Primary neuronal cultures represent an essential tool in the study of events related to peripheral neuropathies as they allow to isolate the affected cell types, often originating in complex tissues in which they account for only a few percentage of cells. Neuronal cultures also provide a powerful system to identifying or testing compounds with potential therapeutic effect in the treatment of those diseases. Proprioceptive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are the primary affected cells in Friedreichs Ataxia. This paper describes a model of primary cultures of DRG sensory neurons in which there is an induced the loss of the frataxin protein. THis model can alleviate the issues related to the complexity of DRG tissues and low amount of sensory neuron material in adult mouse. The authors provide a protocol of detailed and optimized methods to obtain high yield of healthy mouse DRG sensory neuron in culture. Read the entire article HERE. ...
PubMed journal article: Comparison of intracellular calcium signals evoked by heat and capsaicin in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and in a cell line expressing the rat vanilloid receptor, VR1. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Summary We have previously described the capacity of neurites extending from cultured rat sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons to transport rabies virus through axoplasm in the retrograde direction. Here we report the infection of cultured neurons derived from the DRG and the subsequent anterograde transport of rabies virus from the infected cell somas through the extending neurites to its release into the culture supernatant. Viral transport was monitored by titration of the virus yield in the external compartment. Both early and late transport mechanisms of rabies virions were identified. The first one occurred a few hours post-infection and was undetectable 6 h later, before the initiation of viral replication. The velocity of this first wave of infective virions was in the range of 100 to 400 mm/day. The early viral transport was probably the result of a direct translocation of infective virions from the somatic site of entry to the neuritic extensions and subsequent release into the culture
Location and numbers of neurons associated with sympathetic innervation of the heart within the right stellate and accessory cervical ganglia, the spinal cord, and spinal ganglia were investigated using horseradish peroxidase retrograde axonal transport techniques in cats. The enzyme was applied to central sections of the anastomosis of the stellate ganglion with the vagus nerve, the inferior cardiac nerve, and the vagosympathetic trunk caudal to the anastomosis. Labeled neurons within the stellate ganglion were located close to the point of departure of the nerves and more thinly distributed in the accessory cervical ganglion. A group of labeled cells was found in the anastomosis itself. Preganglionic neurons associated with sympathetic innervation of the heat were detected at segmental levels T1-T5 in the spinal cord. Labeled neurons were diffusely located in the spinal ganglia, concentrated mainly at levels T2-T4.
BioAssay record AID 1066650 submitted by ChEMBL: Antagonist activity at TRPM8 isolated from mouse dorsal root ganglion cells expressed in HEK T-REx cells assessed as inhibition of menthol-induced intracellular Ca2+ influx at 10 to 50 uM preincubated for 3 mins followed by menthol challenge measured after 10 mins of post compound washout.
We here provide a detailed protocol for the isolation and culture of primary mouse sensory neurons. The cell bodies of sensory afferent pseudounipolar neurons are located in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) along the vertebral column. Dissected mouse DRGs can be dissociated into single cells by enzymatic digestion to obtain primary cultures of mouse sensory neurons as performed in the studies reported by Khaminets et al. (2015).
in Neuroscience (1992), 51(2), 401-10. In a previous work we have shown that culturing adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons modifies their neurotransmitter phenotype in such a way that cultured neurons synthesize transmitters that are not ... [more ▼]. In a previous work we have shown that culturing adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons modifies their neurotransmitter phenotype in such a way that cultured neurons synthesize transmitters that are not found in situ, while several other transmitters are expressed in a much higher percentage of neurons in culture than in situ [Schoenen J. et al. (1989) J. Neurosci. Res. 22, 473-487]. The aim of the present study was to investigate the origin and the nature of the relevant environmental signals that allow this plasticity to be expressed, focusing on three neurotransmitters: 5-hydroxytryptamine, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and calcitonin-gene related peptide. The main results can be summarized as follows: (1) culturing cells in fetal calf serum ...
