Gasoline increased 0.02 USD/GAL or 1.31% to 1.58 on Friday November 16 from 1.56 in the previous trading session. Historically, Gasoline reached an all time high of 3.46 in April of 2011 and a record low of 0.90 in February of 2016. Gasoline is the largest single volume refined product sold in the United States accounting for almost half of national oil consumption. The NYMEX Division New York harbor unleaded gasoline futures contract and reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygen blending (RBOB) futures contract trade in units of 42,000 gallons (1,000 barrels). They are based on delivery at petroleum products terminals in the harbor, the major East Coast trading center for imports and domestic shipments from refineries in the New York harbor area or from the Gulf Coast refining centers. The Gasoline prices displayed in Trading Economics are based on over-the-counter (OTC) and contract for difference (CFD) financial instruments. Our Gasoline prices are intended to provide you with a reference only,
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. US Gasoline market research report provides granular analysis of the market share, segmentation, revenue forecasts and geographic regions of the market. US Gasoline Market report 2016-2020 focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players. The US Gasoline market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of US Gasoline Industry.. Analysts forecast the global US Gasoline Warming Devices market to grow at a CAGR of X% during the period 2016-2020.. Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Global US Gasoline market research report @ http://www.marketreportsworld.com/10279620. The research report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global US Gasoline industry for 2016-2020.. Gasoline (also known as petrol in Europe) is widely used as a fuel in automobiles. Gasoline, in essence, is a complex mixture of hydrocarbon ...
For a long time, gasoline was produced by rectification (distillation) and stripping of oil fractions boiling away within certain temperature range (up to 100°C - gasoline grade I, up to 110°C - special gasoline, up to 130°C - gasoline grade II). However, a common property of those gasolines was low octane number. In general, getting straight-run gasoline with an octane rating above 65 by motor method is rare and is only possible for the oil of Azerbaijan, Central Asia, Krasnodar Territory and Sakhalin. However, even for distillates of those grades of petroleum, a sharp decrease in octane number with increasing temperature in the end of stripping, was characteristic. Thus the entire gasoline fraction (180°C) is seldom used. For the oil from Ural-Volga basin, Kazakhstan, as well as that from West Siberia oilfields, it is characterized by the predominance of normal paraffinic hydrocarbons, thus straight-run gasoline from those is exemplified by low octane numbers. This prompted ...
Gasoline demand has been extensively researched, yet there has been no attempt to estimate cross-price elasticities of different grades of gasoline. Such knowledge will allow accurate determination of the impact of a fuel pricing policy that has different rates of tax or subsidy depending on the gasoline grade. Using monthly data on the Mexican gasoline market from 1999 to 2014, regular gasoline demand is estimated with an ARDL model. Endogeneity of the price and structural break are also investigated. The cross-price elasticity between regular and premium gasoline is found to be 0.875, confirming high substitutability among gasoline with different grades.. ...
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[...] since the collapse of oil prices in late 2014, that trend has stalled and now reversed as gasoline consumption hit a record high this summer. Since climbing to a national average of just under $3.80 a gallon in the summer of 2014, average retail gasoline prices have fallen as low as $1.84 a gallon, according to the Energy Department. In the Houston area, the average retail gasoline price per gallon a week ago was $2.01 on Sunday, according to GasBuddy.com, a website that tracks gasoline prices and refining activity.
Petrol attendants are exposed to petrol volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which may have genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. The single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) is a method highly sensitive to DNA damage induced by environmental and occupational exposure to carcinogenic and mutagenic agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of exposure of petrol attendants to petrol VOCs and also to determine their effect on DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes of African petrol attendants. The exposed group consisted of 20 subjects, randomly selected from three petrol stations. A control group of 20 unexposed subjects was also chosen and matched for age and smoking habits with the exposed group. Sorbent tubes were used to assess personal exposure of petrol attendants. The comet assay was used to investigate the basal DNA damage and repair capacity in isolated lymphocytes of petrol attendants and unexposed subjects. Blood samples were taken from the petrol attendants at the end ...
