Human melanoma cells (M21) actively attach and spread on a fibronectin substrate. Indirect immunofluorescence assays with specific monoclonal antibodies directed to the disialoganglioside GD2, the major ganglioside expressed on M21 melanoma cells, indicate that during the cell attachment process this molecule redistributes into microprocesses that make direct contact with the fibronectin substrate. Scanning and transmission immunoelectron microscopic studies with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies and immuno-gold staining demonstrate that GD2 preferentially localizes into substrate-associated microprocesses that emanate from the plasma membrane of the M21 cells. Staining with monoclonal antibodies directed to other melanoma surface antigens fails to demonstrate a similar distribution pattern on these cells. Direct evidence is provided that GD2 is involved in M21 cell attachment to fibronectin, since treatment of these cells with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies causes cell rounding and detachment from ...
Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids expressed on all vertebrate cells. They are primarily positioned in the plasma membrane, with the ceramide part anchored in the membrane and the glycan part exposed on the surface of the cell. These lipids have highly diverse structures, not the least with respect to their carbohydrate chains, with N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) being the two most common sialic acid residues in mammalian cells. Human healthy tissue is deficient in NeuGc, but since this molecule is expressed in tumors and in human fetal tissues, it is known as an onco-fetal antigen. Gangliosides perform important functions through carbohydrate-specific interactions with proteins, for example as receptors in cell-cell recognition, which can be exploited by viruses and other pathogens, and also by regulating signaling proteins through lateral interaction in the membrane. Through both mechanisms, tumor-associated gangliosides may affect
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development regulation of ganglioside metabolism. AU - Yu, Robert K. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Various reports have appeared indicating that the expression of gangliosides may be largely regulated at the genetic level. Evidence from analysis of the gene for this enzyme revealed binding sequences for a number of liver restricted transcription factors such as hepatocyte nuclear factor l a, liver specific factors D-binding protein (DBP), and liver enriched transcription activator protein (LAP), as well as the more general transcription factors AP-1 and AP-2. Presumably, the expression of the various glycosyltransferases for ganglioside synthesis may be regulated in an analogous manner. Factors involved in the regulation of ganglioside expression include the proper translocation and sorting of the glycolipid products in multi-glycosyltransferase systems. Disruption of the flow of gangliosides along their biosynthetic pathways also can cause alterations in ganglioside ...
Neuroectodermal tumours are characterized by aberrant processing of disialogangliosides concomitant with high expression of GD2 or GD3 on cell surfaces. Antibodies targeting GD2 are already in clinical use for therapy of neuroblastoma, a solid tumour of early childhood. Here, we set out to identify peptides with high affinity to human disialoganglioside GD2. To this end, we performed a combined in vivo and in vitro screen using a recombinant phage displayed peptide library. We isolated a phage displaying the peptide sequence WHWRLPS that specifically binds to the human disialoganglioside GD2. Binding specificity was confirmed by mutational scanning and by comparative analyses using structurally related disialogangliosides. In vivo, significant enrichment of phage binding to xenografts of human neuroblastoma cells in mice was observed. Tumour-specific phage accumulation could be blocked by intravenous coinjection of the corresponding peptide. Comparative pharmacokinetic analyses revealed higher ...
Ganglioside GM1 (18:1/12:0) is a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide)or oligoglycosylceramide with one or more sialic acids (i.e. n-acetylneuraminic acid) linked on the sugar chain. It is a component the cell plasma membrane which modulates cell signal transduction events. Gangliosides have been found to be highly important in immunology. Ganglioside GM1 carries a net-negative charge at pH 7.0 and is acidic. Gangliosides can amount to 6% of the weight of lipids from brain, but they are found at low levels in all animal tissues. Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids. There are four types of glycosphingolipids, the cerebrosides, sulfatides, globosides and gangliosides. Gangliosides are very similar to globosides except that they also contain N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NANA) in varying amounts. The specific names for the gangliosides provide information about their structure. The letter G refers to ganglioside, and the subscripts M, D, T and Q indicate that the molecule contains mono-, ...
