An in situ molecular hybridization system which will detect retrovirus RNA in the cytoplasm of individual virus-infected cells has been developed. The technique was applied to cells infected with simian sarcoma-leukemia virus, where the virus-specific RNA was detected by hybridization to simian sarcoma-leukemia virus 3H-labeled complementary DNA. The system is useful for detecting viral RNA-containing cells in the presence of an excess of virus-negative cells and for determining which type of cell in a heterogenous population is expressing viral RNA.
Summary We examined the properties of the mouse serum lipoprotein responsible for specific neutralization of the endogenous mouse xenotropic (X-tropic) type C retrovirus. The anti-X-tropic virus activity of the mouse lipoprotein neutralizing factor (NF) could not be blocked by sugars or lectins. Moreover, neutralization did not involve rupture of the virion core. Sucrose density gradient analysis of X-tropic virus mixed with various lipoprotein preparations demonstrated that the binding of complete virions to NF is associated with the neutralization.
AND A BLOOD TEST COVERED BY SOCIAL SECURITY WORLD WIDE. To: Dear president and Minister of Health I write these lines to inform you of...
The recent identification of the gammaretrovirus XMRV and a second gammaretrovirus of a different subtype in chronic fatigue syndrome has aroused much interest, not least among sufferers. However, it remains highly controversial whether the detection of these viruses represents true infection or laboratory artifacts.
The 293T/17 cell line is a derivative of the 293T (293tsA1609neo) cell line. 293T is a highly transfectable derivative of the 293 cell line into which the temperature sensitive gene for SV40 T-antigen was inserted. 293T cells were cloned and the clones tested with the pBND and pZAP vectors to obtain a line capable of producing high titers of infectious retrovirus, 293T/17.
The retrovirus XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus) has been detected in human prostate tumors and in blood samples from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, but these findings have not been replicated. We hypothesized that an understanding of when and how XMRV first arose might help explain the discrepant results. We studied human prostate cancer cell lines CWR22Rv1 and CWR-R1, which produce XMRV virtually identical to the viruses recently found in patient samples, as well as their progenitor human prostate tumor xenograft (CWR22) that had been passaged in mice. We detected XMRV infection in the two cell lines and in the later passage xenografts, but not in the early passages. In particular, we found that the host mice contained two proviruses, PreXMRV-1 and PreXMRV-2, which share 99.92% identity with XMRV over ,3.2-kilobase stretches of their genomes. We conclude that XMRV was not present in the original CWR22 tumor but was generated by recombination of two proviruses ...
These results indicate that the mouse Fv1 gene has had antiviral activity since shortly after its introduction into the Mus genome, an event that occurred during a period of rapid diversification that gave rise to the 4 Mus subgenera ≈7 MY ago (10, 23). That this sequence has long had antiviral function is supported by the observation that the Fv1 genes of 2 species of Nannomys have novel Fv1-mediated antiviral phenotypes, and by the demonstration that Fv1 has been under positive Darwinian selection. We identified 2 segments of Fv1 potentially involved in restriction: an MHR segment known to function in capsid binding, and 3 residues in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of which 2 are known to contribute to the specificity of Fv1 restriction in laboratory mice.. The mechanism of Fv1 restriction has not been elucidated after 40 years of investigation, but the determination that Fv1 encodes a retroviral capsid-like protein suggests that Fv1 may bind capsids of exogenous virus and interfere with capsid ...
Endogenous retroviral sequences (ERVs) are dynamic genomic components with profound influences on gene expression and genomic structure. Their extent of expression is not well known. Several broadly targeted real-time reverse transcription PCR (QPCRs) systems for surveillance of RNA expression of the major groups of human gammaretroviral ERVs were constructed. The highly conserved reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase (IN) domains of the pol gene were used as targets for the PCRs, which were both probe-based (TaqMan) and probe-less (SYBR Green). Different levels of primer and probe degeneracy, with or without inosine, were tested. Several of the PCRs had sensitivities of a few HERV nucleic acid copies per PCR reaction. Specificities were approximately as expected from the fit of primers and probes. Gammaretroviral HERV RNA expression was studied in different human tissues. Each HERV group had a specific pattern of expression. HERV-E was highly expressed in testis, HERV-I/T in brain and ...
