Gasoline increased 0.02 USD/GAL or 1.31% to 1.58 on Friday November 16 from 1.56 in the previous trading session. Historically, Gasoline reached an all time high of 3.46 in April of 2011 and a record low of 0.90 in February of 2016. Gasoline is the largest single volume refined product sold in the United States accounting for almost half of national oil consumption. The NYMEX Division New York harbor unleaded gasoline futures contract and reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygen blending (RBOB) futures contract trade in units of 42,000 gallons (1,000 barrels). They are based on delivery at petroleum products terminals in the harbor, the major East Coast trading center for imports and domestic shipments from refineries in the New York harbor area or from the Gulf Coast refining centers. The Gasoline prices displayed in Trading Economics are based on over-the-counter (OTC) and contract for difference (CFD) financial instruments. Our Gasoline prices are intended to provide you with a reference only,
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. US Gasoline market research report provides granular analysis of the market share, segmentation, revenue forecasts and geographic regions of the market. US Gasoline Market report 2016-2020 focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players. The US Gasoline market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of US Gasoline Industry.. Analysts forecast the global US Gasoline Warming Devices market to grow at a CAGR of X% during the period 2016-2020.. Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Global US Gasoline market research report @ http://www.marketreportsworld.com/10279620. The research report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global US Gasoline industry for 2016-2020.. Gasoline (also known as petrol in Europe) is widely used as a fuel in automobiles. Gasoline, in essence, is a complex mixture of hydrocarbon ...
For a long time, gasoline was produced by rectification (distillation) and stripping of oil fractions boiling away within certain temperature range (up to 100°C - gasoline grade I, up to 110°C - special gasoline, up to 130°C - gasoline grade II). However, a common property of those gasolines was low octane number. In general, getting straight-run gasoline with an octane rating above 65 by motor method is rare and is only possible for the oil of Azerbaijan, Central Asia, Krasnodar Territory and Sakhalin. However, even for distillates of those grades of petroleum, a sharp decrease in octane number with increasing temperature in the end of stripping, was characteristic. Thus the entire gasoline fraction (180°C) is seldom used. For the oil from Ural-Volga basin, Kazakhstan, as well as that from West Siberia oilfields, it is characterized by the predominance of normal paraffinic hydrocarbons, thus straight-run gasoline from those is exemplified by low octane numbers. This prompted ...
Gasoline demand has been extensively researched, yet there has been no attempt to estimate cross-price elasticities of different grades of gasoline. Such knowledge will allow accurate determination of the impact of a fuel pricing policy that has different rates of tax or subsidy depending on the gasoline grade. Using monthly data on the Mexican gasoline market from 1999 to 2014, regular gasoline demand is estimated with an ARDL model. Endogeneity of the price and structural break are also investigated. The cross-price elasticity between regular and premium gasoline is found to be 0.875, confirming high substitutability among gasoline with different grades.. ...
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Recent research findings show that mid-range ethanol blends - fuel mixtures most likely between E20 and E30 - can in some cases provide better fuel economy than regular unleaded gasoline, even in standard, non-flex-fuel vehicles. Previous assumptions held that ethanols lower energy content directly correlates with lower fuel economy for drivers. Those assumptions were found to be incorrect. E20 and E30 ethanol blends outperformed unleaded gasoline in fuel economy tests for certain autos. The tests were conducted using four 2007 model vehicles: a Toyota Camry, a Ford Fusion, and two Chevrolet Impalas, one flex-fuel and one non-flex-fuel. Contrary to Btu-based estimates of fuel economy for ethanol blends, three of the four vehicles tested achieved their highest fuel efficiency not on gasoline, but on an ethanol blend. Mid-level blends of ethanol E20 (20% ethanol, 80% gasoline) and E30 (30% ethanol, 70% gasoline) offered the best fuel economy in these tests. E30 offered better fuel economy than gasoline
[...] since the collapse of oil prices in late 2014, that trend has stalled and now reversed as gasoline consumption hit a record high this summer. Since climbing to a national average of just under $3.80 a gallon in the summer of 2014, average retail gasoline prices have fallen as low as $1.84 a gallon, according to the Energy Department. In the Houston area, the average retail gasoline price per gallon a week ago was $2.01 on Sunday, according to GasBuddy.com, a website that tracks gasoline prices and refining activity.
Petrol attendants are exposed to petrol volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which may have genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. The single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) is a method highly sensitive to DNA damage induced by environmental and occupational exposure to carcinogenic and mutagenic agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of exposure of petrol attendants to petrol VOCs and also to determine their effect on DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes of African petrol attendants. The exposed group consisted of 20 subjects, randomly selected from three petrol stations. A control group of 20 unexposed subjects was also chosen and matched for age and smoking habits with the exposed group. Sorbent tubes were used to assess personal exposure of petrol attendants. The comet assay was used to investigate the basal DNA damage and repair capacity in isolated lymphocytes of petrol attendants and unexposed subjects. Blood samples were taken from the petrol attendants at the end ...
Attached garages are known to be associated with indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study looked at indoor exposure to VOCs presumably from evaporative emissions of gasoline. Alaskan gasoline contains 5% benzene making benzene a marker for gasoline exposure. A survey of randomly chosen houses with attached garages was done in Anchorage Alaska to determine the exposure and assess respiratory health. Householders were asked to complete a health survey for each person and a household survey. They monitored indoor air in their primary living space for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes for one week using passive organic vapor monitoring badges. Benzene levels in homes ranged from undetectable to 58 parts per billion. The median benzene level in 509 homes tested was 2.96 ppb. Elevated benzene levels in the home were strongly associated with small engines and gasoline stored in the garage. High concentrations of benzene in gasoline increase indoor air levels of benzene in residences
Blends of petroleum-based gasoline with 10% ethanol, commonly referred to as E10, account for more than 95% of the fuel consumed in motor vehicles with gasoline engines. Ethanol-blended fuels are one pathway to compliance with elements of the federal renewable fuel standard (RFS). The total volume of ethanol blended into motor fuels used in the United States has continued to increase since 2010, albeit at a declining rate of growth. Meanwhile, the use of ethanol-free gasoline (E0) by fuel consumers has declined.. EIA tracks fuel components through data it collects from refiners, importers, large blending terminals, and ethanol producers. US refiners produce large volumes of blendstocks for oxygenate blending (BOB) that are referred to as RBOB or CBOB depending on whether they are formulated to be blended with ethanol to make reformulated or conventional gasoline, respectively. Another distinct gasoline blendstock known as CARBOB is used to produce California reformulated gasoline; EIA reports ...
