TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of the oral direct renin inhibitor aliskiren in patients with symptomatic heart failure.. AU - McMurray, John J V. AU - Pitt, Bertram. AU - Latini, Roberto. AU - Maggioni, Aldo P.. AU - Solomon, Scott D.. AU - Keefe, Deborah L.. AU - Ford, Jessica. AU - Verma, Anil. AU - Lewsey, Jim. AU - Aliskiren Observation of Heart Failure Treatment (ALOFT) Investigators, Observation of Heart Failure Treatment (ALOFT) Investigators. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - Loss of negative feedback inhibition of renin release during chronic treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor leads to a compensatory rise in renin secretion and downstream components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) cascade. This may overcome ACE inhibition but should be blocked by a direct renin inhibitor. We studied the effects of adding the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren to an ACE inhibitor in patients with heart failure. Patients with New York Heart Association class II to IV heart ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electromechanical effects of the direct renin inhibitor (aliskiren) on the pulmonary vein and atrium. AU - Tsai, Chin Feng. AU - Chen, Yao Chang. AU - Lin, Yung Kuo. AU - Chen, Shih Ann. AU - Chen, Yi Jen. PY - 2011/11. Y1 - 2011/11. N2 - Activation of the atrial renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF). The pulmonary vein (PV) and left atrium (LA) are important trigger and substrate for the genesis of AF. We investigate the effects of a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, on the PV and LA arrhythmogenic activity and the underlying electromechanical mechanisms. Conventional microelectrodes were used to record action potentials and contractility in isolated rabbit PVs and LA tissues before and after the administration of aliskiren (0.1, 1, 3 and 10 μM). By the whole-cell patch clamp and indo-1 fluorimetric ratio techniques, ionic currents and intracellular calcium transient were studied in isolated single PV and LA ...
Dimethyl fumarate is a fungal growth inhibitor for tomato juice Dimethyl fumarate is an ester and an , -unsaturated electrophilic compound, undergoing reactions typical to them. It is also a diene acceptor in the ordinary Diels-Alder reaction, where the reactivity of its vinylidenic bond is enchanced by the two electron-withdrawing ester groups. Due to the geometry of the starting ester, the Diels-Alder product will have a trans configuration. Dimethyl fumarate is used to treat psoriasis. It is a lipophilic, highly mobile molecule in human tissue. However, as an , -unsaturated ester, dimethyl fumarate reacts rapidly with the detoxifying agent glutathione by Michael addition. When administered orally, it does not survive long enough to be absorbed into ...
Dimethyl Fumarate - Get up-to-date information on Dimethyl Fumarate side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Dimethyl Fumarate
Dimethyl fumarate, molecular model. This chemical is used to treat the skin disorder psoriasis and as a mould inhibitor. However, at the very low levels used for mould prevention in consumer products, such as furniture, it can cause a severe allergic rash in individuals sensitive to it. In the European Union the use of dimethyl fumarate in consumer products has been banned since 1998. Atoms are represented as spheres are colour-coded: carbon (black), oxygen (red) and hydrogen (grey). - Stock Image C003/5875
Sca-1 and VEGFR-2 positive pro-angiogenic cells (PAC) predict outcome of patients with vascular disease. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system impairs PAC function. The effects of the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren on PAC numbers a
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteinuria with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis. AU - Ogilvie,S.. AU - Lewis Jones,S.. AU - Dawe,R.. AU - Foerster,J.. PY - 2011/8. Y1 - 2011/8. N2 - Fumaric acid esters (FAE) have been used in the treatment of psoriasis for many years. In general, they are regarded as relatively safe compared with other antipsoriatic systemic treatments, with the most notable adverse effects being gastrointestinal upset, lymphopenia and transient flushing. Renal toxicity has only rarely been reported, and was not found in two independent prospective trials nor in a large retrospective evaluation of almost 1000 patients treated for a median of 44 months. We report three patients developing reversible proteinuria during FAE treatment. One of these displayed the same pattern upon repeated drug administration, thereby clearly indicating FAE treatment to be the causal trigger. The presented cases highlight proteinuria as a clinical concern in FAE treatment. Furthermore, as the novel FAE ...
