Gene conversion-like events between rearranged IGHV3-23*01 gene sequences and germline VH sequences superimposed by somatic hypermutation (SHM). IGHV3-23*01 mut
The hyper-recombination mutation hpr1 specifically increases mitotic intrachromatid crossovers, with no effect on other mitotic recombination events such as unequal sister chromatid exchange and plasmid-chromosome recombination, and no effect on meiotic recombination and a lesser effect on intrachromosomal gene conversion. The excision repair RAD1 gene is partially required for the expression on the hpr1 phenotype. The simplest hypothesis to account for some of the hpr1 stimulated recombination events is that a heteroduplex DNA intermediate and localized gene conversion are involved. hpr1 stimulated crossover events are independent of intrachromosomal gene conversion events stimulated by the hyper-gene conversion mutation hpr5. This result suggests that different intrachromosomal recombination processes are affected in each mutant strain. We propose that HPR1 may function to inhibit intrachromatid crossovers. ...
Gene conversion is an outcome of recombination, causing non-reciprocal transfer of a DNA fragment. Several decades later than the discovery of crossing over, gene conversion was first recognized in fungi when non-Mendelian allelic distortion was observed. Gene conversion occurs when a double-strand break is repaired by using homologous sequences in the genome. In meiosis, there is a strong preference to use the orthologous region (allelic gene conversion), which causes non-Mendelian allelic distortion, but paralogous or duplicated regions can also be used for the repair (inter-locus gene conversion, also referred to as non-allelic and ectopic gene conversion). The focus of this special issue is the latter, interlocus gene conversion; the rate is lower than allelic gene conversion but it has more impact on phenotype because more drastic changes in DNA sequence are involved. [...]
Homologous recombination in mammalian cells is sensitive to both the length and degree of homology shared by two sequences (Rubnitz and Subramani 1984; Liskayet al. 1987; Waldman and Liskay 1987, 1988; Yang and Waldman 1997). We had previously determined (Waldman and Liskay 1988) that the MEPS value for intrachromosomal recombination in mouse fibroblasts is between 134 and 232 bp and that a pair of single nucleotide heterologies embedded within a 232-bp stretch of homology was sufficient to disrupt MEPS and bring about nearly a 20-fold reduction in recombination rate. In those earlier studies, we conjectured that a single nucleotide heterology would likely be sufficient to disrupt MEPS, consistent with studies of bacterial recombination (Shen and Huang 1986, 1989) indicating a requirement for uninterrupted homology. In the current work we observed that a single nucleotide heterology is indeed sufficient to reduce recombination, but only by about 2.5-fold, while a pair of nucleotide heterologies ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene conversion during vector insertion in embryonic stem cells. AU - Hasty, Edward P. AU - Rivera-pérez, Jaime. AU - Bradley, Allan. PY - 1995/6/11. Y1 - 1995/6/11. N2 - Recombination of an insertion vector Into Its chromosomal homologue is a conservative event in that both the chromosomal and the vector sequences are preserved. However, gene conversion may accompany homologous recombination of an Insertion vector. To examine gene conversion in more detail we have determined the targeting frequencies and the structure of the recomblnant alleles generated with a series of vectors which target the hprt gene in embryonic stem cells. We demonstrate that gene conversion of the introduced mutation does not significantly limit homologous recombination and that gene conversion occurs without a sequence specific bias for five different mutations. The frequency of the loss of a vector mutation and the gain of a chromosomal sequence is Inversely proportional to the distance between the ...
Gene conversion is the process by which one DNA sequence replaces a homologous sequence such that the sequences become identical after the conversion event. Gene conversion can be either allelic, meaning that one allele of the same gene replaces another allele, or ectopic, meaning that one paralogous DNA sequence converts another. Allelic gene conversion occurs during meiosis when homologous recombination between heterozygotic sites results in a mismatch in base pairing. This mismatch is then recognized and corrected by the cellular machinery causing one of the alleles to be converted to the other. This can cause non-Mendelian segregation of alleles in germ cells. Recombination occurs not only during meiosis, but also as a mechanism for repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) caused by DNA damage. These DSBs are usually repaired using the sister chromatid of the broken duplex and not the homologous chromosome, so they would not result in allelic conversion. Recombination also occurs between ...