Run-Shan Duan.,刘佩佩.,Feng Xi.,Wei-Hua Wang.,汤刚彬.,...&刘长梅.(2018).Wnt3 and Gata4 regulate axon regeneration in adult mouse DRG neurons.BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS,499,246-252 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell type-specific changes of the membrane properties of peripherally- axotomized dorsal root ganglion neurons in a rat model of neuropathic pain. AU - Kim, Y. I.. AU - Na, H. S.. AU - Kim, S. H.. AU - Han, H. C.. AU - Yoon, Y. W.. AU - Sung, B.. AU - Nam, H. J.. AU - Shin, S. L.. AU - Hong, S. K.. PY - 1998/5/21. Y1 - 1998/5/21. N2 - Recent evidence indicates that neuropathic pain from partial peripheral nerve injury is maintained by electrophysiologically abnormal signals from injured sensory neurons. To gain an insight into the mechanisms underlying this electrophysiological abnormality, we examined the effects of S1 spinal nerve transection on the membrane properties of S1 dorsal root ganglion neurons one to two weeks after injury. This injury produced significant action potential broadening [40% (1 ms) in C-, 149% (1.5 ms) in Aδ- and 84% (0.5 ms) in Aα/β-cells], which was primarily due to the enhancement of the shoulder appearing on the falling phase of the action ...
Glutamate is a neurotransmitter used at both the peripheral and central terminals of nociceptive primary sensory neurons, yet little is known concerning regulation of glutamate metabolism during peripheral inflammation. Glutaminase (GLS) is an enzyme of the glutamate-glutamine cycle that converts glutamine into glutamate for neurotransmission and is implicated in producing elevated levels of glutamate in central and peripheral terminals. A potential mechanism for increased levels of glutamate is an elevation in GLS expression. We assessed GLS expression after unilateral hind paw inflammation by measuring GLS immunoreactivity (ir) with quantitative image analysis of L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after one, two, four, and eight days of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) compared to saline injected controls. No significant elevation in GLS-ir occurred in the DRG ipsilateral to the inflamed hind paw after one or two days of AIA. After four days AIA, GLS-ir was elevated significantly in all sizes of
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA sequences that regulate gene expression by binding to intracellular target transcripts. However, miRNAs can be detected in the circulation and in cerebrospinal fluid and are recognized by Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), and extracellular application of the miRNA let-7b triggers TLR7-mediated apoptosis of cortical neurons. Because TLR7 is also present on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons associated with pain, Park et al. explored whether DRG neurons responded to let-7b. Electrophysiological analysis of dissociated mouse DRG neurons from wild-type mice, but not those from TLR7-knockout mice, showed that small-diameter neurons, which are typically nociceptive, produced an inward current in response to let-7b, a response that was abolished by mutation of the GUUGUGU motif in let-7b. Pharmacological inhibition of the calcium channel transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) blocked the response to let-7b, and DRG neurons from TRPA1-knockout mice also failed to respond. ...
S. P. Kramer; ON THE FUNCTION OF THE POSTERIOR SPINAL GANGLIA . J Exp Med 25 May 1907; 9 (3): 314-318. doi: https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.9.3.314. Download citation file:. ...
We performed axonal guidance spot assays (Meiners et al., 1999) to determine the behavior of axons as they encounter immobilized CSPGs. Axonal behavior of cultured mouse cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) was analyzed near a defined region of chicken CSPGs immobilized onto poly-L-lysine (PLL)-coated coverslips. As observed previously (Laabs et al., 2007), most axons were deflected and few crossed onto the CSPG-rich area of the coverslip (Fig. 1A). Time-lapse imaging with adult mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons showed that filopodia dynamically sampled the CSPG spot (red), and that the growing axons turned at the interface between PLL and CSPG, and continued to extend along the interface, which is in contrast to growth cone collapse (Supplemental material Movie 1). Removal of the chondroitin sulfate GAG chains by cABC abolished this negative axonal guidance cue, indicating that the repellant activity of CSPGs is specifically mediated by the chondroitin sulfate GAG chains (Fig. 1B).. We examined ...
Two major reasons for the failure of central nervous system axon regeneration are (i) lack of neurotrophic factors available to CNS neurones and (ii) the presence of molecules that inhibit the growth of axons. In this study a gene therapy approach using adeno-associated virus 8 (AAV8) was used to manipulate these two factors. The following major aims were addressed: (i) confirm the bioactivity of transgenes that would be packaged into the AAV8 vector; (ii) assess the cellular tropism of AAV8 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG); (iii) evaluate the inflammatory responses of the nervous system to AAV8 after intra-DRG and intrathecal injection; (iv) determine the axon regenerative effect of AAV8-mediated delivery of nt-3 (a neurotrophic factor) and shRNA\(_{RhoA}\) (a disinhibitory therapy) to dorsal root ganglion neurones after spinal cord injury in the rat. Delivery of the nt-3 transgene in vitro resulted in production of high levels of NT-3 protein. Transfection of shRNA\(_{RhoA}\)-containing ...