A retroviral vector-rescue system in which co-packaging of the two co-expressed vectors is required for transduction of one of the vectors has been established previously. By using this rescue system, two distinct packaging-cell populations have been generated. One cell population expressed retroviral RNA from co-localized transcription sites, resulting in local and overlapping accumulation of both RNA transcripts. In the other cell population, the two transcription cassettes were introduced separately, leading to distinct transcription sites of the two RNAs and no significant co-localization of the RNAs. Titre measurements from the two distinct cell populations showed large differences in rescue titre, which is an indirect measure of co-packaging efficiency. Thus, the cell populations with overlapping RNA accumulation gave rise to 15-80-fold-higher rescue titres than cell populations with non-overlapping RNA accumulation. These data show that the spatial position of proviral transcription sites affects
The regional metabolism of high-molecular-weight RNA in the developing female rat brain was investigated after the intracranial injection of [32P]P1. The synthesis of polyadenylated RNA relative to high-molecular-weight RNA was determined after oligo(dT)-cellulose chromatography of total cellular high-molecular-weight RNA labelled after 4h. In both hypothalamus and cortex this synthesis was significantly higher during the first 10 days post partum than at subsequent ages. In both regions apparently more mRNA is synthesized in the young. The ratio of the specific radioactivity of cytoplasmic high-molecular-weight RNA relative to that of the nucleus, measured after a 48 h period of labelling, was considered to be an index of the nucleocytoplasmic transport of newly synthesized RNA [Berthold & Lim (1976) Biochem. J. 154, 529-539]. In the cortex, nucleo-cytoplasmic RNA transport in rats aged up to 20 days was significantly higher than in older rats, with the maximal value being attained between 16 ...
Hong S., Klein E.A., Das Gupta J., Hanke K., Weight C.J., Nguyen C., Gaughan C., Kim K.A., Bannert N., Kirchhoff F., Munch J., Silverman R.H.. The xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has recently been detected in prostate cancer tissues and may play a role in tumorigenesis. It is currently unclear how this virus is transmitted and which factors promote its spread in the prostate. We show that amyloidogenic fragments known as semen-derived enhancer of virus infection (SEVI) originating from prostatic acid phosphatase greatly increase XMRV infections of primary prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. Hybrid simian/human immunodeficiency chimeric virus particles pseudotyped with XMRV envelope protein were used to demonstrate that the enhancing effect of SEVI, or of human semen itself, was at the level of viral attachment and entry. SEVI enhanced XMRV infectivity but did not bypass the requirement for the xenotropic and polytropic retrovirus receptor 1. Furthermore, XMRV RNA was ...
XMRV is a recently discovered gammaretrovirus, found using RNA-based microarray techniques in tissue samples from prostate cancer patients [10]. XMRV was detected predominantly in patients who are homozygous for the QQ allele at R462Q in the RNaseL gene, which results in a reduced RNaseL activity and therefore in a diminished IFN-based antiviral defense. Later studies showed XMRV to be an infectious virus for human prostate-derived cells and to be sensitive to RNaseL-mediated inhibition of replication by IFN-β [9]. The question of whether carcinogenic transformation renders the prostate epithelia cells susceptible to XMRV infection as a bystander virus or whether XMRV is itself a prostate cancer causing agent has not yet been addressed. It was very recently shown that XMRV could be detected in 22Rv1 prostate carcinoma cells originally derived from a primary prostatic carcinoma [17]. This observation further highlights the need to clarify the participation of XMRV in the etiology of human ...
Advances in Virology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies on viruses and viral diseases. Articles on viral structure, function, and genetics will be considered, as well as articles focusing on virus-host interactions, viral disease outbreaks, and antiviral therapeutics.
These researchers found evidence of XMRV in 2% to 10% of the respiratory secretion samples they had collected from patients with respiratory tract in
Prostate cancer cell line DU145 was infected for 8, 24, 48 and 120h with XMRV. A comparison to uninfected DU145 cells cultured for the same periods of time served as controls. A population of total RNA was isolated using Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit followed by digestion of DNA with DNAse treatment. XMRV infections at the different time points were monitored using real-time RT-PCR for env XMRV RNA. The RNA samples were analyzed for gene expression using Sentrix humanRef-8 v3 expression bead chips from Illumina (Cleveland Clinic Genomics Core). To verify the results obtained by the array experiment, we determined induction of a subset of the regulated genes. Total RNA was reverse transcribed to cDNA using iScript Select cDNA Synthesis Kit from Bio-Rad (random primers method). Induction of selected genes by XMRV infection was verified by qPCR (Relative Quantification) from the cDNA pool using SYBR Green master mix. Fold-induction at each time point for the individual mRNAs was determined. In addition, ...
Knock knock. Whos there? Not XMRV in African blood donors or HIV/AIDS patients. Absence of detectable xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus in plasma or peripheral blood mononuclear cells of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1-infected blood donors or individuals in Africa. This is the third study not to find XMRV in HIV/AIDS patients. HIV/AIDS patients have…. ...
