Fusarium head blight index is a visual rating system to quantify the number of heads showing Fusarium head blight and the severity of infection on each head. Fusarium head blight index is a good rating of how much disease is present but does not always correlate with DON (vomitoxin).. In these trials, all fungicide applications and timings lowered Fusarium head blight index compared to the untreated check. Single fungicide treatments applied at flowering reduced Fusarium head blight index by about half compared to the untreated check.. Prosaro, Caramba and Miravis Ace applied at flowering were all similar in Fusarium head blight index reduction. Likewise, results of Prosaro and Caramba applied at flowering and Miravis Ace applied at 50% head emergence were similar in Fusarium head blight index.. Treatments with two fungicide applications (treatments No. 6 and 7 in the first list above) were significantly lower in Fusarium head blight index than single application treatments.. While an ...
Pathogenic fungi are one of the main factors limiting crop production. Considering the harmful effects of chemical pesticide application of biological control, plant pathogeng are a priorty. One af the effective methods for controlling plant diseases is the use of herbal products with fungal properties such as herbal extracts and essential oils. For this purpose, after the extraction by moon breeding method, the plant species of shiraz citrus, Eucalyptus chamomilla and Kakotti, were investigated in a completly randomized design with three replications and eight levels (0, 150, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500 and 2500 ppm) in laboratory conditions after adding extracts to the Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici ،Alternaria alternata ،Pythium aphanidermatum and Phytophtora melonis. Ethanol was examined in a PDA medium. In the control treatment, only ethanol was used, then the greenhouse stage through potting and application of treatments including inculation of the pathogens in four levels and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Volatiles from the fungus Fusarium oxysporum affect interactions of Brassica rapa plants with root herbivores. AU - Moisan, Kay. AU - Dicke, Marcel. AU - Raaijmakers, Jos M.. AU - Rachmawati, Elvira. AU - Cordovez, Viviane. PY - 2020/10/3. Y1 - 2020/10/3. N2 - 1. Soil is a diverse and heterogeneous environment where chemicals mediate numerous interactions between soil organisms and plants. To date, studies have extensively addressed volatile-mediated interactions between soil microorganisms and the effects of microbial volatiles on plant growth. Yet, to our knowledge, it remains to be explored whether volatiles from soil-borne fungi can influence plant interactions with root herbivores, facilitating or hampering performance of competitors that share the same host plant. 2. In the present study, we investigated the effects of volatiles emitted by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum on the performance of two root herbivores: the plant parasitic cyst nematode, Heterodera ...
Head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum threatens world-wide wheat production, resulting in both yield loss and mycotoxin contamination. We reconstructed the global F. graminearum gene regulatory network (GRN) from a large collection of transcriptomic data using Bayesian network inference, a machine-learning algorithm. This GRN reveals connectivity between key regulators and their target genes. Focusing on key regulators, this network contains eight distinct but interwoven modules. Enriched for unique functions, such as cell cycle, DNA replication, transcription, translation and stress responses, each module exhibits distinct expression profiles. Evolutionarily, the F. graminearum genome can be divided into core regions shared with closely related species and variable regions harboring genes that are unique to F. graminearum and perform species-specific functions. Interestingly, the inferred top regulators regulate genes that are significantly enriched from the same genomic regions (P | 0.05),
Durum wheat samples harvested in central Italy (Umbria) were analyzed to: evaluate the occurrence of the fungal community in the grains, molecularly identify the Fusarium spp. which are part of the Fusarium head blight (FHB) complex and characterize the in vitro secondary metabolite profiles of a subset of Fusarium strains. The Fusarium genus was one of the main components of the durum wheat fungal community. The FHB complex was composed of eight species: Fusarium avenaceum (61%), F. graminearum (22%), F. poae (9%), F. culmorum (4%), F. proliferatum (2%), F. sporotrichioides (1%), F. sambucinum (0.5%) and F. langsethiae (0.5%). F. graminearum population was mainly composed of the 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol chemotype, while, F. culmorum population was composed of the 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol chemotype. In vitro characterization of secondary metabolite biosynthesis was conducted for a wide spectrum of substances, showing the mycotoxigenic potential of the species complex. F. avenaceum strains were ...
Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium spp. Thirteen Fusarium spp. have been implicated in dry rot of potatoes worldwide. Among them, 11 species have been reported causing potato dry rot of seed tubers in the northern United States (1). Historically, Fusarium sambucinum was the predominant species in Michigan potato production (3). Dry rot symptomatic tubers (n = 972) were collected from Michigan commercial potato storage facilities in 2011 and 2012 to determine the composition of Fusarium spp. Sections were cut from the margins of necrotic tissue with a sterile scalpel and surface disinfested in 0.6% sodium hypochlorite for 10 s, rinsed twice in sterile distilled water, and dried on sterile filter paper. The tissue sections were plated on half-strength potato dextrose agar (PDA) amended with 0.5 g/liter of streptomycin sulfate. Dishes were incubated at 23°C in the dark for 7 days. Putative Fusarium isolates were transferred onto ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fusarium solani endocarditis successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole. AU - Guzman-Cottrill, Judith A.. AU - Zheng, Xiaotian. AU - Chadwick, Ellen G.. PY - 2004/11/1. Y1 - 2004/11/1. N2 - Fungal infections caused by Fusarium in the immunocompromised host are highly resistant to all antifungal agents. Fusarium endocarditis is a rare and usually fatal disease. We report an immunocompromised child who survived Fusarium solani endocarditis despite the in vitro resistance of the organism to all available antifungal agents.. AB - Fungal infections caused by Fusarium in the immunocompromised host are highly resistant to all antifungal agents. Fusarium endocarditis is a rare and usually fatal disease. We report an immunocompromised child who survived Fusarium solani endocarditis despite the in vitro resistance of the organism to all available antifungal agents.. KW - Endocarditis. KW - Fungus. KW - Fusarium. UR - ...
Authors. Andre K. Gonsalves, Educational Specialist. Stephen A. Ferreira, Extension Plant Pathologist. Department of Plant Pathology, CTAHR. University of Hawaii at Manoa. HOSTS. In Hawaii, hosts of Fusarium oxysporum include: potato, sugarcane, garden bean, cowpea, Prickly pear, cultivated zinnia, pansy, Assam rattlebox, Babys breath, and Musa sp. (Raabe et al., 1981).. Like various other plant pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum has several specialized forms - known as formae specialis (f.sp.) - that infect a variety of hosts causing various diseases. In Hawaii, these include: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. asparagi (fusarium yellows on asparagus); f.sp. callistephi (wilt on China aster); f.sp. cubense (Panama disease/wilt on banana); f.sp. dianthi (wilt on carnation); f.sp. koae (on koa); f.sp. lycopersici (wilt on tomato); f.sp. melonis (fusarium wilt on muskmelon); f.sp. niveum (fusarium wilt on watermelon); f.sp. pisi (on edible-podded pea); f.sp. tracheiphilum (wilt on Glycine max); and f.sp. ...
Fusarium head blight damage in wheat. (Photo: Kelly Turkington). Cereal growers in Alberta have a new weapon in the fight against fusarium head blight (FHB). Its an online risk assessment tool that helps farmers and agronomists decide whether to apply fungicides based on the likelihood of the disease turning up in their area.. Brian Kennedy, grower relations and extension manager for the Alberta Wheat Commission (AWC), says the tool was launched in the summer of 2017 following requests from wheat producers in the province.. They had been seeing fusarium risk maps from Manitoba and Saskatchewan … and they asked us to develop something, he says.. The tool was developed for the AWC by numerous partners, including Ralph Wright and Pavel Pytlak from Alberta Climate Information Services, plant pathologist Michael Harding and crop specialist Neil Whatley from Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada plant disease researcher Kelly Turkington.. Weve been lucky [in ...