Company: Biogen Idec Oral medication taken daily - twice or three times daily in clinical trials Tecfidera is being studied in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) Tecfidera™ (dimethyl fumarate or DMF, formerly known as BG-12) is an oral fumaric acid ester, related to a medication called Fumaderm® which was previously shown to be effective in patients with psoriasis,…
China Fumaric Acid, Find details about China Fumaric, Fumaric Acid from Fumaric Acid - Changsha Green Mountain Chemical Co., Ltd.
The RAAS is an important pharmacologic target as the system is involved in cardiovascular (CV) and renovascular disease. Ang II is the key component of RAAS. The interven..
Although fumaric acid esters (FAE) have a decade-long firm place in the therapeutic armamentarium for psoriasis, their pleiotropic mode of action is not yet fully understood. While most previous studies have focused on the effects of FAE on leucocytes, we have addressed their activity on macro- and microvascular endothelial cells. As detected both on mRNA and protein levels, dimethylfumarate effected a profound reduction of TNFα-induced expression of E-selectin (CD62E), ICAM-1 (CD54) and VCAM-1 (CD106) on two different endothelial cell populations in a concentration-dependent manner. This reduction of several endothelial adhesion molecules was accompanied by a dramatic diminution of both rolling and firm adhesive interactions between endothelial cells and lymphocytes in a dynamic flow chamber system. Dimethylfumarate, at a concentration of 50 μm, reduced lymphocyte rolling on endothelial cells by 85.9% (P,0.001 compared to untreated controls), and it diminished the number of adherent cells by ...
WESTON, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Today Biogen Idec (NASDAQ: BIIB) announced positive data from the Phase 3 DEFINE clinical trial of oral BG-12 (dimethyl fumarate) in people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Results showed that 240 mg of BG-12, administered either twice a day (BID) or three times a day (TID), significantly reduced the proportion of patients who relapsed by 49 percent and 50 percent, respectively, at two years compared with placebo.
WESTON, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Today Biogen Idec (NASDAQ: BIIB) announced positive top-line results from CONFIRM, the second of two pivotal Phase 3 clinical trials designed to evaluate the investigational oral compound BG-12 (dimethyl fumarate) in people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Results showed that 240 mg of BG-12, administered either twice a day (BID) or three times a day (TID), demonstrated significant efficacy and favorable safety and tolerability profiles.
TECFIDERA (Dimethyl Fumarate) Approved in the European Union as a First-Line Oral Treatment for Multiple Sclerosis Biogen Idec to Begin Launching TECFIDERA in Initial EU Countries in the Coming Weeks...
CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Today Biogen Idec (NASDAQ: BIIB) announced that five-year results from the ENDORSE Phase 3 extension study show TECFIDERA® (dimethyl fumarate) provides strong and sustained efficacy in a broad range of people living with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). These data will be presented at the Sixth Triennial Joint Meeting of the Americas Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis and the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ACTRIMS-ECTRIMS).
2 November 2011 In 2008, several hundred cases of acute allergic skin reactions (eczema, irritative and allergic dermatitis), some of which were severe, were reported in France and other European countries. These cases mainly occurred after people had been exposed to various items treated with dimethyl fumarate (DMFu), the vast majority of which were imported products (shoes, sofas and armchairs) on which this substance had been used for its anti-mould properties.
TECFIDERA (Dimethyl fumarate) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
Fumaric acid has been used as a food acidulant since 1946. It is approved for use as a food additive in the EU,[3] USA[4] and Australia and New Zealand.[5] As a food additive, it is used as an acidity regulator and can be denoted by the E number E297. It is generally used in beverages and baking powders for which requirements are placed on purity. Fumaric acid is used in the making of wheat tortillas as a food preservative and as the acid in leavening.[6] It is generally used as a substitute for tartaric acid and occasionally in place of citric acid, at a rate of 1 g of fumaric acid to every ~1.5 g of citric acid, in order to add sourness, similarly to the way malic acid is used. As well as being a component of some artificial vinegar flavors, such as "Salt and Vinegar" flavored potato chips,[7] it is also used as a coagulant in stove-top pudding mixes. The European Commission Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition, part of DG Health, found in 2014 that fumaric acid is "practically non-toxic" ...
