The effects of four calcium channel blockers (nicardipine, nifedipine, verapamil, and diltiazem) on free radical injury in cultured endothelial cells were studied and compared with those of butylated hydroxytoluene. When the cultured cells were exposed to a superoxide and hydroxyl radical generating system for up to 60 minutes, lipid peroxidation occurred, and cellular viability decreased by 60% at 30 minutes. Concomitantly, total cellular glutathione decreased by 40%, whereas total protein thiols changed minimally. Preincubation of the cells with each of the calcium blockers (5 and 20 microM) before free radical addition resulted in various degrees of significant protection against cell death, and losses of glutathione correlated significantly (r = 0.89, p less than 0.001). The order of efficacy was nicardipine greater than nifedipine greater than verapamil greater than diltiazem; butylated hydroxytoluene was about fourfold more potent than nicardipine. Because none of the agents affected the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methylation of 2′-deoxyguanosine by a free radical mechanism. AU - Crean, Conor. AU - Geacintov, Nicholas. AU - Shafirovich, Vladimir. PY - 2009/9/24. Y1 - 2009/9/24. N2 - The mechanistic aspects of the methylation of guanine in DNA initiated by methyl radicals that are derived from the metabolic oxidation of some chemical carcinogens remain poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the kinetics and the formation of methylated guanine products by two methods: (i) the combination of •CH3 radicals and guanine neutral radicals, G(-H)•, and (ii) the direct addition of •CH3 radicals to guanine bases. The simultaneous generation of •CH3 and dG(-H)• radicals was triggered by the competitive oneelectron oxidation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 2-deoxyguanosine (dG) by photochemically generated sulfate radicals in deoxygenated aqueous buffer solutions (pH 7.5). The photolysis of methylcob(III)alamin to form •CH3 radicals was used to investigate the direct addition ...
Definition of Oxygen-Derived Free Radical in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Oxygen-Derived Free Radical? Meaning of Oxygen-Derived Free Radical as a legal term. What does Oxygen-Derived Free Radical mean in law?
The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between dietary intake of antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids on free radical injury and free radical scavenging in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) so that complications of kidney failure, especially cardiovascular disease, may be avoided or delayed. Children with CKD on dialysis and post-renal transplantation are at an extremely high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that children with CKD who have higher dietary intake of antioxidants and omega-3 FAs, would have lower free radical injury, as measured by 8-Isoprostanes (8-ISOP) and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and higher free radical scavenging, as measured by ABTS (2,2-Azino-di-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate]) compared to children with CKD with lower intakes of these nutrients. Pre-dialysis was the baseline comparative group for this study. Nutrient intake was assessed by means of a 24-hour diet recall obtained prior to a
The popular pharmaceutical base used in pharmacy - vaselinum flavum - was studied by an X-band (9.3 GHz) EPR spectrometer in the range of microwave power of 2.2-70 mW. The samples were sterilized in hot air oven at temperatures: 160°C (120 min), 170°C (60 min), and 180°C (30 min). The aim of this work was to determine properties and free radical concentrations in vaselinum flavum thermally sterilized at different conditions. The changes in free radical system in vaselinum flavum during storage were analyzed. Free radicals were found in all the heated samples. The lowest free radical concentration was obtained for vaselinum flavum heated at 180°C for 30 min; so these parameters are proposed for the thermal sterilization of this pharmaceutical base. Interactions with oxygen decreased free radical concentration in vaselinum flavum during storage. Strong quenching of free radicals in vaselinum flavum was observed after 2 days for the samples sterilized at temperatures 160 and 180°C. Such an ...
hapter 11 Free Radical Reactions A free radical is a species containing one or more unpaired electrons Free radicals are electron-deficient species, but they are usually uncharged, so their chemistry is
Generally, free radicals react with other molecules, damaging them. However some processes such as the killing of bacteria by neutrophil granulocytes is beneficial. The most important oxygen-based free radicals are superoxide and the hydroxyl radical, produced from the reduction of molecular oxygen. These free radicals are extremely reactive and are often associated with cell damage, mutations, and even malignancies. Symptoms of aging such as atherosclerosis is thought to be due to oxidation by free radicals. The free radical theory of aging postulates that free radical damage is the primary mechanism of aging. Free radicals are also associated with liver damage due to alcohol and the development of emphysema from ciagrette smoking. The body has developed a number of mechanisms to minimize free radical damage and even repair damage. Enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, [[glutathione peroxidase]], and glutathione reductase, as well as antioxidants such as vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin ...