We used combined patch-clamp-microfluorimetric recordings to examine the effects of bradykinin on [Ca2+]i transients and the Ca2+ current (ICa) in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons in vitro. Bradykinin increased [Ca2+]i in approximately 20% of dorsal root ganglion cells examined and inhibited the ICa in approximately 65% of dorsal root ganglion cells. Bradykinin also inhibited the ICa when [Ca2+]i was buffered with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid or when Ba2+ was the charge carrier. When ICas of increasing duration were elicited in these neurons, [Ca2+]i transients were produced that increased in amplitude but eventually approached an asymptote at longer voltage steps. Similarly, the amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transient also approached an asymptote in current-clamp recordings when cells were induced to fire a large number of action potentials. The bradykinin-induced inhibition of the amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transient was more pronounced at shorter voltage steps. At pulse ...
Akifumi Kanai, Hiromi Hiruma, Tadashi Kawakami, Sumio Hoka; Room D, 10/17/2000 9: 00 AM - 11: 00 AM (PS) Low Dose Lidocaine Rapidly Inhibits Axonal Transport in Cultured Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons : A-761. Anesthesiology 2000;93(3A):A-761. doi: https://doi.org/.. Download citation file:. ...
article{3c1d0d1b-0530-4d68-8c34-76c362110061, abstract = {,p,The involvement of cytosolic phospholipase A,sub,2,/sub, (cPLA,sub,2,/sub,) in apoptosis of adult mouse superior cervical and dorsal root ganglia neurons has been investigated by the use of immunohistochemistry for cPLA,sub,2,/sub, and DNA nick-end labeling for apoptotic cells, respectively, cPLA,sub,2,/sub, immunoreactivity was strongly upregulated in neurons of both preparations during in vitro culturing. By double labeling it was unequivocally demonstrated that cPLA,sub,2,/sub, was present and upregulated only in neurons undergoing apoptosis. A similar picture emerged when cPLA,sub,2,/sub, immunoreactivity was compared with staining with Fluoro-Jade, a novel fluorochrome marker for neuronal degeneration. The preferential presence of cPLA,sub,2,/sub, in apoptotic and degenerating cells suggests that the enzyme is important for some mechanism involved in or intimately coupled to neuronal cell death.,/p,}, author = {Hornfelt, M. and ...
After a CNS injury in the adult mammals, axonal regeneration is very limited because of the reduced intrinsic growth capacity and nonpermissive environment for axonal elongation. The growth inhibitions from CNS myelin and astroglial chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans partially account for the lack of CNS repair. Here, we show that the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen and indomethacin, the drugs widely used as pain relievers in the clinic, can surmount axon growth restrictions from myelin and proteoglycans by potently inhibiting their downstream pathway RhoA signal. Similar to Rho and Rock inhibitors C3 transferase or Y27632 [(R)-(+)-trans-N-(4-pyridyl)-4-(1-aminoethyl)-cyclohexanecarboxamide], both NSAID drugs stimulate a significant neurite growth in the cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons exposed to the inhibitory substrates. Systemic administration of ibuprofen to spinal cord-lesioned rodents reverses the active RhoA signal around injury area measured via Rho-GTP ...
title: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 functions as a neuromodulator in dorsal root ganglia neurons, doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.04969.x, category: Article
Sensory neurons possess the central and peripheral branches and they form unique spinal neural circuits with motoneurons during development. Peripheral branches of sensory axons fasciculate with the motor axons that extend toward the peripheral muscles from the central nervous system (CNS), whereas the central branches of proprioceptive sensory neurons directly innervate motoneurons. Although anatomically well documented, the molecular mechanism underlying sensory-motor interaction during neural circuit formation is not fully understood. To investigate the role of motoneuron on sensory neuron development, we analyzed sensory neuron phenotypes in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of Olig2 knockout (KO) mouse embryos, which lack motoneurons. We found an increased number of apoptotic cells in the DRG of Olig2 KO embryos at embryonic day (E) 10.5. Furthermore, abnormal axonal projections of sensory neurons were observed in both the peripheral branches at E10.5 and central branches at E15.5. To ...
