The total number of genetic changes combining losses and gains together, total gains alone, total losses alone, and individual gains and losses showing in ,15% cases, and chromosomal amplifications were subjected to univariate analysis examining the associations. No correlation was found with any of the parameters examined, except HPV18 (Table 1). The patients that had HPV18 infection showed higher frequency of chromosomal amplifications (75% in HPV18 vs. 16.9% in other HPV types), total losses (10.00 ± 5.48 in HPV18 vs. 4.62 ± 3.49 in HPV 16) and gains (8.75 ± 6.06 in HPV18 vs. 3.33 ± 2.85 in HPV 16) and total changes (18.75 ± 11.53 in HPV18 vs. 7.96 ± 5.68 in HPV 16) (Table 1). The association of genomic instability represented by chromosomal amplification and copy number changes with HPV18 infection is interesting in the light of the oncogenic potential of this HPV type. HPV18 is known to cause rapid transition to malignancy and HPV18-infected tumors are generally more aggressive [40]. ...
FISH analysis on EGFR gene amplification in MBC.Representative images of amplification of EGFR (a) and high aneusomy of EGFR (b). EGFR gene amplification was de
Silver-enhanced in-situ hybridization (SISH) is an emerging tool for the determination of the Her-2/neu amplification status in breast cancer. SISH is technically comparable to fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) but does not require a fluorescence microscope for its interpretation. Although recent studies on histologic evaluations of SISH are promising, we aimed to evaluate its performance on 71 cytologic breast cancer specimens with the new combined Her-2/Chr17 probe. Her-2/neu status as routinely determined by FISH was available for all patients. We found SISH signals in cytologic cell blocks and smear specimens easy to evaluate in most cases. Small numbers of tumor cells and difficulties in identifying tumor cells in lymphocyte-rich backgrounds were limiting factors. Her-2/neu status, as determined by Her-2/Chr17 SISH, was basically identical to the results of the corresponding FISH. The discrepancies were mainly owing to the heterogeneity of Her-2/neu amplification in the tumor ...
Global Gene Amplification Machine Market Research Report 2016" Purchase This Report by calling ResearchnReports.com at +1-888-631-6977.. This report gives an itemized and exhaustive comprehension of Gene Amplification Machine market. With exact information covering every key part of the current market, this report offers existing information of driving producers.. The research report global Market is a market study examining and profiling the current state of the Gene Amplification Machine industry in a professional manner. It comes from daily records, knowledge-bases, white papers and changed knowledge great mass of frees. Inputs from the industry specialists have been added to the study to help the existing and new players in the market to formulate effective business decisions in the next few years.. The report gets at the details of the Gene Amplification Machine market and gives an involutely observation of its applications. The report systematically categorizes the Gene Amplification ...
Synonyms for gene amplification in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for gene amplification. 46 synonyms for amplification: increase, boosting, stretching, strengthening, expansion, extension, widening, raising, heightening, deepening, lengthening.... What are synonyms for gene amplification?
C-myc and HER2 amplification were analyzed on 214 consecutive breast cancers by fluorescence in situ hybridization using tissue microarray technology. The frequencies of amplification were 15.4% (33/214) and 23.3% (49/210), respectively. c- myc amplification was significantly associated with HER2 amplification ( P , .001) and closely linked with cell proliferative activity, measured by Ki67 labeling index ( P = .010). In univariate survival analysis, lymph node status, tumor size, and histological grade were significant prognostic factors, but in multivariate analysis, lymph node status was the only significant factor. Patient survival did not differ according to c- myc amplification status, and c- myc amplification showed no significant correlation with clinicopathologic features of the tumors. A strong correlation between c- myc and HER2 amplification and proliferative activity indicates a biological link between these genes in breast cancer cell.. ...
2934 DNA copy number amplifications induce increased expression of oncogenes and are associated with tumor progression in several tissues. Amplified genes are important in prognostics of several cancers and may serve as targets of therapy. A bibliomics survey was executed that covered 838 published chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization studies. DNA copy number amplification data was collected from more than 4500 cases and reported at chromosome band resolution. Amplification frequency profiles were determined for 82 distinct cancers. Label matrix for cancers was collected using World Health Organization classification. Label collection included information about cell-lineage (system, organ, tissue, cell type, embryonic origin, and differentiation), risk factors (aids, alcohol, asbestos, bacteria, diet, EBV, HIV, HPV, hormonal, implant, inflammation, obesity, parasites, polyoma viruses, radiation, tobacco, toxins, and UV), patient specificity (gender and age), and molecular ...