For example, Petrobras gasoline cost 0.16 real per litre less than U.S. imported gasoline in Brazil as of Aug. 1, according to data from the consultancy.. Adriano Pires, a consultant at Brazils Center for Infrastructure (CBIE), said the change shows how Petrobras continues to change its methods toward market practices, leaving behind an era when the firm used to lose billions of dollars per year keeping gasoline prices artificially low to help the government rein in inflation.. Petrobras said it would not comment on its fuels pricing strategies.. The indebted company lost market share to imported fuel in recent months, when pricing far above the international market to boost revenues.. Gasoline imports jumped 70 percent in the first quarter, compared to the same period a year earlier, according to numbers from Brazils oil regulator ANP.. Refinery runs went down to around 75 percent of capacity, which compares to around 95 percent in 2014, also according to ANP. ...
EIA does not expect the current situation in corn markets to have a significant effect on the pump price of gasoline. Given the year-to-date ethanol supply and the availability of banked renewable identification number (RIN) credits, the current relationship between the prices of ethanol and petroleum-based gasoline components, and the relatively modest share of ethanol in the overall gasoline pool [10%], we expect gasoline prices will continue to be driven by crude oil prices and refining margins. The impact of the forecasted decline in domestic ethanol production should be primarily reflected in reduced ethanol exports. ...
* Two Senators ask EPA to look at gasoline price concerns* Ethanol credit costs have climbed on blend wall concerns* First action on contentious RIN issue by lawmakers* Lawmaker questions whether speculators behind spike (New throughout, adds comment from EPA, Republican lawmaker)By Ayesha RascoeWASHINGTON, March 20 (Reuters) - Two senior Republicansenators on Wednesday joined the oil industry in warning thatthe U.S. ethanol mandate could push up gasoline prices forconsumers ahead of the summer driving season.The ethanol mandate requires increasing volumes of biofuelsto be blended into the U.S. fuel supply each year through 2022.Refiners buy credits, or RINs, from producers of renewable fuelsto comply with the federal targets.Senators David Vitter of Louisiana and Lisa Murkowski ofAlaska, urged the Environmental Protection Agency in a letter totake decisive action to protect consumers from the rising costsof the credits, known as RINs, required by the mandate for allproducers of gasoline.Refiners
US refiners are in the process of planning and executing capital projects to comply with the new MSAT (Mobile Source Air Toxics) II regulations that become effective January 1, 2011. These new rules will restrict the annual average benzene level in the gasoline sold in U.S. except California to 0.62 vol%. California has similar restrictions on gasoline benzene content. Of the various refinery streams that are blended into gasoline 70 ? 85% of the benzene is contributed by reformate from catalytic reforming and 10-25% by FCC gasoline. Most MSAT II compliance strategies focus on reducing benzene in reformate. The benzene content in reformate can be changed by either removing compounds in the reformer feed that form benzene in the reforming reaction or by removing benzene from reformate by hydrotreating or solvent extraction. Removal of benzene from FCC gasoline is less straight forward. The relationship of feed properties and reaction process conditions to the production of various compounds in a ...
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Utah has traditionally focused on reducing emissions from gasoline engines as a key strategy to improve the states air quality. However, diesel vehicles are believed to account for nearly half of the on-road mobile source nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate exhaust (PM2.5) and NH3 emissions in Utah non-attainment areas. National and international studies are revealing that diesel and gasoline vehicles may be contributing more ammonia emissions than previously accepted. As an example, Sun et al. (2016) estimated vehicular NH3 emissions in the US are likely more than twice those given in the US National Emissions Inventory. Very little information, however, exists on the true emissions from diesel and gasoline vehicles under Utah-specific conditions. Evaluating emissions, including ammonia emissions, from vehicles under Utah-specific conditions and examining how ammonia emissions are distributed in Utah valleys will help in understanding the true emissions impact from diesel and gasoline ...
Both the human and animal data indicate that exposure to high levels of gasoline can produce acute central nervous system depression. There is also evidence from the clinical literature that repeated exposure to gasoline at very high levels, under abuse conditions, can produce more profound central nervous system effects. Less clear is the degree to which these effects may have been due to the lead additives as opposed to the hydrocarbon constituents. There is little evidence of chronic neurological effects in humans exposed repeatedly at lower, occupational levels. The animal data provide little experimental support for chronic neurological effects from either unleaded gasoline or naphtha blending stocks. Initial studies with wholly vaporized unleaded gasoline provided evidence of exacerbation of normal, age-related changes. However, subsequent studies with gasoline vapor and naphtha blending stocks had no clear or reproducible effects on motor activity, produced no functional changes, and did ...
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Notes: Domestic crude oil production includes lease condensate and is estimated using a combination of short-term forecasts for the lower 48 states and the latest available production estimates from Alaska. Beginning with data for the week ending June 1, 2018, weekly crude oil production estimates are rounded to the nearest 100,000 b/d at the U.S. and lower 48 state levels. Finished motor gasoline production and product supplied includes a weekly adjustment applied only to the U.S. total to correct for the imbalance created by blending of fuel ethanol and motor gasoline blending components. From 1993 to June 4, 2010, this adjustment was estimated from the latest monthly data and allocated to formulation and PAD District production data. Reformulated and conventional gasoline production excludes adjustments for fuel ethanol and motor gasoline blending components. Historical data prior to June 4, 2010 includes the adjustment allocated by PAD District formulation. Propane/propylene includes ...
Notes: Domestic crude oil production includes lease condensate and is estimated using a combination of short-term forecasts for the lower 48 states and the latest available production estimates from Alaska. Beginning with data for the week ending June 1, 2018, weekly crude oil production estimates are rounded to the nearest 100,000 b/d at the U.S. and lower 48 state levels. Finished motor gasoline production and product supplied includes a weekly adjustment applied only to the U.S. total to correct for the imbalance created by blending of fuel ethanol and motor gasoline blending components. From 1993 to June 4, 2010, this adjustment was estimated from the latest monthly data and allocated to formulation and PAD District production data. Reformulated and conventional gasoline production excludes adjustments for fuel ethanol and motor gasoline blending components. Historical data prior to June 4, 2010 includes the adjustment allocated by PAD District formulation. Propane/propylene includes ...
