The distribution of specific glycoprotein receptors on the external surfaces of red cells was mapped, by the freeze-etching technique, to determine if the receptors coincided with the underlying 75-A intramembranous particles. Phytohemagglutinin, ferritin-conjugated phytohemagglutinin, and influenza virus were used as labeling agents since they can be seen by freeze-etching techniques and each reacts with a different site on the same glycoprotein molecule. The distribution of these labels was studied on intact human red cells, isolated ghost membranes, and trypsin-treated ghost membranes.. The results show that the receptors for these labels are distributed uniformly over the surfaces of normal red cell membranes in the same apparent distribution as that of the 75-A particles within the membrane. The association between the external receptors and the underlying particles is especially evident when trypsin-treated ghost membranes are labeled: the labeled receptor sites and the intramembranous ...
Physical fixation by rapid freezing followed by freeze-fracture and deep-etching has provided the means for potentially seeing the three-dimensional arrangement in the native state of particles on mitochondrial inner membranes. We have used these techniques to study the tubular cristae of Paramecium in the hope of determining the arrangement of F1 complexes, their abundance, and location in the membranes. We also sought information regarding other respiratory complexes in these membranes. Our results, supported by stereo pairs, show that F1 complexes are arranged as a double row of particles spaced at 12 nm along each row as a zipper following the full length of the outer curve of the helically shaped tubular cristae. There are an average of 1,500 highly ordered F1 complexes per micrometer squared of 50-nm tubular cristae surface. The F1 complexes definitely lie outside the membranes in their native state. Other particle subsets, also nonrandomly arrayed, were seen. One such population located ...
Abstract: : Purpose: Our goals involve deciphering multiple inhibitory feedforward and feedback circuits that shape ganglion cell receptive fields. We sought to develop high-performance tools for complete immunolabeling of neuronal and glial cohorts in the mammalian inner plexiform layer by computationally inserting amino acid signals (e.g. GABA, Marc & Liu, 2000, J Comp Neurol 425:560) into electron microscopic (EM) datasets with the highest possible spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) 10-fold greater than traditional EM immunogold (IMG). Methods: Ultrathin sections of osmium post-fixed retina were imaged for pristine ultrastructure. Serial flanking sections were imaged after "deep-etch" IMG amino acid probing and computationally fused to the pristine imagery. Sections on carbon-coated Formvar films were deep-etched with saturated sodium ethoxide. Amino acid images were registered to the pristine image with PCI Geomatica (Richmond Hill, Ontario, CA). Results: Unlike classic ...
With the recent success of the heterologous expression of mycobacterial antigens in corynebacteria, in addition to the importance of these bacteria in biotechnology and medicine, a better understanding of the structure of their cell envelopes was needed. A combination of molecular compositional analysis, ultrastructural appearance and freeze-etch electron microscopy study was used to arrive at a chemical model, unique to corynebacteria but consistent with their phylogenetic relatedness to mycobacteria and other members of the distinctive suprageneric actinomycete taxon. Transmission electron microscopy and chemical analyses showed that the cell envelopes of the representative strains of corynebacteria examined consisted of (i) an outer layer composed of polysaccharides (primarily a high-molecular-mass glucan and arabinomannans), proteins, which include the mycoloyltransferase PS1, and lipids; (ii) a cell wall glycan core of peptidoglycan-arabinogalactan which may contain other sugar residues and was
Freeze-etched neuropil of the cat subfornical organ was examined with the electron microscope for synaptic vesicles. Round vesicles were found exclusively in both unfixed and aldehyde-fixed specimens. Range of diameters and histograms failed to differ significantly between freeze-etched and conventionally prepared material. The mnode of distribution of diameters was approximately 500 angstroms. Round stomata (approximately 350 angstromns in diameter) were found at the outer surface of the plasmalemma of nerve terminials; they are interpreted as pinocytotic vesicles. ...
