Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 15:1268-1276...Kaihei Kojima , Taisei Kikuchi , Yoshitaka Takano , Eriko Oshiro , and Tetsuro Okuno...© 2002 The American Phytopathological Society...Colletotrichum lagenarium, the causal agent of cucumber anthracnose, invades host plants by forming a specialized infection structure called an appressorium. In this fungus, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene CMK1 is involved in several steps of the infection process, including appres...
The intracellular colonization of living cells involves an extended exposure of fungal structures to plasma membrane-localized PRRs and the subsequent activation of immune responses such as MTI. The ubiquitous expression of PRRs, such as FLS2, throughout different tissues (Robatzek et al., 2006) suggests that signaling processes are conserved in leaves and roots. The first evidence supporting this proposition was provided by Millet et al. (2010); further characterization of root MTI is presented here (Figs. 3 and 4; Supplemental Fig. S5). We demonstrate that P. indica efficiently suppressed the immune response triggered by various MAMPs (e.g. chitin, flg22, elf18). We decided to use flg22 for our studies as it represents the best-studied MAMP in leaves and thus allows a more detailed comparison of leaf with root MTI. In contrast to Millet et al. (2010), we observed flg22-induced callose deposition in all root zones, including the MZ (Fig. 3C). This might be explained by the different incubation ...
see also: protective structure surrounding some species of bacteria and fungi. Note that FMA has classes such as Articular capsule that are not subtypes of Capsule (which is undefined in FMA). GO has capsule which is a fungal structure, and external encapsulating structure which is restricted to cells. ...
Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is the only commercially cultivated plant for producing natural rubber, one of the most essential industrial raw materials. Knowledge of the evolutionary and functional characteristics of kinases in H. brasiliensis is limited because of the long growth period and lack of well annotated genome information. Here, we reported mitogen-activated protein kinases in H. brasiliensis (HbMPKs) by manually checking and correcting the rubber tree genome. Of the 20 identified HbMPKs, four members were validated by proteomic data. Protein motif and phylogenetic analyses classified these members into four known groups comprising Thr-Glu-Tyr (TEY) and Thr-Asp-Tyr (TDY) domains, respectively. Evolutionary and syntenic analyses suggested four duplication events: HbMPK3/HbMPK6, HbMPK8/HbMPK9/HbMPK15, HbMPK10/HbMPK12 and HbMPK11/HbMPK16/HbMPK19. Expression profiling of the identified HbMPKs in roots, stems, leaves and latex obtained from three cultivars with different latex yield ability
Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis cubense is a soilborne phytopathogen that infects banana. The true evolutionary identity of this so called species, Fusarium oxysporum, is still unknown. Many techniques have been applied in order to gain insight for the observed genetic diversity of this species. The current classification system is based on vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). Vegetative compatibility is a self non-self recognition system in which only those belonging to a VCG can form stable heterokaryons, cells containing two distinct nuclei. Heterokaryons in turn, are formed from hypha! anastomosis, the fusion of two hyphae. Furthermore, subsequent to heterokaryon formation potential mechanisms exist which may generate genetic variability. One is through viral transfer upon hyphal anastomosis. The other mechanism is a form of mitotic recombination referred to as the parasexual cycle. Very little research has been performed to directly obser.ve the cellular events; hypha! anastomosis,
Anthracnose (fungus -Colletotrichum graminicola): This disease is more likely to occur in Southeast Texas during August on coastal Bermudagrass. Symptoms that occur during cool, wet weather differ from those that occur during warm, dry weather. During cool, wet periods, a basal stem rot may occur. During warm weather, especially the soil is dry and the bermudagrass canopy and atmosphere are wet or very humid, the pathogen readily colonizes older leaves and hastens leaf and tiller senescence. Sometimes, the pathogen causes oblong, reddish-brown leaf lesions. Tiny black fungal structures with erect, minute black spines can often be seen with a hand lens on infected dead leaf and stem tissue.. Rust (fungus - Puccinia cynodontis): Rust is an occasional problem that usually results in little damage. Occasionally, minor diseases become severe when certain factors are right for disease development. When rust occurs on forage bermudagrass, it should be immediately cut for hay or grazed heavily. This ...
that causes rots of other plant parts including roots and stems (KSPP, 2009; Seo and Kim, 2017).. Histopathological features of the cucurbit root tissues in relation to DI were characterized by the formation of functional xylem vessels structurally intact, accompanying fungal structures (hyphae and/or spores) in the stele and cortex together with the formation of defense structures such as tyloses and xylem mucilage (or phenolic compounds) in variable degrees depending on the cucurbits infected by FI alone. However, the root tissues of the cucurbits infected by FI in combination with RKN showed the defense structures reduced, accompanied by formation of giant cells at variable development stages and with cytoplasmic depletion. Fusarium wilt pathogens begin their infection by penetrating root surfaces and invading into the vascular tissue in the stele, in which the disease development is determined by the time in the formation of the defense structures and their quantities (Crews et al., 2003; ...