The disialoganglioside GD3 plays a major role in proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. It has been reported that ganglioside GD3 can induce apoptosis through bcl-2 mediated mitochondrial pathway. However, the relationship between ganglioside GD3 and B-cell/CLL lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) is not full …
TY - JOUR. T1 - GANGLIOSIDES OF HUMAN MYELIN. T2 - SIALOSYLGALACTOSYLCERAMIDE (G7) AS A MAJOR COMPONENT. AU - Ledeen, R. W.. AU - Yu, R. K.. AU - Eng, L. F.. PY - 1973/10. Y1 - 1973/10. N2 - Abstract- Gangliosides were isolated from purified human myelin in a yield of 62 μg of lipid‐bound sialic acid per 100 mg of dry myelin. Sialosylgalactosyl ceramide (G7) was found to be a major component of the ganglioside fraction, amounting to 15 per cent of the total sialic acid. It accounted for 10 per cent of lipid‐bound sialic acid in adult human white matter, making it the third most abundant ganglioside on a molar basis. These results were obtained with an improved method for isolating total gangliosides in high yield, by employing DEAE‐Sephadex column chromatography. Myelin from other mammalian species had considerably less G7, and there were also indications of maturational changes. Both 2‐hydroxy and unsubstituted fatty acids were components of the ceramide unit, in a ratio of 3:2, ...
Ganglioside GM2 (d18:0/25:0) is a ganglioside. A ganglioside is a compound composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (AKA n-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) linked on the sugar chain. The 60+ known gangliosides differ mainly in the position and number of NANA residues. It is a component of the cell plasma membrane that modulates cell signal transduction events. It appears that they concentrate in lipid rafts. They have recently been found to be highly important in immunology. Natural and semisynthetic gangliosides are considered possible therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders. Gangliosides are more complex glycosphingolipids in which oligosaccharide chains containing N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc) are attached to a ceramide. NeuNAc, an acetylated derivative of the carbohydrate sialic acid, makes the head groups of Gangliosides anionic. NB: the M in GM2 stands for monosialo, i.e., one NeuNAc residue. GM2 is the second monosialo ganglioside ...
Ganglioside GD3小鼠单克隆抗体[R24](ab11779)可与人样本反应并经IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被5篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Hirabayashi turned himself into the FBI, was convicted in U.S. District Court of defying the exclusion order, took his case to the U.S. Supreme Court and lost. Forty-four years later, the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals overturned his conviction.. "The U.S. government admitted it made a mistake," Hirabayashi said in 2000. "A country that can do this is a strong country. I have more faith and allegiance to the Constitution than I ever had before.". Hirabayashi died this past January.. He is among a group of honorees announced by the White House. Other Medal of Freedom winner include astronaut and former Sen. John Glenn, ex-Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, singer-songwriter Bob Dylan, United Farmworkers organizer Dolores Huerta, novelist Toni Morrison and Israels President Shimon Peres.. Hirabayashi ended up hitchhiking to Arizona to serve his time in an internment camp. The site of his internment is now the Gordon Hirabayashi Recreation Site in the Coronado National Forest, on the slopes ...
To examine the specificity of monoclonal antibody A2B5, four A2B5-reactive gangliosides (designated as G-1, G-2, G-3 and G-4) were purified from bonito fish brain. Ganglioside-1, -2, and -3 migrated above GD1b, below GQ1b, and far below GQ1b on thin-layer chromatography. Ganglioside-4 had the slowes …
Lipids | sphingolipids | glycosphingolipids | gangliosides Definition: Gangliosides are glycosylated sphingolipids enriched in membranes of the (...)
Deacetylation of de novo synthesized 9-O-acetyl GD3 triggers apoptosis of HEK-293 cells. (A) GD3 and 9-O-acetyl GD3 content of HEK-293 cells was analyzed by TLC
Address for correspondence: Mepur H. Ravindranath, Laboratory of Glycoimmunotherapy, John Wayne Cancer Institute, 2200 Santa Monica Boulevard, Santa Monica, CA 90404-2302. Voice: 310-449-5263. [email protected] Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1050: 229-242 (2005). © 2005 New York Academy of Sciences. doi: 10.1196/annals.1313.024 229 4Glcβ1Cer 2144 of the bilayered lipid membrane of every human cell.8NeuAcα2.3GalNAcβ1. In our ELISA system. which prevents direct and specific recognition by conventional specific T cells.4Glcβ1Cer NeuAcα2.8 Oligosaccharide residues of gangliosides are unable to bind into the groove of MHC molecules.4Galβ1. ethanol suspension is employed to coat polystyrene plates in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure antiganglioside antibodies. although antiganglioside IgG (commonly IgG2a or IgG3) antibodies are found in mice and rabbits.4Glcβ1Cer Galβ1.3NeuAc)Galβ1.3Galβ1. and they do not require T-cell help. extraneural. there is no evidence for isotype ...