Accurate genome assembly and gene model annotation are critical for comparative species and gene functional analyses. Here we present the completed genome sequence and annotation of the reference strain PH-1 of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of head scab disease of small grain cereals which threatens global food security. Completion was achieved by combining (a) the BROAD Sanger sequenced draft, with (b) the gene predictions from Munich Information Services for Protein Sequences (MIPS) v3.2, with (c) de novo whole-genome shotgun re-sequencing, (d) re-annotation of the gene models using RNA-seq evidence and Fgenesh, Snap, GeneMark and Augustus prediction algorithms, followed by (e) manual curation. We have comprehensively completed the genomic 36,563,796 bp sequence by replacing unknown bases, placing supercontigs within their correct loci, correcting assembly errors, and inserting new sequences which include for the first time complete AT rich sequences such as centromere sequences, subtelomeric
Accurate genome assembly and gene model annotation are critical for comparative species and gene functional analyses. Here we present the completed genome sequence and annotation of the reference strain PH-1 of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of head scab disease of small grain cereals which threatens global food security. Completion was achieved by combining (a) the BROAD Sanger sequenced draft, with (b) the gene predictions from Munich Information Services for Protein Sequences (MIPS) v3.2, with (c) de novo whole-genome shotgun re-sequencing, (d) re-annotation of the gene models using RNA-seq evidence and Fgenesh, Snap, GeneMark and Augustus prediction algorithms, followed by (e) manual curation. We have comprehensively completed the genomic 36,563,796 bp sequence by replacing unknown bases, placing supercontigs within their correct loci, correcting assembly errors, and inserting new sequences which include for the first time complete AT rich sequences such as centromere sequences, subtelomeric
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification and molecular mapping of two QTLs with major effects for resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat. AU - Chu, Chenggen. AU - Niu, Zhixia. AU - Zhong, Shaobin. AU - Chao, Shiaoman. AU - Friesen, Timothy L.. AU - Halley, Scott. AU - Elias, Elias M.. AU - Dong, Yanhong. AU - Faris, Justin D.. AU - Xu, Steven S.. PY - 2011/11/1. Y1 - 2011/11/1. N2 - Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. Novel sources of resistance are critical for improving FHB resistance levels in wheat. From a large-scale evaluation of germplasm for reactions to FHB, we identified one wheat accession (PI 277012) that consistently showed a high level of resistance in both greenhouse and field experiments. To characterize the FHB resistance in this accession, we developed a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population consisting of 130 lines from the cross between PI 277012 and the hard red spring wheat cultivar Grandin. The DH population was then evaluated for ...
Fungus ball is the most common form of non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. Aspergillus fumigatus (between 44.8% and 75%) and Aspergillus flavus (14%) are the two most common species recovered. However, recent advances in mycological laboratory methods have enhanced the detection and identification of fungi within fungus balls. Fusarium species, sometimes recovered from other forms of fungal rhinosinusitis such as allergic fungal rhinosinusitis or acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, are poorly associated with sinonasal fungus ball. Here, we describe two further cases of a fungus ball due to Fusarium proliferatum and provide the first description of this fungal pathogen with a fungus ball of odontogenic origin. These case reports demonstrate that uncommon fungal species such as Fusarium spp. might be underestimated as agents of sinusal cavity fungus ball. Enhanced mycological detection and diagnostic techniques might give rise, in the near future, to the emergence of new or rare fungal species ...
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici is an important disease agent of tomato which causes wilt and seedling. The present study was performed to evaluate the antifungal effect of Achillea millefolium, Salvia verticillata and Ziziphora clinopodioides extracts and their abilities to inhibit the fungus. For this, methanol extracts of reference plants was extracted and tested in concentrations ranging from 1 , 1.5 and 2 mg/ml on mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum. The same extracts were then tested for antifungal activity in vivo in the greenhouse on inoculated tomato plants. Z. clinopodioides demonstrated highest antifungal activity against mycelial growth of F. oxysporum strain that recorded 77.1%, 62.03% and 61.99% at 2, 1.5 and 1 (mg/ml), respectively. the MIC value for of Z. clinopodioides against F. oxysporum was 3.125 mg/ml followed A. millefolium and S. verticillata extract having 6.25 mg/ml. The MFC of extracts was found to be 6.25 mg/ml in Z. clinopodioides and 12.5 mg/ml for A. millefolium and
Essential oils of bay leaf, cinnamon, clove and oregano were tested in vitro and oregano essential oil in vivo, against two foodborne fungi belonging to the dominant mycobiota of stored rice, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium verticillioides, collected from the Albuferarice-producing Mediterranean area near Valencia (Spain). Chemical composition was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Essential oils presented a high percentage of oxygenated components: 78.8 % in bay leaf (eucalyptol 51 %); 90.3 % in clove (eugenol 89.8 %); 92 % in cinnamon (eugenol 60 % and eugenyl acetate18.3 %); 71.8 % in oregano (carvacrol 49.6 % and thymol 21.2 %). Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were: 18 % in bay leaf, 9 % in clove, 5 % in cinnamon, 25 % in oregano. This research showed that essential oils have a great potential to control both fungal pathogens. In the in vitro test, the essential oils of cinnamon, clove and oregano reduced fungal growth by 90 % and almost 100 %, being oregano the most ...
Article Response of oat genotypes to fusarium head blight in eastern Canada. Recent investigations in northern Europe and western Canada suggested that mycotoxins caused by Fusarium head blight (FHB) could be a potential problem for oat (Avena sativa...
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can lead to toxicosis in humans and animals, respectively. DON is the predominant and most economically important of these mycotoxins in the majority of small grain-producing regions of the world. This review examines the factors that influence DON accumulation in small grain cereals from an agricultural perspective. The occurrence and economic importance of FHB and DON in small grain cereals, epidemiological factors and cereal production practices that favor FHB development and DON accumulation in grain under field conditions, and regulatory/advisory standards for DON in food and feed are discussed. This information can be used to develop
Zearalenones are produced by several Fusarium species and can cause reproductive problems in animals. Some aurofusarin mutants of Fusarium pseudograminearum produce elevated levels of zearalenone (ZON), one of the estrogenic mycotoxins comprising the zearalenones. An analysis of transcripts from polyketide synthase genes identified in the Fusarium graminearum database was carried out for these mutants. PKS4 was the only gene with an enoyl reductase domain that had a higher level of transcription in the aurofusarin mutants than in the wild type. An Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol was used to replace the central part of the PKS4 gene with a hygB resistance gene through double homologous recombination in an F. graminearum strain producing a high level of ZON. PCR and Southern analysis of transformants were used to identify isolates with single insertional replacements of PKS4. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the PKS4 replacement mutant did not ...
Phytopathology 88:1338-1346...Phytopathology 88:1338-1346...Effect of Sowing Date, Host Cultivar, and Race of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris on Development of Fusarium Wilt of Chickpea...Juan A. Navas-Cortés , Bernhard Hau , and Rafael M. Jiménez-Díaz...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The production of ethanol from D-glucose and D-xylose by different Fusarium strains. AU - Suihko, Maija-Liisa. AU - Enari, Tor-Magnus. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - Production of ethanol from glucose and xylose by different Fusarium strains has been studied in shake flask cultures. The best strain was Fusarium oxysporum VTT-D-80134. The best ethanol yields were 50 % ethanol on both sugars. The fermentation time was 3 days on glucose and 6 days on xylose.. AB - Production of ethanol from glucose and xylose by different Fusarium strains has been studied in shake flask cultures. The best strain was Fusarium oxysporum VTT-D-80134. The best ethanol yields were 50 % ethanol on both sugars. The fermentation time was 3 days on glucose and 6 days on xylose.. KW - biofuels. KW - biomass. KW - ethanol. KW - ethanol production. KW - Fusarium. KW - glucose. KW - xylose. U2 - 10.1007/BF00134851. DO - 10.1007/BF00134851. M3 - Article. VL - 3. SP - 723. EP - 728. JO - Biotechnology Letters. JF - ...
