TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of spinal cord alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammatory pain. AU - Park, Jang Su. AU - Yaster, Myron. AU - Guan, Xiaowei. AU - Xu, Ji Tian. AU - Shih, Ming Hung. AU - Guan, Yun. AU - Raja, Srinivasa N.. AU - Tao, Yuan Xiang. PY - 2008/12/30. Y1 - 2008/12/30. N2 - Spinal cord α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) mediate acute spinal processing of nociceptive and non-nociceptive information, but whether and how their activation contributes to the central sensitization that underlies persistent inflammatory pain are still unclear. Here, we examined the role of spinal AMPARs in the development and maintenance of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced persistent inflammatory pain. Intrathecal application of two selective non-competitive AMPAR antagonists, CFM-2 (25 and 50 μg) and GYKI 52466 (50 μg), significantly attenuated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivities ...
6-O-stearoyl-N-acetylmuramyl-alpha-aminobutyryl-isoglutamine: lipophilic muramyl dipeptide analog; RN given refers to (L-aminobutyryl-D-isoglutamine)-isomer
Processed Chuanwu (PCW), the mother root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux, has been widely used as a classic Traditional Chinese Medicine for pain relieve for over two millennia clinically. However, its action on chronic inflammatory pain has not been clarified. Here, we investigated the antinociceptive effect of PCW in complete freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced mice and its possible mechanisms associated with opioid system and TRPV1 ion channel. Male ICR mice were intraplantarly injected with CFA. PCW (0.34, 0.68 and 1.35 g/kg) was orally given to mice once a day for 7 days. Von frey hairs and plantar test were assessed to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of PCW. To investigate the participation of dynorphin/opioid system in PCW antinociception, subtype-specific opioid receptor antagonists or anti-dynorphin A antiserum were used. To eliminate other central mechanisms that contribute to PCW antinociception, hot plate (50 °C) test were performed. Further, involvements of
In our study, ERCC1 expression provided both prognostic and predictive information in patients with completely resected bladder cancer. Among patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder treated with cystectomy, high tumoral expression of ERCC1 correlated with longer survival in patients without adjuvant chemotherapy and was associated with shorter survival in those with adjuvant chemotherapy. A statistically significant interaction between ERCC1 expression and adjuvant chemotherapy indicated potential benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with ERCC1-negative tumors.. To date, the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for bladder cancer has been controversial, with no Level 1 evidence supporting adjuvant chemotherapy. In fact, the available data have not demonstrated a clear benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. Despite mounting evidence favoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy [1-3], physicians are reluctant to adopt its practice as evidenced by only 1.2% of patients with stage III bladder ...
Data & statistics on Child immunization rates rise with mother education: Child immunization rates rise with mother's education, Mother's Education and Child Immunisation, Results of children's vaccination coverage by background characteristics. These data show no significant differences in immunization coverage according to sex, birth order and mothers' education. However, the proportion of fully immunized children decreases below 80 percent for children in urban areas, in particular in Chisinau, and those from the fourth wealth quintile....
Anthracycline-based chemotherapies are effective and are widely used as the main postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with early-stage breast cancer (1-3). However, those treatments are accompanied by a high incidence of nausea and vomiting (4,5), severely compromising the patients' QOL. The use of 5HT3 receptor antagonists has become commonplace in recent years, enabling a certain level of control of these symptoms. However, fatigue and decreased physical QOL remain challenging issues in breast cancer patients receiving postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, and methods for alleviating these symptoms are needed (9). In our earlier single-group open study, in which LEM was coadministered to breast cancer patients who were treated with the FEC75 regimen, the QOL-ACD (24) was used to evaluate the effect of LEM on the patients' QOL. The results indicated that coadministration of LEM was effective in improving the patients' physical scale in response to the FEC75 regimen. LEM is a BRM ...
How to Find a Copy of Your Child's Immunization Record 1. Check with all your child's previous health care providers. Don't forget visits to your local county health department or Indian Health Service or tribal clinic. 2. Look through your old papers--sometimes immunization records are tucked away in a baby book, or included on school or camp medical history forms. 3. Call you local county health department and ask the health department to check OSIIS. OSIIS is the Oklahoma State Immunization Information System, which is a centralized immunization registry that keeps electronic records of vaccines given by health care providers who use the registry. OSIIS was started in 1994 so it does not have the records of all Oklahoma children. Also, some doctors and clinics do not use OSIIS so children and adults who received vaccines at those clinics will not have records in OSIIS. If your child received vaccines in another state you can check that state immunization website for information on the state ...