Gene conversion is an event in DNA genetic recombination, which occurs at high frequencies during meiotic division but which also occurs in somatic cells. It is a process by which DNA sequence information is transferred from one DNA helix (which remains unchanged) to another DNA helix, whose sequence is altered. It is one of the ways a gene may be mutated. Gene conversion may lead to non-Mendelian inheritance and has often been recorded in fungal crosses. ...
We have developed an experimental system to assay conversion and reciprocal exchange between tandem repeats in Drosophila melanogaster. In this system, the recombining markers map 0.76 kb apart within the Adh gene, and the length of the repeated unit is 4.75 kb. Our results provide a preliminary record of germline frequencies of gene conversion and unequal exchange between these markers. Conversions involving dispersed repeats were not observed, and may be less frequent. This work demonstrates that conversion takes place at an appreciable frequency between tandem repeats in metazoan germline. It confirms that gene conversion can mediate homogenization of reiterated sequences in higher eukaryotes.
1. Amplification of a gene, usually assisted by recombination events in IS elements (in bacteria) or in similar high copy number repetitive genetic elements (ERV, LINE, SINE, etc.). This increases the copy number of the gene. In sexual reproducing organisms unequal crossing over during meiosis may be responsible for amplification due to misalignment of repeated sequences.. 2. Redistribution of genes requires transposition, probably assisted by the same repetitive genetic elements as in 1).. 3. Homogenization of alleles by gene conversion may play a role in sexual reproducing organisms.. Some genes have a bias and are more prone to gene conversion than others, thus reinforcing the unity of the genes within a gene family of a species.. ...
IF AN RNA OR PROTEIN MOLECULE is damaged, the cell will typically degrade the entire molecule and replace it with a new one. But cells cannot do this with DNA. A chromosome is too big and the copy number is too low, so it is far more efficient to repair the chromosome than to replace it. If only one DNA strand is damaged, the other may be used as a template for repair; alternatively, if both strands are damaged, the homologous chromosome may be used. DNA repair involves DNA synthesis, sometimes of just 1 nucleotide, and sometimes of thousands or more, depending on the type of damage and the method of repair (Alberts et al. 2002). This repair-associated DNA synthesis has given rise to multiple forms of drive. On the one hand, there is biased gene conversion (BGC). Like other forms of drive, it is a process by which a heterozygote transmits one allele more frequently than the other. This drive does not arise because the gene encodes a protein that acts to bias inheritance; rather, drive arises as a
Gene conversion is a phenomenon associated with a high frequency of crossing-over of flanking markers (Mitchell, 1955; Case and Giles, 1964; Fogel and Hurst, 1967). Within a sample of 907 conversion...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The human Growth Hormone (GH-1) gene is situated within a cluster of five related genes. Its proximal promoter contains 16 SNPs which supposably originated from gene conversion events. I analyzed the DNA-sequences of the GH-1 promoter of 16 chimpanzees and 25 macaques in order to work out whether the diversity is specific for the human genom. The GH-1 promoter was found to be highly polymorphic in chimpanzee but not in macaque. This may reflect the lower degree of pair-wise similarity between the GH-1 promoter and its paralogs in macaque for there exists the idea of a threshold of identity below which gene conversion is reduced or abolished. As databases were incomplete in the respective area I also compiled a model of the GH gene locus from chimpanzee and macaque and compared it to the human locus. According to my results the GH gene locus of chimpanzee and human developed together sharing three duplication events of genes, posterior one gene out of the human cluster was deleted. The macaque ...
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are etiological agents of cervical cancers. Previous studies demonstrated that the viral oncoprotein E7 can up-regulate transcription of cellular E2F target genes and promote S-phase entry by subverting the pRB/E2F pathway. B-Myb and FoxM1 are major transcription factors of mitotic genes as well as E2F target genes that were found to be upregulated by E7 in our previous microarray. Both siRNA-mediated depletion assay and overexpression studies by lentiviral transduction revealed that 16E7 and B-Myb or FoxM1 play pivotal roles and act in co-operative manner to activate mitotic gene expression. Using ChIP and CoIP approaches, we demonstrate for the first time that E7 could be recruited to promoter of mitotic genes through protein-protein interaction with B-Myb, FoxM1 and/or DREAM complex. Collectively, our findings propose a novel pRB-independent function of E7 in promoting oncogenic transformation, and shed light on the involvement of B-Myb/FoxM1/MuvB ...