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Early in 1944, William Boyd, president of the American Petroleum Institute and chairman of the Petroleum Industry War Council said: The Allies may have floated to victory on a wave of oil in World War I, but in this infinitely greater World War II, we are flying to victory on the wings of petroleum. In December, 1941 the United States had 385,000 oil wells producing 1.4 billion barrels of oil a year and 100-octane aviation gasoline capacity was at 40,000 barrels a day. By 1944 the U.S. was producing over 1.5 billion barrels a year (67 percent of world production) and the petroleum industry had built 122 new plants for the production of 100-octane aviation gasoline and capacity was over 400,000 barrels a day - an increase of more than ten-fold. It was estimated that the U.S. was producing enough 100-octane aviation gasoline to permit the dropping of 20,000 tons of bombs on the enemy every day of the year. The record of gasoline consumption by the Army prior to June, 1943 was uncoordinated as ...
Early in 1944, William Boyd, president of the American Petroleum Institute and chairman of the Petroleum Industry War Council said: The Allies may have floated to victory on a wave of oil in World War I, but in this infinitely greater World War II, we are flying to victory on the wings of petroleum. In December, 1941 the United States had 385,000 oil wells producing 1.4 billion barrels of oil a year and 100-octane aviation gasoline capacity was at 40,000 barrels a day. By 1944 the U.S. was producing over 1.5 billion barrels a year (67 percent of world production) and the petroleum industry had built 122 new plants for the production of 100-octane aviation gasoline and capacity was over 400,000 barrels a day - an increase of more than ten-fold. It was estimated that the U.S. was producing enough 100-octane aviation gasoline to permit the dropping of 20,000 tons of bombs on the enemy every day of the year. The record of gasoline consumption by the Army prior to June, 1943 was uncoordinated as ...
Gasoline Exhaust is Linked to Serious Health Problems. Washington, DC, June 3, 2014: Gasoline exhaust is a much greater source of toxic emissions than previously reported, and lethal, ultra-fine particulates are not being adequately regulated and controlled. according to a new White Paper released here today.. The paper was written by David E. Hallberg, the founder and first president of the Renewable Fuels Association. Hallberg writes that the petroleum industry is refining gasoline with high levels of toxic aromatics that combust into benzene and other carcinogenic pollutants. This gasoline that is reaching consumers represents a serious health threat but cost effective alternatives are available.. The paper provides references and sources a range of studies that Mr. Hallberg believes establish science-based evidence of adverse health effects ranging from asthma to autism. He also criticizes US Environmental Protection Agency( EPA) modeling that under-reports the threat and shows that real ...
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These kinds of injuries are avoidable and the painful consequences often last a lifetime, says Karla Klas, B.S.N., R.N., C.C.R.P., injury prevention education specialist at the University of Michigan Trauma Burn Center.. Most of this years cases involved adults putting gasoline and other accelerants on bonfires and brush fires, says Klas, who also sits on the American Burn Associations Burn Prevention Committee. Several additional cases involved kids playing around with gasoline and lighters.. Gasoline fires kill about 500 people and are responsible for more than 10,000 emergency room visits each year, according to the American Burn Association. A gallon of gas is equivalent to 20 sticks of dynamite, the National Fire Protection Association notes.. Because we safely use gasoline every day in our cars and lawn mowers, people dont always realize how dangerous it can be when its improperly used, Klas says. People underestimate how flammable and explosive it can be.. Here are some safety ...
CD-1 mice were exposed to baseline gasoline vapor condensate (BGVC) alone or to vapors of gasoline blended with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE). Inhalation exposures were 6h/d on GD 5-17 at levels of 0, 2000, 10,000, and 20,000mg/m3. Dams were evaluated for evidence of maternal toxicity, and fetuses were weighed, sexed, and evaluated for external, visceral, and skeletal
Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE); Advance Notice of Intent to InitiateRulemaking Under the Toxic Substances Control Act to Eliminate or Limit the Use ofMTBE as a Fuel Additive in Gasoline
According to a work sponsored by the Ford Motor Company, the lubricity of a reformulated gasoline containing oxygenates (Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether -MTBE-) and a high aromatic content was not unusual or markedly different from commercially available non-oxygenated gasoline fuels [12]. However, Eleftherakis et al. [11] reported that both aromatics and MTBE enhanced gasoline lubricity. Wei et al. [5] modified a conventional high frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR) by deepening the fuel holder and covering the lubricant test chamber with a close-fitting lid in order to measure the wear performance of gasoline and diesel fuels. They found that commercial gasoline containing detergent additives had a wide range of variation in lubricity (from poorer to slightly better than Class 1 Sweden low sulfur diesel fuel -680 µm-). They concluded that detergent additives did not significantly affect fuel lubricity and that commercial lubricity additives for diesel fuels were also effective for gasoline. ...
Methanol is today a wellknown product used among others in industriel products. In China it is much cheaper and easier to produce and as a result methanol covers 10 percent of the whole fuel consumption. And the rest of the world is slowly discovering the advantage as well. The first methanol filling station was opened today in Denmark.. Until now not many cars in Denmark are suitable for methanol, but as the CEO of the filling station chain OK mentions that it is more the idea behind it that they want to demonstrate, they are not hoping for a long queue of new customers.. Methanol and the technology behind. Metanol is liquid as petrol and it is possible to produce it on a eco-friendly basis of bio mass and waste. The OK CEO believes it has more advantages as e.g. alternative fuel like gas and hydrogen.. The commercial director of Serenergy continues: A battery-driven electrical car with a reduced battery-size where the methanol fuel cell is put in can drive 800 km. It is possible to use the ...
Warner Oil Company is doing our best at making an impact on our nations dependence on foreign oil; We are pleased to offer RENEWABLE DIESEL FUEL ADDITIVE. Renewable Diesel Fuel Additive (R100) is approved by the EPA as a fuel additive that meets the ASTM D975-10 specification for No. 2 Diesel fuel. It is a fuel additive made from oil seed (soybeans and others) that is 100% compatible with any diesel fuel and home heating oil. In fact, the blended fuel tests to the same specifications as diesel fuel in terms of BTU content. Our lab tests have shown that this product, when blended at 20% by volume, is capable of the same fuel characteristics as ULSD. This blend known as R20 will provide superior lubricity while maintaining cold flow properties as low as 20 below zero. In addition reducing usage of foreign oil, renewable diesel fuel will save the user money at the pump. For more information on renewable diesel fuel and how it can save money in your fleet contact us today or visit our Alternative ...