What are Adverse Events Following Immunization?. Any medical event occurring after immunisation can be classified as an adverse event following immunisation (AEFI) whether the event has any causal relationship to getting the immunisation or not. Adverse events/responses following immunisation can range from mild to severe and from common to very rare. They may occur as a result of the immunisation, a causal relationship between the event and immunisation, or occur after the immunisation by chance, a coincidental relationship between the event and immunisation.. *Please use the forms below to report an adverse event following immunization with any vaccine, including SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. ...
Traditionally immunostimulants have been believed to worsen autoimmune disease, to the point that some immunostimulants have originally been classified as immunosuppressants because they were found to improve autoimmune disease. But in practice it does not seem to work like that.. If the theory that autoimmune disease is in fact a type of an immune deficiency - or that there are components of immune deficiency, as the immune system is highly complex and not necessarily easy to define as "overactive" or "underactive" - is correct, immunostimulants would be the rational choice of treatment.. Immunostimulants are not completely without risks or side effects, but some of them can get quite close. They do not increase the risk of infections and cancer - and may even reduce the risk.. The most conventionally accepted immunostimulant therapy for autoimmune diseases is intravenous immunoglobulin (also known as IVIG and gammaglobulin), a blood product that contains antibodies from thousands of donors. It ...
The current study is a multicentre, randomized, open (unblended), prospective clinical trial which is sponsored by the researchers. The trial is designed to compare the effectiveness between docetaxel plus epirubicin, and docetaxel plus epirubicin plus cyclophosphamide as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for operable premenopausal breast cancer patients, and also to compare the outcomes associated with chemo-induced amenorrhea between the two neoadjuvant chemotherapies. The investigators will randomly assign 600 premenopausal female patients with operable breast cancer to receive four cycles of docetaxel and epirubicin (TE); or four cycles of docetaxel, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (TEC). After every two cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the investigators will estimate the effectiveness of therapy. Patients will undergo modified radical mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery after four cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and then receive postoperative chemotherapy (two cycles), radiation therapy, ...
The synthesis and biological activity of new conjugates of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and nor-muramyl dipeptide (nor-MDP) with tuftsin and retro-tuftsin derivatives containing isopeptide bond between ε-amino group of lysine and carboxyl group of simple amino acids such as Ala, Gly and Val are presented. We presumed, based on the cytokine profile, that the examined conjugates of tuftsin and MDP were capable of activating antibacterial mechanisms by switching on Th1 immune response. The most active were compounds 11, 14 and 19-23.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prognostic and predictive gene signature for adjuvant chemotherapy in resected non-small-cell lung cancer. AU - Zhu, Chang Qi. AU - Ding, Keyue. AU - Strumpf, Dan. AU - Weir, Barbara A.. AU - Meyerson, Matthew. AU - Pennell, Nathan. AU - Thomas, Roman K.. AU - Naoki, Katsuhiko. AU - Ladd-Acosta, Christine. AU - Liu, Ni. AU - Pintilie, Melania. AU - Der, Sandy. AU - Seymour, Lesley. AU - Jurisica, Igor. AU - Shepherd, Frances A.. AU - Tsao, Ming Sound. PY - 2010/10/10. Y1 - 2010/10/10. N2 - Purpose: The JBR.10 trial demonstrated benefit from adjuvant cisplatin/vinorelbine (ACT) in early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We hypothesized that expression profiling may identify stage-independent subgroups who might benefit from ACT. Patients and Methods: Gene expression profiling was conducted on mRNA from 133 frozen JBR.10 tumor samples (62 observation [OBS], 71 ACT). The minimum gene set that was selected for the greatest separation of good and poor prognosis patient ...
To augment the immune responses elicited by these and other vaccines, scientists use immunologic adjuvants. Currently, only one adjuvant -- alum, first discovered in 1926 -- is incorporated into vaccines licensed for human use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). An adjuvant may work well with one experimental vaccine and not another. Therefore, the FDA licenses the vaccine formulation, or the antigen-adjuvant combination, rather than the adjuvant alone. Experimental adjuvants can increase the type, strength and durability of immune responses evoked by an experimental vaccine. For example, some vaccine antigen/adjuvant combinations can induce cell-mediated immune responses, even if the vaccine antigen by itself does not. Some adjuvants also stimulate mucosal immunity. Alum primarily increases the strength of antibody responses generated by the vaccine antigen. Because of its limited activity, other adjuvants may be better suited for the newer candidate HIV vaccines ...