Principal Investigator:SAITOU Naruya, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:遺伝
There have been a lot of other parts tested to see if they will be able to replace the R-12. However, only one part came anywhere close to the R-12. The part that could be the alternative is the R-134a. However, this part is not very reliable as it does not work well with the R-12 oil. It can be very costly to change the car to be able to accommodate the R-134a. The R-134a part will cost between fifty dollars and a few hundred dollars. Most of the conversions are very costly, because it means stripping out the whole of the dashboard to be able to change it over. This is a very time consuming job for the mechanics. The cheapest conversions involve removing the R-12 part and changing all the service ports and pressure switches. The more expensive conversions involve changing the compressor, condenser, all the hoses, and all the switches and fittings. All the different makes and models have different requirements, so the exact requirements have to be obtained from the manufacturers. They mainly ...
The conversion can be triggered by several mechanisms, including the oxidation of cysteine thiols to form disulfide bonds (which can be catalyzed by EC 1.8.4.7 in the presence of glutathione disulfide) or limited proteolysis, which results in irreversible conversion ...
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All orders are processed in Australian dollars. Estimated currency conversions are to be used as a guide only and their accuracy is not guaranteed. For other currencies or a more up to date conversion, please use this pop-up currency converter.. ...
Energetic and Constitutional Hysteresis in Bistable Molecules By Ulrich K d k * Bistable or multistable systems, so-called flip-flops, which remain in a state Z, until they are converted by a trigger signal into a second state Z,, are the key building blocks of all digital electronic devices. Taube and S a n ~ [have ~ recently realized such a system at the molecular level in an elegant way in the form of a dinuclear Ru-sulfide/Ru-sulfoxide complex. In principle, any isomeric pair whose isomers are separated by a sufficiently high activation energy barrier constitutes such a bistable chemical system. However, the interconversion of the isomers can involve complicated chemical operations, including even chemical degradation and synthesis with the breaking and making of bonds; such conversions can no longer be considered as being equivalent to electrical triggering. Molecules which photochemically isomerize and undergo thermal reconversion approach more closely the ideal of a triggerable ...
With the fully modified malts available to us today, it is pointless to do anything other than a single step infusion mash. And, with the great excess of enzymes that are present in our malts (remember almost all fully modified malts are designed for big brewers with high adjunct rates), this means conversion can be achieved much faster than once believed. The current recommendations for all fully modified malts is a mash at 68~70C/154~158 with a pH of 5.3 for only 20 minutes prior to recirculation until the runnings are clear. Then sparge with 168 degree water, stopping the runnings at 2.5P/1.010SG. Then top up to kettle volume. Running beyond this gravity floor will only extract tannis and lipids. The idea here is to maximize extraction while minimizing grain contact. This goes a long way toward the elimination of tannins (harsh, husky flavors) and lipids (head killers and can create clarity issues) being entrained in the wort. The complete science regarding this technique is outlined in both ...
Now what does this mean to us as brewers? With the fully modified malts available to us today, it is pointless to do anything other than a single step infusion mash. And, with the great excess of enzymes that are present in our malts (remember almost all fully modified malts are designed for big brewers with high adjunct rates), this means conversion can be achieved much faster than once believed. The current recommendations for all fully modified malts is a mash at 68~70C/154~158 with a pH of 5.3 for only 20 minutes prior to recirculation until the runnings are clear. Then sparge with 168 degree water, stopping the runnings at 2.5P/1.010SG. Then top up to kettle volume. Running beyond this gravity floor will only extract tannis and lipids. The idea here is to maximize extraction while minimizing grain contact. This goes a long way toward the elimination of tannins (harsh, husky flavors) and lipids (head killers and can create clarity issues) being entrained in the wort. The complete science ...
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A system for NOx reduction in combustion gases, especially from diesel engines, incorporates an oxidation catalyst to convert at least a portion of NO to NO2, tparticulate filter, a source of reductant such as NH3 and an SCR catalyst. Considerable improvements in NOx conversion are observed.