The National Multiple Sclerosis Society reports that a drug similar to Tecfidera, called Fumaderm, active ingredients dimethyl fumarate and fumaric acid ester, has been used in Europe for decades in the treatment of psoriasis.. Fumaderm and Psorinovo, dimethyl fumarate with copper, have been associated with PML in psoriasis patients in Europe, according to MultipleSclerosis.net. The New England Journal of Medicine has case reports of patients on these drugs, fumaric acid and Psorinovo, developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after having been on these medications for several years.. FiercePharma reports the maker of Tecfidera, Biogen Idec, removed a previous MS drug, Tysabri, from the market for a period of time after patients taking it developed PML.. ...
Solomon SD, Appelbaum E, Manning WJ, et al; Aliskiren in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (ALLAY) Trial Investigators. Effect of the direct Renin inhibitor aliskiren, the Angiotensin receptor blocker losartan, or both on left ventricular mass in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Circulation 2009; 119: 530-537 ...
This weeks Neurology Today published a story on PML in patients taking dimethyl fumarate. There have been a total of 4 patients in Europe. Each of the patients had severe and prolonged lymphocytopenia - low lymphocyte counts in their blood. All of them recovered after being taken off fumarates. Severe lympocytopenia occurs in 3% of patients taking fumarates. One of the patients had also been treated with methotrexate, another with steroids. Robert Fox MD interviewed for this story thought that either infection or a significantly altered immune system might be the culprit rather than the fumarate itself. The cause of lymphocytopenia is not yet known, especially since the mechanism of action of fumarates is suppression of oxidative stress, not immunosuppression per se ...
Angiotensin II is thought to participate in aneurysm formation, because of its ability to induce and perpetuate inflammation in the aortic wall. Because activation of renin is the first step of the renin-angiotensin system, renin inhibition could inhibit all components of this system effectively. Therefore, we examined the hypothesis that direct inhibition of renin activity could decrease the expansion of aortic aneurysm using a rabbit model. Aortic dilatation was induced by incubation with elastase around the rabbit abdominal aorta. Continuous administration of a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, was started at 1 week before incubation with elastase and continued for 5 weeks. Treatment with aliskiren markedly inhibited tissue renin activation and resulted in a significant reduction in angiotensin I and II production in the aneurysm wall. Consequently, the inhibition of renin activity prevented the expansion of experimental aortic aneurysm associated with preservation of the medial layer, ...
This study is the first to investigate the use of other antihypertensive therapies in combination with HCTZ in a population of obese patients with hypertension who have failed to achieve BP control with HCTZ monotherapy. The addition of aliskiren (150 mg) to treatment with HCTZ (25 mg) for 4 weeks provided a significant additional BP reduction (msSBP/DBP) of 4.4/2.5 mm Hg compared with continuing treatment with HCTZ alone, and increasing the dose of aliskiren to 300 mg for 4 weeks increased the treatment difference to 7.2/4.0 mm Hg. The additional BP reduction provided by combining aliskiren with HCTZ treatment almost doubled the rate of BP control in obese hypertensive patients at 12 weeks (58.4% versus 33.3% with HCTZ alone). The antihypertensive effects of aliskiren were similar to those observed with irbesartan and amlodipine.. Combination with aliskiren suppressed the increase in renin system activity (PRA) caused by HCTZ, whereas irbesartan and amlodipine increased PRA further. Our results ...
Youll hear about a new antihypertensive called Tekturna, the first direct renin inhibitor.... Learn more with Pharmacists Letter.
[150 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global and Chinese Fumaric acid monoethyl ester (CAS 2459-05-4) Industry, 2016 Market Research Report report by Prof Research. The Global and Chinese Fumaric acid monoethyl ester Industry, 2011-...
