At the present time virus grown in one layer tissue culture is successfully used for preparing deactivated antifoot-and-mouth disease vaccine. This article discusses the effect of some conditions on the multiplication foot-and-mouth disease virus in a tissue culture of pig embryo kidney cells (PEK). The article discusses the materials and methods used in the study and the results of the study, contains a discussion of the results, and makes the following conclusions: (1) The multiplication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in PEK tissue culture does not depend on preliminary adsorption of virus on cells. (2) Growing foot-and-mouth disease virus in PEK culture for the preparation of vaccine is a promising method. (Author)*TISSUE CULTURE)
A total of 18 foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia1 field isolates belonging to two different lineages (including the divergent group) as delineated earlier in VP1-based phylogeny were sequenced in the non-structural 3A and 3C protein-coding regions. The phylogenetic trees representing the regions coding for the non-structural proteins were very similar to that of the structural VP1 protein-coding region. Phylogenetic comparison at 3C region revealed clustering of Asia1 viruses with the isolates of serotypes O, A and C in the previously identified clade. Comparison of amino acid sequences identified lineage-specific signature residues in both the non-structural proteins. Overall analysis of the amino acid substitutions revealed that the 3A coding region was more prone to amino acid alterations than 3C region.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular characterization of serotype Asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses in Pakistan and Afghanistan; emergence of a new genetic Group and evidence for a novel recombinant virus. AU - Jamal, Syed Muhammad. AU - Ferrari, Giancarlo. AU - Ahmed, Safia. AU - Normann, Preben. AU - Belsham, Graham. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and Afghanistan. The FMD virus serotypes O, A and Asia-1 are responsible for the outbreaks in these countries. Diverse strains of FMDV, even within the same serotype, co-circulate. Characterization of the viruses in circulation can facilitate appropriate vaccine selection and tracing of outbreaks.The present study characterized foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia-1 viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan during the period 1998-2009. Phylogenetic analysis of FMDV type Asia-1 revealed that three different genetic Groups of serotype Asia-1 have circulated in Pakistan during this time. These are Group-II, ...
In Niger, the epidemiological situation regarding foot-and-mouth disease is unclear as many outbreaks are unreported. This study aimed (i) to identify Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strains currently circulating in cattle herds, and (ii) to identify risk factors associated with Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)-seropositive animals in clinical outbreaks. Epithelial tissues (n = 25) and sera (n = 227) were collected from cattle in eight districts of the south-western part of Niger. Testing of clinical material revealed the presence of FMDV serotype O that was characterized within the O/WEST AFRICA topotype. The antigenic relationship between one of the FMDV isolates from Niger(O/NGR/4/2015) and three reference vaccine strains was determined by the two-dimensional virus neutralization test (2dmVNT), revealing a close antigenic match between the field isolate from Niger and three FMDV serotype O vaccine strains. Serological analyses using a non-structural protein (NSP) test provided evidence for ...
Foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) target epithelial cells via integrin receptors, but can acquire the capacity to bind cell-surface heparan sulphate (or alternative receptors) on passage in cell culture. Vaccine viruses must be propagated in cell culture and, hence, some rationale for the selection of variants in this process is important. Crystal structures are available for type O, A and C viruses and also for a complex of type O strain O(1)BFS with heparin. The structure of FMDV A10(61) (a cell culture-adapted strain) complexed with heparin has now been determined. This virus has an RGSD motif in place of the otherwise conserved RGD integrin-binding motif and the potential to bind heparan sulphate (suggested by sequence analyses). FMDV A10(61) was closely similar in structure to other serotypes, deviating most in antigenic sites. The VP1 GH loop comprising the integrin-binding motif was disordered. Heparin bound at a similar site and in a similar conformation to that seen in the analogous
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute systemic disease of domestic and wild bovids that causes great agroeconomic losses worldwide. The etiological agent, FMD virus (FMDV), is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Aphthovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family (1), which includes seven distinct serotypes (O, A, C, Asia-1, SAT-1, SAT-2, and SAT-3) and multiple subtypes worldwide (2). In Bangladesh, the FMDV type O Ind2001 lineage of the ME-SA topotype was reported to be homogenously distributed across the regions during 2011 and 2012 (3).. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of an FMDV serotype O strain (BAN/GO/Ka-236(Pig)/2015) isolated from vesicular lesion of the feet of an infected pig, collected on 25 August 2015 in Gopalganj, Bangladesh. Viral RNA was extracted from the infected cell culture supernatant at passage 2 in the BHK-21 cell line, and cDNA was synthesized with random and oligo(dT) primers. A total of 16 overlapping amplicons covering the ...