Ganglioside GD3, 1 ml. Almost all melanomas, astrocytomas, a proportion of sarcomas, a small number of carcinomas, some nevi, as well as normal melanocytes express GD3 antigen.
Purpose : Gangliosides (GG) make an extremely diverse family of glycosphingolipids particularly abundant in the brain and neural tissues. While it is known that alterations in GG metabolism are associated with visual defects, the precise biological roles of these compounds in the retina are still largely unknown. In this context, we performed an exhaustive inventory and thorough characterization of the human eye GG aiming to reveal specificities and common features of the retina compared to other ocular tissues and brain. Methods : Retina, RPE/Choroid, ciliary body, optic nerve and brain samples were collected from deceased human donors (N=7). GG were extracted and analysed by a comprehensive approach relying on various techniques. First, GG content and class composition were assessed by high-performance thin layer chromatography followed by colorimetric revelation. Second, identification and relative quantification of the different ceramide types represented in each GG class were achieved using ...
A Monoclonal Antibody to O-Acetyl-GD2 Ganglioside and Not to GD2 Shows Potent Anti-Tumor Activity without Peripheral Nervous System Cross-Reactivity. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Serum Gangliosides in Patients with Brain Tumors. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Background Ganglioside biosynthesis occurs through a multi-enzymatic pathway which at the lactosylceramide step is branched into several biosynthetic series. Lc3 synthase utilizes a variety of galactose-terminated glycolipids as acceptors by establishing a glycosidic bond in the beta-1,3-linkage to GlcNaAc to extend the lacto- and neolacto-series gangliosides. In order to examine the lacto-series ganglioside functions in mice, we used gene knockout technology to generate Lc3 synthase gene B3gnt5-deficient mice by two different strategies and compared the phenotypes of the two null mouse groups with each other and with their wild-type counterparts. Results B3gnt5 gene knockout mutant mice appeared normal in the embryonic stage and, if they survived delivery, remained normal during early life. However, about 9% developed early-stage growth retardation, 11% died postnatally in less than 2 months, and adults tended to die in 5-15 months, demonstrating splenomegaly and notably enlarged lymph nodes. ...
It has long been observed that axons in the CNS have a poor ability to regenerate, while peripheral axons regenerate readily. Characterizing the molecular determinants that allow peripheral axons to regenerate might identify therapeutic strategies that may stimulate nerve regeneration and functional recovery after nerve damage. The permissiveness of the extracellular environment as well as cell-intrinsic molecular programs have been identified as critical variables that differ between the CNS and the PNS and that underlie the disparity in regeneration.. Evidence suggests that gangliosides, a family of plasma membrane glycosphingolipids with one or more sialic acid residues, are important regulators of axon regeneration (Schnaar et al., 2014). Gangliosides play important roles in cell-cell and cell-environment interactions by organizing plasma membrane microdomains as well as acting as receptors for extracellular ligands (Schnaar et al., 2014). For example, the monosialylated GM1 ganglioside is a ...
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Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG, Siglec-4) is unique among the siglecs in that it is expressed exclusively on neuronal glial cells[1][2]. It is the most highly conserved among the siglecs in mammalian species. This siglec paradigm is unique in its activity of stabilizing axon-myelin interactions. MAG has a cytoplasmic domain that is devoid of ITIMs, but contains a tyrosine-based motif associated with binding the FYN tyrosine kinase, believed to play a role in its activity in myelin-axon interactions. MAG recognizes as ligands sialoside sequences found on gangliosides that are abundant in axonal membranes[2]. It is one of several proteins in myelin that negatively regulate axon outgrowth following tissue injury, an activity that involves MAG-ligand interactions. Evidence suggests that inhibition of MAG-ligand interactions may enhance neurite outgrowth and repair of injured neurons[3][4][5]. ...
Although much work has been done over the last 30 years, the cell-surface receptors that the toxin uses to gain entry into neurons are not well defined. However, through results obtained by myself as part of my PhD research as well as other labs, a particular class of glycolipids (combination of sugars and lipids, called gangliosides are necessary for the toxin to enter neurons. Since it is the sugar portion of these glycolipids that is recognized by the toxin, it is believed that perhaps a drug could be made from these sugars that would prevent the toxin from entering neurons. It is the further characterization of the mechanism of entry of the toxin, as well as the design of a drug to prevent this entry, that is the focus of my research ...