[149 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Fumaric acid monoethyl ester (CAS 2459-05-4) Market Insights 2020, Global and Chinese Analysis and Forecast to 2025 report by Prof Research. Fumaric acid monoethyl ester Market Insights 2020, Global and Chinese...
This news release contains forward-looking statements, including statements made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, relating to the potential benefits, safety and efficacy of TECFIDERA and diroximel fumarate; potential clinical effects of TECFIDERA and diroximel fumarate; potential regulatory approval and the timing thereof; the results of certain real-world data; the clinical development program for diroximel fumarate; clinical trial results and plans; the potential of our commercial business and pipeline programs, including diroximel fumarate; the anticipated benefits and potential of our collaboration arrangements with Alkermes; and risks and uncertainties associated with drug development and commercialization. These forward-looking statements may be identified by words such as "aim," "anticipate," "believe," "could," "estimate," "except," "forecast," "goal," "intend," "may," "plan," "possible," "potential," "will," "would" and ...
We showed in this study that EP and DMF have in common a number of MS-relevant anti-inflammatory effects. Of major interest in this study is the suppressed release of T cell effector cytokines: IFN-γ and IL-17. These cytokines represent the markers of Th1 and Th17 cells, which have been considered the major driving force of inflammation and autoimmunity in MS (24). EP and DMF provoked a drop in macrophage release/production of cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) and reactive species (NO and ROS), which promote neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative events in MS. For example, it has been shown that IL-6 potentiates the resistance of effector T cells to regulatory T cells in MS (34), and that soluble TNF actively contributes to demyelination and axonal degeneration in EAE neuroinflammation (35). Likewise, NO and different ROS are involved in oligodendrocytes loss, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, T cell infiltration, and neurodegeneration (5). The essential role of macrophages in MS pathology via Ag ...
RESULTS: DMF reduced circulating memory B-cells regardless of ALC. Follicular T-helper cells (CD4+ CXCR5+) and mucosal invariant T-cells (CD8+ CD161+) were also reduced. DMF reduced T-cell production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to polyclonal (PMA/ionomycin) and viral peptide stimulation, regardless of ALC. No differences in activation-induced cell death or circulating progenitors were observed between lymphopenic and non-lymphopenic DMF-treated patients ...
Read about Tecfidera, an oral drug approved in both the U.S. and Europe for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis.
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Period 1(Day 1 to end of week 6): 1 tablet ramipril 10 mg once daily (o.d.) + 2 tablets placebo to aliskiren 150mg o.d. + 1 capsule Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 25 mg o.d.. Period 2 (Weeks 7 to 12): 1 tablet ramipril 10 mg o.d.+ 1 tablet aliskiren 150 mg in 1st week of period; thereafter, 2 tablets aliskiren 150mg o.d.+ 1 capsule HCTZ 25 mg o.d.. Period 3 (Weeks 13 to 18): 1 tablet ramipril 10 mg o.d. + 2 tablets aliskiren 150mg o.d. + 1 capsule placebo to HCTZ 25 mg o.d.. Period 4 (Weeks 19 to 26): 1 tablet ramipril 10 mg o.d. + 2 tablets placebo to aliskiren 150mg o.d. + 1 capsule placebo to HCTZ 25 mg o.d.. ...
Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in many neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimers disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsons as well as Huntingtons disease. Inflammation and oxidative stress are also thought to promote tissue damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent data point at an important role of anti-oxidative pathways for tissue protection in chronic-progressive MS, particularly involving the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Thus, novel therapeutics enhancing cellular resistance to free radicals could prove useful for MS treatment. Here, fumaric acid esters (FAE) are a new, orally available treatment option which had already been tested in phase II/III MS trials demonstrating beneficial effects on relapse rates and magnetic resonance imaging markers. In vitro, application of dimethylfumarate (DMF) leads to stabilization of Nrf2, activation of Nrf2-dependent transcriptional activity and abundant synthesis of detoxifying
Other drugs used to treat high blood pressure include angiotensin-receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors, vasodilators, and alpha blockers. Angiotensin-receptor blockers. Drugs known as angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) block the effects of angiotensin, a hormone that would otherwise cause arteries to constrict. They are similar to ACE inhibitors in their action and ability to both lower blood pressure and protect the kidneys, but may have fewer or less severe side effects, including cough. They may even improve sexual function in men. As with ACE inhibitors, ARBs should be considered the first choice for blood pressure medication when other conditions, such as heart failure, heart disease, and diabetes, are also present. They are also associated with increasing blood potassium and angioedema. They should be used with caution in people with advanced disease. Direct renin inhibitors. Aliskiren (Tekturna) has been approved for blood pressure control since 2007 as a stand-alone agent or in ...