With his research, Powell aims to identify molecular targets to develop novel painkillers that would eliminate the need for opioids in treating chronic inflammatory pain. Current treatment strategies are not suited for long-term pain relief. Pain receptors, known as nociceptors, are sensory neurons that are activated by noxious stimuli. To develop new, non-addictive analgesics, scientists must understand how inflammation produces the change in nociceptor firing that underlies pain perception. The adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex is responsible for endocytosis, a basic cellular process where substances and membrane proteins are brought into a cell. Powell is studying the role of the AP-2 complex and endocytosis in the context of inflammatory pain.. Nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are central sites for investigative study. During tissue damage, inflammatory mediators initiate signal transduction in DRG neurons - altering channel properties and concomitant pain perception.. Using ...
Miller K.E., J. Balbás, R.L. Benton, T.S. Lam, K.M. Edwards, R.M. Kriebel, and R. Schechter, Glutaminase immunoreactivity and enzyme activity is increased in the rat dorsal root ganglion following inflammation. Special issue: Primary Afferent Nociceptor as a Target for the Relief of Pain. Pain Research and Treatment 2012:414697, 2012; PMID: 22229088. DOI: 10.1155/2012/ ...
The use of genetically encoded calcium indicators in vivo reveals polymodality is a rare phenomenon in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. Instead, most of these neurons respond specifically to a single type of sensation, such as mechanical stimulation, cold, or heat, reports a team of researchers led by Edward Emery and John Wood, University College London, UK.
The use of genetically encoded calcium indicators in vivo reveals polymodality is a rare phenomenon in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. Instead, most of these neurons respond specifically to a single type of sensation, such as mechanical stimulation, cold, or heat, reports a team of researchers led by Edward Emery and John Wood, University College London, UK.
Diabetes initially induces distal axonal damage of peripheral nerves, but molecular mechanisms that mediate axonal injury are not fully understood. MircoRNAs (miRNAs) regulate axonal growth. We found that diabetic db/db mice exhibited substantial upregulation of miR-29c in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, sciatic nerve, and foot pad tissues. Bioinformatic analysis revealed PRKCI, a gene that encodes a member of the protein kinase C (PKC) iota, as a putative target for miR-29c. Western blot analysis showed that diabetic mice exhibited a considerable reduction of PRKCI protein levels in sciatic nerve tissues and DRG neurons. Using dual-luciferase assay, we found that co-transfection of a plasmid containing miR-29c binding site at 3 UTR of PRKCI gene and miR-29c mimics effectively reduced luminescence activity, which was abolished when miR-29c seed sequences at 3 UTR of PRKCI gene were mutated. In vitro, high glucose substantially upregulated and reduced miR-29c and PRKCI protein levels, respectively,
To investigate the distribution of nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors on peripheral and central axons, [125I]NGF was injected into the sciatic nerve or spinal cord of adult rats. Accumulation of [125I]NGF in lumbar dorsal root ganglia was monitored by gamma emission counting and radioautography. [125I]NGF, injected endoneurially in small quantities, was taken into sensory axons by a saturable process and was transported retrogradely to their cell bodies at a maximal rate of 2.5 to 7.5 mm/hr. Because very little [125I]NGF reached peripheral terminals, the results were interpreted to indicate that receptors for NGF are present on nonterminal segments of sensory axons. The specificity and high affinity of NGF uptake were illustrated by observations that negligible amounts of gamma activity accumulated in lumbar dorsal root ganglia after comparable intraneural injection of [125I] cytochrome C or [125I]oxidized NGF. Similar techniques were used to demonstrate avid internalization and retrograde ...