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Most of these steps are quite straight forward. A glass narrow-bore capillary can be utilised for spotting samples onto the TLC plate. This step is not that important, you may create a tag for this virtual machine, for later reference. Next youll be prompted to select the disk. We measured the levels of EGFR in HCT116 wild-type and HCT116 p53-null cells. Cell Biol. Every kind of traffic in script hosting event KNOCKING chain and its sub-chains should be dropped (except the traffic for the SSH daemon from successful knock clients), regardless of whether it matched the correct port. Step 5 - Next, you are required to check the box against the option named Routing and Script hosting event Access Servicesв. Otherwise, it will tell the requesting party where to look next. Cells. In Windows XP NTFS it can be set to format disk with allocation unit (block size) 512B1kb2kb4kb. Data Transfer:В Are there any restrictions on data transfers. Thank you for sending your work entitled Deep-etch EM of ...
The Electron Microscopy facility offers services in EM, photography and image processing. Consultations in research problems regarding the use of electron microscopy and individual or group training in sample preparation are provided, where practical, by Facility personnel. Applications that require expertise in sample preparation at a level not practical to provide through training (for example, thin-sectioning, freeze-etching or EM immunohistochemistry of a small number of samples) are provided by the Facility director or laboratory supervisor. The decision as to whether Facility personnel prepare samples for a Cancer Center member or train him/her in methods of sample preparation and instrument usage is based upon the practical aspects of sample number, projected duration, cost, availability of personnel, etc. Every effort is made to expedite high-quality research at a minimal cost to the investigator. EM Core Facility personnel routinely provide consultations in general scientific ...
S. Hsieh designed the project, performed experiments, and wrote the paper. N.T.P. generated the single CPS-expressing B. thetaiotaomicron mutants with and without GFP. D.L.D. generated the B. thetaiotaomicron Abs. S. Horvath processed the fecal colonization samples. G.S. performed the quick-freeze, deep-etch scanning electron microscopy. N.Z. assisted with peritoneal experiments. B.T.S. and B.Z. captured the india ink images. E.C.M., T.S.S., and P.M.A. guided the overall project design and assisted in data interpretation and writing of the manuscript. ...
Freeze‐fracture is a unique investigative tool for visualization of the en face topography of individual membrane leaflets of cell membranes at high resolution under the electron microscope
Freeze‐fracture is a unique investigative tool for visualization of the en face topography of individual membrane leaflets of cell membranes at high resolution under the electron microscope
As illustrated in this data, Judys smaller size does not give it an enormous speed advantage over a traditional "trade size for speed" data structure. Judy has received countless man-hours developing and debugging 20,000 lines of code; I spent an hour or three writing a fairly standard 200-line hash table. If your data is strictly sequential; you should use a regular array. If your data is often sequential, or approximately sequential (e.g. an arithmetic sequence stepping by 64), Judy might be the best data structure to use. If you need to keep space to a minimum--you have a huge number of associative arrays, or youre only storing very small values, Judy is probably a good idea. If you need an sorted iterator, go with Judy. Otherwise, a hash table may be just as effective, possibly faster, and much simpler. Furthermore, there arent many ways to improve Judy, but theres a lot of room to improve hash tables. The one tested here is just my standard "classic" hash table. I dont know what best ...
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View Notes - Cancer Biology. Metastasis from 26CB 880 at University of Cincinnati. METASTASIS RANDOM DISTRIBUTION OF CANCER CELLS THROUGH THE VASCULAR SYSTEM OR GENETICALLY DETERMINED PROCESS OF
Hi Parisa, these both parameters are the slope of the elastic part of the material curve. Be careful that the elastic energy is much lower than the total energy, because if you put a very low E you will get problems. I will recomend you to use the following controls for the cohesive section: *Section Controls, name=mikel_controls, VISCOSITY=0.001 As the convergence is hard to be achieved, this will help to improve it. Please, prove that the orientations of your cohesive elements are the correct. The second direction has to be perpendicular to the fracture plane in the 2D elements and in the case of 3D cohesive elements is the 3rd direction the one that is perpendicular. Regards, Mikel ...
Lipoteichic Acid (LTA), 0.2 mg. |strong|Lipoteichoic Acid|/strong| is the major proinflammatory structure present within the cell wall layer of most gram-positive bacteria.
