Geminiviruses constitute a group of plant viruses that infect vegetable crops all over the world. Among the Geminiviridae family, the genera Mastrevirus, Begomovirus and Curtovirus are the most abundant. Suppression of gene silencing is a key mechanism for viral infection in plants. In begomovirus, V2 is a strong posttranscriptional gene silencing suppressor. We recently showed that, despite the lack of sequence homology with V2 from begomovirus, V2 from curtovirus Beet curly top virus (BCTV) is also a PTGS suppressor by impairing the RDR6/SGS3 pathway. In order to identify the domains involved the suppression activity and viral pathogenicity, we analysed the aminoacidic sequence, performing an alignment of several begomovirus and curtovirus V2 proteins. A protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation motif essential for suppression activity in begomovirus (P1) was founded in a similar position in all analysed sequences. Besides, other two putative CK2 and PKC phosphorilation motifs (P2 and P3) were ...
Beet curly top virus (BCTV) infection is associated with the de novo synthesis of a heterogenous population of subgenomic viral DNAs. Nicotiana benthamiana plants transformed with a partial repeat of one such subgenomic DNA remain susceptible to infection but produce ameliorated symptoms when agroinoculated with BCTV. Transgenic plants contained from 10 to 30% of the amount of viral DNA detected in nontransformed control plants showing severe symptoms. Symptom amelioration is associated with the mobilization of subgenomic DNA from the integrated template and its amplification to approximately one third of the total amount of viral DNA. The amplification in transgenic plants of a specific subgenomic DNA rather than a heterogenous population implies that mobilization from the integrated template frequently occurs during systemic infection, precluding the accumulation of other subgenomic DNA forms. ...
Citation: Wintermantel, W.M. 2009. BEET CURLY TOP VIRUS. In: Compendium of Beet Diseases and Pests. 2nd Ed., R.M. Harveson and L.E. Hanson, eds., APS Press, St. Paul, MN. pp 51-53. Interpretive Summary: Curly top disease of sugarbeet is caused by a group of related viruses in the family Geminiviridae, genus Curtovirus. Curly top disease of sugarbeet is widespread throughout the western United States, southwestern Canada and Mexico. In addition to North America, curly top is endemic in the Mediterranean basin, and Middle East. Traditionally the causal agent has been referred to as Beet curly top virus (BCTV), however three closely related viruses are now recognized to cause curly top disease in sugarbeet. These include BCTV, as well as Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) and Beet mild curly top virus (BMCTV). All three curtovirus species consist of genomes of single-stranded (ss) DNA packaged in twinned (geminate) icosahedral particles approximately 20 x 38 nm characteristic of the family ...
A bean golden mosaic geminiviral isolate from Goiania, Goiás, Brazil (BGMV-BZ), was determined to be transmitted by whiteflies and induced golden mosaic symptoms and diagnostic geminiviral inclusion bodies and ultrastructural abnormalities in infected bean leaves. In contrast to BGMV isolates from Central America and the Caribbean, BGMV-BZ could not be sap-transmitted to beans. Cloned geminiviral DNA components were used as DNA probes for the rapid and specific detection of BGMV-BZ and three sap-transmissible bean-infecting geminiviral isolates-BGMV from Guatemala (BGMV-GA) and the Dominican Republic (BGMV-DR) and bean dwarf mosaic geminivirus from Colombia (BDMV-CO). A general DNA probe detected all four viral isolates, whereas specific probes detected BGMV-BZ, BDMV, or BGMV-GA and BGMV-DR. Nucleic acid dot and squash blot methods were used to prepare samples for hybridization, and the dot blot method was used to determine relative differences in viral nucleic acid titers in infected bean ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modifying the replication of geminiviral vectors reduces cell death and enhances expression of biopharmaceutical proteins in nicotiana benthamiana leaves. AU - Diamos, Andrew G.. AU - Mason, Hugh. PY - 2019/1/9. Y1 - 2019/1/9. N2 - Plants are a promising platform to produce biopharmaceutical proteins, however, the toxic nature of some proteins inhibits their accumulation. We previously created a replicating geminiviral expression system based on bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) that enables very high-level production of recombinant proteins. To study the role of replication in this system, we generated vectors that allow separate and controlled expression of BeYDV Rep and RepA proteins. We show that the ratio of Rep and RepA strongly affects the efficiency of replication. Rep, RepA, and vector replication all elicit the plant hypersensitive response, resulting in cell death. We find that a modest reduction in expression of Rep and RepA reduces plant leaf cell death which, despite ...