Cunningly, James Huang knows that the average Fred knows absolutely nothing about automotive braking beyond "disc=good" and "drum=bad." He also knows theres virtually no way for even the most curious Fred to perform a meaningful comparison between a car with disc brakes versus one with drum brakes, because a car with four (4) drum brakes on it is likely to be much older (or at least much different) than one with four (4) disc brakes and therefore shittier in any number of ways, including but by no means limited to braking. So unless a Fred has recently done a full disc brake conversion on a 1964 Corvair and has some solid back-to-back driving experience, its impossible to call the reviewer on this incredibly audacious bluff ...
Metabolic Supercharge: 6-Week Workout Plan for Fat Loss Lose Fat in 6 Weeks with this Workout Routine , Muscle & Fitness 12 Week Fat Destroyer: Complete Fat Loss Workout & Diet Program . Qigong builds up the healing field of the practitioner at all levels body, mind and spirit. Oct 23, 2014 В· Roulette Boss - How To Win At Online Roulette Like A Boss!Product Review:Are You Fed Up With Losing Your Cash To Online Roulette? Are You Tired Of Buying Bogus Roulette Systems And Software Packages That DoesntВ . Beauty Of Food Review Being fit itґs not just for a . The rules are explained very simply in lay man terms and not using , , Crazy Conversions On Wide Spread Problem (hair Loss Detail. Post in Self Help By Gary SheetzВ . com Lose Fat in 6 Weeks with this Workout Routine , Muscle & Fitness Metabolic Supercharge: 6-Week Workout Plan for Fat Loss The 6-Week Built for the Beach Program - Learn the truth in this My Cellulite Solution Review! 23 . Рейтинг: 4,8 - ‎17В ...
Many Jets fans were disappointed that Darrelle Revis spent a year in New England but maybe he is benefiting from having spent that time regularly intercepting Tom Brady in practice. Its good to see him go out of his way to develop some "reserve-chemistry" with the Jets primary rival.. Revis third quarter interception was the third time hes intercepted Brady in an NFL game and hopefully wont be the last. Other than that play, Revis wasnt tested much. He was in good position on one deep ball and the only first down he gave up was because he dropped right off, perhaps concerned that Lorenzo Mauldin was about to be burned on a wheel route.. On the other side, Antonio Cromartie also wasnt tested much, as Brady mostly tried to pick apart the Jets underneath. However, he did give up a big third-down conversion on a pass over the top to Rob Gronkowski. He was also driven 10 yards back by Gronkowski on one running play. He was in a good position on one other incompletion.. Buster Skrine gave up a ...
We at PRomotingWebs believe that it is easier to double income by doubling efficiency As opposed to increasing traffic of ones website that is eCommerce. PRomotingWebs has crafted an e-commerce method that not merely improves normal keyword ranking but also assists businesses increase conversions on a single traffic too. All of us Monitors at each element that allows your revenue to be boosted by you. Moreover to it, we help you lower shopping cart software abandonment to increase revenue and Enhance a web site to perform properly.
Hi Is your production going to have same init settings as this? I am not sure why you set _b_tree_bitmap_plans to FALSE, it does does btree bitmap conversion on btree indexes (you said bitmap indexes?) You need _system_trig_enabled to be TRUE! _wait_for_sync and _check_block_after_checksum by default is true already, setting wait_for_sync to FALSE is quite dangerous I was wondering how did you determine 256 for _log_simultaneous_copies? On 8/1/06, VIVEK_SHARMA ,VIVEK_SHARMA_at_infosys ...
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A method for rendering images for display on a client device is provided. A single image may be stored on the server for conversion into an image suitable for display on a particular client device. Image conversion may be performed consistent with the display capabilities of the client device. The display capabilities of the particular device requesting access to a web page may be identified at the time the web page is requested. Converted images may be stored and made available upon request.
Anonymous, 03 Jun 2016Samsung Galaxy S7 edge (US; Carrier-dependent; 32GB) @ $750 - $795 Sony Xperia X Performance ... moreBTW, this is an exhaustive list of phones sporting a Snapdragon 820 respective of their LAUNCH / INTRODUCTORY retail prices (from highest price to the cheapest price with priority to their country of origin); price conversions may vary depending on exchange rates at the time of launch; prices may vary depending on carriers, region, or country unless otherwise indicated. ...