Antonio présentera un séminaire, jeudi 28 septembre à 14h, sur le campus INRA Nouvelle-Aquitaine-Bordeaux (salle IBVM), sur le thème de ladaptation des pathogènes fongiques à leurs hôtes.. Ouvert à tous.. Tite et résumé en anglais. Understanding pathogen adaptation to the plant host. Fungal plant pathogens pose a severe threat to global food security. These organisms often show exquisite host adaptation, but also undergo rapid evolution leading to shifts or expansions in the host range. The genetic mechanisms of pathogen-host adaptation remain poorly understood. In the soil-inhabiting vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, individual isolates tend to exhibit high specificity towards a given plant host, while the species complex collectively attacks more than a hundred different crops. In addition, F. oxysporum is also an emerging human pathogen that provokes lethal systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. Remarkably, a single field isolate of this funguscan kill tomato ...
Looking for Fusarium oxysporum? Find out information about Fusarium oxysporum. A pathogenic fungus causing a variety of plant diseases, including cabbage yellows and wilt of tomato, flax, cotton, peas, and muskmelon Explanation of Fusarium oxysporum
A number of Fusarium species have been found associated with root rot of soybean. The species most frequently associated with root rot on soybean are F. solani and F. oxysporum. Other Fusarium species include F. acuminatum, F. chlamydosporum, F. compactum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. merismoides, F. proliferatum, F. pseudograminearum, F. semitectum, F. subglutinans, and F. verticilliodes. Fusarium species are widespread soilborne organisms capable of surviving for long periods of time as chlamydospores and as mycelium in plant residues and in soil.. ...
Fusarium proliferatum ATCC ® 12617™ Designation: IMI 58293 [1135, CBS 264.54] Application: produces gibberellic acid GA3, gibberellin A3
Scientific communication is facilitated by a data-driven, scientifically sound taxonomy that considers the end-users needs and established successful practice. Previously (Geiser et al. 2013; Phytopathology 103:400-408. 2013), the Fusarium community voiced near unanimous support for a concept of Fu …
Beberapa spesies Fusarium merupakan patogen pada tanaman yang dapat menyebabkan penyakit hawar yang menyerang gandum di berbagai belahan Eropa, Amerika, dan Asia hingga menjadi epidemik dan mengakibatkan kerugian akibat kegagalan panen.[5] Penyakit yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium ini umumnya disebut sebagai Fusarium head blight (FHB) atau scab dan dipengaruhi oleh kelembaban udara yang berlebihan pada musim tertentu.[5] FBH dapat diatasi dengan penggunaan benih tanaman gandum transgenik yang resisten terhadap FBH.[5] Umumnya ada dua tipe tanaman resisten FBH, yaitu tanaman yang resisten terhadap penetrasi Fusarium dan tanaman yang resisten terhadap penyebaran Fusarium di dalam jaringan tubuhnya.[5] Beberapa spesies Fusarium, terutama F. sambucinum dapat menyebabkan busuk pada umbi kentang.[6] Gejala dari pembusukan ini adalah permukaan kentang menjadi keriput atau cekung ke dalam dan jaringan internalnya berwarna coklat serta membusuk.[6] Penyakit ini dapat dikontrol dengan melakukan pembersihan ...
Aims: To isolate Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici from infected tomato plants in selected tomato producing agroecological areas in Southwestern Nigeria and evaluate susceptibility of F1-resistant tomato hybrid (F1-Lindo) to infection, to understand the propensity of adopting the hybrid.. Methodology: Seven F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici were isolated from infected tomato plants collected from some tomato producing agroecological areas in the Southwestern Nigeria. The isolates were identified using their morphological features and characterized based on growth, sporulation rates, lag-time and virulence. Growth rate was estimated using a linear model for estimation of fungal growth. Conidia of five of the isolates were standardized to 1.0 x 106 conidia/mland tested for virulence against Race-1-resistant tomato hybrid, F1-Lindo. Pathogenicity of the fungal isolates were ranked according to severity of damage to the tomato hybrid.. Results: The growth, sporulation rates and the lag time of the ...
Fusarielins constitute a relative unexplored group of secondary metabolites, which have been isolated mainly from unidentified Aspergillus and Fusarium strains. In the present study we show that the ability to produce fusarielins is restricted to a few Fusarium species. Among the 15 analyzed species fusarielins were identified only in extracts from Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium tricinctum. The influence of different carbon sources on fusarielin biosynthesis was examined and the results showed that disaccharides and dextrin in combination with arginine as sole nitrogen source increased fusarielin production. When arginine was replaced with nitrate the fusarielins were produced on a wider selection of carbon sources including all monosaccharides. Production of fusarielins in F. graminearum was also influenced by pH, cultivation time, temperature and fructose concentration with the optimal conditions being: pH6, 25°C, 26days and 60mg fructose/mL. Wheat spikes were inoculated with F. ...
The fungitoxicity of acetone extracts from the xylem of Fusarium wilt disease resistant tomato plants (cv. Jefferson) inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was greatly influenced by environmental factors. Extracts obtained from plants 1 h after watering were 4-times more toxic than extracts from plants subjected to water stress for 5 h before extraction, and 10-times more toxic than those from plants after 23.5 h of water stress. Materials from plants extracted at various times during the day exhibited a striking diurnal pattern of antifungal activity. Material from plants extracted at the end of the dark period were the most toxic, and extracts obtained at the end of the light period were the least toxic. The extracts were most toxic to the pathogen in vitro at pH 4.5 and were completely ineffective at pH 6.0 and above. Monogenic resistance of tomato to race 1 of the wilt pathogen was negated by the application of 1% ethanol through the roots. Vascular and foliar disease ...
Lipase de Fusarium solani FS1 foi imobilizada por ligação covalente usando esferas de poliacrilamida e Dacron magnetizado, retendo 12%, e 97% de atividade, respectivamente. A lipase foi também enclausurada em esferas de poliacrilamida e reteve 53% de sua atividade específica. Investigações sobre...
The effect of delayed harvest on the occurrence and incidence of seed-borne Fusarium spp. and their effects on seed quality was investigated using four maize cultivars (Pioneer 3551,3591,3709 and 3475) over two seasons (1989/90,1990/91) at Massey University, Palmerston North. As harvest was delayed from April to July, the percentage of cobs showing Fusarium mould increased. Cultivar 3551 tended to develop Fusarium cob mould later in the season (June) than the other three cultivars. In both seasons the percentage of seeds of all four cultivars infected with Fusarium spp. increased as harvest was delayed. However, there was a difference between the two seasons; in 1989/90 the mean percentage of seeds carrying Fusarium spp. was 26%, 39%, 70% and 82% for April, May, June and July harvests respectively, while the corresponding levels for 1990/91 were 1%, 9%, 31% and 40% respectively. Between season differences were ascribed to climatic differences, the former season being wetter and warmer than the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation and identification of a choline-linked mannobiose in the glycoproteins of fusarium sp. M7-1. AU - Iwahara, Shojiro. AU - Suemori, Nahoko. AU - Takegawa, Kaoru. PY - 1996/1/1. Y1 - 1996/1/1. N2 - An unidentified oligosaccharide was isolated from an oligomer mixture derived by alkaline borohydride treatment from glycoproteins of Fusarium sp. M7-1. The isolated compound was identified as O-α-d-Mannopyranosyl (1 → 2)-d-Mannitol-6-phosphocholine by NMR and Ms spectrometry.. AB - An unidentified oligosaccharide was isolated from an oligomer mixture derived by alkaline borohydride treatment from glycoproteins of Fusarium sp. M7-1. The isolated compound was identified as O-α-d-Mannopyranosyl (1 → 2)-d-Mannitol-6-phosphocholine by NMR and Ms spectrometry.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0030073020&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0030073020&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1271/bbb.60.349. DO - 10.1271/bbb.60.349. M3 - ...