DNA EXTRACTION FROM FUNGI IN SOIL often fails because of humic substances that are co-extracted with the DNA and subsequently inhibit PCR analyses. Moreover, it is difficult to release the fungal DNA because of the diverse fungal structures residing in soil. Since available DNA extraction protocols and commercial kits are expensive or time-consuming, we have devised a superior method by testing different components of these procedures on grapevine nursery soils. The best DNA yield and sensitivity were obtained by a short and easy extraction method with sodium dodecyl sulphate buffer using the FastPrep homogenizer. An easy-to-prepare spin column with polyvinylpoly-pyrrolidone was developed to remove PCR inhibitors. In the presence of bovine serum albumin, PCR reactions were possible without further dilutions of the DNA. Our method was more sensitive for detecting Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, the organism responsible for Petri grapevine decline, and Cylindrocarpon black-foot pathogens in grapevine ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 23:103-111...Ayumu Sakaguchi, Toshihiko Miyaji, Gento Tsuji, and Yasuyuki Kubo...© 2010 The American Phytopathological Society...Kelch repeat proteins are conserved in diverse organisms and some are known to mediate fundamental cellular functions. We isolated the gene CoKEL1, encoding a novel kelch repeat protein, from Colletotrichum orbiculare. Analysis of a cokel1 mutant indicated that CoKEL1 is involved in proper appresso...
To further characterize the PMK1 MAP kinase pathway in Magnaporthe, two genes identified in a subtraction library enriched for genes regulated by PMK1 were characterized functionally in this study. Both GAS1 and GAS2 are highly expressed during appressorium formation and rich in Ala and Gly. Interestingly, there is a putative protein kinase C phosphorylation site (Figure 1) that is well conserved among GAS1, GAS2, and their homologs from other fungi. In Magnaporthe, pharmacological studies had indicated that protein kinase C may be involved in appressorium formation (Eckhard et al., 1998).. GAS1 or GAS2 or both are dispensable for mycelial growth, conidiation, and sexual reproduction, but they are important for appressorial penetration and lesion development. In Magnaporthe, several genes, such as MPG1, PTH11, and ABC1, are dispensable for vegetative growth and sexual or asexual reproduction but play important roles in appressorium formation and plant infection. Mutants disrupted in MPG1, a ...
At 11:17 AM 5/17/01 -0800, Karen Larison wrote: ,We first embed them in a ,melted agar-sucrose matrix, which allows us to orient them very ,precisely within the block for serial sectioning. Karen, What is the formula for the agar and sucrose? I am interested in trying this. Do you need to let the tissues infiltrate in the agar for a while? Connie McManus We then let the ,block solidify and then sink it in in sucrose before sectioning. The ,nice thing about these agar blocks is that they ribbon nicely. You ,can cut a series of sections with the antiroll plate, then use a ,brush to straighten them out, and then pick them up. Using this ,method, we are better able to position these tiny sections on a ,slide, we are less likely to experience leaping sections, and we ,can get 70-100 sections on one slide in very short order! , ,We also use Tissue Freezing Medium (made by TBS, available from ,Fisher Scientific) to adhere our agar block to the chuck, and find ,that this curls less, and appears to ...
We are frequently asked about our take on vaccinations. For the record, We recommend routine childhood vaccination without any reservation. Vaccines save millions of lives every year. Getting your child immunized is as important as breastfeeding, protecting them from the elements, feeding them a nutritious diet, holding their hand while crossing the street etc.. For those who are concerned about the impact of multiple shots at a time, we would be happy to modify the schedule as per your request. Additional charges may apply for the vaccine only visits as additional staff time is required to fulfill such requests.. For those who choose to not vaccinate at all, we can no longer accommodate new non-vaccinating patients at our office.. For patients who are going to vaccinate on an altered schedule from what the CDC recommeneds, we will ask you to sign a vaccine refusal form, without any alterations. You will be given an opportunity to write your comments on the form. This form, signed by you and ...