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The third shoe is gasoline prices. They are rising and will continue to rise. Some of us are paying more than $2.00 a gallon for regular. I predict that gas will cost more than $3.00 a gallon in New York City and Chicago before the summer is over. Why is this happening? Because environmentalists have convinced the EPA to require many different formulations of gasoline for different cities, regions and states. This prevents oil refineries from taking advantage of economies of scale. That costs us money. It also prevents refineries from making one product that they can send anywhere in the U.S. So when a regional refinery breaks down or has to be shut down for maintenance, the locals cant use gasoline from some other place. The net-net of that is higher prices.. There is another problem. The environmentalists feel that wild animals are more important than humans. They have blocked our ability to extract the energy we need from U.S. sources. That does two bad things. First, it artificially ...
By Jeff Cooper on The E-XCHANGE For millions of Americans, Memorial Day weekend marks the unofficial start to summer. Despite gas prices that are nearly 40% higher than a year ago, families across the nation will celebrate the upcoming holiday weekend by taking a road trip. According to the AAA auto club, an estimated 31 million Americans will take to the highways this weekend. According to AAAs survey of traveler intentions, the average distance traveled by Americans during the Memorial Day holiday weekend is expected to be 792 miles. So, what does Memorial Day have to do with ethanol? As families hit the road this weekend, the increasing availability of ethanol will ensure they spend considerably less on gasoline than would otherwise be the case. In fact, this short analysis concludes the average American family traveling this Memorial Day will save more than $31 simply due to the fact that ethanol is holding gasoline prices down. Aggregate gasoline savings due to ethanol this weekend will be $440
The gasoline odor inside my van was so strong it gave me an instant headache. I thought for sure I was going to be paying close to $200 to have my van detailed to get the smell out. Unfortunately, they didnt guarantee that theyd be able to get the smell out of my van, the result of a nearly empty gas container tipping over on my way to the gas station in preparation to mow my lawn. Luckily the internet came to the rescue and gave me some tips that helped me save the cost of vehicle detail service that may not have worked anyway, and get the smell of gasoline out of my van.. First, lets talk about the things I tried that did NOT work as I tried to get the smell of gasoline out of my van:. ...
The existing tax policies toward gasoline and diesel cars in European countries provide a unique opportunity to analyze quality-based price discrimination and the implied tax incidence. In my econometric framework, consumers choose the type of engine based on their annual mileage; prices are set by the manufacturers. The relative pricing of gasoline and diesel cars appears to be consistent with monopolistic price discrimination, effectively segmenting low-mileage from high-mileage consumers. On average, about 75% to 90% of the price differentials between gasoline and diesel cars can be explained by markup differences. I draw implications for the effectiveness and the revenue effects of tax policy.
But the situation may not be that simple, as illustrated in the map above. The schools have a much closer neighbor - a gasoline station thats right across the street, 250′ north of the elementary school, that has been there since at least 1993. When I worked for the Environmental Protection Agency in the 1990s, the problem of fuel oozing out of leaking underground storage tanks (yes, we called them LUSTs) at homes, gas stations, on farms, and other sites around the country was just beginning to get nationwide attention and prompted a suite of new rules from the EPA. Gas stations around the country were required to replace their old tanks. Many sites had plumes of gasoline floating on the local water table, sometimes migrating off the gas station property and into surrounding neighborhoods, sending fumes into basements and chemicals into water-supply wells. Gasoline contains benzene. Could kids at these schools be exposed to old gasoline contamination from this nearby filling station? Or to ...
Fuel additives such as isooctane have so far been produced from mineral oil. Commissioned by the French-German company Global Bioenergies, the Fraunhofer Center for Chemical-Biotechnological Processes CBP in Leuna will soon be producing biobased additives for gasoline. The source is bio-isobutene, which is obtained biotechnically from sugar.
Alcohol (ethanol/methanol) in gasoline causes a number of problems in older outboards. Its not an octane or lead issue, as these motors were designed to run on 80-octane fuel, and lead isnt required in two-cycle engines. Crankcase sealing is important in any two-cycle engine, and one of the first areas alcohol causes problems is with the crankcase seals, which were never designed for it, and fuel-pump diaphragms. Methanol will also react with any brass components and lead to corrosion issues. Also, alcohols have a lower energy density than gasoline, so fuel economy and power output suffer when compared to pure gasoline ...
upward before spiking another $0.57 between May 29 and June 3, sending regional retail prices to recent or all-time highs. Conventional gasoline spot price differentials between Chicago and New York Harbor approached $1 per gallon at their peak on June 3. The Chicago spot price has since come down, falling $1.10 during the rest of June as refineries returned to full production, with declines in retail prices following.. Beginning in mid-April, refinery maintenance caused gasoline inventories in the Midwest to fall sharply - by more than 6 million barrels, moving stocks from the top to the bottom of the five-year range - before recovering in May and June as major refineries restarted from maintenance, long-term upgrades were completed, and product from the Rocky Mountain region entered the market. With production returning to normal levels, prices in the Midwest have come down significantly, with retail prices dipping below the national average on June 24 for the first time in more than two ...
As the latest EIA graphic shows, global oil prices represented just 35 percent of the total cost of gasoline across the nation in March, compared to an average of 61 percent from 2008 to 2017.. Reason #3: Refining, Transportation and Marketing Costs Part of Equation. The third factor that explains why pump prices didnt bottom out completely along with domestic oil prices last month are the necessary refining, distribution and marketing costs that are included. Marketing and transportation costs have ranged between 25-42 percent of pump costs from 2008 to the present.. Notably, local refining can reduce the cost of transporting gasoline to the market, reducing prices at the pump as well. The latest EIA data show that refining costs have declined dramatically since 2017 along with crude oil prices, while taxes and marketing and distribution costs have grown sharply.. Conclusion. The fact that the United States has emerged as the worlds top crude oil producer and a major exporter explains why the ...