Looking for online definition of aluminum hydroxide gel in the Medical Dictionary? aluminum hydroxide gel explanation free. What is aluminum hydroxide gel? Meaning of aluminum hydroxide gel medical term. What does aluminum hydroxide gel mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macaque multimeric soluble CD40 ligand and GITR ligand constructs are immunostimulatory molecules in vitro. AU - Stone, Geoffrey W.. AU - Barzee, Suzanne. AU - Snarsky, Victoria. AU - Spina, Celsa A.. AU - Lifson, Jeffrey D.. AU - Pillai, Vinod Kumar Bhaskara. AU - Amara, Rama Rao. AU - Villinger, François. AU - Kornbluth, Richard S.. PY - 2006/11. Y1 - 2006/11. N2 - CD40 ligand (CD40L) and GITR ligand (glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein ligand [GITRL]) are tumor necrosis factor superfamily molecules that can be used as vaccine adjuvants. In a previous human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA vaccine study in mice, we found that plasmids expressing multimeric soluble forms of trimeric CD40L (i.e., many trimers) were stronger activators of CD8+ T-cell responses than were single-trimer soluble forms or the natural membrane-bound molecule. This report describes similar multimeric soluble molecules that were constructed for studies in macaques. Both ...
Descripción en Español. The National Immunization Survey. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) is sponsored by the National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) and conducted jointly by NCIRD and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The NIS is a list-assisted random-digit-dialing telephone survey followed by a mailed survey to children's immunization providers that began data collection in April 1994 to monitor childhood immunization coverage.. The target population for the NIS is children between the ages of 19 and 35 months living in the United States at the time of the interview. Data from the NIS are used to produce timely estimates of vaccination coverage rates for all childhood vaccinations recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Estimates are produced for the nation and for each of 78 Immunization Action Plan (IAP) areas, consisting of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic inflammatory pain leads to increased blood-brain barrier permeability and tight junction protein alterations. AU - Brooks, Tracy A.. AU - Hawkins, Brian T.. AU - Huber, Jason D.. AU - Egleton, Richard D.. AU - Davis, Thomas P. PY - 2005/8. Y1 - 2005/8. N2 - The blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintains brain homeostasis by limiting entry of substances to the central nervous system through interaction of transmembrane and intracellular proteins that make up endothelial cell tight junctions (TJs). Recently it was shown that the BBB can be modulated by disease pathologies including inflammatory pain. This study examined the effects of chronic inflammatory pain on the functional and molecular integrity of the BBB. Inflammatory pain was induced by injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the right plantar hindpaw in female Sprague-Dawley rats under halothane anesthesia; control animals were injected with saline. Edema and hyperalgesia were assessed by plethysmography and ...
Childhood immunisation is a cost-effective public health strategy. Immunisation is one of the most important preventive health actions in children's lives as it provides protection against most infectious diseases. In Namibia, the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) has been instituted in 1990 to ensure that the immunisation of children takes place within the prescribed age frame. However, there is still room for improving the EPI, particularly as regards measles immunisation. The problem was that in 2006, the Opuwo Health District in Kunene Region had a measles immunisation coverage of only 40% as compared to the regional coverage of 60% and the national coverage of 83%. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors associated with the low measles immunisation coverage in the Opuwo Health District with the aim of formulating improved intervention strategies in the district. Accordingly, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in certain rural villages in the Opuwo Health ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adjuvant endocrine therapy in postmenopausal breast cancer. AU - Ingle, James N.. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Adjuvant endocrine therapy with tamoxifen has a clearly established benefit in postmenopausal women with resected early breast cancer that expresses the estrogen receptor and/or progesterone receptor. Whereas there is a vast and long experience with tamoxifen, the major focus of clinical trials over the past 6 years has involved the study of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors. Recently published data from the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) trial, which involved only postmenopausal women and is the largest adjuvant trial ever conducted, has demonstrated superior efficacy for anastrozole over tamoxifen alone or in combination with anastrozole. These data have engendered a great deal of discussion as to whether they provide a sufficient basis for changing the standard of practice in terms of choice of agent. Currently, a case can be made ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Production of a fusion protein consisting of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit and a tuberculosis antigen in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Rigano, M. M.. AU - Alvarez, M. L.. AU - Pinkhasov, J.. AU - Jin, Y.. AU - Sala, F.. AU - Arntzen, C. J.. AU - Walmsley, A. M.. PY - 2004/2. Y1 - 2004/2. N2 - Transgenic plants are potentially safe and inexpensive vehicles to produce and mucosally deliver protective antigens. However, the application of this technology is limited by the poor response of the immune system to non-particulate, subunit vaccines. Co-delivery of therapeutic proteins with carrier proteins could increase the effectiveness of the antigen. This paper reports the ability of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants to produce a fusion protein consisting of the B subunit of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin and a 6 kDa tuberculosis antigen, the early secretory antigenic target ESAT-6. Both components of the fusion protein were detected ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multicycle dose-intensive chemotherapy for women with high-risk primary breast cancer. T2 - Results of International Breast Cancer Study Group trial 15-95. AU - Basser, Russell L.. AU - O'Neil, Anne. AU - Martinelli, Giovanni. AU - Green, Michael D.. AU - Peccatori, Fedro. AU - Cinieri, Severio. AU - Caotes, Alan S.. AU - Gelber, Richard D.. AU - Aebi, Stefan. AU - Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica. AU - Viale, Guiseppe. AU - Price, Karen N.. AU - Goldhirsch, Aron. PY - 2006/1/20. Y1 - 2006/1/20. N2 - Purpose: To compare adjuvant dose-intensive epirubicin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy administered with filgrastim and progenitor cell support (DI-EC) with standard-dose anthracycline-based chemotherapy (SD-CT) for patients with early-stage breast cancer and a high risk of relapse, defined as stage II disease with 10 or more positive axillary nodes; or an estrogen receptor-negative or stage III tumor with five or more positive axillary nodes. Patients and Methods: Three hundred ...