Generally, free radicals react with other molecules, damaging them. However some processes such as the killing of bacteria by neutrophil granulocytes is beneficial. The most important oxygen-based free radicals are superoxide and the hydroxyl radical, produced from the reduction of molecular oxygen. These free radicals are extremely reactive and are often associated with cell damage, mutations, and even malignancies. Symptoms of aging such as atherosclerosis is thought to be due to oxidation by free radicals. The free radical theory of aging postulates that free radical damage is the primary mechanism of aging. Free radicals are also associated with liver damage due to alcohol and the development of emphysema from ciagrette smoking. The body has developed a number of mechanisms to minimize free radical damage and even repair damage. Enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, [[glutathione peroxidase]], and glutathione reductase, as well as antioxidants such as vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin ...
Ellibs Ebookstore - Ebook: Carbon-Centered Free Radicals and Radical Cations: Structure, Reactivity, and Dynamics - Author: Forbes, Malcolm D. - Price: 127,20€
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of cardiac vagal afferents in ischemia and reperfusion. T2 - Prostaglandins versus oxygen-derived free radicals. AU - Ustinova, Elena E.. AU - Schultz, Harold D.. PY - 1994/5. Y1 - 1994/5. N2 - Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion can evoke excitation of cardiac vagal nerve endings and activation of a cardiogenic depressor reflex (Bezold- Jarisch effect). We postulate that oxygen-derived free radicals, which are known to be produced during prolonged ischemia and reperfusion, contribute to this afferent excitation. We recorded activity from 47 chemosensitive vagal afferent fibers in 31 rats; the endings of these fibers were located in the left ventricle. Chemosensitive endings were identified with topical applications of capsaicin (10 μg) to the surface of the heart. Reactivity of the endings to oxygen-derived free radicals was assessed by topical application of H2O2 (3 to 9 μmol). Activity of the vagal fibers was recorded during 30 minutes of occlusion of the left ...
Striking differences in the prevalence of coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) exist between different coal mine regions. The major factors responsible for the observed regional differences in CWP have not yet been identified. In the present study, chemical reactivity of the carbon-centered free radicals in coals and lung tissues, as well as ferrous iron in the coals, were studied by ESR techniques.
FreeDownloadMp3 - Radical Attack free mp3 (wav) for download! Newest Radical Attack ringtones. Collection of Radical Attack albums in mp3 archive.
Hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite induce relaxations via ATP-sensitive K+ channels, indicating that oxygen-derived free radicals may activate these channels. Levels of free radicals are increased throughout the arterial wall in animal models of atherosclerosis, and therefore, vasorelaxation via ATP-sensitive K+ channels may be augmented in chronic hypertension. The present study was designed to determine whether relaxations to an ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener, levcromakalim, are increased in the aorta from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and whether free radical scavengers reduce these relaxations. Rings of aortas without endothelium taken from age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and SHR were suspended for isometric force recording. Relaxations to levcromakalim (10(-8) to 10(-5) M), which are abolished by glibenclamide (10(-5) M), were augmented in the aorta from SHR, compared to those in the aorta from WKY. In the aorta from SHR, catalase (1200 U/ml), but neither superoxide dismutase (150 U
Uncontrolled free radicals damage body cells either by breaking down the cell membrane, by attacking the internal working of the cell, or by going right to the nucleus to attack the genetic material. A fundamental way that free radicals cause their damage is by breaking down natural body fats. Since the cell membrane is composed of fatty tissue (called lipids), it is a target for free radical attack. They may destroy the cell membrane, so that it cannot take in nutrients or release wastes. This leads eventually to the collapse and death of the cell. Free radicals can damage white blood cells and particularly the defender T cells, both of which are key to a strong immune system--and enable you to ward off bacteria and viruses. Free radicals may also weaken essential antibodies that are produced by the immune system to protect from disease, resulting in susceptibility to communicable diseases. Uncontrolled free radicals may disturb nerve chemicals, which can affect the brain and nervous system. ...