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway plays a fundamental role in cell proliferation and survival in human tumorigenesis, including gastric cancer. PIK3CA mutations and amplification are two major causes of overactivation of this pathway in human cancers. However, until this work, there was no sound investigation on the association of PIK3CA mutations and amplification with clinical outcome in gastric cancer, particularly the latter. Using direct sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR, we examined PIK3CA mutations and amplification, and their association with clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcome of gastric cancer patients. PIK3CA mutations and amplification were found in 8/113 (7.1%) and 88/131 (67%) gastric cancer patients, respectively. PIK3CA amplification was closely associated with increased phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) level. No relationship was found between PIK3CA mutations and clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcome in gastric cancer. PIK3CA
The present findings argue that intratumoral selection pressures influence the emergence of tumor cell populations with EGFR gene amplification. In addition to our findings, which are discussed below, evidence for such selection pressure in glioblastomas is provided by the long-standing observation that EGFR gene amplification is rapidly lost when these tumors are passaged in vitro (10) ; clearly, the growth advantage provided by EGFR overexpression in vivo is not present in vitro. We suggest that both the genetic and environmental milieu act in vivo to effect such selection.. Contrary to the results of prior studies of glioblastoma using approaches such as Southern blotting and PCR of tumor lysates, which suggested the near exclusivity of EGFR amplification and TP53 mutation (4 , 7) , the present FISH studies demonstrate that EGFR amplification occurs in the majority of glioblastomas with TP53 mutation. However, the cells with EGFR amplification remain isolated and few in number and, therefore, ...
Gene amplification is a cellular process in which multiple copies of a gene are produced. Most instances of gene amplification...
Gene amplification is a cellular process characterized by a selective increase of a particular genomic region without a proportional increase of the entire genome [1-4]. The selective increase accompanies the overexpression of a particular gene within the genomic region that confers a growth advantage to the cell. The growth advantage derived from gene amplification has long been recognized as an important problem for cancer patients. Increased copy numbers of proto-oncogenes, such as MYC, MYCN, and ERBB2, leads to the overexpression of oncogene products that drives abnormal cell proliferation [5-9]. Abnormal cell proliferation results in cancer progression and poor patient survival [10, 11]. In addition, gene amplification is an underlying mechanism for acquired therapy resistance, as cancer cells counteract therapeutic agents by overactivating either therapy-target genes (for example, BCR-ABL amplification) or alternative survival pathways (for example, MET amplification) [12-17]. Despite ...
History Gene amplification is a frequent manifestation of genomic instability that plays a role in tumour progression and development of drug resistance. formation of micronuclei or nuclear buds which correlated with the removal of and increased sensitivity to MTX. These Indoximod findings indicate for the first time that NHEJ plays a specific role in DM formation and that increased MTX sensitivity of DM-containing cells depleted of DNA-PKcs results from removal. Conversely in HSR-containing cells we found no significant switch in the expression of NHEJ proteins. Depletion of DNA-PKcs experienced no effect on amplification and resulted in only a modest increase in sensitivity to MTX. Interestingly both DM-containing and HSR-containing cells exhibited decreased proliferation upon DNA-PKcs depletion. Conclusions We demonstrate a novel specific role for NHEJ in the formation of DMs but not HSRs in MTX-resistant cells and that NHEJ may be Indoximod targeted for the treatment of MTX-resistant colon ...
Interleukin 1 (IL-1) plays an important role in host defense mechanisms by increasing body temperature, inducing the synthesis of a variety of lymphokines and hepatic acute phase proteins and acting as a chemoattractant for lymphocytes. However, in some microenvironments such as injured tissue or joint spaces, elevated IL-1 levels may contribute to pathologic processes, for example, proliferation and fibrosis of tissue involved in pannus formation as well as degradation of matrix and abnormal tissue architecture. To investigate potential mechanisms that may lead to excessive production of IL-1, we have examined the ability of IL-1 to participate in an amplification event by inducing its own gene expression leading to synthesis of biologically active IL-1. When injected into rabbits, recombinant human IL-1-alpha induced biphasic fevers, and during the second temperature elevation 3 hr later, a circulating pyrogenic material was detected by passive transfer of plasma to other rabbits. Induction of ...