Attached garages are known to be associated with indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study looked at indoor exposure to VOCs presumably from evaporative emissions of gasoline. Alaskan gasoline contains 5% benzene making benzene a marker for gasoline exposure. A survey of randomly chosen houses with attached garages was done in Anchorage Alaska to determine the exposure and assess respiratory health. Householders were asked to complete a health survey for each person and a household survey. They monitored indoor air in their primary living space for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes for one week using passive organic vapor monitoring badges. Benzene levels in homes ranged from undetectable to 58 parts per billion. The median benzene level in 509 homes tested was 2.96 ppb. Elevated benzene levels in the home were strongly associated with small engines and gasoline stored in the garage. High concentrations of benzene in gasoline increase indoor air levels of benzene in residences
EIA does not expect the current situation in corn markets to have a significant effect on the pump price of gasoline. Given the year-to-date ethanol supply and the availability of banked renewable identification number (RIN) credits, the current relationship between the prices of ethanol and petroleum-based gasoline components, and the relatively modest share of ethanol in the overall gasoline pool [10%], we expect gasoline prices will continue to be driven by crude oil prices and refining margins. The impact of the forecasted decline in domestic ethanol production should be primarily reflected in reduced ethanol exports. ...
* Two Senators ask EPA to look at gasoline price concerns* Ethanol credit costs have climbed on blend wall concerns* First action on contentious RIN issue by lawmakers* Lawmaker questions whether speculators behind spike (New throughout, adds comment from EPA, Republican lawmaker)By Ayesha RascoeWASHINGTON, March 20 (Reuters) - Two senior Republicansenators on Wednesday joined the oil industry in warning thatthe U.S. ethanol mandate could push up gasoline prices forconsumers ahead of the summer driving season.The ethanol mandate requires increasing volumes of biofuelsto be blended into the U.S. fuel supply each year through 2022.Refiners buy credits, or RINs, from producers of renewable fuelsto comply with the federal targets.Senators David Vitter of Louisiana and Lisa Murkowski ofAlaska, urged the Environmental Protection Agency in a letter totake decisive action to protect consumers from the rising costsof the credits, known as RINs, required by the mandate for allproducers of gasoline.Refiners
US refiners are in the process of planning and executing capital projects to comply with the new MSAT (Mobile Source Air Toxics) II regulations that become effective January 1, 2011. These new rules will restrict the annual average benzene level in the gasoline sold in U.S. except California to 0.62 vol%. California has similar restrictions on gasoline benzene content. Of the various refinery streams that are blended into gasoline 70 ? 85% of the benzene is contributed by reformate from catalytic reforming and 10-25% by FCC gasoline. Most MSAT II compliance strategies focus on reducing benzene in reformate. The benzene content in reformate can be changed by either removing compounds in the reformer feed that form benzene in the reforming reaction or by removing benzene from reformate by hydrotreating or solvent extraction. Removal of benzene from FCC gasoline is less straight forward. The relationship of feed properties and reaction process conditions to the production of various compounds in a ...
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Utah has traditionally focused on reducing emissions from gasoline engines as a key strategy to improve the states air quality. However, diesel vehicles are believed to account for nearly half of the on-road mobile source nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate exhaust (PM2.5) and NH3 emissions in Utah non-attainment areas. National and international studies are revealing that diesel and gasoline vehicles may be contributing more ammonia emissions than previously accepted. As an example, Sun et al. (2016) estimated vehicular NH3 emissions in the US are likely more than twice those given in the US National Emissions Inventory. Very little information, however, exists on the true emissions from diesel and gasoline vehicles under Utah-specific conditions. Evaluating emissions, including ammonia emissions, from vehicles under Utah-specific conditions and examining how ammonia emissions are distributed in Utah valleys will help in understanding the true emissions impact from diesel and gasoline ...
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Early in 1944, William Boyd, president of the American Petroleum Institute and chairman of the Petroleum Industry War Council said: "The Allies may have floated to victory on a wave of oil in World War I, but in this infinitely greater World War II, we are flying to victory on the wings of petroleum". In December, 1941 the United States had 385,000 oil wells producing 1.4 billion barrels of oil a year and 100-octane aviation gasoline capacity was at 40,000 barrels a day. By 1944 the U.S. was producing over 1.5 billion barrels a year (67 percent of world production) and the petroleum industry had built 122 new plants for the production of 100-octane aviation gasoline and capacity was over 400,000 barrels a day - an increase of more than ten-fold. It was estimated that the U.S. was producing enough 100-octane aviation gasoline to permit the dropping of 20,000 tons of bombs on the enemy every day of the year. The record of gasoline consumption by the Army prior to June, 1943 was uncoordinated as ...