An amino acid mutation (R127→I) in the 3A non-structural protein of an FMDV serotype Asia1 rabbit-attenuated ZB strain was previously found after attenuation of the virus. To explore the effects of this mutation on viral replication and infection, the amino acid residue isoleucine (I) was changed to arginine (R) in the infectious cDNA clone of the rabbit-attenuated ZB strain by site-directed mutagenesis, and the R127-mutated virus was rescued. BHK monolayer cells and suckling mice were inoculated with the R127-mutated virus to test its growth property and pathogenicity, respectively. The effects of the R127 mutation on viral replication and virulence were analyzed. The data showed that there was a slight difference in plaque morphology between the R127-mutated and wild-type viruses. The growth rate of the mutated virus was lower in BHK-21 cells and its virulence in suckling mice was also attenuated. This study indicates that the R127 mutation in 3A may play an important role in FMDV replication in
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can cause transplacental infection and death in fetal lambs. This study investigates the pathogenesis of FMDV infection in ovine fetuses using in-situ hybridization (ISH) to detect viral transcripts in tissue and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays to quantify the fetal cytokine response to infection. FMDV ribonucleic acid (RNA) was localized mainly to the heart and skeletal muscles of fetuses and was only occasionally expressed in the lingual epithelium, demonstrating that FMDV has a different tissue tropism in the fetus compared with that in adult sheep. There was early expression of genes encoding anti-viral cytokines (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) in fetuses at 2 and 4 days post-infection (dpi), followed by a marked rise in the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha) from 7 to 18 dpi, particularly in the heart. The degree of cytokine mRNA expression correlated with fetal ...
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and Afghanistan; serotypes O, A and Asia-1 of the virus are responsible for the outbreaks in these countries with FMDV type O usually being the most common. In the present study, the nucleotide sequences encoding the FMDV capsid protein VP1 from virus samples were determined. Phylogenetic analysis of the serotype O FMD viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan between 1997 and 2009 revealed the presence of at least three different lineages within the ME-SA (Middle East South Asia) topotype. The three lineages detected in this study are Pak98, Iran2001 and PanAsia. The PanAsia lineage is currently dominant in the area and is evolving with time as revealed by the appearance of distinct variants e.g. PanAsia-II and a new variant designated here as PanAsia-III. The rates of evolution of the O-PanAsia-II and III sublineages prevalent in the region were found to be 6.65×10−3 (95% CI=5.49-7.80×10−3) and 7.80×10−3 (95% ...
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is highly contagious and infects cloven-hoofed domestic livestock leading to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). FMD outbreaks have severe economic impact due to production losses and associated control measures. FMDV is found as seven distinct serotypes, but there are numerous subtypes within each serotype, and effective vaccines must match the subtypes circulating in the field. In addition, the O and Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes, are relatively more thermolabile and their viral capsids readily dissociate into non-immunogenic pentameric subunits, which can compromise the effectiveness of FMD vaccines. Here we report the construction of a chimeric clone between the SAT2 and O serotypes, designed to have SAT2 antigenicity. Characterisation of the chimeric virus showed growth kinetics equal to that of the wild type SAT2 virus with better thermostability, attributable to changes in the VP4 structural protein. Sequence and structural analyses confirmed that no
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals with an almost-worldwide distribution. Conventional FMD vaccines consisting of chemically inactivated viruses have aided in the eradication of FMD from Europe and remain the main tool for control in endemic countries. Although significant steps have been made to improve the quality of vaccines, such as improved methods of antigen concentration and purification, manufacturing processes are technically demanding and expensive. Consequently, there is large variation in the quality of vaccines distributed in FMD-endemic countries compared with those manufactured for emergency use in FMD-free countries. Here, we have used reverse genetics to introduce haemagglutinin (HA) and FLAG tags into the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid. HA- and FLAG-tagged FMDVs were infectious, with a plaque morphology similar to the non-tagged parental infectious copy virus and the field virus. The tagged
Introduction. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) belongs to the genus Aphthovirus, family Picornaviridae which principally infects cloven-hoofed animals including wildlife animals. The virus is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus and is categorised into seven serotypes: A, O, C, Asia 1, South Africa Territory 1, 2 and 3 (SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) (Domingo et al. 2003). FMDV can be genetically classified based on its geographic origin (topotypes); for example, the serotype SAT1 can be grouped into eight topotypes (I-VIII) based on nucleotide differences (within virus protein 1 [VP1] coding sequence) of up to 15% (Samuel & Knowles 2001). The serotype SAT1 topotype III is found in Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Kenya and Zimbabwe according to the study conducted by Vosloo et al. (2002).. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is highly contagious and, combined with its high antigenic diversity, this makes the disease difficult to control. The disease has caused significant economic losses as a result of the ...
One of the most challenging aspects of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control is the high genetic variability of the FMD virus (FMDV). In endemic settings such as the Indian subcontinent, this variability has resulted in the emergence of pandemic strains that have spread widely and caused devastating outbreaks in disease-free areas. In countries trying to control and eradicate FMD using vaccination strategies, the constantly evolving and wide diversity of field FMDV strains is an obstacle for identifying vaccine strains that are successful in conferring protection against infection with field viruses. Consequently, quantitative knowledge on the factors that are associated with variability of the FMDV is prerequisite for preventing and controlling FMD in the Indian subcontinent. A hierarchical linear model was used to assess the association between time, space, host species and the genetic variability of serotype O FMDV using viruses collected in Pakistan from 2005 to 2011. Significant (P , 0.05) ...
