to whether two heterozygous variants are present on the same or on different chromosome copies.. This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined, by LabCorp. It has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA has determined that such clearance or approval is not necessary. ...
45 Years old patient presented with left ischiorectal space pain along with swelling. MRI perineum was done that revealed a soft tissue mass lesion in left ischiorectal space ...
Evolution is driven by changes in genes. Sometimes genes are inadvertently duplicated during replication. This provides an "extra copy" that is free to vary through mutation, sometimes providing extended function. A good example is the family of hemoglobin genes in mammals. Members of a family which arose through duplication can also mutate and lose function. This module lets you explore these scenarios. The guide for this is in Dropbox (you dont need an account in Dropbox to get these, but its handy free cloud storage.) The guide can be downloaded here ...
Sidc is found to be composed of four paralogs having itself been duplicated twice over. The 5′ untranslated region (UTR) and part of the promoter sequence of the gene derives from AnnX, whereas the translated part and all 300 base pairs (bp) of the 3′ UTR come from the Cdic gene. A sequence comparison of Sdic2 and Cdic reveals that 522 out of 527 residues (99%) can be aligned without difficulty. Sdic has been observed to be expressed in the testes and incorporated into the sperm tail and this is because it has acquired a testis-specific core element, homologous with those of other promoter sequences, from the 3UTR of AnnX. It is unclear whether the element is a translational enhancer or has some other regulatory role in the AnnX gene such as, for example, the mRNA localization. Either way, the gene would seem to contribute to greater fecundity. ...
Xp 22.31 Duplication - Hi. I am looking for any information, stories, or support for genetic issues/duplications. I just found out that I have...
Principal Investigator:MATSUOKA Makoto, Project Period (FY):2011-04-01 - 2016-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area), Project Area:Correlative gene system: establishing next-generation genetics
Fifteen years into sequencing entire plant genomes, more than 30 paleopolyploidy events could be mapped on the tree of flowering plants (and many more when also transcriptome data sets are considered). While some genome duplications are very old and have occurred early in the evolution of dicots and monocots, or even before, others are more recent and seem to have occurred independently in many different plant lineages. Strikingly, a majority of these duplications date somewhere between 55 and 75 million years ago (mya), and thus likely correlate with the K/Pg boundary. ...
Die Universität zu Köln ist eine Exzellenzuniversität mit dem klassischen Fächerspektrum einer Volluniversität. Als eine der größen Hochschulen Europas arbeitet sie in Forschung und Lehre auch international auf höchstem Niveau.
A rock song about DNA Duplication before Cell Division, binary fission & mitosis. Lyrics, free mp3 download & chapter summary notes.
Protein Of Unknown Function; Deletion Mutant Shows Strong Genetic Interaction With Cdc28-as1 Mutant In The Presence Of 1-NM-PP1; DCV1 Has A Paralog, YOL019W, That Arose From The Whole Genome Duplication
Predicted Tail-anchored Plasma Membrane Protein; Contains Conserved CYSTM Module; Related Proteins In Other Organisms May Be Involved In Response To Stress; Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-fusion Protein Localizes To The Cell Periphery; YDR034W-B Has A Paralog, YBR056W-A, That Arose From The Whole Genome Duplication
New research conducted by the University of Nebraska-Lincolns James Schnable will use corn to test the idea that the emergence of specialized body parts occurs through whole genome duplication.
Functional divergence between K2 and K3. (A) Diagram showing K2, K3, and K2/K3 chimeric proteins used to identify areas responsible for localization of K2 to fo
Find information on your product warranty, label licensing, product pricign and payment, as well as get an order conformation and duplication on the terms and conditions page. BioLegend develops and manufactures world-class, cutting-edge immunological reagents for biomedical research, offered at an outstanding value.
I often hear mutation cant create anything new, only damage as a criticism of genetic mechanisms that supply variation in organisms. Its not true, since there are so many mutations that some of them are immediately useful. But another mechanism of variation is gene duplication. Once you have two identical genes (No new information, chant…
This activity explores the research presented in the short film The Making of the Fittest: The Birth and Death of Genes, which illustrates how gene duplications and mutations have allowed some fish to adapt to extreme environments.