The discrepant and partially independent effects of the various RAS peptides and enzymes on immune responses should allow discrete, optimized interventions to limit RAS-dependent inflammation in humans. AT2 receptor and Ang 1-7 agonists, if carefully engineered and tested in specific cardiovascular and renal disease contexts, may complement current ACEI and ARB treatment, possibly by mitigating the induction of inflammatory responses that can result from blocking AT1 receptors on immune cells. Inasmuch as noncanonic renin/prorenin signaling provokes inflammatory responses independently of Ang II, direct renin inhibition may similarly complement standard RAS blockade by suppressing immunity. In this regard, human studies confirm the favorable effects of direct renin inhibition on parameters of immune activation. For example, in 27 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and no nephropathy, treatment with aliskerin for 30 days reduced urinary excretion of IFN-α2 and IL-2.77 Similarly, in 30 ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) donne libre accès en ligne à des archives numériques fiables et permanentes qui contiennent le texte intégral de publications de recherches évaluées par des pairs en santé et en sciences de la vie. Il fait fond sur PubMed Central (PMC), les archives numériques gratuites des National Institutes of Health (NIH) des États-Unis qui proviennent de revues biomédicales et sur les sciences de la vie, et il est membre du réseau élargi PMC International (PMCI).
INTRODUCTION: We recently developed and validated in existing trials a novel algorithm (PRE score) to predict long-term drug efficacy based on short-term (month-6) drug-induced changes in multiple risk markers. To show the value of the PRE score for ongoing and planned clinical trials, we here report the predicted long-term cardio-renal efficacy of aliskiren in type 2 diabetes, which was investigated in the ALTITUDE trial, but unknown at the time this study was conducted. METHODS: We established the relation between multiple risk markers and cardio-renal endpoints (as defined in ALTITUDE) using a background database from past clinical trials. The short-term effect of aliskiren on multiple risk markers was taken from the AVOID trial. A PRE score was developed by multivariate Cox analysis in the background population and was then applied to the baseline and month-6 measurements of the aliskiren treatment arm of the AVOID trial to predict cardio-renal risk. The net risk difference at these ...
Diroximel fumarate (ALKS 8700) is an orally-active and well-tolerated monomethyl fumarate (MMF) prodrug in a controlled-release formulation. Diroximel fumarate is considered as active equivalent to its active metabolite dimethyl fumarate (DMF). Diroximel fumarate has a favorable safety and efficacy profile, has the potential for the study of multiple sclerosis (MS). - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Aliskiren is the first direct renin inhibitor approved for the treatment of hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) control in stage 2 hypertension with aliskiren monotherapy has not been reported. This was a post hoc analysis of the subgroup of patients with stage 2 systolic hypertension (baseline mean s …
This double-blind 8 week study will evaluate dose response, efficacy (blood pressure lowering effect) and safety of aliskiren in children 6 - 17 years old with hypertension at low, mid and high weight-based doses. The low dose ranges from 6.25 mg to 25 mg of aliskiren, the mid dose ranges from 37.5 mg to 150 mg of aliskiren and the high dose ranges from 150 mg to 600 mg of aliskiren. This study is being conducted to support monotherapy registration of aliskiren for the treatment of hypertension in children 6-17 years of age ...
4GJA: A novel class of oral direct Renin inhibitors: highly potent 3,5-disubstituted piperidines bearing a tricyclic p3-p1 pharmacophore.