The red mold Fusarium, is a fungal pathogen, infecting mainly small-grain cereals in the temperate regions of the world. In Scandinavia, F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. poae, and F. sporotrichioides infections are most common, but in recent years F. graminearum and F. langsethiae infections have increased, as well. Most Fusarium species are capable of producing a variety of mycotoxins, possibly providing an edge over competing strains at the site of infection. Mycotoxins can evoke a broad range of toxic effects in humans and animals, including neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, reproductive-, and developmental toxicity and carcinogenicity. The most toxic fusariatoxins include the tricothecenes, fumonisins and zearalenone. However, less studied mycotoxins, as enniatins (Enns) and moniliformin (MON) are frequently found in grain products, hence, causing a risk of a daily, low-level exposure of human and livestock, the significance of which is still unclear. The aim of this study was to provide further ...
Fusarium graminearum Schw. is the primary causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat and barley. Infection of cereal crops with F. graminearum may lead to huge yield loss in severe epidemic y
Fusarium yellows of sugarbeet was identified in the Red River Valley in a few fields between Moorhead, Minn., and Drayton, N.D., in 2002. Fusarium yellows is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae, although other Fusarium species can be involved as secondary invaders. The disease causes significant reduction in root yield and recoverable sucrose. In storage, the quality of infected roots may deteriorate more rapidly than in noninfected roots ...
Place: Helsinki, Finland. This seminar was the third Nordic Baltic Fusarium seminar arranged by the NJF working group on Fusarium and mycotoxins. Three main topics were chosen: 1) Plant-Fusarium interactions; 2) Toxicity, masked mycotoxins and synergism; and 3) Management of Fusarium and mycotoxins. The invited guest speakers on these topics were: 1) Paul Nicholson from John Innes Institute, UK; 2) Isabelle Oswald from INRA Toulouse, France; and 3) Simon Edwards from Harper-Adams University, UK.. In the first session, Paul Nicholson gave a wide view of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley, types of resistance and their assessment. His conclusion was that the focus in reducing FHB in wheat should be on elimination of susceptibility instead of resistance. Morten Lillemo from NMBU, Norway, continued the resistance theme with results from practical breeding trials on oats, two-row barley and wheat. Cultivars with high and low deoxynivalenol (DON) have been identified in oats, ...
Fusarium wilt of cucurbits, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, is one of the most devastating of all cucurbit soil-borne diseases. Fusarium wilt of melon is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM), and is considered one of the more important diseases of melon in the United States (Wechter et al., 1995; Zuniga et al., 1997). This pathogen also causes severe losses in a number of other countries, including those in South America (Erzurum et al., 1999) and Europe (Belisario et al., 2000), Republic of South Africa (Schreuder et al., 2000), and Japan (Namiki et al., 2000). There are currently no economical or even viable chemical control strategies, or other methods that can control this soil-borne pathogen. Four races of FOM have been described in melon: 0, 1, 2, and 1,2 based on resistance genes. Two variants of race 1,2 have been identified: 1,2y, which induces yellowing reaction, and 1,2w, which induces wilting response (Zink and Thomas, 1990). Genetic studies on ...
A Brazilian isolate of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (F. o. f. sp. phaseoli) was used to determine the reactions of 66 lines of beans to the Fusarium yellows pathogen in greenhouse tests. The distal 1 cm of root tips of 1-wk-old seedlings grown in sterilized sand were removed, roots were dipped in a spore suspension of F. o. f. sp. phaseoli for 5 min, and the seedlings were then transplanted into pots filled with pasturized soil. As the concentration of F. o. f. sp. phaseoli spores was increased from 0 to 1 × 107 / ml, incubation time to the first disease symptom was decreased and disease severity ratings (DSR) increased on the field-susceptible cultivar IPA 1. However, only slight disease symptoms occurred at a spore concentration of 1 × 107 on the line HF 465-63-1, known to show resistance under field conditions in Brazil. Severely infected plants became defoliated and often died within 2 3 wk. The dead stem and petiole tissues were covered with pink to orange spore masses. The extent ...
Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis cubense is a soilborne phytopathogen that infects banana. The true evolutionary identity of this so called species, Fusarium oxysporum, is still unknown. Many techniques have been applied in order to gain insight for the observed genetic diversity of this species. The current classification system is based on vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). Vegetative compatibility is a self non-self recognition system in which only those belonging to a VCG can form stable heterokaryons, cells containing two distinct nuclei. Heterokaryons in turn, are formed from hypha! anastomosis, the fusion of two hyphae. Furthermore, subsequent to heterokaryon formation potential mechanisms exist which may generate genetic variability. One is through viral transfer upon hyphal anastomosis. The other mechanism is a form of mitotic recombination referred to as the parasexual cycle. Very little research has been performed to directly obser.ve the cellular events; hypha! anastomosis,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stability of fusaproliferin, a mycotoxin from Fusarium spp. AU - Ritieni, Alberto. AU - Monti, Simona Maria. AU - Moretti, Antonio. AU - Logrieco, Antonio. AU - Gallo, Monica. AU - Ferracane, Rosalia. AU - Fogliano, Vincenzo. PY - 1999/9. Y1 - 1999/9. N2 - Fusaproliferin (FP) is a mycotoxin produced by some phytopathogenic Fusarium spp which frequently occur on several agriculturally important plants. We measured FP decomposition in dry or wet contaminated wheat samples incubated at various temperatures (80, 120, 180 and 240°C) for various times (15, 20, 45 and 60 minutes). Water increased FP decomposition at 80, 120 and 180 °C, but a complete destruction of FP occurred at 240 °C only under dry conditions. Treatment of samples with a saturated solution of dichloroisocyanuric acid reduced FP contamination, while physical treatments such as UV irradiation and sonication did not.. AB - Fusaproliferin (FP) is a mycotoxin produced by some phytopathogenic Fusarium spp which ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efeito tópico de iodo-povidona 0,5% comparado com natamicina 5% em ceratites fúngicas causadas por Fusarium solani em um modelo animal de coelhos. T2 - Estudo piloto. AU - de Oliveira, Lauro Augusto. AU - Takata, Thales Takeo. AU - Shiguematsu, Alvio Isao. AU - Melo, Luiz Alberto Soares. AU - Gompertz, Olga Fischman. AU - de Sousa, Luciene Barbosa. AU - Mannis, Mark J. PY - 2008/11. Y1 - 2008/11. N2 - Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of topical administration of 0.5% povidone-iodine in experimental Fusarium solani keratitis in rabbits. Methods: Fungal keratitis caused by Fusarium solani was induced in the right eye of 24 New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were randomly divided into 3 different treatment groups: Group I (povidone-iodine) - treated with topical 0.5% povidone-iodine; Group II (natamycin) - treated with topical 5% natamycin; and Group III (control) - treated with topical saline solution. In all groups the rabbits were treated for three days and then sacrificed. The ...
Purpose: Keratomycosis can cause damage with risk the loss of the eye. The treatment requires early and aggressive approaches based on the evolution of the lesion and the type of etiologic agent.1 In a first approach, we found the Acyclovir of inhibiting growth of Fusarium solani and Aspergillus fumigatus2 and significant decrease was ejected in MICs by amphotericin B and Natamicyn in presence of Acyclovir.3,br /, The aim of this work was to assess the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α from human limbal fibroblasts (HLF), in the presence of Fusarium solani, treated with Acyclovir, in an in vitro model.. Methods: Human limbal fibroblast from cadaveric donors were obtained and were infected with conidia of a Fusarium solani strain isolated from a patient with keratomycosis. Some were treated with Acyclovir. The expression of IL-6, TNF-α and β-actin by means of RT PCR and 2-ΔCt was evaluated.. Results: IL-6 is expressed at similar concentrations like HLF without Acyclovir, also, infection of HLF ...