Brazils struggling sugar and ethanol mills got more good news on Monday after the government granted an expected increase in the national blend of the biofuel in gasoline to 27 percent on Feb. 15 from the current 25 percent, industry officials said. The higher blend is the latest of several measures taken by the government expected to have a positive effect on the industrys bottom line going forward.. In the past years, local firms such as Raizen , Biosev, Bunge, Sao Martinho and Guarani have struggled to post consistent and robust profits as rising production costs combined with government gasoline subsidies have squeezed mills margins. Also improving the outlook for mills was the governments January decision to raise taxes on gasoline starting on Feb. 1, allowing ethanol mills to raise prices in tandem and recover profit margins.. ...
Ethanol gained against gasoline on speculation that lower imports and higher demand will drain stockpiles of the fuel alternative.. The spread narrowed 2.65 cents to 69.01 cents a gallon. Imports were down 83 percent to 21,000 barrels a day in the week ended Feb. 15 from the 2012 high in October, according to the Energy Information Administration, while inventories are lower than year-ago levels.. Relative to the discount to gasoline, theres no reason blenders shouldnt be using as much as they possibly can, said Terry Reilly, senior commodity analyst at Futures International LLC in Chicago. Were importing less. Thats another reason we should see a drawdown in stocks.. Denatured ethanol for March delivery rose 0.8 cent, or 0.3 percent, to settle at $2.371 a gallon on the Chicago Board of Trade. Futures have advanced 8.3 percent this year.. Read more: Corn shortage idles 20 ethanol plants nationwide. Gasoline for March delivery decreased 1.85 cents, or 0.6 percent, to $3.0611 a gallon on ...
REGULATION 9 TOXIC AIR CONTAMINANTS CONTENTS PART 1.0 GENERAL 1.1 PURPOSE 1.2 APPLICABILITY 1.3 THROUGHPUT DETERMINATION 1.4 EXEMPTIONS PART 2.0 DEFINITIONS 2.1 ARB CERTIFIED VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEM 2.2 PHASE I VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEM 2.3 PHASE II VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEM 2.4 GASOLINE DISPENSING FACILITY 2.5 EXISTING GASOLINE DISPENSING FACILITY 2.6 MODIFIED GASOLINE DISPENSING FACILITY 2.7 NEW GASOLINE DISPENSING FACILITY 2.8 GASOLINE 2.9 THROUGHPUT 2.10 LEAK FREE 2.11 VAPOR TIGHT PART 3.0 STANDARDS 3.1 TRANSFER REQUIREMENTS 3.2 EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE 3.3 PROHIBITION OF USE 3.4 POSTING OF OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS PART 4.0 ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS 4.1 COMPLIANCE SCHEDULE PART 1.0 GENERAL 1.1 Purpose To comply with Health and Safety Code Section 93101, by reducing benzene emissions from gasoline dispensing facilities. 1.2 Applicability 1.2.1 This rule shall apply to any new or modified gasoline dispensing facility, or to any existing gasoline dispensing facility with an annual throughput of 480,000 ...
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Many studies have been carried out, using several animal species, to evaluate the potential carcinogenicity of exposure to whole exhaust and to components of exhaust from diesel- and gasoline-fuelled internal combustion engines. The studies are considered within six subgroupings: (i) whole diesel engine exhaust; (ii) gas-phase diesel engine exhaust (with particles removed); (iii) diesel engine exhaust particles or extracts of diesel engine exhaust particles; (iv) whole gasoline engine exhaust; (v) condensates/extracts of gasoline engine exhaust; and (vi) engine exhausts in combination with known carcinogens. Whole diesel engine exhaust Mice, rats, Syrian hamsters and monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were exposed by inhalation to a range of concentrations of whole diesel engine exhaust, with observations in some studies extending to the lifespan of the animals. Five studies conducted using two different strains of rats showed an increased incidence of benign and malignant lung tumours that was ...
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Glycerol is a major by-product in the biodiesel production process. Every 100 kg of biodiesel produced generates approximately 10 kg of crude glycerol. As the biodiesel industry has expanded rapidly in recent years, finding new uses of the excess crude glycerol is important. Many studies have examined alternative uses of crude glycerol. One of them is the use of glycerol derivatives, such as glycerol tert-butyl ethers as fuel additives. In this paper, the etherification kinetics of glycerol with tert-butyl alcohol to glycerol tert-butyl ethers was studied using an Amberlyst catalyst. The influences of the catalyst type and loading, reaction time, molar ratio, and temperature were investigated in detail.
Ford owners face Fuel System, Gasoline Fuel Injection System Fuel Rail problems. Do not ignore abnormal Fuel System, Gasoline Fuel Injection System Fuel Rail issues. What causes Fuel System, Gasoline Fuel Injection System Fuel Rail failures and issues? Consumer Took Car To Ford Dealer Regarding Recalls. Dealer Repaired 2 Recalls But
If the gasoline spontaneously ignites and detonates (i.e., explodes) before it is ignited by the spark plug, it causes an abnormal phenomenon known as knocking, pinging or spark knock. The knocking is quite audible and prolonged knocking will damage an engine. As briefly mentioned above, the most important performance characteristic of a gasoline is its octane rating, which is a measure of how resistant the gasoline is to knocking. In fact, the octane rating is sometimes referred to as the Anti-knock Index. The octane rating is based upon an arbitrary scale indexed relative to a liquid mixture of iso-octane (C8H18), which is 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, and n-heptane (C7H16). Iso-octane (see adjacent image), with a branched structure and a high resistance to knocking, has arbitrarily been assigned an octane rating of 100. N-heptane (see adjacent image), with a straight-chain structure and poor resistance to knocking has arbitrarily been assigned an octane rating of 0. The octane rating of a specific ...
D3606-17 Standard Test Method for Determination of Benzene and Toluene in Spark Ignition Fuels by Gas Chromatography benzene content~ toluene content~ motor gasoline~
Persuaded by the opposition of the SEMA Action Network (SAN), Nebraska legislation (L.B. 698) to remove labeling requirements on pumps dispensing ethanol-blended gasoline was indefinitely postponed in 2011. However, the legislature retained the option of reviving the bill in 2012. With the adjournment of the legislature for the year, the bill is now formally dead and would have to be reintroduced in 2013 in order to be reconsidered. Current law in Nebraska requires labeling when gasoline contains 1% or more alcohol, including labels for pumps dispensing E10. The bill would have made it impossible for enthusiasts to know whether the gasoline they put into their vehicles contained any ethanol, making unintentional misfueling and engine damage more likely. SAN maintains that you have a right to know what blend of ethanol you are putting in your older collector cars.. Thank you and congratulations to all who participated in opposing this bill!. Back to Breaking News: 2012 Archives. ...