Early in 1944, William Boyd, president of the American Petroleum Institute and chairman of the Petroleum Industry War Council said: "The Allies may have floated to victory on a wave of oil in World War I, but in this infinitely greater World War II, we are flying to victory on the wings of petroleum". In December, 1941 the United States had 385,000 oil wells producing 1.4 billion barrels of oil a year and 100-octane aviation gasoline capacity was at 40,000 barrels a day. By 1944 the U.S. was producing over 1.5 billion barrels a year (67 percent of world production) and the petroleum industry had built 122 new plants for the production of 100-octane aviation gasoline and capacity was over 400,000 barrels a day - an increase of more than ten-fold. It was estimated that the U.S. was producing enough 100-octane aviation gasoline to permit the dropping of 20,000 tons of bombs on the enemy every day of the year. The record of gasoline consumption by the Army prior to June, 1943 was uncoordinated as ...
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These kinds of injuries are avoidable and the painful consequences often last a lifetime," says Karla Klas, B.S.N., R.N., C.C.R.P., injury prevention education specialist at the University of Michigan Trauma Burn Center.. Most of this years cases involved adults putting gasoline and other accelerants on bonfires and brush fires, says Klas, who also sits on the American Burn Associations Burn Prevention Committee. Several additional cases involved kids playing around with gasoline and lighters.. Gasoline fires kill about 500 people and are responsible for more than 10,000 emergency room visits each year, according to the American Burn Association. A gallon of gas is equivalent to 20 sticks of dynamite, the National Fire Protection Association notes.. "Because we safely use gasoline every day in our cars and lawn mowers, people dont always realize how dangerous it can be when its improperly used," Klas says. "People underestimate how flammable and explosive it can be.". Here are some safety ...
CD-1 mice were exposed to baseline gasoline vapor condensate (BGVC) alone or to vapors of gasoline blended with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE). Inhalation exposures were 6h/d on GD 5-17 at levels of 0, 2000, 10,000, and 20,000mg/m3. Dams were evaluated for evidence of maternal toxicity, and fetuses were weighed, sexed, and evaluated for external, visceral, and skeletal
Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE); Advance Notice of Intent to InitiateRulemaking Under the Toxic Substances Control Act to Eliminate or Limit the Use ofMTBE as a Fuel Additive in Gasoline
According to a work sponsored by the Ford Motor Company, the lubricity of a reformulated gasoline containing oxygenates (Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether -MTBE-) and a high aromatic content was not unusual or markedly different from commercially available non-oxygenated gasoline fuels [12]. However, Eleftherakis et al. [11] reported that both aromatics and MTBE enhanced gasoline lubricity. Wei et al. [5] modified a conventional high frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR) by deepening the fuel holder and covering the lubricant test chamber with a close-fitting lid in order to measure the wear performance of gasoline and diesel fuels. They found that commercial gasoline containing detergent additives had a wide range of variation in lubricity (from poorer to slightly better than Class 1 Sweden low sulfur diesel fuel -680 µm-). They concluded that detergent additives did not significantly affect fuel lubricity and that commercial lubricity additives for diesel fuels were also effective for gasoline. ...
Warner Oil Company is doing our best at making an impact on our nations dependence on foreign oil; We are pleased to offer RENEWABLE DIESEL FUEL ADDITIVE. Renewable Diesel Fuel Additive (R100) is approved by the EPA as a fuel additive that meets the ASTM D975-10 specification for No. 2 Diesel fuel. It is a fuel additive made from oil seed (soybeans and others) that is 100% compatible with any diesel fuel and home heating oil. In fact, the blended fuel tests to the same specifications as diesel fuel in terms of BTU content. Our lab tests have shown that this product, when blended at 20% by volume, is capable of the same fuel characteristics as ULSD. This blend known as R20 will provide superior lubricity while maintaining cold flow properties as low as 20 below zero. In addition reducing usage of foreign oil, renewable diesel fuel will save the user money at the pump. For more information on renewable diesel fuel and how it can save money in your fleet contact us today or visit our Alternative ...