To date there has not been a good prognostic model for stratifying glioma patients, probably because of the heterogeneity and genomic instability inherent in malignant astrocytic gliomas. By using the quantitative values of PTEN, VEGF, EGFR and PAX6 gene expression, we were able to greatly improve a prognostic model based on conventional clinical variables. Importantly, we identified a new prognostic marker, the expression value of the PAX6 gene, of which the role in gliomas has not yet been delineated.. Although EGFR gene amplification and overexpression were seen in some gliomas, its expression has no prognostic value according to our analysis. In the case of EGFR gene amplification, there are frequent and various mutations of different regions of the gene that could lead to the increased or decreased oncogenic activity of EGFR (25) . In some cases, however, the total number of EGFR transcripts cannot account for the functional level of EGFR. Quantifying the levels of alternatively spliced ...
By means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, DNA sequences were amplified that flank the crossover sites of a characteristic chromosomal translocation for follicular lymphomas, t(14;18)(q32;q21). This technique permitted the detection of cells carrying the t(14;18) hybrid DNA sequences at a dilution of 1:100,000. The remission marrow and blood samples of a patient with follicular lymphoma and the t(14;18) failed to show any abnormality by morphological examination and conventional Southern blot analysis. However, the t(14;18) hybrid DNA sequences were detected by the PCR technique. Thus, this technique is a highly sensitive tool to detect minimal residual cells carrying the t(14;18) and has the potential to identify a subpopulation of patients with subclinical disease. ...
Map of the amplicon at 3q26 in the JHH-1 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line. (a) Recurrent copy number gains on the chromosomal region 3q26 in HCC cell li
It is well documented that among subgroups of B-ALL, the genetic profile of the leukemic blasts has significant impact on prognosis and stratification for therapy. Recent studies have documented the power of microarrays to screen genome-wide for copy number aberrations (CNAs) and regions of copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity (CNLOH) that are not detectable by G-banding or FISH. Findings identified by array include the co-occurrence of low and high risk abnormalities not previously reported to coexist within a clone, novel regions of chromosomal amplification, clones characterized by numerous whole chromosome LOH that do not meet criteria for doubling of a near-haploid, and characterization of array profiles associated with IKZF1 deletion. This group uses MSI resources that allow them to visualize the array findings using Cirocs, which they have installed on MSI computer space. A bibliography of this groups publications is attached.. Return to this PIs main page.. ...
PART EIGHT [Conclusion]: TRUE SPIRITUALITY AND PURE MITZVOS. In the first seven installments, we spoke of how amplified music at simchas has become widespread and gotten so loud in recent years that more and more people are being caused suffering and damage to their ears and hearing, being caused incurable and often permanent injury (e.g. tinnitus - loud ringing in the ears, dizziness or pain in the inner ears, etc.). We spoke of how it is a mitzva to protect health, how it is forbidden by halacha [Torah law] to cause hurt or damage and how it is an obligation in halacha to guard against causing hurt or damage. Caring for health is a Torah obligation that requires unusually extreme stringency and diligence, and taking no chances. We spoke of how causing damage to ears and hearing are strongly and specifically prohibited by halacha. We spoke of how the so-called music and loud amplification are of non-Jewish derivation and are physical in their essence with a false mask of spirituality, ...
Many breast cancers occur in conjunction with overexpression of the ERBB2 oncogene (also known as HER-2 or Neu). Although gene amplification can lead to ERBB2 overexpression, some human cancers overexpress ERBB2 even without gene amplification. Zuo et al. noticed that a large percentage of older female mice heterozygous for a mutation in the Foxp3 gene (Foxp3sf/+) developed spontaneous cancers; about 60% of these were mammary carcinomas. Further, these mice showed increased susceptibility to developing mammary cancer in response to treatment with the carcinogen DMBA together with progesterone. Analysis of normal mammary epithelial tissue and mammary cancer cells microdissected from heterozygous mice revealed that the wild-type allele of Foxp3 was expressed in the former and silenced in the latter, which also showed increased ErbB2 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that a Foxp3 fusion protein, which decreased ErbB2 expression when transfected into a mouse mammary tumor ...