David R. Blake, ?Paul G. Winyard - Immunopharmacology of Free Radical Species Published: 1995-06-16 | ISBN: 0121035204 | PDF | 301 pages | 26 MB David R. Blake, ?Paul G. Winyard - Immunophar
Free radicals are like little scavengers circulating throughout our bodies, stealing their sustenance from our healthy tissues and affecting virtually every bodily system. Technically, free radicals are highly-reactive, short-lived molecules that, by their very nature, cause damage to every molecule they come into contact with-including skin, the bodys largest organ, wreaking havoc on vital cellular structures and speeding the ageing process.. In recent years, scientific research has yielded a great deal of information regarding the role free radicals play in either causing or accelerating a number of diseases, from cancer to heart disease to arthritis, and many others. The key opponents to free radicals are antioxidants, molecular compounds that neutralise free radicals, preventing further damage. While the body produces its own antioxidants, supplementing with antioxidants-especially on the skin-has been proven to successfully counteract free radicals. Thus, equipping your skin with the right ...
The free radical theory of aging (FRTA) states that organisms age because cells accumulate free radical damage over time. A free radical is any atom or molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell. While a few free radicals such as melanin are not chemically reactive, most biologically relevant free radicals are highly reactive. For most biological structures, free radical damage is closely associated with oxidative damage. Antioxidants are reducing agents, and limit oxidative damage to biological structures by passivating them from free radicals. Strictly speaking, the free radical theory is only concerned with free radicals such as superoxide ( O2− ), but it has since been expanded to encompass oxidative damage from other reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), or peroxynitrite (OONO−). Denham Harman first proposed the free radical theory of aging in the 1950s, and in the 1970s extended the idea to implicate mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen ...
Microaccidents are damages that are caused by free radicals, mutagens and many harmful chemicals. Free radicals are chemicals with an unpaired electron, which are extremely and randomly reactive with whatever cellular structures present, inflicting damage as a result. A free radical is an unstable molecule that steals an electron from a stable molecule in order to satisfy its need for repair. When this free radical destabilizes the stable molecule it creates another free radical in a vicious chain reaction of cellular destruction. A single free radical can cause damage to millions of other molecules in you body, preventing your body from functioning properly. This molecular destruction is continually occurring in your body. Free radicals attack us from many different environmental sources every day. There are many researches demonstrating that free radical damage accumulates with age. People often ask: if free radical damage is one of the key mechanisms of aging then taking antioxidant ...
Highly intensive sport performance is characterized by a number of events, which make increased free radical production and related cell damage most probable. Oxygen consumption for aerobic energy production increases about 20-fold and so does free radical production since both processes are quantitatively interrelated.. Additionally, free radicals may result from energy depletion in skeletal muscle during which ATP is broken down to ADP 2 AMP 2 hypoxanthine, which finally leads to the formation of xanthine and uric acid in red blood cells and endothelial cells, resulting in the liberation of free radicals. This is the xanthine oxidase (XO) pathway. Also the autooxidation of catecholamines as well as the production of nitric oxide, substances that are increased during exercise, lead to free radical production.. From animal experiments as well as from surgery in humans it is known that a restriction of blood flow, followed by reperfusion (restoration of blood flow) is accompanied by an enhanced ...
*******www.cancerfoundation****/about.html Oxidation is the cause of Free Radicals, this happens when an electron is knocked out of a chemical bond. These highly reactive Free Radicals will interact with and damage healthy molecules. Oxidative Stress occurs when destructive power of Free Radicals spread from one cell to surrounding cells inflicting widespread damage. There are Oxidation Factors in our daily lives, such as poor diet, stress, pollution, and aging. Oxidation also increases disease risks, like cancer, heart disease, arthritis, and autoimmune disease. Antioxidants can reverse the effects of oxidation, by way of Antioxidation. Antioxidant is essentially the exact opposite of oxidation, in that antioxidant molecules have electrons to spare. Once an antioxidant and a free radical come in to contact, the antioxidant will supply the free radical with an electron, thus repairing the chemical bond and returning stability to the molecule. With the prevalence of oxidation factors, it is very
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential regulation of protein tyrosine kinase on free radical production, granule enzyme release, and cytokine synthesis by activated murine peritoneal macrophages. AU - Kim, Young Ki. AU - Jang, Yoon Young. AU - Kim, Dong Hyun. AU - Ko, Hyun Hee. AU - Han, Eun Sook. AU - Lee, Chung Soo. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - The present study examined the regulatory effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein, tyrphostin, and 2, 5-dihydroxycinnamate) on the free radical production, granule enzyme release, and synthesis of interleukin (IL)-8 and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in murine peritoneal macrophages exposed to different stimulators [10 ng/mL of IL-1, 1 μg/mL of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and 1 μM N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)]. Protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors attenuated the stimulated superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide production in macrophages stimulated with IL-1, LPS, or fMLP N, ...