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By Jeff Cooper on The E-XCHANGE For millions of Americans, Memorial Day weekend marks the unofficial start to summer. Despite gas prices that are nearly 40% higher than a year ago, families across the nation will celebrate the upcoming holiday weekend by taking a road trip. According to the AAA auto club, an estimated 31 million Americans will take to the highways this weekend. According to AAAs survey of traveler intentions, the average distance traveled by Americans during the Memorial Day holiday weekend is expected to be 792 miles. So, what does Memorial Day have to do with ethanol? As families hit the road this weekend, the increasing availability of ethanol will ensure they spend considerably less on gasoline than would otherwise be the case. In fact, this short analysis concludes the average American family traveling this Memorial Day will save more than $31 simply due to the fact that ethanol is holding gasoline prices down. Aggregate gasoline savings due to ethanol this weekend will be $440
The existing tax policies toward gasoline and diesel cars in European countries provide a unique opportunity to analyze quality-based price discrimination and the implied tax incidence. In my econometric framework, consumers choose the type of engine based on their annual mileage; prices are set by the manufacturers. The relative pricing of gasoline and diesel cars appears to be consistent with monopolistic price discrimination, effectively segmenting low-mileage from high-mileage consumers. On average, about 75% to 90% of the price differentials between gasoline and diesel cars can be explained by markup differences. I draw implications for the effectiveness and the revenue effects of tax policy.
A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in spark-ignition engines. Motor gasoline, as defined in ASTM Specification D 4814 or Federal Specification VV-G-1690C, is characterized as having a boiling range of 122 to 158 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10 percent recovery point to 365 to 374 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90 percent recovery point. Motor Gasoline includes conventional gasoline; all types of oxygenated gasoline, including gasohol; and reformulated gasoline, but excludes aviation gasoline. Note: Volumetric data on blending components, such as oxygenates, are not counted in data on finished motor gasoline until the blending components are blended into the gasoline ...
But the situation may not be that simple, as illustrated in the map above. The schools have a much closer neighbor - a gasoline station thats right across the street, 250′ north of the elementary school, that has been there since at least 1993. When I worked for the Environmental Protection Agency in the 1990s, the problem of fuel oozing out of leaking underground storage tanks (yes, we called them LUSTs) at homes, gas stations, on farms, and other sites around the country was just beginning to get nationwide attention and prompted a suite of new rules from the EPA. Gas stations around the country were required to replace their old tanks. Many sites had plumes of gasoline floating on the local water table, sometimes migrating off the gas station property and into surrounding neighborhoods, sending fumes into basements and chemicals into water-supply wells. Gasoline contains benzene. Could kids at these schools be exposed to old gasoline contamination from this nearby filling station? Or to ...
Fuel additives such as isooctane have so far been produced from mineral oil. Commissioned by the French-German company Global Bioenergies, the Fraunhofer Center for Chemical-Biotechnological Processes CBP in Leuna will soon be producing biobased additives for gasoline. The source is bio-isobutene, which is obtained biotechnically from sugar.
Alcohol (ethanol/methanol) in gasoline causes a number of problems in older outboards. Its not an octane or lead issue, as these motors were designed to run on 80-octane fuel, and lead isnt required in two-cycle engines. Crankcase sealing is important in any two-cycle engine, and one of the first areas alcohol causes problems is with the crankcase seals, which were never designed for it, and fuel-pump diaphragms. Methanol will also react with any brass components and lead to corrosion issues. Also, alcohols have a lower energy density than gasoline, so fuel economy and power output suffer when compared to pure gasoline ...
upward before spiking another $0.57 between May 29 and June 3, sending regional retail prices to recent or all-time highs. Conventional gasoline spot price differentials between Chicago and New York Harbor approached $1 per gallon at their peak on June 3. The Chicago spot price has since come down, falling $1.10 during the rest of June as refineries returned to full production, with declines in retail prices following.. Beginning in mid-April, refinery maintenance caused gasoline inventories in the Midwest to fall sharply - by more than 6 million barrels, moving stocks from the top to the bottom of the five-year range - before recovering in May and June as major refineries restarted from maintenance, long-term upgrades were completed, and product from the Rocky Mountain region entered the market. With production returning to normal levels, prices in the Midwest have come down significantly, with retail prices dipping below the national average on June 24 for the first time in more than two ...