We set out to investigate how the appressorium causes plant infection. We first carried out live-cell imaging of the actin cytoskeleton during appressorium maturation by expressing the actin-binding protein gene fusion, LifeAct-RFP (where RFP is red fluorescent protein) (4), in M. oryzae. This revealed an extensive toroidal F-actin network at the base of the infection cell surrounding the appressorium pore (Fig. 1A), a circular region that marks the point at which the penetration peg emerges to rupture the leaf cuticle (2). The appressorium pore initially lacks a cell wall, and the fungal plasma membrane makes direct contact with the rice leaf surface (2). Then, as the appressorium inflates to full turgor (with a mean diameter of 8.0 μm), a pore wall overlay develops, and a narrow (780-nm mean diameter) penetration peg emerges. Assembly of an F-actin network during appressorium turgor generation, just before plant infection, suggests that specific reorientation of the F-actin cytoskeleton takes ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of phosphatase localization in the intraradical hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus spp. and Gigaspora spp.. AU - Ezawa, Tatsuhiro. AU - Saito, Masanori. AU - Yoshida, Tomio. PY - 1995/9/1. Y1 - 1995/9/1. N2 - The localization of acid and alkaline phosphatases in the intraradical hyphae of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus mosseae (Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerd. and Trappe (Gm), Gl. etunicatum Becker and Gerd. (Ge) and Gigaspora rosea Nicol. and Schenck (Gir) were compared. Marigold (Tagetes patula L.) and leek (Allium porrum L.) were inoculated with each of the three fungi. The mycorrhizal roots were harvested at 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks after sowing (WAS), treated with a digestion solution containing cellulase and pectinase, and then stained for phosphatase activities at pH 5.0 and pH 8.5. The development of fungal structures in the host root was also examined. Gm formed fine-branched (mature) arbuscules only at the early phase of infection (3 to 4 WAS). Mature ...
We have analyzed the karyotype of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea, by using pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis. We tested whether the electrophoretic karyotype of an isolate was related to its pathotype, as determined by infection assays, or its genetic lineage, as determined by DNA fingerprinting. Highly reproducible electrophoretic karyotypes were obtained for a collection of U.S. and Chinese isolates representing a diverse collection of pathotypes and genetic lineages. Chromosomes ranged in size from 3 to 10 Mb. Although chromosome number was largely invariant, chromosome length polymorphisms were frequent. Minichromosomes were also found, although their presence was not ubiquitous. They ranged in number from 1 to 3 and in size from 470 kb to 2.2 Mb. Karyotypes were sufficiently variable as to obscure the obvious relatedness of isolates on the basis of pathogenicity assays or genetic lineage analysis by DNA fingerprinting. We documented that the electrophoretic karyotype of an isolate ...
Magnaporthe grisea[8] maoy kaliwatan sa uhong kay sakop sa division nga Ascomycota, ug nga una nga gihulagway ni T.T. Hebert, ug nga gihatagan sa eksakto nga ngalan ni Margaret E. Barr ni adtong 1977. Ang Magnaporthe grisea kay sakop sa henero nga Magnaporthe, ug pamilya nga Magnaporthaceae.[9][10] Walay nalista nga matang nga sama niini.[9]. ...
is initiated by conidial attachment on host surfaces followed by conidial germination. Via recognition of physical cues on the rice surface, such as hydrophobicity and surface hardness, emerging germ tubes initiate formation of a specialized infection structure, called the appressorium, within 4-6 hours (Hamer and Talbot, 1998; Howard and Valent, 1996). The appressorium is a dome-shaped cell that enables the fungus to penetrate the rice leaf surface. Enormous turgor pressure (8 MPa) builds up inside the melanized appressorium due to high glycerol concentration, which drives penetration of the plant surface. After successful infection of plant tissues, visible symptoms appear rapidly. Over two decades of research has unequivocally established the involvement of several signaling pathways, including the cyclic AMP-dependent (Adachi and Hamer, 1998; Lee and Dean, 1993; Mitchell and Dean, 1995; Xu and Hamer, 1996), calcium-dependent (Choi et al., 2009a, 2009b; Liu and Kolattukudy, 1999; Nguyen et ...
In sclerotia producing species (mexicana,tampensis and atlantis are all i know off...) , is sclerotia as potent as the fruits ? or does it change due to specimen? Ive never tried (any) sclerotia
The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea develops specialized infection structures known as appressoria, which develop enormous turgor pressure to bring about plant infection. Turgor is generated by accumulation of compatible solutes, including glycerol, which is synthesized in large quantities in the appressorium. Glycogen, trehalose and lipids represent the most abundant storage products in M. grisea conidia. Trehalose and glycogen are rapidly degraded during conidial germination and it is known that trehalose synthesis is required for virulence of the fungus. Lipid bodies are transported to the developing appressoria and degraded at the onset of turgor generation, in a process that is cAMP-dependent. A combined biochemical and genetic approach is being used to dissect the process of turgor generation in the rice blast fungus.. ...