Wow! Breaking! As reported in WSJ earlier this week [1], editors of the journal Science asked Mikovits and her co-authors to voluntary retract their 2009 Science paper [2]. In this paper Mikovits and colleagues of the Whittemore Peterson Institute (WPI) and the Cleveland Clinic, reported the presence of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells…
Peterkofsky, B and Prather, W B., "Increased collagen synthesis in kirsten sarcoma virus-transformed balb 3t3 cells grown in the presence of dibutyryl cyclic amp." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 2377 ...
Naturally-occurring lymphomagenesis is induced by mouse leukemia viruses (MLVs) carried as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Replicating the ecotropic MLVs recombines with polytropic (P-ERVs) and xenotropic ERVs (X-ERVs) to generate pathogenic viruses with an altered host range. While most recovered nonecotropic recombinants have a polytropic host range, the X-MLVs are also present in the pre-leukemic tissues. We analyzed two such isolates from the AKR mice to identify their ERV progenitors and to look for evidence of recombination. AKR40 resembles the active X-ERV Bxv1, while AKR6 has a Bxv1-like backbone with substitutions that alter the long terminal repeat (LTR) enhancer and the envelope (env). AKR6 has a modified xenotropic host range, and its Env residue changes all lie outside of the domain that governs the receptor choice. The AKR6 segment spanning the two substitutions, but not the entire AKR6 env-LTR, exists as an ERV, termed Xmv67, in AKR, but not in the C57BL/6 mice. This suggests that AKR6 is
Vincent, Alan, and Rich speak with Ila Singh about the new human retrovirus XMRV, and how her laboratory is studying its association with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome.
It has come to my attention, and I have read the research article "Failure to Detect the Novel Retrovirus XMRV in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome" in the publication PLOS one. I have studied the facts behind the research, which I find rather unremarkable at first glance. However it has come to my attention from Dr. Suzanne Vernons analysis that different primers were used, collection methods varied from the Whittemore-Peterson study, different methods were used to purify genomic DNA and amounts differed, and PCR amplification methods were different. The fact that a different polymerase was used could skew the results altogether, fouling the results - the golden rule in replication studies is copy exactly!!! What I did find remarkable however, is who is behind the research - noting the psychiatric connection: Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London - and none other than Simon Wessely - Britains own version of Dr. Reeves - which pours some cold water on the credibility of this study - statements ...
So all in all, the numbers reported are incredibly misleading and tell a very convoluted story about what is really going on. AND is there one virus or are there several, like any flu season?. It also does not address the other kind of conflicting messages. Wear a face mask. Dont wear a face mask - they are ineffective. Wear face masks outside. This reflects the fact that they still dont know how the virus or viruses are transmitted. I like the work of Dr Judy Miovits, PhD, cellular and molecular biologist - who research showed that …whose research showed that many vaccines are contaminated with gammaretroviruses, thanks to the fact that they use viruses grown in contaminated animal cell lines…. gammaretroviruses that in turn can trigger diseases such as chronic fatigue syndrome,4 certain kinds of autism, cancers, leukemias and lymphomas. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2020/05/20/plandemic-documentary.aspx. Apparently, The rise of public awareness is also evidenced by ...
Abstract number 1: Comment on Detection of an Infectious Retrovirus, XMRV, in Blood Cells of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Cathie Sudlow,...
Transcript is thought to undergo nonsense mediated decay, a process which detects nonsense mutations and prevents the expression of truncated or erroneous proteins. Nonsense mediated decay ...
Transcript is thought to undergo nonsense mediated decay, a process which detects nonsense mutations and prevents the expression of truncated or erroneous proteins. Nonsense mediated decay ...
Indian coach Gary Kirsten on Tuesday made it clear that only a rotation system could deal with the increasing workload, particularly on bowlers.
A recent report suggested an association between xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). If confirmed, this would suggest that antiretroviral therapy might benefit patients suffering from CFS. We validated a set of assays for XMRV and evaluated the prevalence of XMRV in a cohort of monozygotic twins discordant for CFS. Stored peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were tested with 3 separate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays (one of which was nested) for XMRV DNA, and serum/plasma was tested for XMRV RNA by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. None of the PBMC samples from the twins with CFS or their unaffected co-twins was positive for XMRV, by any of the assays. One plasma sample, from an unaffected co-twin, was reproducibly positive by RT-PCR. However, serum from the same day was negative, as was a follow-up plasma sample obtained 2 days after the positive specimen. These data do not support an association of XMRV with CFS. Copyright ...
Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a retrovirus which was first described in 2006 as an apparently novel human pathogen found in tissue samples from men with prostate cancer.[1][2] Initial reports erroneously linked the virus to prostate cancer and later to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), leading to considerable interest in the scientific and patient communities, investigation of XMRV as a potential cause of multiple medical conditions, and public-health concerns about the safety of the donated blood supply.[3][4][5] Xenotropic viruses replicate or reproduce in cells other than those of the host species.[6] Murine refers to the rodent family Muridae, which includes common household rats and mice.[7] Subsequent research established that XMRV was in fact a laboratory contaminant, rather than a novel pathogen.[4][5] XMRV was generated unintentionally in the laboratory, through genetic recombination between two mouse retroviruses during propagation of a prostate-cancer cell ...
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disease of unknown etiology that is estimated to affect 17 million people worldwide. Studying peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from CFS patients, we identified DNA from a human gammaretrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), in 68 of 101 patients (67%) as compared to 8 of 218 (3.7%) healthy controls. Cell culture experiments revealed that patient-derived XMRV is infectious and that both cell-associated and cell-free transmission of the virus are possible. Secondary viral infections were established in uninfected primary lymphocytes and indicator cell lines after their exposure to activated PBMCs, B cells, T cells, or plasma derived from CFS patients. These findings raise the possibility that XMRV may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of CFS.. ...
Xenotropic Murine leukemia virus-Related Virus (XMRV) is a γ-retrovirus initially reported to be present within familial human prostate tumors and the blood of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Subsequent studies however were unable to replicate these findings, and there is now compelling evidence that the virus evolved through rare retroviral recombination events in human tumor cell lines established through murine xenograft experiments. There is also no direct evidence that XMRV infection has any functional effects that contribute to tumor pathogenesis. Herein we describe an additional xenotropic MLV,
The long awaited paper that would solve the controversies about the presence of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related virus (XMRV) in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) was finally published in PNAS last week [1]. The study, a joint effort of the NIH and the FDA, was withheld, on request of the authors [2], because it contradicted…
Viruses are on the border between living and dead. So are the theories about what some of them cause. Two studies were published last week that showed no link between xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and either chronic fatigue…. ...
0280] Notably, the p30 assay detects antibody to the core protein distinct from envelope proteins, thus, has value for confirmation of XMRV infection. Sequence CWU 1 SEQUENCE LISTING ,160, NUMBER OF SEQ ID NOS: 109 ,210, SEQ ID NO 1 ,211, LENGTH: 180 ,212, TYPE: PRT ,213, ORGANISM: Artificial sequence ,220, FEATURE: ,223, OTHER INFORMATION: Synthetic polypeptide ,400, SEQUENCE: 1 Glu Pro Val Ser Leu Thr Leu Ala Leu Leu Leu Gly Gly Leu Thr Met 1 5 10 15 Gly Gly Ile Ala Ala Gly Val Gly Thr Gly Thr Thr Ala Leu Val Ala 20 25 30 Thr Lys Gln Phe Glu Gln Leu Gln Ala Ala Ile His Thr Asp Leu Gly 35 40 45 Ala Leu Glu Lys Ser Val Ser Ala Leu Glu Lys Ser Leu Thr Ser Leu 50 55 60 Ser Glu Val Val Leu Gln Asn Arg Arg Gly Leu Asp Leu Leu Phe Leu 65 70 75 80 Lys Glu Gly Gly Leu Cys Ala Ala Leu Lys Glu Glu Cys Cys Phe Tyr 85 90 95 Ala Asp His Thr Gly Val Val Arg Asp Ser Met Ala Lys Leu Arg Glu 100 105 110 Arg Leu Asn Gln Arg Gln Lys Leu Phe Glu Ser Gly Gln Gly Trp Phe 115 120 125 Glu Gly Leu Phe Asn Arg Ser Pro ...
1. Gene Transfer for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency, X-linked (SCID-X1) Using a Self-inactivating (SIN) Gammaretroviral Vector. Age: Children and Adults. Type of SCID: X-linked SCID. Collaborators/Locations: Childrens Hospital Boston - Boston, MA, Cincinnati Childrens Medical Center - Cincinnati, OH, and Mattel Childrens Hospital (UCLA) - Los Angeles, CA. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01129544. Contacts:. Dr. David A Williams, MD 617-919- 2697 [email protected] Colleen H. Dansereau, RN 617-919-7008 [email protected] Principal Investigator: Sung-Yun Pai, MD Boston Childrens Hospital. 2. Lentiviral Gene Transfer for Treatment of Children Older Than Two Years of Age With X-Linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (XSCID). Age: Children ages 2 to 20 years old. Type of SCID: X-linked SCID. Location: National Institute of Health - Bethesda, Maryland. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01306019. Contacts:. Contact: Nana Kwatemaa, R.N. (301) 451-7820 email: ...