Geminivirus AC2 is a multifunctional protein that acts as a pathogenicity factor. Transcriptional regulation by AC2 appears to be mediated through interaction with a plant specific DNA binding protein, PEAPOD2 (PPD2), that specifically binds to sequences known to mediate activation of the CP promoter of Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) and Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV). Suppression of both basal and innate immune responses by AC2 in plants is mediated through inactivation of SnRK1.2, an Arabidopsis SNF1 related protein kinase, and adenosine kinase (ADK). An indirect promoter targeting strategy, via AC2-host dsDNA binding protein interactions, and inactivation of SnRK1.2-mediated defense responses could provide the opportunity for geminiviruses to alter host gene expression and in turn, reprogram the host to support virus infection. The goal of this study was to identify changes in the transcriptome of Arabidopsis induced by the transcription activation function of AC2 and the inactivation of ...
O receptor LRR-RLK (Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase), designado NIK1 (NSP-interacting kinases), está envolvido na resposta imunológica em plantas contra Germinivirus. NIK1 foi inicialmente descrito por interagir com a proteína viral NSP (nuclear shuttle protein), proteína que participa do transporte de DNA viral do núcleo para o citoplasma de células infectadas. Com alta similaridade estrutural a NIK1, BAK1 (Brassinosteroid Insensitive Associated Kinase1), também conhecida como SERK3 (Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase3), é um receptor LRR-RLK de membrana que desempenha um duplo papel em vias de sinalização, podendo atuar como um coreceptor de BRI1 na presença de BR ou mediar respostas de defesa contra patógenos. Na via de crescimento desencadeada por brassinosteróides (BRs), BAK1 interage com BRI1 (Brassinosteroid-insensitive1) na membrana plasmática e ativa a função de cinase desta proteína. Recentemente, através de dados de RNA-seq, foi demonstrado que ...
Background: Geminivirus (family Geminiviridae) is a prevalent plant virus that imperils agriculture globally, causing serious damage to the livelihood of farmers, particularly in developing countries. The virus evolves rapidly, attributing to its single-stranded genome propensity, resulting in worldwide circulation of diverse and viable genomes. Genomics is a prominent approach taken by researchers in elucidating the infectious mechanism of the virus. Currently, NCBI Viral Genome website is a popular repository of viral genomes that conveniently provides researchers a centralized data source of genomic information. However, unlike the genome of living organisms, viral genomes most often maintain peculiar characteristics that fit into no single genome architecture. By imposing a unified annotation scheme on the myriad of viral genomes may downplay their hallmark features. For example, virion of Begomovirus prevailing in America encapsulates two similar-sized circular genomes and both are required to
Probable component of the MCM2-7 complex (MCM complex) that may function as a DNA helicase and which is essential to undergo a single round of replication initiation and elongation per cell cycle in eukaryotic cells. May play a crucial role in the control of de-differentiation and cell proliferation processes required for lateral root formation. Is essential for embryo development. Is involved in the geminivirus mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) DNA replication, presumably in conjunction with other host factors.
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1998 Jan 01). Intercellular and intracellular trafficking: What we can learn from geminivirus movement. In Cellular Integration of Signal Pathways in Plants. NATO Advanced Study Institute Series, Vol. H 104. (F.Lo Schiavo, R.L. Last, G.Morelli, and N.V. Raikhel ed ...
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1. Abdullahi, I., Atiri, G. I., Dixon, A. G. O., Winter, S., and Thottappilly, G. 2003. Effects of cassava genotype, climate and the Bemisia tabaci vector population on the development of African cassava mosaic geminivirus (ACMV). Acta Agron. Hung. 51:37-46.. 2. Akinbade, S. A., Hanna, R., Nguenkam, A., Njukwe, E., Fotso, A., Doumtsop, A., Ngeve, J., Tenku, S. T. N., and Kumar, P. L. 2010. First report of the East African cassava mosaic virus-Uganda (EACMV-UG) infecting cassava (Manihot esculenta) in Cameroon. New Disease Reports 21:22. doi:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2010.021.022.. 3. Alabi, O. J., Kumar, P. L., and Naidu, R. A. 2008. Multiplex PCR method for the detection of African cassava mosaic virus and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus in cassava. J. Virol. Methods 154:111-120.. 4. Alabi, O. J., Ogbe, F. O., Bandyopadhyay, R., Dixon, A. G. O., Hughes, J., and Naidu, R. A. 2007. The occurrence of African cassava mosaic virus and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus in natural hosts ...
Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is a major constraint to sustainable production of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Zambia and other sub-Saharan African countries. During a survey conducted between April and May 2014 in six (Western, Northwestern, Northern, Luapula, Lusaka, and Eastern) provinces of Zambia, 226 symptomatic cassava leaf tissue samples were collected from CMD-affected plants in 214 farmers fields. PCR screening of these samples using species-specific primers targeting multiple cassava mosaic geminiviruses (Aloyce et al. 2013) revealed the presence of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV), East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV), and East African cassava mosaic Malawi virus (EACMMV) in the samples as single or mixed infections of different proportions. Considering that EACMMV is a previously unreported virus from Zambia, DNA extracts from three samples (ZM-LSK48 from Lusaka Province, ZM-E74 from Eastern province, and ZM-N112 from Northern province) showing severe symptoms of ...
Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) exert an essential function in the transduction of signals from the cell exterior to the cell interior, acting as important regulators of plant development and responses to environmental conditions. A growing body of evidence suggests that RLKs may play relevant roles in plant-virus interactions, although the details and diversity of effects and underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The C4 protein from different geminiviruses has been found to interact with RLKs in the CLAVATA 1 (CLV1) clade. However, whether C4 can interact with RLKs in other subfamilies and, if so, what the biological impact of such interactions might be, is currently unknown. In this work, we explore the interaction landscape of C4 from the geminivirus Tomato yellow leaf curl virus within the Arabidopsis RLK family. Our results show that C4 can interact with RLKs from different subfamilies including, but not restricted to, members of the CLV1 clade. Functional analyses of the interaction of C4 with
ID EU155147; SV 1; linear; genomic DNA; STD; VRL; 698 BP. XX AC EU155147; XX DT 02-OCT-2008 (Rel. 97, Created) DT 02-OCT-2008 (Rel. 97, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE African cassava mosaic virus isolate EAC05-50S capsid protein gene, partial DE cds. XX KW . XX OS African cassava mosaic virus OC Viruses; ssDNA viruses; Geminiviridae; Begomovirus. XX RN [1] RP 1-698 RA Adjata D.K., Muller E.V., Peterschmitt M., Gumedzoe M.D.; RT "Incidence of cassava viral diseases and first identification of East RT African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV) and Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) RT in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fields in Togo"; RL Unpublished. XX RN [2] RP 1-698 RA Muller E.V., Adjata D.K.; RT ; RL Submitted (13-SEP-2007) to the INSDC. RL BIOS, CIRAD, Montpellier 34398, France XX DR MD5; 6595d9372cf896b7d22ade92a9c675c2. XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT source 1..698 FT /organism="African cassava mosaic virus" FT /segment="DNA-A" FT /host="Manihot esculenta crantz" FT /isolate="EAC05-50S" ...
Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses) are a major limiting factor for the production of numerous dicotyledonous crops throughout the world. Begomoviruses differ in the number of components that make up their genomes and association with satellites, and yet they cause strikingly similar phenotypes, such as leaf curling, chlorosis and stunted plant growth. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous RNAs that regulate plant growth and development. The study described here was aimed at investigating the effects of each virus encoded gene on the levels of developmental miRNAs to identify common trends between distinct begomoviruses. All genes encoded by four distinct begomoviruses (African cassava mosaic virus [ACMV], Cabbage leaf curl virus [CbLCuV], Tomato yellow leaf curl virus [TYLCV] and Cotton leaf curl virus/Cotton leaf curl betasatellite [CLCuV/CLCuMB]) were expressed from a Potato virus X (PVX) vector in Nicotiana benthamiana. Changes in the levels of ten miRNAs in response to the virus
Read "A begomovirus associated with ageratum yellow vein disease in Indonesia: evidence for natural recombination between tomato leaf curl Java virus and Ageratum yellow vein virus-(Java), Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Geminiviruses of the genera Begomovirus and Curtovirus utilize three replication modes: complementary-strand replication (CSR), rolling-circle replication (RCR) and recombination-dependent replication (RDR). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we now show for the first time that maize streak virus (MSV), the type member of the most divergent geminivirus genus, Mastrevirus, does the same. Although mastreviruses have fewer regulatory genes than other geminiviruses and uniquely express their replication-associated protein (Rep) from a spliced transcript, the replicative intermediates of CSR, RCR and RDR could be detected unequivocally within infected maize tissues. All replicative intermediates accumulated early and, to varying degrees, were already present in the shoot apex and leaves at different maturation stages. Relative to other replicative intermediates, those associated with RCR increased in prevalence during leaf maturation. Interestingly, in addition to RCR-associated DNA forms seen in
Kaolin reflectant treatments have been shown to reduce environmental, pest and pathogen stress in many plants. We tested the effect of kaolin on yield, Beet curly top virus (BCTV) incidence and physiological parameters (measured as hyperspectral reflectance) of field-grown chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in southern New Mexico.