New Hampshire Bill to Prohibit Ethanol Blended Gasoline at Levels Greater Than 10% Approved by House; Moves to Senate. Legislation (H.B. 1220) to prohibit a person from selling or offering for sale gasoline that contains more than 10% ethanol was approved by the New Hampshire House of Representatives. The bill now goes to the Senate Transportation Committee. Under a House committee amendment, the bill would take effect only if any two additional New England states adopt similar legislation limiting the amount of corn based ethanol in gasoline to 10 percent. We Urge You to Contact Members of the New Hampshire Senate Transportation Committee (List Below) Immediately to Request Support for H.B. 1220. ...
A Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) convened in Lyon, France, June 5-12 to scrutinise the available knowledge base on the carcinogenicity of diesel engine exhaust, gasoline engine exhaust and some nitroarenes.1 Diesel and gasoline engine exhaust and nitroarenes were previously evaluated by IARC in 1989.2 For gasoline engine exhaust the classification remained Group 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans) as well as for seven of the nitroarenes. The newly evaluated nitroarene 3-nitrobenzanthrone was also added to this group. 6-Nitrochrysene and 1-nitropyrene were classified as 2A Probably carcinogenic to humans. 6-Nitrochrysene and 1-nitropyrene are important exposure markers for diesel exhaust since metabolites of these substances have been found in workers exposed to diesel exhaust.3-5 The most prominent outcome of the IARC evaluation meeting was the upgrade of the classification of diesel exhaust, now in Group 1 Carcinogenic to humans with sufficient ...
Abstract. Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured in July 2010 from on-road motor vehicles driving through a highway tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. A soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was used to measure the chemical composition of PM emitted by gasoline and diesel vehicles at high time resolution. Organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured during various time periods that had different levels of diesel influence, as well as directly in the exhaust plumes of individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks. BC emission factor distributions for HD trucks were more skewed than OA distributions (N = 293), with the highest 10% of trucks accounting for 56 and 42% of total measured BC and OA emissions, respectively. OA mass spectra measured for HD truck exhaust plumes show cycloalkanes are predominate in exhaust OA emissions relative to saturated alkanes (i.e., normal and iso-paraffins), suggesting that lubricating oil rather than fuel is the dominant ...
In this article, investigators report on the presence and nature of chemical sensitivities and other indices of illness in a cohort of workers excavating a new subway tunnel located under a former gasoline station. The workers were exposed to gasoline fumes for up to approximately 2 mo when they inadvertently dug into soil contaminated by...
Combo shipping paper for transporting Gasoline, Kerosene, Diesel Fuel, Fuel Oil, Ethanol and Gasoline Mixtures (UN3475) and/or Alcohols, n.o.s. (UN1987) in a cargo tank motor vehicle.
This report studies the fuel additives market which used in heavy fuel oil to control high temperature corrosion and ash fouling of gas turbine hot section components.
Intermediate for Motor Fuel Additives, Biomedical Activity, Agrichemicals, Olefin Polymerization, Flame Retardants, Metal Scavenging ...
Example ANOV-1: one-way analysis of variance This experiment studied the effect of different additives on the octane level of gasoline. There were 5 additives and 4 observations on each (P.W.M. John, Statistical Design and Analysis of Experiments, page 46). Define number of units in the experiment (5 types x 4 observations). UNITS [NVALUES=20] Define a factor to indicate the type of gasoline for each observation. FACTOR [LABELS=!T(A,B,C,D,E)] Gasoline Define variate to store the octane level recorded at each observation. VARIATE Octane Read the data, representing Gasoline by its labels. READ Gasoline,Octane; FREPRESENTATION=labels A 91.7 A 91.2 A 90.9 A 90.6 B 91.7 B 91.9 B 90.9 B 90.9 C 92.4 C 91.2 C 91.6 C 91.0 D 91.8 D 92.2 D 92.0 D 91.4 E 93.1 E 92.9 E 92.4 E 92.4 : Define the treatments to be fitted in the analysis. TREATMENTS Gasoline Analyse the variate Octane, printing just the AOV table. ANOVA [PRINT=aov] Octane Further output can be displayed without repeating the ...
The vapour pressure of biobutanol and bioethanol is very low compared to gasoline. A disadvantage of the bioethanol use is a formation of volatile azeotropic mixtures of ethanol and hydrocarbons present in the gasoline which causes the increase in the vapour pressure of gasoline in the range of 6 - 8 kPa (Muzikova et al., 2009). The formation of azeotropes occurs in the concentration up to 10% v/ v of biobutanol in gasoline but the highest increase in the vapour pressure is as low as 0.5 kPa at 5% v/ v of biobutanol in gasoline. At higher biobutanol concentrations, another volatile and/or oxygen compound has to be added to compensate vapour pressure decrease and to keep good engine startability. The formation of azeotropes is also associated with decrease of the boiling points of the blends. While the addition of bioethanol influences negatively the distillation curve profile, biobutanol has minor effect on the distillation curve.. Because of the use of different gasolines in several European ...
D3831 - 12(2017) Standard Test Method for Manganese in Gasoline By Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy , AAS, atomic absorption spectroscopy, gasoline, manganese, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, MMT,,
As Hurricane Sandy bears down on the East Coast, a lot of prognosticators are offering up predictions for what it means for gasoline prices in that market. I thought it might be of interest to note the differences in Hurricane Sandy and Hurricane Katrina concerning the oil and gas markets.. Hurricane Sandy has already reduced refining capacity in the Northeast, and the possibility exists of extended outages if any of these refineries take significant damage from the hurricane. Gasoline and heating oil inventories in the area were already very low, and this increases the chances of sharp gasoline spikes across the area. However, these spikes are expected to be short-lived and localized, as the area also receives gasoline from Europe and from the Colonial Pipeline, which brings supplies to the East Coast from the Gulf Coast. As long as refinery outages are not prolonged, the gasoline markets should return to normally fairly quickly. However, people would be wise to make sure their cars are topped ...
Heading into the Thanksgiving holiday weekend, US retail regular grade gasoline averaged US$2.16/gal., up just US$0.06/gal. from the same time last year.