Accurate structures of aminoacids in the gas phase have been obtained by joint microwave and quantum-chemical investigations. However, the structure and conformational behavior of $\alpha$-aminoacids once incorporated into peptide chains are completely different and have not yet been characterized with the same accuracy. To fill this gap, we present here an accurate characterization of the simplest dipeptide analogue (N-acetylglycinamide) involving peptidic bonds. State-of-the-art quantum-chemical computations are complemented by a comprehensive study of the rotational spectrum using a combination of Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy with laser ablation. The coexistence of the $C_7$ and $C_5$ conformers has been proved and energetically as well as spectroscopically characterized. This joint theoretical-experimental investigation demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining accurate structures for flexible small biomolecules, thus paving the route to the elucidation of the inherent behavior ...
Dried aluminium hydroxide gel is also known as aluminium hydroxide gel, which is currently available as a generic drug and over the counter product in the various distribution channel. Citrate enriched food intake must be prevented while consuming aluminium hydroxide gel as it promotes excessive absorption of aluminium which is fatally toxic.. An antacid is presently reigning the clinical application segment for dried aluminium hydroxide gels market. The drug is a popular acid-neutralizing agent which is used in combination with other chemical moieties such as magnesium hydroxide and dimethicone for neutralizing excess hydrochloric acid present in the stomach environment. The dosage as an antacid for oral intake is liquid 320mg/5ml is 5 to 15 ml after every 6 hours. Hyperphosphatemia is expected to grow at a rampant pace owing to the growing incidence of hyperphosphatemia in patients suffering from chronic kidney diseases. The serum level of phosphorus is greater than 7mg/dl then use dried ...
Usefulness of Pidotimod and its role as immunostimulant, has been discussed, we know, for several decades. Nevertheless, there is still much to know. Understanding its mechanisms and its potential usefulness in airway infections and its prevention, asthma both Th2 and non Th2 type, bronchiectasis, as adjuvant in vaccination and in allergen immunotherapy still remains to clearly unveil. The aim of this paper was to provide a useful updated review of the role of the main available immunostimulants, giving particular focus on Pidotimod use and its potentials utility in respiratory diseases. Pidotimod showed its usefulness in reducing need for antibiotics in airway infections, increasing the level of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, IgG) and T-lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+) endowed with immunomodulatory activity that affect both innate and adaptive immune responses. Higher expression of TLR2 and of HLA-DR molecules, induction of dendritic cell maturation and release of pro-inflammatory molecules, stimulation of
A cornerstone of the polio eradication strategy is the need to ensure high (more than 80%) immunization coverage of children in the first year of life, with at least three doses of oral polio vaccine as part of national routine immunization schedules.. While routine immunization alone cannot eradicate the disease, good routine oral polio vaccine coverage increases population immunity, reduces the incidence of polio and makes eradication feasible.. If uniformly high immunization coverage is not maintained, pockets of non-immunized children build up, favouring continued spread and outbreaks of the poliovirus.. According to WHO/UNICEF immunization coverage estimates, 86% of infants received three doses of oral polio vaccine in 2010, compared with 75% in 1990.. Polio-free countries must continue to ensure high levels of immunization coverage to prevent the re-establishment of poliovirus through importations from other countries. This can happen through international travellers, migrant populations ...