Summaries that are most accurate for joint crossing-over and gene-conversion estimation are 1, 6, 13 for long-range data and 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10 for short-range. Suggested acceptance errors are given in brackets. These choices are slightly different from those used in Padhukasahasram et al 2006 and work better under fixed segregating sites model. Including the bounds on the minimum number of recombination events (Myers and Griffiths 2003, Song, Wu and Gusfield 2005 or Bafna and Bansal 2005) in the rejection scheme and smoothing the likelihood surfaces can result in further improvements in accuracy. For sequence length different from 50 kb, it may be necessary to change the distance cutoffs i.e. choose values other than 5 kb, 10 kb and 50 kb. Distance cutoffs can be changed at the end of the code. ...
Summaries that are most accurate for joint crossing-over and gene-conversion estimation are 1, 6, 13 for long-range data and 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10 for short-range. Suggested acceptance errors are given in brackets. These choices are slightly different from those used in Padhukasahasram et al 2006 and work better under fixed segregating sites model. Including the bounds on the minimum number of recombination events (Myers and Griffiths 2003, Song, Wu and Gusfield 2005 or Bafna and Bansal 2005) in the rejection scheme and smoothing the likelihood surfaces can result in further improvements in accuracy. For sequence length different from 50 kb, it may be necessary to change the distance cutoffs i.e. choose values other than 5 kb, 10 kb and 50 kb. Distance cutoffs can be changed at the end of the code. ...
Is it okay if I just ignore the cfu and use the value as millimol? Will it remain same? I just want the concentration of ATP inside the bacterial cell ...
We aim to assist in the continuous education of physicians within the cardiology fraternity, generating a range of clinical content through collaboration with leading cardiologists from around the globe.
Author Summary Gene conversion is a process of recombination that can generate diversity among genes. Gene conversion occurs in some pathogenic species of protozoa to generate diversity among gene families encoding important antigens. The process may contribute to immune evasion by the parasites. Gene conversion, or indeed recombination of any kind, has not previously been demonstrated in human intestinal parasites of the genus Entamoeba. Here, we analysed genes encoding members of an important antigenic protein complex on the surface of Entamoeba parasites which is involved in invasion of the intestinal wall. Three gene families encode heavy-, light- and intermediate-subunits of the complex. We estimated genetic divergence between related genes from two species of Entamoeba, E. histolytica and E. dispar, and compared them to divergence among neighbouring genes and to the average across the whole genome, initially looking for evidence that the genes were evolving under positive selection. However,
Die Universität zu Köln ist eine Exzellenzuniversität mit dem klassischen Fächerspektrum einer Volluniversität. Als eine der größen Hochschulen Europas arbeitet sie in Forschung und Lehre auch international auf höchstem Niveau.
Alcohol conversion on transition metals has been studied for many years. The importance of this research is to find new ways to synthesyze fuel and useful byproducts economically. Platinum is considered a good catalyst for alcohol conversion. For a long time, there was a controversy in the literature about alcohol conversion on platinum and palladium. With the same catalysts, J. M. White et al. and B. Madix et al. detected carbon-oxygen bond scission. But L. H. Dubois et al. and B. A. Sexton et al. found no carbon-oxygen bond scission. Through various surface analytical spectroscopies, it is found that surface structure change should also be considered as a reaction variable. By varying the platinum (110) surface from (2x1) to (1x1), the reaction pathway changes from leaving the carbon-oxygen intact to breaking the bond. In the study of the oxidation of methanol on platinum, only carbon monoxide was produced since the oxidation is complete. But when the surface was pre-covered by oxygen atoms, ...
Donghai Mei, Vassiliki-Alexandra Glezakou, Vanessa Lebarbier, Libor Kovarik, Haiying Wan, Karl O. Albrecht, Mark Gerber, Roger Rousseau, Robert A. Dagle, Highly active and stable MgAl2O4-supported Rh and Ir catalysts for methane steam reforming: A combined experimental and theoretical study, Journal of Catalysis, 2014, 316, ...
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The rate of recombination impacts on rates of protein evolution for at least two reasons: it affects the efficacy of selection due to linkage and influences sequence evolution through the process of GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC). We studied how recombination, via gBGC, affects inferences of selection in gene sequences using comparative genomic and population genomic data from the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis). We separately analyzed different mutation categories ("strong"-to-"weak" "weak-to-strong," and GC-conservative changes) and found that gBGC impacts on the distribution of fitness effects of new mutations, and leads to that the rate of adaptive evolution and the proportion of adaptive mutations among nonsynonymous substitutions are underestimated by 22-33%. It also biases inferences of demographic history based on the site frequency spectrum. In light of this impact, we suggest that inferences of selection (and demography) in lineages with pronounced gBGC should be based on ...