Results: Between 10/2006 and 6/2007, all 29 patients enrolled (median age: 58 years; M/F 8/21; ECOG PS 0/1/2 2/24/3; stage IIIB/IV 26/3, never/former/current smoker 19/6/4) were evaluable for response. There were 14 PRs (48.3%) while there were 5 SDs (17.2%) and 10 PD (34.5%), giving overall response rate of 48.3% and disease control rate of 65.5%. The response rate in female patients was 57.1% (12/21) while that in never-smokers was 57.9% (11/19). Before the start of treatment, 5 patients were known to have EGFR gene mutation. Among them, interestingly, 2 patients whose tumor also had EGFR gene amplification showed a PR while 2 of 3 patients without gene amplification showed PDs. After a median follow-up of 4.5 months, 12 progressive diseases and 4 deaths were observed. The most common toxicity was skin rash, which was manageable. Retrospective biological study for patients enrolled is still being analyzed and will be presented at the meeting.Conclusions: Erlotinib showed promising response ...
HER2 overexpression/amplification is associated with trastuzumab response in breasts/gastric cancers. success (Operating-system) data were attained for FOCUS/PICCOLO and recurrence and mortality for QUASAR; 29/1342 (2.2%) stage IV and 25/1914 (1.3%) stage II-III tumours showed HER2 proteins overexpression. From the HER2‐overexpressing situations 27 (96.4%) stage IV tumours and 20/24 (83.3%) stage II-III tumours demonstrated HER2 amplification by FISH; 41/47 (87.2%) also showed duplicate number increases. HER2‐overexpression was connected with KRAS/BRAF outrageous‐type (WT) position at all levels: in 5.2% WT versus 1.0% mutated tumours (p < 0.0001) in stage IV and 2.1% versus 0.2% in stage II-III tumours (p = 0.01) respectively. HER2 had not been connected with PFS or Operating-system. At stage II-III there is no significant relationship between HER2 overexpression and 5FU/FA response. An increased percentage of HER2‐overexpressing situations experienced recurrence however the difference ...
Dear molbio.methds-reagnts readers, Our lab has successfully amplified the ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA region in the group of algae we are studying using DNA from a quick and dirty CTAB prep as the template. I am now attempting to modify our protocol to amplify the region using a single colony of algae dropped into the reaction mix as our template. In my first attempt I had no amplification at all. I extended the number of cycles and the extension time and got a very weak, fuzzy band from one of my tubes. (My control was negative). Im going to continue to play with this, but I thought Id throw it out onto the net to see if anyone had any suggestions. Basically I need to get stronger amplification and a sharper band. Have any of you had success in optimizing a PCR protocol like this? Anyone have any tips for amplifying from a single colony (about 10-70 eukaryotic cells)? Even though our target DNA is present in multiple copies in the genome, Im concerned that there might be too little DNA there to ...
PCR Amplification Issues and Primer dimer - posted in PCR, RT-PCR and Real-Time PCR: Hi all, I have been working on getting my PCR done correctly for months with no progress. Most of the time I just get a primer dimer of about 100 bp when run next to a ladder, as my sample is about 360 bp. Every now and then I will get a really nice amplification but these results are not consistent (actually Ive only got 3 good amplifications in the past 5 months). I will start fr...
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Dr. Thomas Lynch: Dr. Davies, I will start off by asking you what you think copy number is telling us. Why does having a couple of extra copies of the chromosome matter, as opposed to gene amplification? How does that mechanistically explain what is going on?. Dr. Angela Davies: I think we are still learning what that means. It highlights the fact that mutations dont tell the whole story. The patients with mutations are the ones who are going to have dramatic and durable responses to these agents. There is another population of patients who do not benefit and that may partly be predicted by the presence of KRAS mutations. It is that large middle group of patients who would benefit from EGFR inhibitors that we are struggling to identify and select. That may be where the gene copy number fits in terms of predicting when to utilize these agents.. Dr. Charles Butts: There are very few predictors to say you shouldnt treat a particular population with erlotinib. As Dr. Bonomi has shown, the hazard ...