Capsaicin-sensitive nerves mediate axon vasodilator reflexes in the intestine but the ion channels underlying action potential (AP) propagation are poorly understood. To examine the role of voltage gated Na+ channels underlying these reflexes, we measured vasomotor and electrophysiological responses elicited by capsaicin in guinea pig and mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons, submucosal arterioles and mesenteric arteries in vitro. TRPV1 agonists dilated guinea pig ileal submucosal arterioles and were blocked by capsazepine and ruthenium red. In double chamber baths, capsaicin-evoked activation of TRPV1 on proximal perivascular nerves in the left chamber evoked dilations of the distal segment of the submucosal arteriole in the right chamber. Dilations were TTX (1 μM) resistant but reducing extracellular Na+ (10% solution) or applying the Nav 1.8 antagonist A-803467 (1 μM) in the proximal chamber blocked capsaicin-evoked dilations in the distal chamber (88%; P = 0.01 and 75%, P,0.02 respectively). ...
हम सूअर में laminotomy के लिए एक विधि का वर्णन है कि intraganglionic इंजेक्शन के लिए काष्ठ पृष्ठीय रूट गैंग्लिया (डीआरजी) तक पहुंच...
Im needing to inject viral vectors directly into mouse DRG so that I can localize the expression just to the DRG. I can get very good expression when I inject intrathecally, but that enables the spread of the virus to p…
Images: Expression of TLR3 in a subset of small-sized DRG neurons. (A) Single-cell RT-PCR analysis from dissociated small-sized DRG neurons showing the distinct and overlapped distribution patterns of TLR3 and TLR7 in DRG neurons. The lanes were run on the same gel but were noncontiguous. M, marker; NC, negative control. (B) Single-cell RT-PCR analysis from dissociated small-sized DRG neurons showing colocalization of TLR3 with TPRV1 and GRP. Similar results were obtained from 3 independent experiments in 30 cells collected from different animals. (C) Double immunostaining in DRGs showing co-colocalization of TLR3 and GRP. Red and yellow arrows indicate GRP+ only and double-labeled neurons, respectively. Scale bars: 50 μm. (D) Cell size distribution frequency of TLR3+ and GRP+ neurons. (E) Double immunostaining in cultured DRG neurons showing co-colocalization of TLR3 with TRPV1 but not with NF200. Green arrows indicate NF200+ or TRPV1+ neurons, red arrows indicate TLR3+ neurons, and yellow ...
Images: Expression of TLR3 in a subset of small-sized DRG neurons. (A) Single-cell RT-PCR analysis from dissociated small-sized DRG neurons showing the distinct and overlapped distribution patterns of TLR3 and TLR7 in DRG neurons. The lanes were run on the same gel but were noncontiguous. M, marker; NC, negative control. (B) Single-cell RT-PCR analysis from dissociated small-sized DRG neurons showing colocalization of TLR3 with TPRV1 and GRP. Similar results were obtained from 3 independent experiments in 30 cells collected from different animals. (C) Double immunostaining in DRGs showing co-colocalization of TLR3 and GRP. Red and yellow arrows indicate GRP+ only and double-labeled neurons, respectively. Scale bars: 50 μm. (D) Cell size distribution frequency of TLR3+ and GRP+ neurons. (E) Double immunostaining in cultured DRG neurons showing co-colocalization of TLR3 with TRPV1 but not with NF200. Green arrows indicate NF200+ or TRPV1+ neurons, red arrows indicate TLR3+ neurons, and yellow ...
Our results provide evidence for a role for Hh signaling in promoting the development of neural crest-derived DRG neurons. Analysis of both an allelic series and a comparison of the effects of different concentrations of cyclopamine, reveals a correlation between the severity of the DRG defects observed and the level of Hh signaling. Furthermore, analyses of the timing and tissue requirements for Shh signaling reveal a direct requirement for Hh signal transduction within DRG precursors, and suggest that Shh signaling may act upstream of Ngn1 to promote the specification of DRG neurons. These studies add to the previously demonstrated roles for Shh signaling in other aspects of neural crest development, particularly craniofacial development (Dunn et al., 1995; Ahlgren and Bronner-Fraser, 1999).. In addition to the prevalent loss of DRG in midline/Hh mutants and in cyclopamine-treated embryos, in some segments we observed the appearance of abnormal neuronal clusters ventrolateral to the spinal ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Electrical stimulation inhibits cytosine arabinoside-induced neuronal death by preventing apoptosis in dorsal root ganglion neurons. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The aim of the study was to identify the differential protein expressions related to neuropathic pain and neuroprotection in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) following chronic compression of DRG (CCD) in rats. We conducted a proteomics study of L(4) and L(5) DRG after CCD for 28 days. A total of 98 pr …
Figure 3: Levels of PKA-RII and PKA-C mRNA in DRG. (a) Representative bands showing levels of PKA-RII and PKA-C mRNA analyzed by RT-PCR. (b and c) Data quantification. Four samples were used for each group with two ganglia in each sample ...