A multimedia conversion apparatus creating a media conversion result with a quality expected by a user is offered. Data received by a receiving section is subjected to a media conversion according to different algorithms provided in the signal processing sections, and a judgement section derives a suitable conversion result giving priority to a precision among a plurality of media conversion results obtained by the signal processing sections. A transmission section selects a conversion result with a proper quality among the plurality of media conversion results, and transmits it to a receiving terminal. When a plurality of request for data conversions are competed among users data from other users than one exclusively using the multimedia conversion apparatus are temporarily stored in a buffer or are transferred to other multimedia conversion apparatus.
Nuclear architecture and the relative position of a gene can play roles in the regulation of its expression. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Brickner et al. (2012) analyze nuclear global positioning of genes and reveal that the Put3 transcription factor functions with cis-encoded DNA elements and nuclear pore complexes to regulate interchromosomal gene clustering.. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.. ...
Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of cells to reversibly alter their phenotypes in response to signals, presents a significant clinical challenge to treating solid tumors. Tumor cells utilize phenotypic plasticity to evade therapies, metastasize, and colonize distant organs. As a result, phenotypic plasticity can accelerate tumor progression. A well-studied example of phenotypic plasticity is the bidirectional conversions among epithelial, mesenchymal, and hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) phenotype(s). These conversions can alter a repertoire of cellular traits associated with multiple hallmarks of cancer, such as metabolism, immune evasion, invasion, and metastasis. To tackle the complexity and heterogeneity of these transitions, mathematical models have been developed that seek to capture the experimentally verified molecular mechanisms and act as hypothesis-generating machines. Here, we discuss how these quantitative mathematical models have helped us explain existing experimental data, ...
To address insulin insufficiency, diabetes research has long focused on techniques for replacing insulin-producing β cells. Studies in mice have suggested that, under some conditions, α cells possess the capacity to transdifferentiate into β cells, although the mechanisms that drive this conversion are unclear. In this issue, Bramswig et al. analyzed the methylation states of purified human α, β, and acinar cells and found α cells exhibit intrinsic phenotypic plasticity associated with specific histone methylation profiles. In addition to expanding our understanding of this potential source of β cells, this compendium of carefully generated human gene expression and epigenomic data in islet cell subtypes constitutes a truly valuable resource for the field.. ...
In addition, The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is selling copies of the growth charts and some pharmaceutical companies are distributing them.. What is a percentile?. Percentiles are the most commonly used clinical indicator to assess the size and growth patterns of individual children in the United States. Percentiles rank the position of an individual by indicating what percent of the reference population the individual would equal or exceed. For example, on the weight-for-age growth charts, a 5-year-old girl whose weight is at the 25th percentile, weighs the same or more than 25 percent of the reference population of 5-year-old girls, and weighs less than 75 percent of the 5-year-old girls in the reference population.. What is a z-score?. A z-score is the deviation of the value for an individual from the mean value of the reference population divided by the standard deviation for the reference population. Because z-scores have a direct relationship with percentiles, a conversion can ...
AVAPRO: Side effects, ratings, and patient comments Extremely cold feet, skin irritation,. As Generic Duricef do have active ingredient Cefadroxil are made in.. Side effects sore mouth can. irbesartan conversion can you take atenolol and bananas. 40 mg reviews can I take gabapentin with. zestril hct generic ...
Next, details of the retinal layer structure information acquisition process in step S402 will be described with reference to FIG. First, in step S501, the structure acquisition unit 12 performs image conversion on the OCT tomogram acquired in step S401. In this embodiment, a median filter and a Sobel filter are respectively applied to a tomographic image to create a median image and a Sobel image. Here, it is assumed that the pixel value is large when the signal strength is strong and small when the signal strength is weak.. In the present embodiment, the Sobel filter has directionality so as to emphasize a boundary from a low luminance value to a high luminance value when viewed from a shallow direction (above the image) in A-scan. The reason is as follows. In this case, when the retinal layer structure is changed, the ILM boundary, IS / OS boundary in each A-scan, the position information of the vitreous cortex, and the presence or absence of a false image are used as the structure ...