Principal Investigator:KAMAKURA Takashi, Project Period (FY):1998 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Applied molecular and cellular biology
Mengyu Zhang is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: The Plant Infection Test: Spray and Wound-Mediated Inoculation with the Plant Pathogen Magnaporthe Grisea
We report the cloning and characterisation of Pot2, a putative transposable element from Magnaporthe grisea. The element is 1857 bp in size, has 43-bp perfect terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) and 16-bp direct repeats within the TIRs. A large open reading frame, potentially coding for a transposase-l …
To cause rice blast disease, the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae breaches the tough outer cuticle of the rice leaf by using specialized infection structures called appressoria. These cells allow the fungus to invade the host plant and proliferate rapidly within leaf tissue. Here, we show that a unique NADPH-dependent genetic switch regulates plant infection in response to the changing nutritional and redox conditions encountered by the pathogen. The biosynthetic enzyme trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1) integrates control of glucose-6-phosphate metabolism and nitrogen source utilization by regulating the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, the generation of NADPH, and the activity of nitrate reductase. We report that Tps1 directly binds to NADPH and, thereby, regulates a set of related transcriptional corepressors, comprising three proteins, Nmr1, Nmr2, and Nmr3, which can each bind NADP. Targeted deletion of any of the Nmr-encoding genes partially suppresses the nonpathogenic phenotype of a Δtps1 mutant
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
During the biosynthesis of fungal melanin, tetrahydroxynaphthalene reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene (T4HN) into (+)-scytalone and 1,3,8-trihydroxynaphthalene into (-)-vermelone. The enzyme from Magnaporthe grisea, the fungus responsible for rice bl …
Gray leaf spot, caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of maize worldwide. C. zeae-maydis orients hyphal growth towards stomata (stomatal tropism) and forms infectious structures (appressoria) that are necessary for successful infection. Although some genes involved in pathogenesis in C. zeae-maydis have been identified, the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. In fungi, heterotrimeric G-proteins consist of three subunits (α, β, and γ) and mediate responses to environmental stimuli. They regulate diverse functions, including nutrient detection, virulence, fungal development, conidiation, secondary metabolism, and pathogenesis in many plant pathogenic fungi. This research explored the role of each G-protein α (Gpα) subunit of C. zeae-maydis in pathogenesis. To this end, the three Gpα subunits identified in C. zeae-maydis were functionally characterized. All three Gpα genes were required for appressorium formation and pathogenesis. Additionally,
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利用者は、研究成果の公表にあたって寄託者の指定する文献を引用する (Natsume, T., Cell Reports, 15: 210-218, 2016)。学術研究にのみ限定、商業営利目的利用を禁ずる。学術内部利用以外の利用の際は、国立遺伝学研究所 ([email protected]) に連絡すること ...
MiiNDT是全友電腦公司專為搭配本公司各型NDT掃描儀所開發的影像檔案管理系統,提供非破壞性檢測相關之作業人員一個具備完整功能,操作簡單,且安裝、使用及維護...more ...
Protein-protein interaction (PPI) maps are useful tools for investigating the cellular functions of genes. Thus far, large-scale PPI mapping projects have not been implemented for the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea, which is responsible for the most severe rice disease. Inspired by recent advances in PPI prediction, we constructed a PPI map of this important fungus. Using a well-recognized interolog approach, we have predicted 11,674 interactions among 3,017 M. grisea proteins. Although the scale of the constructed map covers approximately only one-fourth of the M. griseas proteome, it is the first PPI map for this crucial organism and will therefore provide new insights into the functional genomics of the rice blast fungus. Focusing on the network topology of proteins encoded by known pathogenicity genes, we have found that pathogenicity proteins tend to interact with higher numbers of proteins. The pathogenicity proteins and their interacting partners in the entire network were then used to
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthetic studies of salicylaldehyde-type phytotoxins isolated from rice blast fungus. AU - Kiyota, Hiromasa. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - The rice blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae is a causative agent of rice blast decease. P. oryzae produces several salicylaldehyde-type phytotoxins depending on the fermentation method: i.e., pyriculol (1), dihydropyriculol (2) and pyriculone (5) from shaking cultures; and pyriculariol (8) and dihydropyriculariol (9) from aeration and agitation cultures in a soy sauce-sucrose medium. Chemical studies of these phytotoxins including total synthesis, structure-elucidation, biosynthesis and structure-activity relationships are described. The absolute configuration of pyriculol (1) and epipyriculol (3) were established by the total synthesis of possible diastereomers. (R)- Pyricuol (7) has a nature-identical configuration as demonstrated by preparation of both enantiomers from (R)- and (S)-lactate respectively, via [2,3]-Wittig rearrangement and ...