Free radicals are the cells in the body that like to ruin everything. They destroy cellular DNA chromosomes. Researchers believe that free radicals are partly responsible for the aging process, cancer, cataracts and heart disease.. How these little menaces get into ther body is through cellular metabolism. Cells are constantly changing to adapt to the current status of the body. Each cell in the body is made up of molecules. These molecules produce energy absorbing important nutrients. Through this process of energy production there are waste products via the oxygen system. An incomplete oxygen molecule is developed, and these are known as "free radicals." These cells then reap havoc in the body by attacking healthy cells. If a persons immune system is not strong enough to fight off intruding free radicals then illness or disease could develop giving free radicals free reign of the body.. How can you stop the menacing free radicals? Antioxidants!. Antioxidants are molecules that actually make ...
WHAT ARE THEY AND WHY SHOULD WE CARE?. Free radicals are everywhere, in the air, in our bodies, and in the materials around us. They cause the deterioration of plastics, the fading of paint, the degradation of works of art. They are also associated with age related illnesses, and can contribute to heart attacks, dementia, stroke and cancers, however their actual role in the development of these illnesses is still being investigated.. But free radicals are also useful, and we cant live without them. Within our bodies they help important reactions take place e.g. our white blood cells use free radicals to destroy bacteria and virus-infected cells. Free radicals are also used to manufacture pharmaceuticals, custom-designed plastics and other innovative materials.. For the scientists among you, free radicals are molecules with unpaired electrons with a negative charge; in their quest to find another electron they are very reactive, causing oxidative damage to surrounding molecules, and in so ...
EXPANDED ABSTRACT KEY WORDS: * antioxidants * prooxidants * dietary fat Prooxidants often are considered synonymous with reactive species, toxic substances that can cause oxidative damage to major constituents of biological systems. In contradistinction, antioxidants are defined as any substance that, when present at low concentrations compared with that of the oxidizable substrate, significantly prevents the prooxidant-initiated oxidation of that substrate. In this context, and based on the potential of free radical reactions contributing to the degradation of biological systems, it was suggested that it might be possible to reduce the extent of damage caused by free radicals through 3 dietary changes: i) reducing energy intake (i.e., lowering the level of free radical reactions arising in the course of normal metabolism), ii) minimizing dietary components that increase the level of free radical reactions (e.g., polyunsaturated fats), and iii) supplementing the diet with one or more free ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of the production of oxygen-centered free radicals by human neutrophils using spin trapping techniques. T2 - A critical perspective. AU - Britigan, B. E.. AU - Cohen, M. S.. AU - Rosen, G. M.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. N2 - Human neutrophils generate oxygen reduction products as a consequence of membrane interactions with a number of stimuli. One oxygen-centered free radical (superoxide) has been unequivocally shown to result from this respiratory burst, and some experimental evidence for another (hydroxyl radical) has been published, although debate remains as to its significance. The role of phagocyte-derived free radicals in microbicidal and tumoricidal activity as well as tissue damage at sites of inflammation has been the focus of extensive investigation in recent years. Of the techniques available to study free radical generation in biological systems, spin trapping has emerged as a powerful tool for detection and identification of these reactive species, ...
The use of UV light as an alternative to thermal treatments above the melting point (150 °C) to remove free radicals in irradiated UHMWPE was explored. It was found that, in contrast to the allyl free radical which is converted by 258 nm light to alkyl free radicals, polyenyl radicals are not converted to alkyl radicals by UV light. None-the-less, by sandwiching UV light treatments between low temperature thermal anneals (100 °C), it was possible to reduce free radical concentrations by 30%. This reduction was achievable for depths up to one millimeter. However, this reduction did not have a significant effect on oxidation due to an increase in oxidation susceptibility because of the concurrent increase in concentration of easily abstracted allylic hydrogens. By photoirradiating for the optimal amount of time, it was possible, for the first time, to synthesize a polyethylene sample whose residual free radicals consisted of almost entirely dienyl free radicals. This allowed unambiguous ...