One of my first memories of watching TV during the early 1950s was ads promoting leaded gasoline for reducing engine knock. Little did I suspect the strange history of that gas. By the beginning of World War I, it became clear that the internal combustion automobile was edging out its rival steam cars and electric cars. Shortly afterwards, Thomas Midgley began researching how to remove the knocking ping sound from gasoline-powered cars.. Midgley devoted no fewer than six years of his life searching for a fuel additive that would have a no-knock effect. He found that corn alcohol would be too expensive. Benzene would also be effective, but it would be impossible to manufacture enough. Both oxygen and chlorine increased knock. Aniline, selenium oxychloride and tellerium worked, but produced an awful smell. Examining one element after another in a periodic table of the time, he finally found a gasoline additive: tetraethyl lead. Since poisonous effects of lead were well known, the product was ...
I was playing with the computer and found gasoline in Hattiesburg Ms at 2.54 per gallon . I was trying to rationalize this price as there are 3 stations at this price. We will need to wait and see if they have to close their door because of bankruptcy. It would not surprise me if the filling stations start giving money away because they have so much cash---joke.
Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp (112 kW) on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp (134 kW) on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the vehicles gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles ...
Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp (112 kW) on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp (134 kW) on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the vehicles gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles ...
A Diesel engine has an extremely high compression ratio (around 16:1, if I recall correctly). A currently typical gasoline engine is probably about 8:1. (My Roadrunner is 12.5:1, but thats a full-race motor and has to burn aviation fuel.) A gas engine uses spark plugs to ignite the air/fuel mixture, but in a Diesel its the heat of compression that sets off the burn. Because of that ignition system, and a few other factors, a Diesel is most efficient at very low rpms. That compression factor gives a tremendous down-force to the pistons when it goes boom. The only time that I drove a semi, I was instructed to shift at 2,800 rpm. A gas engine typically shifts at around 5,000 - 7,000 rpm depending upon various factors (thats going by auto transmissions, which I hate). Some rice-rockets go to about 10,000 rpm, but those are just nuts. Anyhow, because of the compression factor, and often piston diameter, a gas engine has to turn a lot faster, and be geared down a lot, in order to produce the ...
Environmental benzene levels were measured in 26 petrol stations using both active and passive stationary and personal samplers. Simultaneously, benzene levels were measured in the petrol station operators on blood samples collected at the end of the work shift and the following morning before starting work. The petrol stations belonged to various different oil companies and were studied both during the winter (9 stations) and in the summer (17 stations). The environmental levels measured with active samplers in the 26 stations were on average 256 ng/l, were significantly lower (98 ng/l) in winter and higher (326 ng/l) in summer. The blood levels of benzene in 77 workers at the end of the work shift were on average 548 ng/l, were significantly lower (306 ng/l) in winter and higher (651 ng/l) in summer. The following morning, blood levels of benzene were lower than those found at the end of the work shift, on average 249 ng/l in winter and 427 ng/l in summer. Smokers had higher benzene levels ...
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If fuels that are more resistant to auto-ignition are injected near TDC in compression ignition engines, they ignite much later than diesel fuel and combustion occurs when the fuel and air have had more chance to mix. This helps to reduce NOX and smoke emissions at much lower injection pressures compared to a diesel fuel. However, PPCI (Partially Premixed Compression Ignition) operation also leads to higher CO and HC at low loads and higher heat release rates at high loads. These problems can be significantly alleviated by managing the mixing through injector design (e.g. nozzle size and centreline spray angle) and changing CR (Compression Ratio). This work describes results of running a single-cylinder diesel engine on fuel blends by using three different nozzle design (nozzle size: 0.13 mm and 0.17 mm, centreline spray angle: 153° and 120°) and two different CRs (15.9:1 and 18:1). The engine could be run on such blends with extremely low smoke and low NOX at speeds and loads of up to 4000 ...
The distribution of PM(2.5) and manganese (Mn) personal exposures was determined over a 4-month period in Indianapolis, IN, at a time when the gasoline additive, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), was not being used. The data collection period coincided with the data collection period in the Toronto, ON, study, where MMT had been used as a gasoline additive for over 20 years. The inferential or target population consisted of noninstitutionalized residents of the Indianapolis area during the monitoring period (from May 1996 through August 1996) who were at least 16 years old. The survey instruments used in this study (and also in Toronto) included a household screener form (HSF), a study questionnaire (SQ), and a time and activity questionnaire (TAQ). The SQ was administered to elicit information about the participant and his/her activities, occupation, and surroundings that might be relevant to his/her exposure to particles and Mn. In addition to the personal particulate matter ...
Motorcycle Performance Guide - K&N filters, Dyno runs, gasoline, petrol, sparkplugs, tires, tyres, Dyna runs, Performance, Tuning, Horsepower, Torque, Racing, Speed, Street
Current public focus on reduction of the use of fossil fuels and replacement of these fuels with cleaner-burning renewable fuels has played a key role in the growth of the fuel ethanol industry. Large demand for blending ethanol into gasoline began with its use as an oxygenated gasoline additive. Currently the US EPA has set the denatured ethanol-to-gasoline blend rate at 10 percent, but discussions are being held to increase this level to 15 percent or higher. Automotive companies are also producing flex-fuel vehicles; able to operate on ethanol-to-gasoline blends of up to 85 percent denatured ethanol, called E85.. With all this increased attention to fuel ethanol, producers and blenders have increased awareness of mandated fuel ethanol specifications, outlined in ASTM D4806 - Specification for Denatured Fuel Ethanol for Blending with Gasoline for Use as Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel.. Ethanol producers are required by law to render the fuel ethanol unfit for human consumption by adding ...