Fusarium oxysporum est une espèce de champignons ascomycètes de la famille des Nectriaceae. Comme cest le cas de tous les Fusarium, il sagit de la forme de reproduction asexuée dun ascomycète, mais son téléomorphe est inconnu. Fusarium oxysporum est un complexe despèces telluriques, ubiquistes, parasites de plantes, comprenant de nombreuses formae speciales (f. sp.), qui infectent collectivement plus de 100 hôtes différents, provoquant des pertes économiques importantes chez de nombreuses plantes cultivées comme le bananier, le cotonnier, le melon, la tomate, etc.[2]. ...
Key message Predictabilities for wheat hybrids less related to the estimation set were improved by shifting from single- to multiple-trait genomic prediction of Fusarium head blight severity.
National Fusarium Head Blight Forum Hyatt Regency St. Louis at the Arch St. Louis, Missouri U.S.A. December 4 - December 6, 2016.
https://scabusa.org/forum20. We are now accepting registration of posters for presentation during the Forum, and also abstracts/papers for inclusion in the proceedings for the 2020 National Fusarium Head Blight Forum. With the Forum being virtual this year, there are many changes to the submission process as well the poster presentations during the Forum (detailed program now available). Please review the information provided through the links in this email very carefully!. POSTERS/PAPERS:. If you would like to submit a poster with an associated abstract and/or paper, first please review the instructions (https://scabusa.org/vforum_paper), and then complete an on-line registration form (https://scabusa.org/scripts/forum/vforum_paper_reg.php). There is no limit to the number of poster abstracts and/or papers submitted by one author. For each item (Abstract/Paper) submitted, an on-line registration must be completed by Friday, November 6th. The abstract and paper content (e-files only; MS Word ...
Background: Soil-borne fungi of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex cause devastating wilt disease on many crops including legumes that supply human dietary protein needs across many parts of the globe. We present and compare draft genome assemblies for three legume-infecting formae speciales (ff. spp.): F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc-38-1) and f. sp. pisi (Fop-37622), significant pathogens of chickpea and pea respectively, the worlds second and third most important grain legumes, and lastly f. sp. medicaginis (Fom-5190a) for which we developed a model legume pathosystem utilising Medicago truncatula. Results: Focusing on the identification of pathogenicity gene content, we leveraged the reference genomes of Fusarium pathogens F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (tomato-infecting) and F. solani (pea-infecting) and their well-characterised core and dispensable chromosomes to predict genomic organisation in the newly sequenced legume-infecting isolates. Dispensable chromosomes are not essential ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhanced homologous recombination in Fusarium verticillioides by disruption of FvKU70, a gene required for a non-homologous end joining mechanism. AU - Choi, Yoon E.. AU - Shim, Won Bo. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) is associated with maize worldwide causing ear rot and stalk rot, and produces fumonisins, a group of mycotoxins detrimental to humans and animals. While research tools are available, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with fungal virulence and fumonisin biosynthesis in F. verticillioides is still limited. One of the restraints that hampers F. verticilli- oides gene characterization is the fact that homologous recombination (HR) frequency is very low (,2%). Screening for a true gene knock-out mutant is a laborious process due to a high number of ectopic integrations. In this study, we generated a F. verticillioides mutant (SF41) deleted for FvKU70, a gene directly responsible for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fusarium spp. associated with rice Bakanae: ecology, genetic diversity, pathogenicity and toxigenicity. AU - Wulff, E.G.. AU - Sørensen, Jens Laurids. AU - Lubeck, M.. AU - Nielsen, Kristian Fog. AU - Thrane, Ulf. AU - Torp, J.. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - African and Asian populations of Fusarium spp. (Gibberella fujikuroi species complex) associated with Bakanae of rice (Oryzae sativa L.) were isolated from seeds and characterized with respect to ecology, phylogenetics, pathogenicity and mycotoxin production. Independent of the origin, Fusarium spp. were detected in the different rice seed samples with infection rate ranges that varied from 0.25% to 9%. Four Fusaria (F. andiyazi, F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides) were found associated with Bakanae of rice. While three of the Fusaria were found in both African and Asian seed samples, F. fujikuroi was only detected in seed samples from Asia. Phylogenetic studies showed a broad genetic variation among the ...
Maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides is the causal agent of seedling blight disease, with production of the fumonisin B1 (FB1) mycotoxin being necessary for disease development. FB1 was previously observed to accumulate in the roots and leaves during systemic infection of the plant, but not in the leaves when watered into the soil. Here we detected FB1 in the roots and leaves during seedling blight infection by an aconidial F. verticillioides strain able to infect the mesocotyl but unable to colonize leaves, while wild type demonstrated colonization and FB1 accumulation in the same locations. Therefore, root colonization by F. verticillioides is necessary for accumulation of FB1 and leaf colonization is dispensable for FB1 mobility in planta. Since phytotoxic effects of fumonisin are known to include nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in planta, the biological and virulence effects of NO on F. verticillioides was evaluated. Specifically, we addressed the roles of flavohemoglobins FHB1 and FHB2 on ...
Fusarium wilt of strawberry, incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae (Fof), is a major disease of the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria xananassa) worldwide. An increase in disease outbreaks of the pathogen in Western Australia and Queensland plus the search for alternative disease management strategies place emphasis on the development of resistant cultivars. In response, a partial incomplete diallel cross involving four parents was performed for use in glasshouse resistance screenings. The resulting progeny were evaluated for their susceptibility to Fof. Best-performing progeny and suitability of progenies as parents were determined using data from disease severity ratings and analyzed using a linear mixed model incorporating a pedigree to produce best linear unbiased predictions of breeding values. Variation in disease response, ranging from highly susceptible to resistant, indicates a quantitative effect. The estimate of the narrow-sense heritability was 0.49 +/- 0.04 (SE), suggesting ...
Teach a man how to identify fungi and hell have strains for a lifetime. Thats what John Leslie, Kansas State University distinguished professor of plant pathology and director of the Fungal Genetics Stock Center in the College of Agriculture, has been trying to do as he travels the world.. Leslies research focuses on the genus Fusarium, which is a large group of fungi found on most plants. Using genetics, he has identified new species of Fusarium and has evaluated variation within natural populations. One of his early career discoveries helped separate corn and grain sorghum Fusarium so breeders could find plant varieties that withstand the fungis damaging effects.. Breaking Fusarium into separate species has made a difference for the sorghum industry to find a line of resistance, Leslie said.. There are now more than 100 species of Fusarium. Some of these fungi are harmless; some can destroy crops and result in large economic losses; and some produce mycotoxins, which are natural toxins ...
The Fusarium stem canker group is a soil fungus caused by six species (F. sulphureum, F. graminearum, F. lateritium, F. sambucinum, F. avenaceum and F. culmorum). Fusarium foot rot and root rot group is a soil fungus caused principally by F. solani. Fusarium wilt group is a vascular fungus caused by a xylem pathogen called F. oxysporum. Within this group, F. oxysporum has several specialised forms - known as formae specialis (f.sp.) - that infect a variety of hosts to cause a range of diseases.. F. oxysporum f.sp vasinfectum and F. oxysporum f.sp. apii cause damping-off and both are morphologically identical but the host changes, giving the names of the sub-species. However, the debate on this classification system is far from over, since many scientists suggest that F. oxysporum f.sp apii is from the same group as f.sp vasinfectum. Because of this, the characterisation of sub-specific groups is now based on the generics of the fungus rather than on the host-pathogen interaction.. ...
Activities of cellulase of twenty strains of Fusarium verticillioides isolated from different sources were studied by means of three types of plate assays (CMC-plate, cup-plate, AZCL-plate). Strains were cultivated in CMC- liquid media and culture filtrates were used as source of cellulase. All the isolates studied were able to produce the cellulase activity, however, marked differences were observed in the rate of cellulase production. AZCL-plate assay is simple and very suitable for screening many isolates at the same time. ...