Through a comprehensive molecular analysis, researchers have divided cervical cancer into three main categories and identified a new subtype more similar to endometrial cancer. They also pinpointed five mutant genes not previously linked to this disease, and gene amplifications suggesting a role for immunotherapy. ...
Cheeseman, I; Gomez-Escobar, N; Carret, C; Ivens, A; Tetteh, K; Stewart, L; Conway, D; (2008) A genome-wide survey of gene amplifications and deletions in laboratory and field isolates of Plasmodium falciparam. [Conference or Workshop Item] https://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/7910 Full text not available from this repository ...
Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment.
Hotchkiss, T.; Kramer, H.B.; Doores, K.J.; Gamblin, D.P.; Oldham, N.J.; Davis, B.G., 2005: Ligand amplification in a dynamic combinatorial glycopeptide library
Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men in developed countries and the second most common malignancy of the urinary tract [1]. The majority of bladder cancer cases arise from the urothelium, the epithelium lining the inside of the bladder and these cases are thus called urothelial carcinomas. Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rarer malignant neoplasm and it accounts for 3-5% of bladder cancer in Western populations [2].. Several studies have investigated the chromosomal alterations associated with development and progression of bladder cancer. Different methods to detect copy number changes, such as classical cytogenetics, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), Southern blot analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) have been used [3].. Several CGH studies providing information about typical losses, gains and amplifications in bladder cancer have been published [4-8]. However, ...
001). Our results present synergic performance for erlotinib-cyclopamine association and offer a ideal in vitro model to explore medication combos on GBM cells. gene amplifications are often connected with GBM, producing this tyrosine kinase receptor a putative focus on for therapy.3,4 Malignant gliomas are heterogeneous in their cell structure.5 Lately, a array of tumors, including GBM, possess been found to consist of cancer stem-like cells (CSC).6,7 It has lately been suggested that GBM derive from neural originate or progenitor cells, and CSCs might perform a central part in the distribution of several malignancy types.7 Thus, signaling paths taking part in a key part in old fashioned sensory cells might also be needed in tumorigenesis of glial tumors. 8C11 CSCs possess also been demonstrated to become accountable for a common radioresistance and chemoresistance.12 The hedgehog path is of crucial importance during embryonic advancement13 and is also activated in sensory stem cells14 and GBM ...
The amplification status of human epidermal growth factor receptors 2 (HER2) genes is strongly associated with clinical outcome in patients with breast cancer. The American Society of Clinical Oncology Tumor Marker Guidelines Panel has recommended routine testing of HER2 status on all newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancers since 2001. Although fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technology provides superior accuracy as compared with other approaches, current manual FISH analysis methods are somewhat subjective, tedious, and may introduce interreader variability. The goal of this preliminary study is to develop and test a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to assess HER2 status using FISH images. Forty FISH images were selected for this study from our genetic laboratory. The CAD scheme first applies an adaptive, iterative threshold method followed by a labeling algorithm to segment cells of possible interest. A set of classification rules is then used to identify analyzable interphase ...
RNA amplification is necessary for profiling gene expression from small tissue samples. Previous studies have shown that the T7 based amplification techniques are reproducible but may distort the true abundance of targets. However, the consequences of such distortions on the ability to detect biological variation in expression have not been explored sufficiently to define the true extent of usability and limitations of such amplification techniques. We show that expression ratios are occasionally distorted by amplification using the Affymetrix small sample protocol version 2 due to a disproportional shift in intensity across biological samples. This occurs when a shift in one sample cannot be reflected in the other sample because the intensity would lie outside the dynamic range of the scanner. Interestingly, such distortions most commonly result in smaller ratios with the consequence of reducing the statistical significance of the ratios. This becomes more critical for less pronounced ratios where the
... Gene Amplification technology is one of the rapidly growing markets...San Jose CA (PRWEB) November 4 2008 -- Molecular diagnostics and the...World a href http://www.strategyr.com/Gene_Amplification_Technologi...a href http://www.strategyr.com/Gene_Amplification_Technologies_Mar...,World,Gene,Amplification,Technologies,Market,to,Reach,$2.2,Billion,by,2015,,According,to,New,Report,by,Global,Industry,Analysts,,Inc.,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
It would be expected that N. tabacum would have an IGS signal distribution that reflected the sum of that found in the diploid progenitors N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis. However, there was reduced A1/A2 satellite signal in all three tobacco lines [synthetic tobacco Th37 (Figure 3, D and E), a feral tobacco (Figure 3, F and G) and cv. 095-55 (Figure 3H)]. The reduction in A1/A2 satellite sequence was least apparent in the synthetic tobacco (Figure 3, D and E) and the sequence distribution on a subset of chromosomes most closely reflected, albeit in reduced abundance, that found in N. tomentosiformis (compare labeled chromosomes in Figure 3E with those in Figure 2). But there are differences; e.g., there is a satellite locus on the long arm of the T3 chromosome of Th37 plants that did not occur on chromosome 3 of any N. tomentosiformis varieties studied. The novel locus could have arisen by an allopolyploidy-induced translocation or amplification event.. Distribution of A1/A2 satellite in ...