The primary pathology of Parkinsons Disease (PD) is the degeneration of dopamine containing pigmented neurons in the brain. The chemical and enzymatic metabolism of dopamine itself may give rise to a range of free radical species. The autooxidation of dopamine and subsequent polymerization to produce neuromelanin may form free radicals through the formation of toxic semiquinone derivatives or by the production of other potentially toxic species namely 6-hydroxy dopamine. The evidence available points to free radical mechanisms involving the altered mitochondrial function, and an impairment in glutathione systems features which may potentially be related to the mechanism of cell death in PD.. Accumulating evidence implicates free radical formation and oxidative stress as a part of the pathology of PD. Findings of some workers suggests that the depletion of GSH initiates a chain of events which eventually results in oxidative damage sufficient to cause cell death and glial cells are important ...
This book describes mechanisms of skin damage generation and examines the potential impact of free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage on the skin aging process. It also evaluates methods to decrease skin oxidative stress, oxidative damage, and skin aging. The identification of free radical reactions as promoters of the skin aging process implies that interventions aimed at limiting or inhibiting free radical reactions should be able to reduce the rate of formation of aging-related changes with a consequent reduction of the aging rate. This book highlights how aging of the skin happens, as well as what are the causes and the best ways to prevent and treat it. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical ...
This active process of image formation and conversion of light to electrical signal and propagation of the signal causes huge amount of oxygen consumption in the retinal tissues. During oxygen consumption or oxidative reaction several oxygen derived free radical like singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide etc are liberated in the site. These free radicals are injurious to normal retinal tissue. The tissue damage caused by the free radical is called oxidative stress. Retina is highly vulnerable to oxidative stress due to its high oxygen consumption; high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acid and constant exposure to visible light. To minimize the damaging effect of free radical injury it is very urgent to detoxify the free radicals immediately after their production. This detoxification is naturally done by the anti-oxidant. The common anti-oxidant is vit-A or beta carotene, vit-C, vit-E, Lutein, Selenium, Flavinol, Lycopene, Cu, Zn etc.. What is Macular Degeneration or ARMD? ...
Human aging is similar to what happens to apples and metal in the presence of oxygen. All cells must have a source of energy to maintain life, and that source is oxygen. But oxygen is a double-edge sword. It maintains life, but at the same time it can be very destructive. If a person breathed pure oxygen for 2 days, instead of air that contains only 21% of oxygen, he would die because his lungs would be destroyed.. Dr. Harmans research led him to prose his theory of aging in 1956. His theory suggests that aging is caused by free radical reactions and may be involved in the aging changes associated with disease and the intrinsic aging process. This theory is now widely accepted in the United States and, indeed, the entire world.. What are free radicals?. Free radicals are among the agents most capable of damaging your body. A free radical is a molecule that contains one or more unpaired electrons in the outer orbit. These molecules react easily with biologic structures, in the particular ...
Free Radicals and Antioxidants [ISSN: 2231-2536] is an online peer reviewed publication dedicated to publishing novel, original findings in the field of free radical biology and both natural and synthetic antioxidants. The Free Radicals and Antioxidants Journal aims to foster the dissemination of scientific information by publishing manuscripts that provide new insights into the biology of free radicals, including their generation, degradation, modulation, role in cellular function and cell signaling. The submission of uninvited expert reviews and research articles in all areas of Free Radical Biology and Antioxidants are also welcomed. Free Radicals and Antioxidants publishes full research papers presenting original, high quality research, critical review articles providing comprehensive analysis of research development within a defined area and editorial commentaries on key topical issues in Free Radical and Antioxidant Biology.. ...
Free Radicals and Antioxidants [www.antiox.org], published by EManuscript on behalf of SciBiolMed.Org and Phcog.Net. It is a peer reviewed journal aiming to communicate high quality research articles, short communications, and reviews in the field of free radicals and antioxidant biology. The journal aims to further research into the physiological, pathobiological, functional and therapeutic implications and applications of free radical biology and antioxidant agents. The Journal welcomes original contributions examining various aspects of the biological role of free radicals through in vitro, in vivo and animal model studies.. About the Journal. Free Radicals and Antioxidants is dedicated to publishing novel, original findings in the field of free radical biology and both natural and synthetic antioxidants. Free radicals, which are defined as molecules containing one or more unpaire electrons in their outmost atomic or molecular orbital have emerged as double edged swords. Recent research has ...