Interpretive Summary: The plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum is a fungus that attacks cotton. A uniquely virulent type of this pathogen was inadvertently introduced into the U.S. on cottonseed imported into California for dairy feed. This imported pathogen produces very high amounts of a chemical that is toxic to cotton. This compound is called fusaric acid. This chemical may play a vital role in the pathogenicity of the fungus. To more fully understand the role this chemical may play in the pathogenicity of the fungus, we investigated how the molecule is assembled by the organism. Our research has shown the probable involvement of two kinds of genes that control its production in the fungus. This may help us to develop new strategies to control this pathogen. Technical Abstract: Fusarium oxysporum is a fungal pathogen that attacks many economically important plants. Uniquely pathogenic strains of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum were inadvertently imported into the United ...
During August of 2004, soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) plants exhibiting symptoms typical of sudden death syndrome (SDS) caused by Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. f. sp. glycines (= Fusarium virguliforme Akoi, ODonnell, Homma, & Lattanzi) (1) were observed in Nemaha and Pierce counties in eastern Nebraska. Leaf symptoms ranged from small chlorotic spots to prominent interveinal necrosis on plants at R5-R6 growth stages. Taproots of symptomatic plants were plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) amended with hymexazol, ampicillin, and rifampicin (HAR). Resulting fungal isolates grew slowly and developed masses of blue macroconidia, characteristic of F. solani f. sp. glycines. Sorghum seed infested with the isolates were placed 1.5 cm below soybean seeds of the susceptible cv. Sloan planted in clay pots (3). Noninfested sorghum seed and sorghum seed infested with F. oxysporum were controls.
Basil fusarium wilt is a seed-borne disease that can severely reduce basil yields. The biggest concern, however, is that the pathogen can persist in the soil for ten or more years preventing the future use of the land for basil production. The objective of this study was to develop organic control methods that would allow production in infested soil. Several organic mulches, a biocontrol product (Rootshield), and lime applications were examined on soil intentionally infested with fusarium. Basil plants mulched with a composted pine bark had the lowest incidence of fusarium wilt.
The use of Trichoderma isolates with efficient antagonistic activity represents a potentially effective and alternative disease management strategy to replace health hazardous chemical control. In this context, twenty isolates were obtained from tomato rhizosphere and evaluated by their antagonistic activity against four fungal pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctonia solani). The production of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes of tested isolates was also measured. All the isolates significantly reduced the mycelial growth of tested pathogens but the amount of growth reduction varied significantly as well. There was a positive correlation between the antagonistic capacity of Trichoderma isolates towards fungal pathogens and their lytic enzyme production. The Trichoderma isolates were initially sorted according to morphology and based on the translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequence similarity, the isolates were
When 2 horses were dosed with cultures of a Fusarium moniliforme isolate that had previously caused only hepatosis, 1 developed brain oedema and hepatosis, and the other only leukoencephalomalacia. A 3rd horse developed both leukoencephalomalacia and hepatosis after being dosed with another isolate obtained from maize which was associated with a natural outbreak of the nervous form of the disease. Since leukoencephalomalacia and hepatosis could be induced by the same culture material , it was concluded that both syndromes were manifestations of the same toxicosis. There was also some evidence that leukoencephalomalacia might be specifically induced by the administration of smaller doses of the culture material to horses over a longer period. The clinical signs of nervous disorder included ataxia, paresis, apathy, hypersensitivity, frenzy, and other locomotory and psychic disturbances. Autopsy showed that the brains were oedematous, and focal areas of liquefactive necrosis were present in the ...
Purpose: To study the proteomic profile of co-culture of Fusarium solani and Staphylococcus epidermidis in comparison with mono-cultures.. Methods: Fusarium solani and Staphylococcus epidermidis were isolated from human corneal ulcers. The microorganisms were characterized by microbiological and molecular technics. Mono-cultures and co-cultures were established in Müller-Hinton Agar. Plates containing 72-h biomass were processed to obtain the cellular extract; proteins were quantified and purified before two-dymensional electrophoresis (2D) was performed. The proteomic profiles were analyzed by the software Dymension 2 to determine the differential expression of the co-culture compared with the mono-cultures. The spots that showed differential expression were identified by mass spectrometry using MALDI-TOF 4800 (ABsciex).. Results: The fungi growth was lower in the co-cultures than in monocultures (p ,0.0001). Proteomic profiles from the mono-cultures and co-cultures showed 40 proteins with ...
Knowledge of the inheritance of disease resistance and genomic regions housing resistance (R) genes is essential to prevent expanding pathogen threats such as Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans] in cotton (Gossypium spp.). We conducted a comprehensive study combining conventional inheritance, genetic and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, QTL marker-sequence composition, and genome sequencing to examine the distribution, structure and organization of disease R genes to race 1 of FOV in the cotton genome. Molecular markers were applied to F(2) and recombinant inbred line (RIL) interspecific mapping populations from the crosses Pima-S7 (G. barbadense L.) × Acala NemX (G. hirsutum L.) and Upland TM-1 (G. hirsutum) × Pima 3-79 (G. barbadense), respectively. Three greenhouse tests and one field test were used to obtain sequential estimates of severity index (DSI) of leaves, and vascular stem and root staining (VRS). A single resistance gene model was ...
Tomato crops can be affected by several infectious diseases produced by bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. Four phytopathogens are of special concern because of the major economic losses they generate worldwide in tomato production; Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, causative agents behind two highly destructive diseases, bacterial canker and bacterial speck, respectively; fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici that causes Fusarium Wilt, which strongly affects tomato crops; and finally, Phytophthora spp., which affect both potato and tomato crops. Polygodial (1), drimenol (2), isonordrimenone (3), and nordrimenone (4) were studied against these four phytopathogenic microorganisms. Among them, compound 1, obtained from Drimys winteri Forst, and synthetic compound 4 are shown here to have potent activity. Most promisingly, the results showed that compounds 1 and 4 affect Clavibacter michiganensis growth at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values
Abstract: Background and Objective: Cellulase as a fibrolytic enzyme is a highly effective tool for agricultural waste treatments. Production of cellulase enzyme on medium of agricultural wastes by Fusarium graminearum to be used in ruminant feeding was the main objective of this study. Materials and Methods: Impact of initial pH of growth medium, different nitrogen sources and variety of agriculture by products as a carbon sources on cellulase production have been studied. Electron microscope was used for investigate the impact of the resultant cellulase on corn stover degradation, while batch culture technique was used for investigate impact of different levels of the produced and commercial cellulases on total mixed ration digestibility by rumen microorganisms (in vitro). Results: Cellulase maximum production by F. graminearum was obtained at 20% corn stover, initial pH of growth medium 5.0 and peptone as a nitrogen source. All addition levels of the produced cellulase increased dry matter ...
Application of synthetic fungicides in agricultural commodities has been restricted due to development of fungicide resistance fungi and deleterious impact on environment and health of farm animals and humans. Hence, there is an urge for development of mycobiocides, and the present study was undertaken to determine the antifungal activity of Cymbopogon martinii essential oil (CMEO) on post-harvest pathogen Fusarium graminearum. The CMEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and GC-MS chemical profile revealed the presence of 46 compounds and abundant was geraniol (19.06%). The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of CMEO were determined as 421.7 ± 27.14 and 618.3 ± 79.35 ppm, respectively. The scanning electron microscopic observation of CMEO exposed macroconidia was exhibited a detrimental morphology with vesicles, craters, protuberance, and rough surfaces related to control fungi. The CMEO induced the death of fungi through elevating intracellular reactive oxygen
The Plant Management Network, an online journal of the American Phytopathological Society with content appropriate for all plant health practitioners.
glucuronidase) reporter and hygromycin resistance genes. Five stable transformants were isolated containing varying copy numbers at different integration sites. Specific GUS activity was quantified for the transformants whereas no activity was recorded for the wildtype isolate. The transformants and wildtype isolate were inoculated into healthy mango floral and vegetative buds. Typical symptoms of misshapen shoots with short internodes, stubby leaves and bunchy, malformed inflorescences were observed 6 to 8 weeks following inoculation. The presence of GUS-stained mycelium of the pathogen viewed microscopically within infected plant organs provided unequivocal evidence that F. subglutinans is indeed a causal agent of mango malformation disease ...