In this study we could show that formation of retraction septa in U. maydis infectious hyphae depends on the diaphanous-related formin Drf1. Drf1 acts as an effector of the small GTPase Cdc42 and is together with the Cdc42-GEF Don1 and the Ste20-like kinase Don3 required for the formation of a contractile actomyosin ring during septation. Remarkably, non-septated infectious hyphae, that have exceeded a certain length, are unable to form appressoria, while short hyphae lacking retraction septa form appressoria. This led to a significant reduction in the formation of functional infection structures and thus explains the attenuated virulence of drf1, don1 and don3 mutants.. Formins are major players in actin organisation. The genome of U. maydis encodes along with the diaphanous-related formin Drf1, a second formin, Srf1, which belongs to the subfamily of SepA-related formins (MIPS U. maydis data base) [29]. While srf1 is an essential gene (B. Sandrock, unpublished data), we found that drf1 ...
The fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei develops on the barley leaf via distinct, morphologically well-defined stages. After landing on a host plant, the conidia rapidly germinate to form a primary germ tube. Subsequently, an appressorial germ tube emerges from the conidium and differentiates an appressorium from which penetration of the host cell wall is attempted. We have used serial analysis of gene expression to provide a measurement of messenger RNA contents in ungerminated conidia, during conidial germination, and during appressorium formation. The resulting data provide a resource for the characterization of changes in transcript accumulation during early development of B. graminis.. ...
Members of the class Calcarea are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into either coeloblastula or amphiblastula larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge (Ref. 833). ...
ABSTRACT Powdery mildew disease on poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima) growing in commercial greenhouses was first observed in the United States in 1990 and has become an economically significant problem for poinsettia growers in the Midwest and northern United States since 1992. The temporal development of infection structures produced by conidial germ tubes of the pathogen (Oidium sp.) and the effect of high temperature on their development were investigated using poinsettia leaf disks placed in humidity chambers. Observations were made using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. At 20 degrees C (85% relative humidity), conidia germinated and formed an appressorium within 6 h of inoculation. Germination over time followed a monomolecular curve (r(2) = 0.77, P |/= 0.0001). Within 24 h postinoculation, germinated conidia had formed secondary germ tubes and a haustorium. The percentage of germinated conidia with appressoria and one or more secondary germ tubes increased linearly with time (r
Aimed at developing novel fungicides for relieving the ever-increasing pressure of agricultural production caused by phytopathogenic fungi, 28 new hydrazone derivatives of carabrone, a natural bioactive sesquisterpene, in three types were designed, synthesized and their antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum lagenarium were evaluated. The result revealed that all the derivatives synthesized exhibited considerable antifungal activities in vitro and in vivo, which led to the improved activities for carabrone and its analogues and further confirmed their potential as antifungal agents.
Dicer-like endonuclease which seems not to be involved in cleaving double-stranded RNA in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, contrary to its DCL2 counterpart.
ID A0A076MGV6_AMYME Unreviewed; 538 AA. AC A0A076MGV6; DT 29-OCT-2014, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 29-OCT-2014, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 27. DE RecName: Full=Chromosomal replication initiator protein DnaA {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00377, ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU000577}; GN Name=dnaA {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00377, GN ECO:0000313,EMBL:AIJ20093.1}; GN ORFNames=AMETH_0001 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AIJ20093.1}; OS Amycolatopsis methanolica 239. OC Bacteria; Actinobacteria; Pseudonocardiales; Pseudonocardiaceae; OC Amycolatopsis. OX NCBI_TaxID=1068978 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AIJ20093.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000062973}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AIJ20093.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000062973} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=239 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AIJ20093.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000062973}; RA Tang B.; RT Whole Genome Sequence of the Amycolatopsis methanolica 239.; RL Submitted (JUL-2014) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases. CC -!- FUNCTION: ...
1E5Q: Crystal Structure of Saccharopine Reductase from Magnaporthe Grisea, an Enzyme of the Alpha-Aminoadipate Pathway of Lysine Biosynthesis
PLoS Pathogens: Sequential Delivery of Host-Induced Virulence Effectors by Appressoria and Intracellular Hyphae of the Phytopathogen Colletotrichum ...
View Notes - CHM 2046L Lab Report #1 from CHM 2046 at University of Central Florida. Measurement and Proper Use of Glassware Brett Larose Coworkers: Adam & Kelly CHM 2046L Section # 19
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