How do antioxidants work?. Antioxidants perform mainly by taking away totally free radicals, terminating the destructive chain reactions via which these free radicals injury cells. Antioxidants do so by reacting with the free radical, and are as a result "used up" when they terminate the reaction.. This operate of anti-oxidants explain their exceptional potential to defend the physique in opposition to a wide selection of threats. For illustration, the antioxidant lutein, a carotenoid located in many plants, absorbed into the entire body when we take in these vegetation, is acknowledged to safeguard from radiation hurt: when radiation enters the physique and breaks aside a molecule creating a free radical, lutein neutralizes the free radical, therefore decreasing the volume of radiation injury.. Oxidative tension is associated with many types of ailment, so antioxidants can shield from a wide variety of distinct stressors on the human body.. Examples of antioxidants:. Antioxidants consist of the ...
An insight into the world of antioxidants. The human body consists of as many as 1 trillion cells. Each of these cells are known to face constant threats from improper food consumption, infections, virus and the damage caused by free radicals. Free radicals refer to a group of chemicals that are capable of damaging the genetic material of the human body. These free radicals can be found almost everywhere. The human body itself generates some amounts of free radicals as a byproduct of converting food into energy. Other sources of free radicals include sunlight, food and the air.. Free radicals are considered to be found in all sorts of shapes and sizes. They can change the instructions that are coded in your DNA strands and can also make it more feasible for a lipoprotein molecule to get trapped in the artery wall. Furthermore, these free radicals can also alter the cell membrane, forcing it to change the flow of what leaves and what enters the cell.. Luckily, the human body isnt completely ...
The possibility that cerebral ischemia may initiate a series of pathological free radical reactions within the membrane components of the CNS was investigated in the cat. The normally occurring electron transport radicals require adequate molecular oxygen for orderly transport of electrons and protons. A decrease in tissue oxygen removes the controls over the electron transport radicals, and allows them to initiate pathologic radical reactions among cell membranes such as mitochondria. Pathologic radical reactions result in multiple products, each of which may be present in too small a concentration to permit their detection at early time periods. It is possible to follow the time course, however, by the decrease of a major antioxidant as it is consumed by the pathologic radical reactions. For this reason, ascorbic acid was measured in ischemic and control brain following middle cerebral artery occlusion. There was a progressive decrease in the amount of detectable ascorbic acid ranging from 25% ...
Miessence Berry Radical is a revolutionary, Certified Organic superfood, designed to assist the body in maintaining vibrant health and wellbeing. This potent blend contains nine of the worlds most effective antioxidant superfoods. Berry Radical contains Certified Organic antioxidant-rich raw cacao (chocolate), olive juice extract, coffee fruit extract, fruits and berries, believed to help reduce the damaging impact of free radicals within the body. Why? What Are Free Radicals and Why Do We Need Antioxidants? Oxidation occurs when free radicals (highly reactive, high-energy particles) ricochet wildly throughout the body and damage cells. Free radicals can be produced within the body by natural biological processes, or by some externaltoxins such as tobacco smoke, chemical pollutants and poor eating habits. Free radicals are thought to accelerate the natural aging processes. Antioxidants found naturally in fruit and vegetables can help to neutralise these free radicals within our bodie
Cellular reactions within human tissues that involve oxygen may bring about the formation of highly reactive and unstable compounds referred to as free radicals. They characteristically feature a number of unpaired electrons which makes the atom or group of atoms interact with surrounding molecules in extremely short time periods of 10-9 to 10-12 seconds, creating a chain reaction that sets off the formation of new free radicals. Studies show that free radical interactions within the cell nucleus may damage DNA, leading to mutagenesis and cancer, if DNA repair systems are unable to cope. DNA damage may also result from reaction with dialdehydes, formed by the free radical peroxidation of unsaturated fatty-acids within cell membranes. It has also been shown that free radicals may interact with amino acids in proteins, leading to a modification of the protein molecule, which may trigger autoimmune responses that attack normal, unmodified protein. Free radicals may also react with unsaturated ...