4GJC: A novel class of oral direct Renin inhibitors: highly potent 3,5-disubstituted piperidines bearing a tricyclic p3-p1 pharmacophore.
Content provided by: Healthline. In late March of this year, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a Biogen Idec drug by the name of Tecfidera (dimethyl fumarate or BG-12) for on-label treatment of relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis. This long-awaited decision comes on the heels of research trials showing significant reduction in the number of MS relapses, the rate of disease progression, and the appearance of new lesions on MRIs among patients taking the pill.. The medical and pharmaceutical communities expect this FDA approval to make Tecfidera a blockbuster drug. According to a story in the New York Times, annual expected sales of this drug are expected to grow beyond its current market of over $8.5 billion in the U.S. alone. Canada recently gave it a seal of approval as well, and the drug is currently being examined for on-label use for MS in the European Union and Australia.. Are You a Good Candidate for Tecfidera?. Whether or not you could benefit from Tecfidera will depend on ...
Aliskiren (trade names Tekturna and Rasilez) is the first in a class of drugs called direct renin inhibitors. It is used for essential (primary) hypertension. While .... ...
Used for treating high blood pressure. It may be used alone or with other medicines. It is used along with other medicines to manage heart failure or improve survival after a heart attack. Aliskiren is a direct renin inhibitor. It works by relaxing blood vessels. This lowers blood pressure and helps the heart to pump blood more easily.
CoQ10 l-Carnitine fumarate Ultra-charged cardiovascular support l-Carnitine fumarate, recommended by leading U.S. cardiologists, is combined with CoQ10 for advanced cardiovascular energy support. In addition to being one of the most bioavailable forms of carnitine, l-carnitine fumarate provides fumaric acid, leading to a synergistic effect in cellular energy production in the mitochondria. l- Carnitine shuttles fatty acids across the mitochondria membrane where they are metabolized and promote the Krebs cycle. This stimulates the electron transport chain, which produces ATP, or energy, for the heart. Meanwhile, fumaric acid is a key constituent of the Krebs cycle, fueling this process even more. As a component of the electron transport chain, CoQ10 further augments the ATP synthesis and energy formation potential for this product. As a result, these nutrients play crucial roles in the energy dynamics of the heart, the most concentrated source of mitochondria and fatty acid utilization in the body.
Multiple sclerosis: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on MS at PatientsLikeMe. 67897 patients with MS experience stiffness/spasticity, fatigue, pain, bladder problems, and depressed mood and use Dimethyl fumarate, Glatiramer acetate, Teriflunomide, Natalizumab, and Fingolimod to treat their MS and its symptoms.
Multiple sclerosis: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on MS at PatientsLikeMe. 67766 patients with MS experience stiffness/spasticity, fatigue, pain, bladder problems, and depressed mood and use Dimethyl fumarate, Glatiramer acetate, Teriflunomide, Natalizumab, and Fingolimod to treat their MS and its symptoms.
We have previously identified compounds effective at producing modest increases in NQO1 enzymatic activity in human prostate cells in vitro [18, 19] and selected 4 compounds for testing whether they could produce induction of phase 2 enzyme activity in vivo. We selected sulforaphane, dimethyl fumarate and cucumin since they were among the most potent NQO1 inducing agents in prostate cells in vitro, have been reported to be monofunctional inducers (i.e. induce phase 2 enzymes primarily), and have been administered to animals without toxicity previously [11, 13, 20]. β-naphthoflavone, a bifunctional (phase 1 and 2) enzyme inducing compound, was selected because of its documented ability to induce phase 2 enzyme activity in rodent tissues in vivo and for comparison to the other compounds since it increased NQO1 activity to a lesser degree in the prostate cells in vitro [15].. We have demonstrated that orally administered agents can produce modest increases in phase 2 enzyme activity in prostate ...
A recent study found that patients taking dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera) had low counts of CD8+ T cells, though their overall levels of lymphocytes were within the normal range. The findings suggest that physicians may want to monitor specific lymphocyte levels in addition to doing full blood cell counts ...