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
The effects of a long-term culturing (12 days, in vitro) of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and the dorsal horn (DH) neurons with peptide Semax on the level of s...
Okada, E; Bunge, R P.; and Bunge, M B., "Abnormalities expressed in long-term cultures of dorsal root ganglia from the dystrophic mouse." (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 3473 ...
Sensory neuroblasts differentiate from neural crest cells and aggregate in each segment to form spinal ganglia. Each neuroblast initially develops two processes, one called the axon, which grows centrally and penetrates the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, and another called the dendrite, which grows into the periphery. The two processes later will join together near the cell body of the neuroblast and become one process (unipolar). The axons from each ganglion collect together to form the dorsal (sensory) root of the spinal nerve. The dendrite reaches the periphery by passing through the spinal nerve and its branches. Sensory receptors later will develop on many of the dendritic terminals ...
Itch (pruritis) and pain represent two distinct sensory modalities; yet both have evolved to alert us to potentially harmful external stimuli. Compared with pain, our understanding of itch is still nascent. Here, we report a new clinical case of debilitating itch and altered pain perception resulting from the heterozygous de novo p.L811P gain-of-function mutation in NaV1.9, a voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channel subtype that relays sensory information from the periphery to the spine. To investigate the role of NaV1.9 in itch, we developed a mouse line in which the channel is N-terminally tagged with a fluorescent protein, thereby enabling the reliable identification and biophysical characterization of NaV1.9-expressing neurons. We also assessed NaV1.9 involvement in itch by using a newly created NaV1.9-/- and NaV1.9L799P/WT mouse model. We found that NaV1.9 is expressed in a subset of nonmyelinated, nonpeptidergic small-diameter dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). In WT DRGs, but not those of NaV1.9-/- ...
Selection criteria include radicular pain for more than 6 months with no response to conservative treatment, with no indication for surgical intervention.
Aquaporin 1 (CO2-, O2- and nitrous oxide-permeable and water-selective) (Zwiazek et al. 2017). Aquaporin-1 tunes pain perception by interacting with Na(v)1.8 Na+ channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons (Zhang and Verkman, 2010). It is upregulated in skeletal muscle in muscular dystrophy (Au et al. 2008). AQP1 has been reported to first insert as a four-helical intermediate, where helices 2 and 4 are not inserted into the membrane. In a second step this intermediate is folded into a six-helical topology. During this process, the orientation of the third helix is inverted, and it can shift out the membrane core (Virkki et al. 2014). Its synthesis is regluated by Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2; Q9Y5W3) which also interacts directly with Aqp1 (Fontijn et al. 2015). A nanoscale ion pump has been derived artificially from Aqp1 (Decker et al. 2017 ...
Tytuł projektu: Rozbudowa i przekształcenie bibliograficznej bazy danych AGRO w bazę bibliograficzno-abstraktową z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania YADDA. Nr umowy: POIG 02.03.02-00-031/09 (okres realizacji 2009-2013 ...
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Has anyone used this in the paw to infect DRG neurons? I tried once and didnt see much. Anyone else have success? Please share your experience.
Dorsal Root, Neurons, Sodium, Dorsal Root Ganglion, Drg, Ganglion, Rat, Cell, Role, Risk, Tuberculosis, Water, Report, Patients, Cells, Health, Inflammation, Risk Factor, Membrane, Sodium Channel
Pain, Spinal Cord, Phosphorylation, Brain, Dorsal Root, Dorsal Root Ganglia, Ganglia, Neurons, Tissues, Chronic Pain, Horn, Kinases, Protein Kinases, Calcium, Mice, Water, Central Nervous System, Injury, Nervous System, Amygdala
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The main topic of this thesis is the analysis and detection of delaminations in plate-like structural systems, such as concrete walls, large diameter pipes, slabs and decks. The first three chapters deal primarily with the ...
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