Gene Amplification and Expression in Thyroid Cancer. We study genomic instability in thyroid cancer. Gain, loss and rearrangement of genomic DNA are major characteristics of cancer, often providing a basis for the altered pattern of gene expression that drives oncogenesis. The least studied aspect of genomic instability in thyroid cancer is the gain of gene copy-number called gene amplification. Since double-stranded DNA breakage by ionizing radiation might enhance gene amplification, we investigated whether the post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cohort exhibits specific patterns of gene amplification that can be distinguished from patterns seen in PTC and other thyroid tumors not associated with radiation exposure.. Using a genome-wide, cDNA microarray-based technique, we analyzed genomic DNA from a pilot series of ten post-Chernobyl PTC cases and from several spontaneous thyroid tumors of various types. For reference we analyzed gDNA from normal individuals and from the ...
Cytogenetic studies have identified two types of gene amplification, intrachromosomal HSRs and extrachromosomal DMs. Although these two genetic structures have been suggested to be associated with increased DSBs and subsequent NHEJ repair process, the precise mechanism underlying the formation of HSRs and DMs remains to be investigated. Using a method that has been described previously,20-22 we have generated two HT-29 colon cancer cell lines that are resistant to different concentrations of MTX: (i) a 10−5 mol/L resistant line that harbours amplified DHFR primarily in HSRs and (ii) a 10−4 mol/L resistant line that harbours amplified DHFR primarily in DMs. These two cell lines serve as model systems that provided us a unique opportunity to study the molecular mechanism by which HSRs and DMs are formed and how they relate to the development of dose-dependent MTX resistance.. Initially, we examined whether MTX causes DSBs and whether the two MTX-resistant cell lines exhibit altered levels of ...
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All primary neuroblastomas examined in this study were found to express MRP4 and its overexpression was significantly associated with MYCN amplification. In addition, MRP4 and MRP1 expressions were found significantly correlated. We have previously provided evidence that MYCN regulates expression of the MRP1 gene (8), and given that drugs routinely used to treat neuroblastoma do not seem to be MRP4 substrates, it is interesting to speculate that the prognostic significance provided by MRP4 also reflects regulation of its expression by MYCN. We are currently investigating this possibility as several potential MYCN-binding sites (E-boxes) are present in the MRP4 promoter. Alternatively, MRP4 may be transporting some other nondrug substrate important for the maintenance of neuroblastoma malignancy. Given these results, we are currently analyzing the independent prognostic significance of MRP4 and MRP1 gene expression, as well as MYCN gene amplification, in a large cohort of prospectively accrued ...
The purpose of this trial is to determine the efficacy and safety profile of TKI258 in 4 groups of patients with metastatic HER2 negative breast cancer
Aberrant regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays important roles in colorectal carcinogenesis, with over 90% of cases of sporadic colon cancer featuring β-catenin accumulation. While ubiquitination-mediated degradation is widely accepted as a major route for β-catenin protein turnover, little is known about the regulation of β-catenin in transcriptional level. …Elf3, a member of the E-twenty-six family of transcription factors, drives β-catenin transactivation and associates with poor survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. … first found recurrent amplification and upregulation of Elf3 in CRC tissues, and further Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified significant association between Elf3 expression and activity of WNT/β-catenin pathway. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay consistently revealed that Elf3 binds to and transactivates β-catenin promoter. Ectopic expression of Elf3 induces accumulation of β-catenin in both nucleus and ...