The malaria parasite invades the midgut tissue of its mosquito host as a motile form called the ookinete. We have examined the pellicle of the ookinete of Plasmodium gallinaceum by freezefracture and quick-freeze, deep-etch electron microscopy. The general organization is analogous to that of invasive stages of other members of Apicomplexa. The pellicle is composed of three membranes: the plasma membrane, and the two linked intermediate and inner membranes, which in the ookinete form one flattened vacuole that is located beneath the plasma membrane. The edges of this vacuole form a longitudinal suture. Beneath the vacuole is found an array of microtubules that are connected to the inner membrane by intramembranous particles. During freezefracture, the membranes can split along their hydrophobic planes, thus yielding six fracture faces, each of which displays a characteristic pattern of intramembranous particles. Additionally, we find that the ookinete pellicle differs from all other apicomplexan ...
The diagnosis is most readily made on CT by noting a fracture plane oriented along the long axis of the bone. MRI may also allow visualization of the fracture plane, but has a lower sensitivity. MRI can, however, suggest the diagnosis by revealing bone marrow edema starting at the entry of the nutrient foramen of the tibia, eccentric periosteal reaction and new bone formation, and eccentric soft tissue edema. The relationship between the nutrient foramen and the fracture plane is an interesting one. It has been suggested that the foramen may be a potential area of weakness in some patients, with some tibial longitudinal fracture planes starting within the foramen ...
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A fluid-filled chamber may be incorporated into footwear and other products. The chamber is formed from a polymer material that defines a first surface, a second surface located opposite the first surface, and a sidewall surface extending around a periphery of the chamber and between the first surface and the second surface. A plurality of bonds are spaced inward from the sidewall surface and join the first surface and the second surface, and the bonds are distributed to form a regularly-spaced array, such as a hexagonal array. In some configurations, the first surface and the second surface may define elliptically-shaped structures between the bonds. In addition, the bonds may be formed to have a slope that is an average of slopes of the first surface and the second surface in areas proximal the bonds.
A system and method of efficiently replicating data structures in a distributed system of replicas. Each replica in the distributed system maintains a cursor indicative of the extent to which other replicas in the system are consistent with one another. By examining the information in its cursor, a destination replica requesting replication from a source replica is able to determine the extent to which it has been made consistent with that source replica via indirect paths, thus potentially improving the starting point of replication. The source replica similarly examines its cursor to potentially improve the starting point of replication with respect to the starting point requested by the destination replica. In this manner, redundant information transmitted from a source replica when replicating a destination replica is reduced. The reduction in the amount of transmitted replication data is particularly appreciable when the replication topology of the system is changed such as by adding a new
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Despite the fact that the replicas are deployed in identically-equipped computing nodes, under heavy load, some replicas would lag behind due to various reasons.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Membrane specializations of dentritic spines and glia in the weaver mouse cerebellum. T2 - A freeze-fracture study. AU - Hanna, Robert B.. AU - Hirano, Asao. AU - Pappas, George D.. PY - 1976/3/1. Y1 - 1976/3/1. N2 - Electron microscopy of thin-sectioned and freeze-fractured preparations of the cerebellum of the weaver mouse indicates that the dendritic spines are morphologically identical to those of their normal littermates. The weaver dendritic spines have been characterized as "unattached" since the synaptic input from the parallel fibers is absent (8-10). The entire region around the dendritic spines is taken up by astrocytic processes in the weaver. The outer fracture face of a normal dendritic spine contains aggregations of 10-nm wide particles in the immediate postsynaptic region. Similar particle aggregations occur in the unattached spines of the weaver. Freeze-fracture preparations reveal rectilinear arrays of particles, having a 7-nm center-to-center distance in the ...
Secondary lysosomes in quick-freeze deep-etch images lie against the smooth E-face of a phagoacidosome (DV-II) membrane. The P-fracture face of one fa...
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Freeze-fracture replica images of TJs in neo-MDCK I (a), dCL2-MDCK I (b), and MDCK II cells (c). Cells (4 × 105 cells) were plated on 24-mm filters, cultured f
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