Two studies were published last week that showed no link between xdenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and either chronic fatigue syndrome or prostate cancer. The scientific journals consider the matter settled with these studies. In theirs new sections, Nature and PLoS ONE wrote about
Adv Virol 2011;2011:787394 Xenotropic and other murine leukemia virus-related viruses in humans.. Khan AS, McClure M, Kubo Y, Jolicoeur P. ...
Odaka, T and Matsukura, M, "Inheritance of susceptibility to friend mouse leukemia virus. VI. Reciprocal alteration of innate resistance or susceptibility by bone marrow transplantation between congenic strains." (1969). Subject Strain Bibliography 1969. 1883 ...
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XMRV was identified in association with human prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. To examine the infection potential, kinetics, and tissue distribution of XMRV in an animal model, we inoculated 5 macaques with XMRV intravenously. XMRV established a persistent chronic disseminated infection, with low transient viremia and provirus in blood lymphocytes during acute infection. Although undetectable in blood after about a month, XMRV viremia was reactivated at 9 month confirming the chronicity of the infection. Furthermore, XMRV gag was detected in tissues throughout, with wide dissemination throughout the entire period of monitoring. Surprisingly, XMRV infection showed organ specific cell tropism: CD4 T cells in lymphoid organs including the gastrointestinal lamina propria, alveolar macrophages in lung, and epithelial/interstitial cells in other organs, including the reproductive tract. Of note, in spite of the intravenous inoculation, extensive XMRV replication was noted in prostate ...
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At some point in fifth grade, I noticed the blackboard in Mrs. Marshmans math class was blurry. I mentioned it to my parents, and within a few weeks had been
Mom, what is the one thing you cant live without?" My six-year-old son asked me out of nowhere one day. Air? Water? It was a more interesting riddle than usual. "Love." He said proudly, not waiting for me to answer. Wow. Hes right. Love. But if it is the one thing you cant live without, why are we so afraid of it in medicine - a field that sustains life ...
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Bachelorette review. At Sundance 2012, Matt reviews Leslye Headlands Bachelorette starring Kirsten Dunst, Lizzy Caplan, and Isla Fisher.
The retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), has been - controversially - linked to both prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). In an attempt to clarify the association of XMRV with disease, researchers at Emory University are developing a serum-based assay to detect neutralising antibodies to the virus which should begin to answer basic questions about how widespread the virus is, and how it is transmitted. The team found good agreement between their serum based assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests carried out on prostate samples from cancer patients, and showed that at least some of the patients had been infected with XMRV. The study is published in the April issue of Urology.. Meanwhile, other researchers at Emory University/Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center and the University of Utah have been looking for ways to treat XMRV should it turn out to have a causal role in prostate cancer or ...
Specialty section: This article was submitted to Environmental Health, a section of the journal Frontiers in Public Health. Published online 2017 May 22. Abstract. A few years ago, a highly significant association between the xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), a complex debilitating disease of poorly understood etiology and no definite treatment, was reported in Science, raising concern for public welfare.. Successively, the failure to reproduce these findings, and the suspect that the diagnostic PCR was vitiated by laboratory contaminations, led to the retraction of the paper.. Notwithstanding, XMRV continued to be the subject of researches and public debates.. Occasional positivity in humans was also detected recently, even if the data always appeared elusive and non-reproducible.. In this study, we discuss the current status of this controversial association and propose that a major role in the unreliability ...
Looking for online definition of M-MSV or what M-MSV stands for? M-MSV is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
A novel gammaretrovirus named xenotropic MuLV-related retrovirus (XMRV) has been recently identified with 40 % prevalence in prostate tumor samples from US American patients carrying a homozygous R462Q mutation in the RNASEL gene. This mutation impairs the function of the innate antiviral type I interferon pathway and is a known susceptibility factor for prostate cancer. In subsequent studies, analyzing small European cohorts of prostate cancer patients a less significant prevalence and correlation of the QQ-phenotype with XMRV has been found or even a complete absence of viral traces was reported. A second independent report from the US found XMRV DNA in 6% and XMRV protein expression in 23% of prostate cancers. Contrary to the initial report the XMRV infection was not associated with this common variant of RNASEL and predominantly observed in malignant epithelial cells.. We aimed to determine the prevalence of XMRV in prostate cancer patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy at the ...