Ethanol gained against gasoline on speculation that lower imports and higher demand will drain stockpiles of the fuel alternative.. The spread narrowed 2.65 cents to 69.01 cents a gallon. Imports were down 83 percent to 21,000 barrels a day in the week ended Feb. 15 from the 2012 high in October, according to the Energy Information Administration, while inventories are lower than year-ago levels.. "Relative to the discount to gasoline, theres no reason blenders shouldnt be using as much as they possibly can," said Terry Reilly, senior commodity analyst at Futures International LLC in Chicago. "Were importing less. Thats another reason we should see a drawdown in stocks.". Denatured ethanol for March delivery rose 0.8 cent, or 0.3 percent, to settle at $2.371 a gallon on the Chicago Board of Trade. Futures have advanced 8.3 percent this year.. Read more: Corn shortage idles 20 ethanol plants nationwide. Gasoline for March delivery decreased 1.85 cents, or 0.6 percent, to $3.0611 a gallon on ...
REGULATION 9 TOXIC AIR CONTAMINANTS CONTENTS PART 1.0 GENERAL 1.1 PURPOSE 1.2 APPLICABILITY 1.3 THROUGHPUT DETERMINATION 1.4 EXEMPTIONS PART 2.0 DEFINITIONS 2.1 ARB CERTIFIED VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEM 2.2 PHASE I VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEM 2.3 PHASE II VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEM 2.4 GASOLINE DISPENSING FACILITY 2.5 EXISTING GASOLINE DISPENSING FACILITY 2.6 MODIFIED GASOLINE DISPENSING FACILITY 2.7 NEW GASOLINE DISPENSING FACILITY 2.8 GASOLINE 2.9 THROUGHPUT 2.10 LEAK FREE 2.11 VAPOR TIGHT PART 3.0 STANDARDS 3.1 TRANSFER REQUIREMENTS 3.2 EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE 3.3 PROHIBITION OF USE 3.4 POSTING OF OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS PART 4.0 ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS 4.1 COMPLIANCE SCHEDULE PART 1.0 GENERAL 1.1 Purpose To comply with Health and Safety Code Section 93101, by reducing benzene emissions from gasoline dispensing facilities. 1.2 Applicability 1.2.1 This rule shall apply to any new or modified gasoline dispensing facility, or to any existing gasoline dispensing facility with an annual throughput of 480,000 ...
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EPAs Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program is a landmark program that affects new passenger vehicles and every gallon of gasoline sold in the U.S. Vehicles meeting the Tier 2 emission standards will be 77-95 percent cleaner than todays cars and trucks. At the same time, the program will result in cleaner-burning gasoline containing 90 percent less sulfur. ...
All gasoline-powered Mercedes-Benz vehicles, including the CLA, require unleaded, premium gasoline. Premium gasoline is any gas of at least 91 Octane. The CLA can use gasoline that contains up to 10...
Warn of Possible Safety and Environmental Dangers WASHINGTON, July 21 -- Environmental and industry groups that frequently oppose each other on a broad range of policy issues are launching a joint campaign calling on Congress to require thorough and objective scientific testing before allowing an increase in the amount of ethanol in gasoline. Raising strong concerns about consumer safety and environmental protection, the groups have joined forces to sponsor an ad with the tagline "Say NO to untested E15" as part of an effort to persuade Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency to reject calls by some in the ethanol industry to allow the amount of ethanol in gasoline to increase by 50 percent. Most gasoline sold in the United States contains 10 percent ethanol (E10). Some ethanol lobbyists are seeking to boost that to 15 percent (E15), or to compromise with a boost to 12 percent (E12). The groups are contacting members of Congress and have
Downloadable! By raising commuting costs, an increase in gasoline prices should reduce the demand for housing in areas far from employment centers relative to locations closer to jobs. Using annual panel data on a large number of ZIP codes and municipalities from 1981 to 2008, we find that a 10 percent increase in gas prices leads to a 10 percent decrease in construction in locations with a long average commute relative to other locations, but to no significant change in house prices. Thus, the supply response may prevent the change in housing demand from capitalizing in house prices.