ID W7MUU1_GIBM7 Unreviewed; 302 AA. AC W7MUU1; DT 16-APR-2014, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 16-APR-2014, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 14. DE SubName: Full=Glutathione S-transferase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EWG51435.1}; GN ORFNames=FVEG_10403 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EWG51435.1}; OS Gibberella moniliformis (strain M3125 / FGSC 7600) (Maize ear and OS stalk rot fungus) (Fusarium verticillioides). OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Ascomycota; Pezizomycotina; OC Sordariomycetes; Hypocreomycetidae; Hypocreales; Nectriaceae; OC Fusarium; Fusarium fujikuroi species complex. OX NCBI_TaxID=334819 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EWG51435.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000009096}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EWG51435.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000009096} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=M3125 / FGSC 7600 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000009096}; RX PubMed=20237561; DOI=10.1038/nature08850; RA Ma L.-J., van der Does H.C., Borkovich K.A., Coleman J.J., RA Daboussi M.-J., Di Pietro A., Dufresne ...
THE SOUTHERN Mindanao Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development Consorium (Smaarrdec) will expand the study in combating fusarium wilt outside the region.. Dr. Reynilo D. Garcia, deputy director of Smaarrdec, said the study, which started in April 2012, is among the flagship projects of the consortium, a body composed of 23 government agencies and state universities and colleges in the region.. This is to determine how to control the spread of the disease in Cavendish bananas, Garcia told the reporters yesterday in an interview at the centers office in University of Southeastern Philippines (USEP).. The Department of Science and Technology (DOST), through the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (Pcaarrd), allocated P34 million for the conduct of the study, which ended in March.. Sheryl S. Bayang, former research assistant of DOST-Pcaarrd funded fusarium wilt program, said they are currently proposing additional ...
El banano es un frutal muy importante, a nivel mundial y en Colombia es el tercer producto de exportación. Una de las enfermedades limitantes del cultivo es el mal de Panamá, ocasionado por Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. La enfermedad es considerada devastadora, por las pérdidas que ocasionó en Gros Michel, obligando al reemplazo de este cultivar por Cavendish, el cual, está siendo amenazado por la raza tropical 4 del hongo que, aunque aún no se encuentra en el país, representa una amenaza mundial. El manejo de la enfermedad, se ha basado en la exclusión del patógeno, evitando el ingreso a áreas sanas y usando variedades resistentes, pero la naturaleza del patógeno ha demostrado que estas medidas no son suficientes y que es necesario considerar otras estrategias. El Manejo Integrado de Enfermedades MIE, en su filosofía, busca conjugar opciones en pro del cultivo para garantizar, además de la sanidad, altos rendimientos e inocuidad. Esta revisión compila información de los ...
The vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum infect over 200 plant species, causing billions of dollars in annual crop losses. The characteristic wilt symptoms are a result of colonization and proliferation of the pathogens in the xylem vessels, which undergo fluctuations in osmolarity. To gain insights into the mechanisms that confer the organisms pathogenicity and enable them to proliferate in the unique ecological niche of the plant vascular system, we sequenced the genomes of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and compared them to each other, and to the genome of Fusarium oxysporum, another fungal wilt pathogen. Our analyses identified a set of proteins that are shared among all three wilt pathogens, and present in few other fungal species. One of these is a homolog of a bacterial glucosyltransferase that synthesizes virulence-related osmoregulated periplasmic glucans in bacteria. Pathogenicity tests of the corresponding V. dahliae glucosyltransferase gene deletion mutants ...
Introduction. Cancer of the oesophagus (OC) follows the increasing incidence of cancer worldwide. There is a high incidence in the black population in certain parts of Transkei, South Africa and in parts of China;1 both have increased in recent times.1,2. Maize is the staple food of the population of Transkei.3 Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides and other Fusarium fungi, found worldwide on maize and maize-based foods.4,5 Maize from an area of high OC incidence in the Transkei contained higher levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) (44 ppm) than did commercial maize meal (,10 ppm).6. Fumonisin B1, a strongly polar compound,5 is the most prevalent of the fumonisin mycotoxins.7 10 The polarity of the toxin determines its level of carcinogenicity11 i.e. the more polar the molecule, the greater the cytotoxic response. In addition to polarity, other determinants, such as the presence of a free amino group, carboxyl groups and the location of the hydroxyl group, could also affect the ...
The diversity of fusaria in symptomatic Citrus trees in Greece, Italy and Spain was evaluated using morphological and molecular multi-locus analyses based on fragments of the calmodulin (CAM), intergenic spacer region of the rDNA (IGS), internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA (ITS), large subunit of the rDNA (LSU), RNA polymerase largest subunit (RPB1), RNA polymerase second largest subunit (RPB2), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α) and beta-tubulin (TUB) genes. A total of 11 species (six Fusarium spp., and five Neocosmospora spp.) were isolated from dry root rot, crown, trunk or twig canker or twig dieback of citrus trees. The most commonly isolated species were Fusarium sarcochroum, F. oxysporum and Neocosmospora solani. Three new Fusarium species are described, i.e., F. citricola and F. salinense belonging to the newly described F. citricola species complex; and F. siculi belonging to the F. fujikuroi species complex. Results of pathogenicity tests showed this new complex ...
The Plant Management Network, an online journal of the American Phytopathological Society with content appropriate for all plant health practitioners.
In the early half of the 20th century, a fungal disease called Fusarium wilt (Panama disease) devastated commercial export banana plantations of Gros Michel bananas, first in Central America but later also in western Africa. This led to the mass replacement of Gros Michel plantations with Cavendish clones due to their immunity to the responsible fungal pathogen, Foc race 1. Certain cooking banana varieties in Africa are also immune to Foc race 1, but the sweet dessert and juicing banana varieties planted on the continent, such as Sukali Ndizi, Pisang Awak and also Gros Michel, are highly susceptible. Cavendish bananas in South Africa are susceptible to attack by a different strain, called Foc subtropical race 4 (called Foc STR4), which infects plants after they become vulnerable due to cooler temperatures. A new, highly virulent tropical form of Foc race 4 (TR4) emerged in Asia in 1990 where it decimated Cavendish plantations. Foc TR4 has now entered Africa and has the potential to devastate ...
MicroRNAs refer to a class of short noncoding RNAs (containing about 22 to 24 nucleotides) widely found in eukaryotes, which function in post-transcriptional regulation of target gene expression via base pairing with specified sequences within target mRNAs to cleave target mRNAs or to repress their translation. This paper mainly introduces the research progress of banana miRNA in biological study of resistance to Fusarium wilt by means of bioinformatics, hoping to develop miRNA application in resistance to F. wilt of banana.   Key words: Plant miRNA, target gene, bananas.
Fruits is a scientific journal for original articles and reviews on fruit crops in temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical regions
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How do you know if your tree or shrub has a root or crown rot? Gardeners often become aware of a root/crown rot when they see above ground symptoms of the diseases. Affected plants are often slow-growing or stunted and may show signs of wilting. Often the canopy of an affected tree or shrub is thin, with foliage that is yellow or red, suggesting a nutrient deficiency. Careful examination of the roots/crowns of these plants reveals tissue that is soft and brown.. Where does root/crown rot come from? Several soil-borne fungi can cause root/crown rots, including (most frequently) Phytophthora spp., Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium spp. These fungi have wide host ranges, and prefer wet soil conditions. Some root rot fungi such as Pythium and Phytophtora produce spores that can survive for long periods in soil.. How do I save a plant with root/crown rot? REDUCE SOIL MOISTURE! Provide enough water to fulfill a plants growth needs and prevent drought stress, but DO NOT over-water. Remove ...