After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 24 patients with planned mastectomy underwent breast-conserving surgery and 48 continued with mastectomy. On the other hand, five patients with planned breast-conserving surgery underwent mastectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy as a result of disease progression or patient's preference (Table 4). Among the 24 patients with successful conversion from mastectomy to breast-conserving surgery, 21 had tumour size of ,5 cm and 18 had stage II disease. Pre-chemotherapy disease staging (P=0.001) and tumour size (P=0.005) were important factors that determined successful conversion to breast-conserving treatment in univariate analysis (Table 5). The breast-conserving surgery to mastectomy ratio in patients with stage II disease was 32:14 patients, ie 2.3 to 1. On the contrary, 13 patients with stage III disease underwent breast-conserving surgery and 38 underwent mastectomy, ie a ratio of 1:3 for stage III disease. Among those who underwent breast-conserving surgery, 93% ...
quot;This report is a revision of General Recommendations on Immunization and updates the 2002 statement by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (CDC. General recommendations on immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the American Academy of Family Physicians. MMWR 2002;51[No. RR-2]). This report is intended to serve as a general reference on vaccines and immunization. The principal changes include 1) expansion of the discussion of vaccination spacing and timing; 2) an increased emphasis on the importance of injection technique/age/body mass in determining appropriate needle length; 3) expansion of the discussion of storage and handling of vaccines, with a table defining the appropriate storage temperature range for inactivated and live vaccines; 4) expansion of the discussion of altered immunocompetence, including new recommendations about use of live-attenuated vaccines with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies; and 5) minor changes ...
CFA is a strong adjuvant capable of stimulating cellular immune responses. Paradoxically, adjuvant immunotherapy by prior exposure to CFA or live mycobacteria suppresses the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and spontaneous diabetes in rodents. In this study, we investigated immune responses during adjuvant immunotherapy of EAE. Induction of EAE in CFA-pretreated mice resulted in a rapid influx into the draining lymph nodes (dLNs) of large numbers of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells, consisting of immature cells with ring-shaped nuclei, macrophages, and neutrophils. Concurrently, a population of mycobacteria-specific IFN-γ-producing T cells appeared in the dLNs. Immature myeloid cells in dLNs expressed the chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL16 in an IFN-γ-dependent manner. Subsequently, CD4+ T cells coexpressing the cognate chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CXCR6 and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific CD4+ T cells accumulated within the chemokine-expressing dLNs, rather ...
The study is a prospective multi-center randomized control clinical trial which is sponsored by the researchers. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of adjuvant endocrine therapy for operable ER-beta positive, ER-alpha/PR negative, Her-2 negative breast cancer(triple negative breast cancer, TNBC) patients. The ER-beta positive TNBC patients who had undergone modified radical mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery were randomly (1:1) enrolled to receive toremifene (60 mg per day for premenopausal and perimenopausal patients) /anastrozole(1mg per day for postmenopausal patients) or observation within 4 weeks after adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy if necessary.The follow-up time will be at least five years. The disease free survival(DFS) and overall survival(OS) between endocrine group and observation group will be compared to evaluate the effectiveness ...
PREVENTAVIR - antiviral immunostimulant is based on lactobacillus helveticus - it may help to increase the immune response to the RNA viral load (invasion). Buy online PREVENTAVIR. Worldwide shipping.
The presence of DPPII (dipeptidyl peptidase II; E.C. 3.4.14.2) has been demonstrated in various mammalian tissues. However, a profound molecular and catalytic characterization, including substrate selectivity, kinetics and pH-dependence, has not been conducted. In the present study, DPPII was purified from human seminal plasma to apparent homogeneity with a high yield (40%) purification scheme, including an inhibitor-based affinity chromatographic step. The inhibitor lysyl-piperidide (Ki~0.9 μM at pH 5.5) was chosen, as it provided a favourable affinity/recovery ratio. The human enzyme appeared as a 120 kDa homodimer. Mass spectrometric analysis after tryptic digestion together with a kinetic comparison indicate strongly its identity with QPP (quiescent cell proline dipeptidase), also called dipeptidyl peptidase 7. pH profiles of both kcat and kcat/Km clearly demonstrated that DPPII/QPP possesses an acidic and not a neutral optimum as was reported for QPP. Kinetic parameters of the human ...