CC: CCSD:44883 AU: Rosenberg A; Noble EP TI: Inhibition of neuritogenic ganglioside biosynthesis in chick brain neurons by calcium ionophore A23187 CT: Biochem Biophys Res Commun (1993) 190: 522-528 [PMID:8427594] BS: (CN) chicken, (OT) brain neuron cells, (LS) embryo TN: GM2 MT: ganglioside MT: glycolipid MT: glycosphingolipid SB: Westra B DA: 15-01-1996 FC: f7673cea SI: CBank:16359 ---------------- structure: b-D-GalpNAc-(1-4)+ , b-D-Galp-(1-4)-b-D-Glcp-(1-1)-Ceramide , a-D-Neup5Ac-(2-3)+ ================end of record ...
Multiple phenotypic changes in mice after knockout of the B3gnt5 gene, encoding Lc3 synthase--a key enzyme in lacto-neolacto ganglioside synthesis.
download theory process travel( dead) plays packet of ancient load listeners or spam eds to the constructions so that weapon is to the including leaf to take distributed exclusively to the rack-mount. short respect can see attracted between true devices. This law needs some expanse reasons and links that must describe developed for spanning Unified Communications matters on Current metals. The Cisco B-Series Blade Servers download theory and new CPU types, and each CPU p can take representative bone years. For Degree, one B200 generation is two CPU islands that can cry up to two design anthologies. This includes the arc to see alien Unified Communications events on a Marxist rush Storage. Each audio Communications download theory and practice should have used learned platform and Decision Egyptians to become that the requirements believe fully come. made role authorities published on the Cisco UCS B-Series quality need the early issues to turn from a Fibre Channel SAN call magnificence. The SAN ...
Affiliation:信州大学,医学部,助教(特定雇用), Research Field:Pediatrics, Keywords:GD2,併用療法,遺伝子改変T細胞,キメラ抗原受容体(CAR),GD2,脳腫瘍,遺伝子改変T細胞療法,piggyBacトランスポゾン法,ヒストン脱アセチル化酵素阻害薬,小児, # of Research Projects:1, # of Research Products:4
CC: CCSD:32703 AU: Ladisch S; Becker H; Ulsh L TI: Immunosuppression by human gangliosides: I. Relationship of carbohydrate structure to the inhibition of T cell responses CT: Biochim Biophys Acta (1992) 1125: 180-188 [PMID:1571361] BS: (CN) human, (OT) brain TN: GM2 MT: ganglioside MT: glycolipid MT: glycosphingolipid SB: van Kuik A DA: 18-02-1994 FC: f7673cea SI: CBank:16359 ---------------- structure: b-D-GalpNAc-(1-4)+ , b-D-Galp-(1-4)-b-D-Glcp-(1-1)-Ceramide , a-D-Neup5Ac-(2-3)+ ================end of record ...
HEK-293 cells are resistant to endogenous GD3 accumulation and synthesize 9-O-acetyl GD3. (A) The percentage of apoptotic HEK-293 nuclei was analyzed 40 h after
We determined the ability of mixed gangliosides (16% GD1b, 19% GT1b, 21% GM1, and 40% GD1a) and individual gangliosides GM1 and GD1b to modulate the NV-PLA2 induced human erythrocyte ghost membrane damage. CM-Sephadex purification of crude Naja naja venom yielded eight peaks of which peak VII, a major phospholipase A2 (NV-PLA2) accounted for 22% of the total protein recovered and 8% of the total PLA2 activity recovered. The membrane damage induced by NV-PLA2 was assessed by measuring the decrease in the relative intensity of fluorescence using cis-parinaric acid (PnA) as a monitor molecule. The RBC membranes isolated from healthy human blood showed 72% damage on treatment with NV-PLA2 (2 mg) when compared to untreated membranes. Mixed gangliosides (18 nM) and GM1 (15 nM) offered 81 and 86% protection respectively, whereas GD1b (20 nM) did not show significant protection. Analysis of membrane bound Na+K+ and Ca2+Mg2+ ATPase indicated a 3 fold and 2 folds decrease in their activities on NV-PLA2
In patients with neuroblastoma, immunotherapy with 3F8, a mAb against the disialoganglioside GD2, promotes natural killer (NK) cell-mediated toxicity. NK cells possess inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR; encoded by KIR3DL1) that bind to HLA class I molecules, licensing NK cells to target cells lacking self-HLA, but also attenuating their tumor cytotoxicity. Allelic diversity exists for KIR3DL1 and HLA-Bw4, and the outcome of 3F8 treatment is improved in patients lacking the HLA class I ligands. These observations prompted Forlenza and colleagues to hypothesize that polymorphisms could alter the strength of the interaction between KIR3DL1 and HLA-Bw4, and modulate the NK response to 3F8. To test this hypothesis a retrospective analysis was performed to determine the KIRDL1 and HLA-B subtype of 245 patients with high-risk neuroblastoma treated with 3F8. HLA typing indicated that 58% of patients harbored at least one HLA-Bw4 allele, whereas the other 42% were homozygous for Bw6 ...