In the recent years, environmental concerns and depletion in petroleum resources have forced researchers to concentrate on finding renewable alternatives to conventional petroleum fuels. Therefore, alcohols as renewable and alternative energy sources for the diesel engines gain importance. For this reason, in this study, the performance, exhaust emissions, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine have been experimentally investigated under different injection timings when methanol-blended diesel fuel was used from 0 to 15%, with an increment of 5%. The tests were conducted at three different injection timings (15 degrees, 20 degrees, and 25 degrees CA BTDC) by changing the thickness of advance shim. All tests were conducted at four different loads (5, 10, 15, and 20 Nm) at constant engine speed of 2200 rpm. The experimental test results showed that BSFC, BSEC, combustion efficiency, and NOx and CO2 emissions increased as BTE, rate of heat release, peak cylinder pressure, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and alterations in lymphocyte subsets. AU - Lan, Qing. AU - Vermeulen, Roel. AU - Dai, Yufei. AU - Ren, Dianzhi. AU - Hu, Wei. AU - Duan, Huawei. AU - Niu, Yong. AU - Xu, Jun. AU - Fu, Wei. AU - Meliefste, Kees. AU - Zhou, Baosen. AU - Yang, Jufang. AU - Ye, Meng. AU - Jia, Xiaowei. AU - Meng, Tao. AU - Bin, Ping. AU - Kim, Christopher. AU - Bassig, Bryan A.. AU - Hosgood, H. Dean. AU - Silverman, Debra. AU - Zheng, Yuxin. AU - Rothman, Nathaniel. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Background: The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a Group I carcinogen based largely on its association with lung cancer. However, the exposure-response relationship is still a subject of debate and the underlying mechanism by which DEE causes lung cancer in humans is not well understood. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study in a diesel engine truck testing ...
Bio fuels like ethanol and bio diesel produced from renewable sources are being promoted world over to provide freedom from dependence on imported oil and to reduce pollution. Blends of ethanol in gasoline have been used for several decades. Bio diesel has been recognized as an alternative which not only has some of the properties superior to petroleum diesel but also reduces emissions of carbon monoxide and particulates. India has started blending of 5% ethanol in motor gasoline and efforts are being made to increase this blending upto 10%. Further work is also being conducted to use ethanol as a blending component for diesel fuel which has high demand in India. It has also been recognized that in a country like India, we may produce bio diesel from non-edible sources like jatropha and pongamia pinnata so as to reduce the consumption of diesel fuel. IOC R&D has conducted elaborate studies to assess the impact of blending of ethanol in gasoline and diesel on vehicle performance and emissions ...
This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of using a continuously variable length intake runner (intake manifold) on Turbocharged multi-cylinder diesel engines. While there is a large amount of data available for naturally aspirated engines, no reliable source was found for the effect of varying the length of intake runner for Turbocharged engines. This study was done for relatively low-speed off-highway diesel engines.The study is based on the results of one-dimensional engine models simulated in AVL BOOSTTM engine simulation software. A simplified engine model has been used for the single cylinder naturally aspirated engine, to demonstrate the effects of varying intake runner effective length. The multi cylinder study is based on validated model of a 12 cylinder 1000hp turbocharged diesel engine. It has been found that multi-cylinder turbocharged diesel engines are more responsive to intake runner length variations than naturally aspirated engines ...
As for the refining process: When you refine a barrel of crude oil, you get some gasoline, some diesel, and some other stuff, including such nasties as chlorinated wastewater and the gaseous chemical byproducts of combustion. Its all the same process, so you cant avoid the manufacture of diesel by buying only gasoline. The toxics created by oil refineries are bad for the environment at large and disproportionately affect the people - mainly poor people - who live nearby. Good ol Environmental Defense gives a pithy description of the environmental impact of refineries and suggestions for actions to get them cleaned up.. Although refinery pollution is bad, pollution from vehicles is considered a more pressing environmental issue, as most of us are closer to the tailpipe than to the smokestack. As we toodle along the road, our tailpipe exhales carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and sulfur dioxide. Such chemicals bring us ozone, particulate matter, acid rain, nitrification of water ...
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Gasoline engines are increasingly popular for use in small unmanned aircraft requiring endurance due to the specific energy of gasoline (47.3 MJ·kg-1) and its cost effectiveness. However, gasoline is volatile and it poses a health hazard. In this work, isopropanol is proposed and investigated as viable fuel for small gasoline engines. Isooctane is used as a benchmark for performance comparison. The field testing reveals that isopropanol offers similar running performance and ease of starting. The maximum output power of isopropanol is surprisingly found to occur at a more advanced ignition timing compared with isooctane. The significant outcome of this study is that isopropanol can readily be used as a replacement fuel for existing engines without the need for any modifications to the ignition module or the engine itself.
Clip Art Directory - Industry, Resources, Oil and Gas, Petroleum and Gasoline previews. Really cool, creative, cartoons, illustrations, photos, webart in many subjects and styles.
The ethanol supporters are looking to raise the content of ethanol in every day gasoline from 10 percent ethanol and 90 percent gasoline 20 percent ethanol and 80 percent gasoline. This will double the nations use of ethanol to further reduce Americas oil consumption. E85 (85 percent ethanol 15 percent gasoline) is still seemingly hard to find in many states, e10 has been utilized greatly across the country.. The only threat that can get this shot down is can todays cars use twice the ethanol that is currently available in e10? Some say, older vehicle engines may not be able to run on e20 because it will damage their engines.. The University of Minnesota and Minnesota State University have conducted studies to help ethanol out. They found that e20 will not damage engine parts. The e20 blend is not enough ethanol for engine parts to break down.. Even though there may be skepticism regarding ethanol as the fuel of the future, numerous states in America have laws requiring a certain percent of ...
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A business owner is facing criminal charges after a resident and deputy witnessed his employees dumping gasoline down a sewer, officials said. According to the Washtenaw County Sheriffs Office, Jeff Murrillo, owner of A 1 Auto Complete Car Care at 2555 Washtenaw Ave, is being charged with drain polluting stemming from the April 22 incident. If convicted, Murrillo faces a misdemeanor charge punishable by 90 days in jail and/or a $100 fine. Murrillo already pleaded no contest in district court to a civil infraction for littering. That ticket was written by Ypsilanti Township ordinance officials.. Murrillo declined to comment until after the case is over. A Washtenaw County Circuit Court judge also has issued a permanent restraining order barring the owner from violating any township zoning ordinances or illegally dumping anything on the property. The company is zoned B3 commercial, which allows for light minor auto repairs like oil changes or brake replacements. But Murrillos crew was performing ...
The current Cares A Lott mission centers around providing essential goods to local healthcare heroes who are ensuring local communities are cared for during these tough times. By providing goods like gasoline and fuel gift cards, co-sponsored by Chevron, Lott Oil hopes to provide a stress reliever to the doctors, nurses and hospital workers who are caring for COVID-19 patients. Lott Oil relies on and appreciates the support we get from our local communities, and anytime we get the opportunity to return the favor, we try to do just that. We thank our healthcare heroes for keeping us safe during these trying times and are grateful to Chevron for helping us with our most recent Cares A Lott initiative, said Lott Oil owner, Buddy Lott ...