Purpose: : Test polyclonal antiserum, raised against the toxin pneumolysin, for the passive treatment of pneumococcal keratitis. Methods: : Rabbit anti-pneumolysin polyclonal antiserum was produced by immunizing each of 3 New Zealand white rabbits subcutaneously with a 1:1 mixture of complete Freund's adjuvant and 0.1 mg recombinant pneumolysin, and then boosting with a 1:1 mixture of incomplete Freund's adjuvant and 0.05 mg recombinant pneumolysin 3 weeks later. Control serum was generated by injecting rabbits with a 1:1 mixture of Freund's and PBS. The serum from the rabbit producing the highest ELISA titer of pneumolysin antiserum was chosen for passive immunization. Six new rabbits were injected intrastromally with 100,000 colony-forming units (CFU) of S. pneumoniae strain WU2. Three of these rabbits were given 1 ml of pneumolysin antiserum intravenously immediately following infection, whereas the remaining 3 were given 1 ml of control serum. Slit lamp examinations (SLE) of eyes were done ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunization with a portion of rickettsial outer membrane protein A stimulates protective immunity against spotted fever rickettsiosis. AU - Crocquet-Valdes, P. A.. AU - Díaz-Montero, C. M.. AU - Feng, H. M.. AU - Li, H.. AU - Barrett, A. D.T.. AU - Walker, D. H.. PY - 2001/12/12. Y1 - 2001/12/12. N2 - Two approaches for presentation of a part of the rickettsial outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Rickettsia rickettsii, namely (1) recombinant Mycobacterium vaccae (rMV) or (2) recombinant DNA vaccine, stimulated protective immunity against a lethal challenge with the closely related bacterium, R. conorii, in mice. After primary immunization with rMV and booster immunization with homologous recombinant protein, 67 and 55% of mice were protected against challenge in two experiments. DNA vaccination with booster recombinant protein immunization protected six out of eight animals from a lethal challenge. Production of IFN-γ by antigen-exposed T-lymphocytes of DNA vaccine recipients ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Corynebacterium parvum versus bacille calmette-guérin adjuvant immunotherapy of stage II malignant melanoma. AU - Lipton, Allan. AU - Harvey, Harold A.. AU - Balch, Charles M.. AU - Antle, Charles E.. AU - Heckard, Robert. AU - Bartolucci, Alfred A.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Two separate studies have been reported comparing Corynebacterium parvum and bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as adjuvant immunotherapy for stage II melanoma patients (The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, 48 patients; Southeastern Cancer Study Group [SECSG], 162 patients). As the criteria for patient selection and drugs used were similar, we have pooled the data to analyze the effects of these two treatments. Both studies used BCG (Tice, Chicago, IL) 3 x 108 live organisms per treatment by Tine technique and C parvum (Burroughs-Wellcome, Triangle Park, NC) subcutaneous at a dose of 4 mg/m2 (SECSG) or 5 μg/m2 (Hershey) per treatment. The only difference in these studies was the frequency of immunization, ...
In an analysis of the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Chirgwin et al found that poorer adherence to endocrine therapy was associated with poorer disease-free survival in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer receiving adjuvant tamoxifen, letrozole, or sequential letrozole/tamoxifen or tamoxifen/letrozole for 5 years.. Study Details. The study analyzed the effects of early cessation of treatment (, 36 months vs ≥ 36 months) and treatment compliance score , 90% on disease-free survival among 6,144 patients receiving at least one dose of study drug. Compliance was defined as taking at least 80% of pills in a drug pack with no breaks longer than 1 week.. Effects of Lower Adherence. On multivariate analysis, early cessation of letrozole (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.45, P = .01), tamoxifen/letrozole (HR = 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21-2.01), and letrozole/tamoxifen (HR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.21-2.03) were ...
Abstract Immunization of hamsters by intramuscular injections of an amebic extract and of two of its fractions, emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant, resulted in protection against the development of amebic liver abscess, following intrahepatic inoculation of axenic trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica such that Fraction I, Fraction II, and the whole antigen conferred protection to 18 out of 18, 4 out of 18, and 11 out of 18 hamsters, respectively. Splenomegaly was found to accompany the development of hepatic liver absceses in this experimental system. There was a very high degree of correlation (r = 0.95) between the weights of the abscesses and the spleens. On the other hand, there was no correlation between the anti-amebic antibody titers (determined by the indirect hemagglutination test) and the development of the liver abscesses within the time-span of the experimental protocol used in this study.
In a meta-analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Spring et al found that neoadjuvant endocrine therapy was associated with outcomes similar to those with chemotherapy in women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.. Similar Outcomes. The analysis included 3,490 patients from 20 randomized trials of neoadjuvant therapy containing ≥ 1 endocrine therapy arm. Compared with combination chemotherapy, endocrine therapy alone was associated with a similar clinical response rate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.08, P = .85), radiologic response rate (OR = 1.38, P = .12), and breast-conserving surgery rate (OR = 0.65, P = .07), with endocrine therapy alone being associated with reduced toxicity. Compared with tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor use was associated with a better clinical response rate (OR = 1.69, P , .001), radiologic response rate (OR = 1.49, P , .001), and breast-conserving surgery rate (OR = 1.62, P , .001). Compared with endocrine therapy alone, dual combination therapy with growth factor pathway ...