Forward and backward stepwise selection is not guaranteed to give us the best model containing a particular subset of the p predictors but thats the price to pay in order to avoid overfitting. Even if p is less than 40, looking at all possible models may not be the best thing to do. The point is that is not always best to do a full search, even when you can do it because we will pay a price in variance (and thus in test error). Just because best subset has a better model on the training data doesnt mean that its really going to be a better model overall in the context of test data, which is what we really care about. ...
Whole Genome Amplification (WGA) provides the means to immortalize genomic DNA from fresh, frozen, archived and chemically treated samples. GenomePlex® WGA, produces 500-1000 fold unbiased amplification of genomic DNA via a PCR-based sequence independent approach.
GENETIC ANALYSIS LOC FOR NUCLEIC ACID AMPLIFICATION USING NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE BASED AMPLIFICATION - diagram, schematic, and image 72 ...
Real-time reverse-transcriptase Staurosporine purchase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed, as described previously,23 in a 96-well plate using a Bio-Rad iCycler iQ. The sequences of forward and reverse primers used for amplification are represented in Table 1. For each gene, a standard curve was established from four cDNA dilutions (1/10 to 1/10,000) and was used to determine relative gene-expression variation after normalization, with a geometric average of 18S and TATA box-binding protein expression. Results are expressed as means ± standard error of the mean (SEM). Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance,. followed by the Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test. Differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Concordant arguments from in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that hepatic expression of CB1R is submitted to an autoregulation process. HM781-36B cell line Activation of ECS by high-fat diets or by agonists is associated with an increase in the expression of CB1R, ...
Devices and methods for carrying out an assay for the determination of nucleic acids are disclosed. The devices comprise (a) a sample receiving chamber, (b) a plurality of additional chambers, at least one of the additional chambers containing reagents for carrying out an assay for the determination of a nucleic acid, (c) means for detecting a signal generated by the reagents, (d) means for permitting fluid communication between the additional chambers, (e) means for introducing a sample into the device, and (f) means for separating the analyte from the remainder of the sample and introducing the analyte into one of the additional chambers, which means comprises suspendible particles. The methods involve introducing a sample suspected of containing a nucleic acid analyte into a device in accordance with the invention. The analyte, if present, and particles in a medium are transported through the chambers of the device. Reagents for conducting an amplification are combined with the transported medium,
Angele, P; Faltermeier, H; Kujat, R; Maghsudi, M; Möller, H D; Nerlich, M; (1998) [Improvement of the amplification rate of human chondrocytes with IGF-I and RGD]. Langenbecks Archiv für Chirurgie. Supplement. Kongressband. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Chirurgie. Kongress, 115 (Suppl). pp. 205-8. ISSN 0942-2854 https://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/19907 Full text not available from this repository ...
The PI3K signaling pathway is crucial for survival and for progression of ovarian carcinoma cells through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The p110α catalytic subunit of PI3K (PIK3CA) is one of the most frequently altered oncogenes in cancer. Approximately 40% of ovarian tumors reveal amplification, whereas only 7% reveal mutation of PIK3CA. Conversely, the majority of breast cancers harbor mutations in PIK3CA (40%), whereas only a few reveal PIK3CA amplifications (9%; refs. 1, 24, 25). We and others have recently shown that the PI3K signaling cascade interacts with lipogenic pathways in cancer cells. In fact, FASN, the crucial enzyme in de novo generation of long-chain fatty acids, is overexpressed in approximately 80% of ovarian carcinomas and is linked with the PI3K system in these tumors (13, 15). Unfortunately, the mechanisms of FASN-mediated regulation of PI3K signaling are still not fully characterized. Experimental evidence suggests that multiple pathways are involved (15). For instance, ...
Extracts features from amplification curve data of quantitative Polymerase Chain Reactions (qPCR) (Pabinger, Stephan, Stefan Roediger, Albert Kriegner, Klemens Vierlinger, and Andreas Weinhauusel (2014) ,doi:10.1016/j.bdq.2014.08.002,) for machine learning purposes. Helper functions prepare the amplification curve data for processing as functional data (e.g., Hausdorff distance) or enable the plotting of amplification curve classes (negative, ambiguous, positive). The hookreg() and hookregNL() functions can be used to predict amplification curves with an hook effect-like curvature. The pcrfit_single() function can be used to extract features from an amplification curve.. ...