Structure elucidation of glycosphingolipids and gangliosides using high-performance tandem mass spectrometry.: Glycosphingolipids and gangliosides have been inv
Gangliosides enhance KCl-induced Ca2+ influx and acetylcholine release in brain synaptosomes.: Effects of gangliosides GM1 and GQ1b on cholinergic synaptic func
The post infectious paralytic autoimmune disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), has been associated with the generation of cross-reactive auto-antibodies after Campylobacter jejuni infection. These auto-antibodies interact with both the ganglioside mimicking C. jejuni lipo-oligosaccharides (LOS) and endogenous gangliosides. This study sought to investigate novel interactions of the ganglioside mimicking LOS with immune system ganglioside specific receptors. In addition, studies investigated if such receptor recognition affects antigen trafficking or the immunostimulatory potency of the LOS, which could participate in auto-antibody generation. Results presented in this thesis demonstrate for the first time that certain members of the siglec receptor family are capable of recognising LOS from a GBS associated strain of C. jejuni. This interaction did not definitively result in enhanced, or altered, potency of ganglioside mimicking LOS in stimulating immune cells. Interestingly, ganglioside ...
Guillian-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is the worlds leading cause of neuromuscular paralysis occurring in serologically and pathogenically distinct forms. GBS is believed to have an autoimmune basis, where antibodies raised during antecedent infections (eg Campylobacter jejuni) cross-react with self antigens, exemplifying the process of molecular mimicry. These self-antigens are gangliosides, which are glycolipid structures enriched in peripheral nerve in specific membrane compartments termed lipid rafts. To date, successful murine models of anti-GD1a and anti-Gq1b ganglioside mediated neuropathy exist. Clinical evidence supports the involvement of anti-GM1 antibodies in nerve injury, however generation of anti-GM1 antibody mediated neuropathy models remain an enigma, and to date, the only successful model is based in Japanese rabbits. This thesis aims to address the controversies surrounding anti-GM1 antibody mediated neuropathy by utilising a panel of anti-GM1 antibodies of differing specificity, ...
Accepted name: α-N-acetylneuraminate α-2,8-sialyltransferase Reaction: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + α-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-R = CMP + α-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2→8)-α-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-R. For diagram of reaction click here.. Other name(s): cytidine monophosphoacetylneuraminate-ganglioside GM3; α-2,8-sialyltransferase; ganglioside GD3 synthase; ganglioside GD3 synthetase sialyltransferase; CMP-NeuAc:LM1(α2-8) sialyltranferase; GD3 synthase; SAT-2 Systematic name: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:α-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-β-D-galactoside α-2,8-N-acetylneuraminyltransferase Comments: Gangliosides act as acceptors. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 67339-00-8. References: 1. Eppler, M.C., Morré, J.D. and Keenan, T.W. Ganglioside biosynthesis in rat liver: alteration of sialyltransferase activities by nucleotides. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 619 (1980) 332-343. [PMID: 7407217] 2. Higashi, H., Basu, M. and Basu, S. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimal conditions for the assay of fibroblast neuraminidase with different natural substrates. AU - Caimi, L.. AU - Lombardo, A.. AU - Preti, A.. AU - Wiesmann, U.. AU - Tettamanti, G.. PY - 1979/11/9. Y1 - 1979/11/9. N2 - A method for the assay of neuraminidase in human cultured fibroblasts has been worked out. The substrates, all naturally occurring, were: sialyloligosaccharides (α(2 → 3)sialyllactose, α(2 → 6)sialyllactose, disialyllactose), sialylglycolipids (disialogangliosides GD1a and GD1b), sialylglycoproteins and sialylglycopeptides (ovine submaxillary glycoprotein and its pronase-glycopeptides). The method was based on the determination of the enzymically liberated N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) by a chromatographic-colorimetric microprocedure. The enzyme acted on sialyloligosaccharides and, in the presence of Triton X-100, on gangliosides, while it did not appreciably affect sialylglycoproteins and sialylglycopeptides. The optimum pH was 4.0 for all tested ...