Mastreviruses (family Geminiviridae) that infect monocotyledonous plants occur throughout the temperate and tropical regions of Asia, Africa, Europe and Australia. Despite the identification of a...
Despite the demonstration that geminiviruses, like many other single stranded DNA viruses, are evolving at rates similar to those of RNA viruses, a recent study has suggested that grass-infecting species in the genus Mastrevirus may have co-diverged with their hosts over millions of years. This co-divergence hypothesis requires that long-term mastrevirus substitution rates be at least 100,000-fold lower than their basal mutation rates and 10,000-fold lower than their observable short-term substitution rates. The credibility of this hypothesis, therefore, hinges on the testable claim that negative selection during mastrevirus evolution is so potent that it effectively purges 99.999% of all mutations that occur. We have conducted long-term evolution experiments lasting between 6 and 32 years, where we have determined substitution rates of between 2 and 3 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year for the mastreviruses Maize streak virus (MSV) and Sugarcane streak Réunion virus (SSRV). We further show that
The cassava was modified for resistance to Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) by introducing an RNA interference cassette that targets African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) replication associated disease AC1. The production of hairpin RNA by the host cells trigger an RNAi response that is expected to target viral transcripts and prevent viral replication and thus further infection. Due to conservation between AC1 sequences in ACMV and East african cassava mosaic virus, the modified cassava is expected to resistant to both viruses, which are the causal agents of CMD. A selectable marker, Escherichia coli hygromycin B phosphotransferase, was additionally included for hygromycin selection during transformation ...
Citation: Panella, L.W., Lewellen, R.T. 2004. Notice of release of fc201 monogerm, 0-type sugarbeet germplasm with resistance to rhizomania and other diseases.. Germplasm Release. Interpretive Summary: This is a Germplasm Release, no Interpretive Summary required. Technical Abstract: FC201 is a segregating population of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) with a high frequency of the Rz allele conferring resistance to rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus. It is segregating for resistance to root-rotting strains (AG-2-2) of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and to the sugar beet root aphid (Pemphigus sp.), has moderate resistance to cercospora leaf spot caused by Cercospora beticola Sacc., to black root caused by Aphanomyces cochlioides Drechsl., and the Beet curly top virus. FC201 is a heterogeneous population from which to select disease resistant monogerm, O-type parents to infuse multiple disease resistance on the female side of hybrids. There is no CMS equivalent. FC201 is released from ...
Geminiviridae is a family of plant viruses. There are currently over 360 species in this family, divided among 9 genera. Diseases associated with this family include: bright yellow mosaic, yellow mosaic, yellow mottle, leaf curling, stunting, streaks, reduced yields. They have single-stranded circular DNA genomes encoding genes that diverge in both directions from a virion strand origin of replication (i.e. geminivirus genomes are ambisense). According to the Baltimore classification they are considered class II viruses. It is the largest known family of single stranded DNA viruses. Mastrevirus and curtovirus transmission is via various leafhopper species (e.g. maize streak virus and other African streak viruses are transmitted by Cicadulina mbila), the only known topocuvirus species, Tomato pseudo-curly top virus, is transmitted by the treehopper Micrutalis malleifera, and begomoviruses are transmitted by the whitefly species, Bemisia tabaci. These viruses are responsible for a significant ...
Thermotherapy was used to free three cassava (Manihot esculenta) cultivars of African cassava mosaic, an important viruslike disease of cassava in East Africa. The pathogen was eradicated from 33 44% of tip cuttings (1.0 1.5 cm long) after hot-air treatment of mother plants at 37 C for 87 105 days. Survival of these tip cuttings after 35 105 days ranged from 22 73%. Exposure of entire cassava plants to hot-air treatments at 37 C for 42 96 days caused temporary remission of symptoms in most plants. Only one of 129 surviving plants was freed of disease. Two successive hot-water treatments of diseased stem cuttings at 50 or 55 C for varying intervals were not therapeutic. Keyword(s): ...
Surveys were conducted during 2016-18 revealed that the occurrence of the leaf curl disease on tobacco in major growing districts of Karnataka ranged from 19.60 to 31.01 during 2016-18. Among the six districts surveyed, highest per cent disease incidence of tobacco leaf curl virus was recorded in Shivamogga district (31.01) followed by Belagavi (25.59) and lowest per cent disease incidence of 19.60 of TbLCV was recorded in Chamarajangar district. The survey data imply that leaf curl disease is emerging as one of the major diseases of tobacco. For the detection of the virus, total DNA was extracted and PCR was carried out using pair of begomovirus specific Deng primers. All the isolates collected at different locations showed characteristic band of 550 bp whereas no amplicon was observed in healthy tobacco samples. This indicating the begomovirusis involved in causing the leaf curl disease in tobacco.