Abstract. The oxidation of biogenic and anthropogenic compounds leads to the formation of secondary organic aerosol mass (SOA). The present study aims to investigate α-pinene, limonene and m-cresol with regards to their SOA formation potential dependent on relative humidity (RH) under night- (NO3 radicals) and day-time conditions (OH radicals) and the resulting chemical composition. It was found that SOA formation potential of limonene with NO3 significantly exceeds the one of the OH radical reaction, with SOA yields of 15-30 % and 10-21 %, respectively. Additionally, the nocturnal SOA yield was found to be very sensitive towards RH, yielding more SOA under dry conditions. On the contrary, the SOA formation potential of α-pinene with NO3 slightly exceeds that of the OH radical reaction, independent from RH. In average, α-pinene yielded SOA with about 6-7 % from NO3 radicals and 3-4 % from OH radical reaction. Surprisingly, unexpected high SOA yields were found for m-cresol oxidation with OH ...
The term oxidative stress was introduced by B. Seis in 1985 in order to characterize the imbalance of endogenous antioxidants and free radical activity (Sies 1985). There are many papers on oxidative stress showing that it provokes inflammation, ischemia and cardiovascular diseases (Mamarelis et al. 2010; Anastassopoulou et al. 2018). It is known that the oxidative stress affects the redox potential of the cells leading to damage of lipids, proteins, DNA, as well as the enzymes inducing fragmentations, peroxidation of the molecules, inhibiting thus the recovering of the damaged molecules. The free radicals are continuously produced endogenously in the living cells from metabolites, while external factors, such as cosmic rays, medical diagnostic techniques, and xenobiotics lead also to free radical production. Free radicals, because of the non-paired electron presence, are very reactive species and have the tendency to transfer or attract electrons in order to pair them and be stabilized. In all ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ESTIMATES OF ATMOSPHERIC HYDROXYL RADICAL CONCENTRATIONS FROM THE OBSERVED DECAY OF MANY REACTIVE HYDROCARBONS IN WELL-DEFINED URBAN PLUMES. AU - BLAKE, N J AU - PENKETT, S A AU - CLEMITSHAW, K C AU - ANWYL, P AU - LIGHTMAN, P AU - MARSH, A R W AU - BUTCHER, G PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. M3 - Article. VL - 98. SP - 2851. EP - 2864. JO - Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. JF - Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. SN - 2169-897X. IS - D2. ER - ...
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product(s) is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.. __________________________________________________________________. What Makes Isotonix® Açai Advanced Energy & Antioxidant Formula Unique?. A free radical is an atomic structure with an unpaired electron in its outermost shell. These unpaired electrons tend to be highly reactive, resulting in chemical reactions such as oxidation. Because they have one or more unpaired electrons, free radicals are highly unstable. They scavenge the body to grab or donate electrons, causing damage to cells, proteins and DNA. Free radicals are naturally occurring, however, air pollution, stress, smoking, heavy exercising and aging all contribute to the creation of harmful free radicals. Free radicals can cause oxidative damage to the body, potentially leading to serious health problems. Normally the body is able to protect itself from the damaging effects ...
While our body does an amazing job of neutralizing free radicals in a normal, low toxin environment, we are only designed to handle so much. Physical stresses such as smoking, too many medications, radiation, environmental and air pollution, bad foods and mental stress, just to name a few, all contribute to an increased amount of free radicals in the body. Even worse, free radicals are prolific. They zip around until they collide with a stable molecule causing the release of one of its two electrons. The free radical grabs one of the released electrons to make itself whole. The problem? This has left the atoms of the formerly stable molecule to share one unpaired electron and so begins a chain reaction that produces untold numbers of molecular fragments with unpaired electrons doing the same thing. Over time the damage undermines health ...
Founded: In 2004, as the PHCOG.NET - a non-profit private organization dedicated to Natural Products Research leading to develop promising drugs. Our main mission is to make information on herbal drug research readily available in different formats to suit the individual needs. About Journal : Free Radicals and Antioxidants [ISSN: 2231-2536] is an online peer reviewed publication dedicated to publishing novel, original findings in the field of free radical biology and both natural and synthetic antioxidants. Free radicals, which are defined as molecules containing one or more unpaired electrons in their outmost atomic or molecular orbital have emerged as double edged swords.The Free Radicals and Antioxidants Journal aims to foster the dissemination of scientific information by publishing manuscripts that provide new insights into the biology of free radicals, including their generation, degradation, modulation, role in cellular function and cell signaling. The submission of uninvited expert ...