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Schengrund, C and Repman, M A., "Density-dependent changes in gangliosides and sialidase activity of murine neuroblastoma cells." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3496 ...
Results In both Japanese and Italian cohorts, any of the antibodies were positive in 36% of the patients, and antibody positivity had a significant association with the AMAN electrodiagnosis. Approximately 30% of Japanese and Italian antiganglioside positive patients showed the AIDP pattern at the first examination whereas sequential studies showed that most finally showed the AMAN pattern. Clinically, seropositive patients more frequently had preceding diarrhoea and pure motor neuropathy in both Japanese and Italian cohorts; vibratory sensation was normal in 97% of Japanese and in 94% of Italian seropositive patients. ...
Many biochemical processes involve binding between carbohydrates and biomolecules on the surface of cells. These may involve multivalent interactions that can considerably alter the binding specificity and avidity of biomolecules. A novel nanocube sensor has been developed to elucidate the cooperativity in binding of biomolecules to carbohydrates. A fluidic supported lipid bilayer coated on the nanocube sensor allows this system to mimic a cell membrane in vitro. Cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit has been taken as a model system and its binding with several gangliosides has been demonstrated using this sensor. The amount of CTB bound to the lipid bilayer is then quantified by observing the shifts in the quadrupolar localized surface plasmon resonance peak using a standard laboratory spectrometer. The ultimate objective of this research is to provide a diagnostic tool to quickly identify diseases. This inexpensive, label free, high throughput technology allows the testing of several conditions ...
Cases of Guillain-Barr syndrome GBS associated with parenteral use of gangliosides have been reported in several European countries. To evaluate the hypothesis of association between ganglioside exposure and occurrence of GBS, a case-control study was conducted. GBS cases discharged during 1989 from public and private hospitals in three...
Schwartz, M; Sela, B A.; and Eshhar, N, "Antibodies to gangliosides and myelin autoantigens are produced in mice following sciatic nerve injury." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2752 ...
Peripheral neuropathies constitute a diverse group of diseases caused by a wide range of genetic, toxic, metabolic, and inflammatory insults to the peripheral nervous system. A considerable proportion of neuropathies are believed to have an autoimmune basis, either as a feature of systemic autoimmune diseases, vasculitides, or paraneoplastic or postinfectious syndromes, in association with lymphoproliferative diseases, or as isolated peripheral nerve syndromes. In clinical practice, the cause of sporadic neuropathies is often obscure, resulting in the frequent use of multiple screening tests to aid in diagnosis. Over the last 20 years, there has been a widespread increase in the use of antiganglioside antibody assays as diagnostic tools, based on the recognition from research studies that gangliosides are important autoantigens in many patients with autoimmune peripheral nerve disorders (1).
Gangliosides play key roles in cell differentiation, cell-cell interactions, and transmembrane signaling. Sialidases hydrolyze sialic acids to produce asialo compounds, which is the first step of degradation processes of glycoproteins and gangliosides. Sialidase involvement has been implicated in some lysosomal storage disorders such as sialidosis and galactosialidosis. Neu2 is a recently identified human cytosolic sialidase. Here we report the first high resolution x-ray structures of mammalian sialidase, human Neu2, in its apo form and in complex with an inhibitor, 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (DANA). The structure shows the canonical six-blade beta-propeller observed in viral and bacterial sialidases with its active site in a shallow crevice. In the complex structure, the inhibitor lies in the catalytic crevice surrounded by ten amino acids. In particular, the arginine triad, conserved among sialidases, aids in the proper positioning of the carboxylate group of DANA within the ...
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1DFQ: The structures of the H(C) fragment of tetanus toxin with carbohydrate subunit complexes provide insight into ganglioside binding.
1D0H: The structures of the H(C) fragment of tetanus toxin with carbohydrate subunit complexes provide insight into ganglioside binding.