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Geminiviruses include a large number of single-stranded DNA viruses that are emerging as useful tools to dissect many fundamental processes in plant hosts. However, there have been no reports yet regarding the genetic dissection of the geminivirus-plant interaction. Here, a high-throughput approach …
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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jan 8;105(1):157-61. Epub 2007 Dec 28. Interaction with host SGS3 is required for suppression of RNA silencing by tomato yellow leaf curl virus V2 protein. Glick E, Zrachya A, Levy Y, Mett A, Gidoni D, Belausov E, Citovsky V, Gafni Y ...
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jan 8;105(1):157-61. Epub 2007 Dec 28. Interaction with host SGS3 is required for suppression of RNA silencing by tomato yellow leaf curl virus V2 protein. Glick E, Zrachya A, Levy Y, Mett A, Gidoni D, Belausov E, Citovsky V, Gafni Y ...
April 13, 2015. University of Illinois scientists reported in Archives of Virology evidence of the new mastrevirus, tentatively named switchgrass mosaic-associated virus 1.. The switchgrass exhibited mosaic symptoms-splotchy, discolored leaves-characteristic of a viral infection, yet tested negative for known infections. Deep sequencing, a new technology, revealed the plants were infected with a new virus in the genus mastrevirus, the first of its kind found in North America.. University of Illinois scientists reported in Archives of Virology evidence of the new mastrevirus, tentatively named switchgrass mosaic-associated virus 1 (SgMaV-1). Other members of the mastrevirus genus, a group of DNA viruses, are known to be responsible for decimating yields in staple food crops (including corn, wheat, and sugarcane) throughout Africa, Europe, Asia, and Australia. It has never been reported in North America.. Many mastreviruses are transmitted from plant to plant by leafhoppers. The rate of infection ...
Geminiviruses infect crops, ornamentals and weeds and cause substantial agro-economical losses around the world. The incidence and severity of geminivirus diseases has greatly increased in the past 20 years. The family Geminiviridae is one of the largest and most important families of plant viruses. The DNA genomes of geminiviruses encode only for 5-7 proteins that redirect host machineries and processes to establish a productive infection. These interactions reprogram plant cell cycle and transcriptional controls, inhibit cell death pathways, interfere with cell signaling and protein turnover, and suppress defense. The genome of bipartite begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) consists of two circular ssDNA molecules: DNA A and DNA B. Both genome components are relatively small (2.5 - 3.0 kb per single-stranded DNA circle) and replicate within the plant nucleus. Thus, systemic infection requires the permeation across two cellular barriers, the nuclear envelope and plasmodesmata. The two DNA ...
Farmer strategies for maize growing, maize streak virus disease control and feeding of smallholder dairy cattle in Kiambu District, Kenya. Results of a rapid rural appraisal held in April and May 2001. First Technical Report. PAN Livestock Services Ltd, Reading, UK. 33 pp ...
The ability to prevent vein disease is limited. Since we cannot choose our family history, the greatest risk factor, we can only modify the other risk factors that contribute to the development of vein disease. These risk factors include: Obesity Lack of exercise Hormone replacement therapy Long periods of standing Multiple pregnancies
Circular replication-associated protein encoding single-stranded DNA (CRESS DNA) viruses are increasingly recognized worldwide in a variety of samples. Representative members include well-described...
Fortunately, most vein disease can be seen by looking at the size and color of the vein at the skin surface. In some cases, however, the diseased vein may be deeper in the body and not visible through the skin. As a result, paying close attention to other symptoms is important in diagnosing vein disease. Many patients with vein disease experience cramping, aching, burning, itching, soreness, or "tired" or "restless" legs, especially in the calf muscles. If you experience these symptoms, your Vein Center physician can quickly and easily perform a test to determine if you have vein disease ...
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Chronic vein disease is disease of the veins (vessels that carry blood back to the heart) that usually affects the legs. Over time, the vein walls become weakened and stretched, causing the veins to bulge out and twist. Eventually the veins ma
Although chronic vein disease is a lifelong condition that cannot be completely cured, many effective treatments are available to relieve your symptoms and reduce your risk of complications. The most important thing you can do is work with you
Skin changes occur with increased severity of vein disease, often it is so gradual that the average patient doesnt notice the darkening until an ulcer
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