Is There An Association Between Gasoline Prices and Physical ActivityEvidence from American Time Use Data. . . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The cost of meeting standards for conventional pollutant emissions is a perennial bone of contention in arguments over vehicle emission regulations. The public health benefits of the most stringent standards have been repeatedly and conclusively demonstrated, and the control technologies are readily available. Nevertheless, countries with the largest vehicle markets worldwide differ greatly in the rates at which they are willing to adopt the most stringent emission standards-and some of those whose populations would benefit most lag furthest behind. Among the reasons often given for delaying the implementation of stricter standards is the extra cost added to the vehicle by the emission control system.This two-part series paper assesses separately the cost of emission control technologies for gasoline and diesel light duty vehicles. In part one, the paper addresses the cost of gasoline light-duty emission control technology by regulatory level, from early stages to upcoming levels. Focus is given ...
In this paper, experiments and simulations were conducted to investigate the cyclic variations of gasoline/diesel and ethanol/diesel dual-fuel combustion. For both dual-fuel modes, gasoline and ethanol were injected into the intake port during the intake stroke and diesel was directly injected into
The typical CITGO Gas Station Cashier salary is $10. Gas Station Cashier salaries at CITGO can range from $8-$13. This estimate is based upon 4 CITGO Gas Station Cashier salary report(s) provided by employees or estimated based upon statistical methods. See all Gas Station Cashier salaries to learn how this stacks up in the market. ...
Diesel vehicles made in Germany in 2006 achieved high mpg, and competed with gasoline engines with regard to emissions. The much lower emissions of hybrids make them more desirable than diesel vehicles. Also, better driving performance can be engineered into hybrid vehicles than for a comparable-emissions conventional gasoline or diesel vehicle.. There is another form of diesel made from plants: biodiesel (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiesel). It is a mixture of long-chain esters. Biodiesel can be used as fuel for diesel vehicles without any engine alteration or it can be mixed with petroleum-diesel. (The usual mixture is B20: 20% biodiesel.) It is slightly less efficient than diesel, but more efficient than gasoline. It produces much less vehicle emissions than diesel. Most biodiesel is made from plants that are planted and harvested by burning gasoline or diesel in farm tractors and with fertilizer, all made from petroleum; this needs to be changed drastically so that biodiesel production ...
In Washington, the EIA says that the roughly 30 cent spread between premium and regular gasoline is a result of ethanol prices, a spread that has held roughly static since the end of 2012. That spread is lower than it has been in the past because ethanol blending creates cheaper octane blendstock. In 2009 it was about 6% compared to 17% in 2001. Gasoline prices are roughly 25 cents a gallon cheaper now than a year ago. ...
The hypothesis that artificial oxic conditions will lead to MTBE biodegradation by indigenous microorganisms in anoxic, gasoline-contaminated aquifers was examined by adding oxygen in the form of a metal peroxide slurry to an anoxic part of gasoline-contaminated aquifer in South Carolina. Field observations of relatively rapid aerobic MTBE biodegradation following oxygen addition suggest that the indigenous bacteria have become acclimated not only to mg/L concentrations of MTBE in the gasoline plume, but also to periodic delivery of oxygen by recharge events. Significant natural attenuation of MTBE could occur if the oxygen limitations naturally associated with gasoline releases can be removed, either under natural conditions where discharging anoxic groundwater comes into contact with oxygen, or artificial conditions where oxygen can be added to aquifers containing mg/L concentrations of MTBE. This final solution might be an effective strategy for intercepting characteristically long MTBE plumes,
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Formation of soot is a known phenomenon for diesel engines, however, only recently emerged for gasoline engines with the introduction of direct injection systems. Soot-in-oil samples from a three-cylinder turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine have been analysed. The samples were collec
A historical cohort of service station attendants is underway. It is aimed at evaluating possible excess cancer risk relation to exposure intensity. In this paper we discuss the feasibility of a retrospective exposure assessment by evaluating the association between indicators of workload and the exposure intensity to some aromatic hydrocarbons...