Within days after Hurricane Katrina in September 2005, the Houston-Harris County Immunization Registry was connected to the Louisiana Immunization Network for Kids Statewide. This linkage provided immediate access to the immunization records of children who were forced to evacuate the New Orleans, Louisiana, area. One year later, >18900 immunization records have been found, representing an estimated cost savings of more than $1.6 million for vaccine alone and $3.04 million for vaccine plus administration fees. This experience demonstrated the vital and previously unrecognized functionality of immunization information systems in a public health emergency. Here we describe the Houston-Harris County Immunization Registry's experience after Hurricane Katrina in terms of maximizing the use of immunization information systems and the implications of this experience for patients, providers, and public health for future disaster-preparedness planning ...
Activation of trigeminal nerves is involved in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation and pain transmission. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and their receptors have been implicated in the underlying pathology of temporomandibular joint disorders. The goal of this study was to investigate activation of NPY, VIP, and their receptors in a model of TMJ inflammation using immunohistochemistry. TMJ inflammation was created by bilateral injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the joint of rats, mimicking mechanical allodynia seen in TMJ disorder. Trigeminal ganglia were dissected after 1, 3, and 5 days after CFA-treatment. NPY expression was observed in Day 1 and Day 5 tissues, with localization to glial cells, and to both neurons and glial cells, respectively. NPY receptor, NPY Y₂ was upregulated in Day 1 tissues, localized to neurons and glia. VIP expression was observed in Day 1 and Day 5 tissues, with localization to glial cells, and to both neurons and
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Abstract. Background: Increasing evidences suggest that innate immunity is involved in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the liable innate immune receptors have not been completely elucidated. Here, we explored the role of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)2, a member of the cytosolic NOD-like receptor family, in acute focal cerebral I/R injury.. Methods: An in vivo middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model that in wild type (WT) and NOD2 deficient (NOD2-/-) mice and in vitro model of oxygen glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) in cultured primary microglia and astrocytes were used to investigate the expression of NOD2 and explore the roles of NOD2 in ischemic stroke.. Results: Our results showed that NOD2 expression was significantly increased in microglia and astrocytes in response to the I/R insult. Pretreatment with muramyl dipeptide, an extrinsic ligand of NOD2, significantly increased the infarct volume and neurological dysfunction in mice ...
Last March, Sabin's Sustainable Immunization Financing Program (SIF) organized a workshop with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) to analyze how Latin American countries used legislation to ensure their national immunization programs are properly financed. Three parliamentarians from Bolivia, Colombia and El Salvador came to Washington, DC to present their work in this area. Three PAHO counterparts and four Sabin staff members also participated. Laws from Bolivia, Colombia and El Salvador were compared a nd contrasted. Three of the participants later presented these results at the Sabin Colloquium on SIF in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.. In 1980, only two Latin American countries had immunization laws on the books. The number rose steadily. By 2009, 26 countries had written some form of immunization financing legislation. That year, the countries were financing 99% of their routine immunization costs. Drawing from the regional experience, PAHO and the Latin American Parliament produced a Model ...
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Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) also known as caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 15 (CARD15) or inflammatory bowel disease protein 1 (IBD1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOD2 gene located on chromosome 16. NOD2 plays an important role in the immune system. It recognizes bacterial molecules (peptidoglycans) and stimulates an immune reaction. NOD2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor, which is similar in structure to resistant proteins of plants and recognizes molecules containing the specific structure called muramyl dipeptide (MDP) that is found in certain bacteria. The C-terminal portion of the protein contains a leucine-rich repeat domain that is known to play a role in protein-protein interactions. The middle part of the protein is characterized by a NOD domain involved in protein self-oligomerization. The N-terminal portion contains two CARD domains known to play a role in apoptosis and NF-κB activation pathways. ...
Our previous study showed that electroacupuncture (EA) significantly attenuated inflammatory hyperalgesia. It has also been reported that EA analgesia in uninjured animals is mediated by μ and δ opioid receptors at 2-15 Hz and by κ opioid receptor at 100 Hz. Because persistent pain changes neural response to external stimulation, we hypothesized that (1) the mechanisms of EA anti-hyperalgesia may be different under conditions of persistent pain and that (2) combining EA with a sub-effective dose of morphine could enhance EA anti-hyperalgesia. Hyperalgesia, decreased paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to a noxious thermal stimulus, was induced by subcutaneously injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the hind paws of rats. Selective antagonists against μ (D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-ThrNH2, CTOP), δ (naltrinodole, NTI) and κ (nor-binaltorphimine, BNI) opioid receptors were administered intrathecally 10 min before each of two EA treatments at acupoint Huantiao (GB30), one immediately ...