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Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the second most important food crop after maize in Tanzania. It faces many challenges like diseases, pests and physical damages, which reduce the seed quality. This article identified microorganisms and the district where they occurred. 13 fungal species comprising of 11 pathogenic and 2 saprophytic fungi were detected and the incidence level varied among sample. Mvomero District showed the highest incidence recorded (64.5%) for sample collected from Hembeti and Dakawa/Msufini villages. In Kilombero, the fungal specie which detected highest incidence was Fusarium equiseti (31%) followed by Fusarium moniliforme (28.5%). Verticillium cinnabarinum and Curvularia inaequalis had the least incidence of 1 and 1%, respectively. The study recommends that before planting season, seeds should be tested to minimize spread of fungal species.   Key words: Pathogens, quality declared seed (QDS), farmer saved
This study was carried out, at the greenhouse of plant protection department of college of agriculture university of Baghdad, to test the pathogenicity of 75 isolates of Fusarium spp causative agent of wheat crown rot. Wheat plants showing yellowing and brown coloring of lower internodes were collected, from several governorates of Iraq. The lower internodes were cutting to small pieces of 1 cm length, sterilized in sodium hypochlorite 1% for 3 min., rinsed in sterile distilled water and dried on filter papers. The pieces were cultivated on PDA amended with mixture of Ampicillin and Tetracycline at 100 mg/L, in petridishes of 9 cm diameter. The petridishes were maintained at 25±2Cº for 7 days and the growing Fusarium spp were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Fusarium spp were grown on sterile wheat seeds in petridishes of 11 cm diameter at 25±2Cº for 21 days. Surface sterile wheat seeds were sowing in mixed soil contaminated with Fusarium spp, grown on wheat seeds, at 0.5% ...
The app, available as a free download, helps users identify common ear rots and determine safe levels for the use of grain affected by mycotoxins. The app also has information on ear rot management and properly storing moldy grain. Resources include practical tips for ear rot management and in-depth information on mycotoxins and conditions that favor ear rot development.. Farmers can also access information from the website, which features high quality images to help with ear rot identification and links to additional corn ear rot and mycotoxin management resources.. The website was created as part of the Integrated Management Strategies for Aspergillus and Fusarium Ear Rots of Corn project, which was established in 2012 with funding from the U.S. Department of Agricultures National Institute of Food and Agriculture. The goal of the project is to coordinate and promote a research and Extension collaboration that provides corn producers with new tools for managing ear rots and mycotoxins.. Ear ...
The fucoidanase from |i|Fusarium|/i| sp. (LD8) was obtained by solid-state fermentation. The fermented solid medium was extracted by citric acid buffer, and the extracts were precipitated by acetone and purified by Sephadex G-100 successively. The results showed that the specific fucoidanase activity of purified enzyme was 22.7-fold than that of the crude enzyme. The recovery of the enzyme was 23.9%. The purified enzyme gave a single band on SDS-PAGE gel, and the molecular weight of fucoidanase was about 64 kDa. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 4.5. The enzyme properties were also studied. The results showed that the optimum temperature and pH were 60°C and 6.0, respectively; the temperature of half inactivation was 50°C, and the most stable pH for the enzyme was 6.0. |inline-formula||mml:math id=M1 xmlns:mml=http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML||mml:mrow||mml:msub||mml:mrow||mml:mi|K|/mml:mi||/mml:mrow||mml:mrow||mml:mi|M|/mml:mi||/mml:mrow||/mml:msub||/mml:mrow||/mml:math||/inline-formula|,
Deoxynivalenol belongs to the trichothecene group which contains over 150 mycotoxins produced by primarily by Fusarium species. Other important toxins in this group include T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscripenol (DAS) and nivalenol.. Deoxynivalenol is one of the most common Fusarium trichothecene mycotoxins and is the most commonly encountered trichothecene worldwide. Deoxynivalenol is considered to be a major cause of economic loss due to reduced performance. Food concentrations as low as 0.5 to 1ppm have been associated in the field with feed refusal and reduced feed intake in pigs (Smith et al., 2005). Typically, concentrations above 2 to 5ppm are required for decreased feed intake and reduced weight gain and concentration of over 20ppm for vomiting and complete feed refusal (Haschek et al., 2002; Trenholm et al., 1988).. Feed refusal and emesis appear to be due to neurochemical imbalances in the brain, which have been shown to not be due to taste or learned responses (Prelusky, 1997). ...
Interpretive Summary: Abstract - no summary required. Technical Abstract: Xenobiotic compounds such as phytochemicals, microbial metabolites, and agrochemicals can impact the diversity and frequency of fungal species occurring in agricultural environments. Resistance to xenobiotics may allow plant pathogenic fungi to dominate the overall fungal community, with potential negative impacts on crop yield and value. The mycotoxigenic Fusarium verticillioides is such a fungus commonly associated with maize worldwide, often contaminating maize kernels with the fumonisin mycotoxins. The dominance of F. verticillioides as an endophyte may be due in part to its ability to metabolize phytoprotectants produced by maize. The benzoxazinoids and benzoxazolinones are broad spectrum allelopathic, antimicrobial, and anti-herbivory compounds from maize, yet F. verticillioides can rapidly biotransform these phytochemicals into non-toxic metabolites. We have identified the genes responsible for the biotransformation ...
Ruth has served on the faculty of the Department of Plant Pathology at the University of Minnesota for over 26 years. Her research program, focused on the diseases of cereal crops, is internationally recognized for work on Fusarium head blight (FHB or scab). Ruth has conducted research on net blotch of barley, loose smut of oat, and the root rots of cereals, while maintaining an interest in the rusts she studied as a PhD student. Recently, Ruths research program expanded to include work on bacterial leaf streak of wheat and barley. Ruths interests in plant pathology are in the management of plant diseases through the deployment of host resistance, cultural control practices, and plant disease epidemiology.. Ruth began her faculty career facing the challenge of working on FHB, following the reemergence of this devastating disease of wheat and barley in the U.S. Her research has contributed to the efforts to develop best management practices for the control of FHB through examining the effect of ...
ID K3VS66_FUSPC Unreviewed; 493 AA. AC K3VS66; DT 28-NOV-2012, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 28-NOV-2012, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 29. DE SubName: Full=Uncharacterized protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EKJ78129.1}; GN ORFNames=FPSE_01590 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EKJ78129.1}; OS Fusarium pseudograminearum (strain CS3096) (Wheat and barley crown-rot OS fungus). OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Ascomycota; Pezizomycotina; OC Sordariomycetes; Hypocreomycetidae; Hypocreales; Nectriaceae; OC Fusarium. OX NCBI_TaxID=1028729 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EKJ78129.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000007978}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EKJ78129.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000007978} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=CS3096 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EKJ78129.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000007978}; RX PubMed=23028337; DOI=10.1371/journal.ppat.1002952; RA Gardiner D.M., McDonald M.C., Covarelli L., Solomon P.S., Rusu A.G., RA Marshall M., Kazan K., Chakraborty S., McDonald B.A., Manners J.M.; RT ...
Mycoprotein reduces energy intake and postprandial insulin release without altering glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine concentrations in healthy overweight and obese adults: a randomised-controlled trial - Volume 116 Issue 2 - Jeanne H. Bottin, Jonathan R. Swann, Eleanor Cropp, Edward S. Chambers, Heather E. Ford, Mohammed A. Ghatei, Gary S. Frost