Free radicals are highly destuctive molecules, because they are missing an electron, they DESTROY healthy molecules by STEALING their electrons and making them into FREE radicals too.This causes a chain reaction of damage to various parts of our cells.. Free radicals can result from our environment. Free radicals are also produced by our body in the process of burning food for energy. We CANNOT avoid them, BUT we CAN neutralisr their action.. Why healthy diet helps. FOOD esps. fruits and veggies, supplies many types of antioxidants, which DONATE their extra exlectrons to neutralise free radicals. Eating a variety of healthy diet is difficult. Researchers BELIEVE that supplementary antioxidants are necessary for combating free radicals in addition to the bodys normal defense systems. ..till then..taTah. ...
Ever wondered how you get all those wrinkles? Those annoying crows feet at the corners of your eyes? Or those laugh lines around your mouth? Sure, these things are but part of the normal aging process. But what causes aging anyway? And is there anyway to retard it?. In biological systems, the normal processes of oxidation are what lead to aging. Oxidation causes the production of substances called free radicals which are highly reactive. These free radicals can readily react with and damage other molecules. Note that it says "molecules" so that means free radicals dont make the distinction between foreign bodies and healthy cells. And when free radicals start attacking the bodys own cells, you can guess what the results are - Aging.. If only there was a way to get rid of those harmful free radicals…. Well, have we got good news for you? Free radicals are natural enemies of antioxidants. The function of antioxidants is to destroy harmful free radicals, counteracting the damaging of tissues ...
Antioxidants are vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients that may protect your cells from the effects of free radicals. Free radicals are molecules produced when your body breaks down food for energy, or by environmental toxins like cigarette smoke and radiation. Free radicals can damage cells, weaken the immune system, and may play a role in heart disease, arthritis, cancer and other diseases. Free radicals are thieves looking for electrons and will take them whenever available leaving the cellular victim of this theft vulnerable to problems until those electrons are put back. Our bodies have a natural ability to replace these stolen electrons but we can also get them from the food we eat by way of "antioxidants. Antioxidants give electrons to free radicals so they dont have to commit the crime of stealing from healthy cells in our bodies.. There are numerous compounds that can act as antioxidants with Vitamin E, Vitamin C, beta-carotene, zinc, selenium and manganese being the most popular. ...
Breathing heavy metal particles, even at levels well below those considered nontoxic, can have serious health effects. Virtually all aspects of animal and human immune system function are compromised by the inhalation of heavy metal particulates.7 In addition, toxic metals can increase allergic reactions, cause genetic mutation, compete with "good" trace metals for biochemical bond sites, and act as antibiotics, killing both harmful and beneficial bacteria.8 Much of the damage produced by toxic metals stems from the proliferation of oxidative free radicals they cause. A free radical is an energetically unbalanced molecule, composed of an unpaired electron, that "steals" an electron from another molecule to restore its balance. Free radicals result naturally when cell molecules react with oxygen (oxidation) but, with a heavy toxic load or existing antioxidant deficiencies, uncontrolled free-radical production occurs. Unchecked, free radicals can cause tissue damage throughout the body; ...
Free radical reactions are believed to play an important role in the mechanism of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis. Most studies concerning the role of free radical reactions have been limited to soluble Cr(VI). Various studies have shown that solubility is an important factor contributing to the carcinogenic potential of Cr(VI) compounds. Here, we report that reduction of insoluble PbCrO4 by glutath
How would you like some help finding the Very Best antioxidant serum readily available? This article will provide you some tips and tips for narrowing down your choices to come across an antioxidant serum that will keep the skin look healthy and youthful as possible.Finding the optimal/optimally antioxidant serum is essential because anti-oxidants are what defend your skin from free radical injury and oxidative stress. Your body really produces its own anti oxidants, however theyre not produced in high enough levels because you grow older to provide you full protection.One item that you have to do in order to come across the ideal antioxidant serum potential is merely start looking for the who are manufactured using natural ingredients. This will ensure that everything you are relevant to your skin layer is still safe. Plus, organic compounds consistently have much greater health-giving properties compared to some other synthetic synthetic chemical could.. Another powerful antioxidant serum ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Inactivation and Apoptosis and NK Cells from Oxygen Radical-Induced Cells Myeloid Dendritic Cells: Protection of T Cutting Edge: Antioxidative Properties of Hellstrand by Fredrik B Thorén et al.