Abstract We report a trial in squirrel monkeys of 2 recombinant Plasmodium vivax malaria vaccine candidates based on the circumsporozoite (CS) protein. One recombinant (NSI81 V20), produced in Escherichia coli, contains the repeat region of the CS protein. The other (VIVAX-1) recombinant is yeast-derived and contains the entire repeat domain and part of the surrounding N-terminal and C-terminal regions. Both antigens were administered with alum and muramyl tripeptide as adjuvants. No formulations caused toxic side effects. Both antigens, when administered with alum, induced high levels of sporozoite antibodies in all animals. Another group of animals was immunized with irradiated sporozoites alone. Upon challenge, a few immunized animals did not develop detectable parasitemia and others developed parasitemia only after a prolonged prepatent period. Monkeys immunized with irradiated sporozoites had higher levels of antibody but no increased protection. There was no correlation between protection and
Methods. Construction of the scFv Bacterial Displaying Library against Vp2. Immunization of Chicken: Three specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were immunized by intra-ocular administration of IBDV vaccine strain B-87 in the dose of 107pfu, the chickens were boosted one week later by intra-muscular injection with 0.5ml of formalin-inactivated preparation of B-87 emulsified with an equal volume of Freund's incomplete adjuvant. Four weeks after the secondary vaccination, the titer of immune serum was determined by ELISA, chickens were euthanized and spleens were collected for extraction of RNA by Trizol.. cdna Synthesis from Spleen Total Rna of The Immunized Chicken. Splenocytes were isolated from the immunized chicken for RNA extraction, and total RNA was extractd using Trizol. cDNA was synthesized from total RNA sample using Superscript II (Invitrogen) and random hexamer oligonucleotide pimers (2 μg). Construction of scFv library. Primers for scFv designed based on the variable region gene ...
Six complexes of vancomycin and peptidoglycan precursors were studied via molecular dynamics simulations. The interactions between the antibiotic and peptidoglycan fragments were identified and described in detail. All six studied modifications of the peptidoglycan precursor resulted in a weakening of the interaction with vancomycin when comparing to the native D-Ala-D-Ala-terminated fragment. It was confirmed that the N-terminus of the vancomycin is directly responsible for peptidoglycan recognition and antimicrobial activity. In simulated systems, the saccharide part of the antibiotic interacts with peptide precursors, thus it could also be important for antimicrobial activity. The complex terminated with D-Lac is the only one in which there is a weak interaction with the sugar moiety in the simulated systems. Analysis of conformational changes is a major scope of this work. The lack of interactions resulting from modification of the peptidoglycan precursors (D-Lac, D-Ser or other ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recruitment of exogenous macrophages into metastases at different stages of tumor growth. AU - Bugelski, Peter J.. AU - Kirsh, Richard. AU - Buscarino, Charles. AU - Corwin, Steven P.. AU - Poste, George. PY - 1987/4/1. Y1 - 1987/4/1. N2 - The endogenous tumor-associated macrophage content and recruitment of labeled peritoneal exudate cells into experimental murine B16 melanoma metastases has been examined at different stages in the progressive growth of metastatic lesions. The recruitment of thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal exudate cells and peritoneal exudate cells activated in vitro with muramyl dipeptide was studied. Tumor-associated macrophages and labeled peritoneal exudate cells were identified in paraffin sections by specific histochemical staining and their density in individual metastases measured morphometrically. The density of tumor-associated macrophages and exogenously recruited peritoneal exudate cells was high in very small lesions but decreased rapidly as a ...
Peptidoglycan chemical structure and initial discussion of holes in a monomolecular thick peptidoglycan network.There can be two types of cross-linkages occurring between adjacent glycan strands in a peptidoglycan network: cross-links that occur somewhere in the middle region of a glycan strand and those that occur at the terminus of a strand. Since each peptidoglycan strand possesses a screw axis, the peptide stems are helically arranged so that they protrude at ∼90° to one another (7, 11). Accordingly, only a maximum of 50% of the stems can be cross-linked in a horizontal plane. At that point, the network exhibits maximum cross-linking. Frequently, each cross-link involves a covalent bond between a 3-amino-acid stem and a 4-amino-acid stem (l-Gla-d-Glu-m-A2pm-d-Ala-m-A2pm-d-Glu-l-Ala) or between two 4-amino-acid stems (l-Ala-d-Glu-m-A2pm-d-Ala-m-A2pm [d-Ala]-d-Glu-l-Ala), each emanating from adjacent N-acetylmuramyl moieties on neighboring glycan strands (i.e., a septapeptide or an ...