The current measures to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) include vaccination, movement control and slaughter of infected or susceptible animals. One of the difficulties in controlling FMD by vaccination arises due to the substantial diversity found among the seven serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV) and the strains within these serotypes. Therefore, vaccination using a single vaccine strain may not fully cross-protect against all strains within that serotype, and therefore selection of appropriate vaccines requires serological comparison of the field virus and potential vaccine viruses using relationship coefficients (r1 values). Limitations of this approach are that antigenic relationships among field viruses are not addressed, as comparisons are only with potential vaccine virus. Furthermore, inherent variation among vaccine sera may impair reproducibility of one-way relationship scores. Here, we used antigenic cartography to quantify and visualize the antigenic relationships among FMD serotype ...
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a single stranded RNA virus in the picornavirus family. It is the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, globally the most important a�iction of cloven hoofed animals. The FMDV genome has several features that are not found amongst other viruses within the Picornaviridae. These include a large 50 untranslated region (UTR), almost twice the length of that found in enteroviruses, containing highly structured RNA elements unique to FMDV, such as the S-fragment and several tandemly repeated pseudoknots. Unique aspects are also found within the coding region, where FMDV is the only picornavirus reported to contain multiple copies of the 3B gene. The reasons behind possession of these unusual deviations from the dogma of the picornaviral genome is so far unknown and therefore poses an attractive target for further research. The S-fragment is a predicted 360 nucleotide stem-loop at the 50 end of the FMDV genome. The better studied poliovirus (PV) has a well ...
MKAMA, Mathias et al. Serosurveillance of foot-and-mouth disease virus in selected livestock-wildlife interface areas of Tanzania. Onderstepoort j. vet. res. [online]. 2014, vol.81, n.2, pp.1-4. ISSN 2219-0635.. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is caused by a virus of the genus Aphthorvirus of the family Picornaviridae. There is great scientific need for determining the transmission dynamics of FMD virus (FMDV) by drawing more attention to the livestock-wildlife interface areas. A variety of literature suggests that buffalo could serve as reservoir of FMDV in wildlife and cattle. However, many FMDV research studies conducted on experimentally infected cattle as carriers and groups of animal highly susceptible to FMDV (i.e. bovine calves) have shown lower chances of transmission of the virus between carriers and the susceptible groups. These findings underscore the importance of continued research on the role played by carrier animals on FMDV transmission dynamics under natural conditions. The aim of ...
We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East.
Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) is a globally important pathogen responsible for causing Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) in wildlife and domestic livestock species and has significant economic impacts. FMD is difficult to control due to its highly infectious nature, wide diversity of host species and the existence of multiple serotypes; therefore, understanding the processes of FMDV infection and viral RNA replication are key to the development of improved diagnostics and vaccines. This thesis investigates the potential roles of the FMDV 3A non-structural protein using a combination of sub-genomic replicons, recombinant viruses and proteomics techniques. The picornavirus 3A protein has previously been linked with roles in replication complex formation, virulence and determining viral host range. This thesis presents findings showing that a naturally occurring deletion in 3A had differing effects on replication in cells lines derived from different natural hosts thereby supporting the conclusion ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Replacement of foot-and-mouth disease virus cattle tongue titration by in vitro titration. AU - Dekker, Aldo. AU - van Hemert-Kluitenberg, Froukje. AU - Oosterbaan, Anna H.. AU - Moonen, Kimberly. AU - Mouton, Laure. PY - 2018/10/24. Y1 - 2018/10/24. N2 - Titration of foot-and-mouth disease cattle challenge virus in cattle tongue has been the standard for many years in many countries, although titration in animals has been replaced by in vitro methods for all other applications. The objective of the analysis was the replacement of in vivo titration of cattle challenge virus by in vitro titration. Using data from 32 in vivo titration experiments together with the in vitro titration results of the same samples obtained by plaque count on primary lamb or pig kidney cells, as well as data from the virus isolation control chart used in the laboratory, we show that the reproducibility of the in vitro titration is much higher than that of the in vivo titration. The titer on primary ...
This study was conducted to investigate the presence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in different geographic locations of Tanzania. Epithelial tissues and fluids (n = 364) were collected from cattle exhibiting oral and foot vesicular lesions suggestive of FMD and submitted for routine FMD diagnosis. The analysis of these samples collected during the period of 2002 and 2010 was performed by serotype-specific antigen capture ELISA to determine the presence of FMDV. The results of this study indicated that 167 out of 364 (46.1%) of the samples contained FMDV antigen. Of the 167 positive samples, 37 (28.4%) were type O, 7 (4.1%) type A, 45 (21.9%) SAT 1 and 79 (45.6%) SAT 2. Two FMDV serotypes (O and SAT 2) were widely distributed throughout Tanzania whilst SAT 1 and A types were only found in the Eastern zone. Our findings suggest that serotypes A, O, SAT 1 and SAT 2 prevail in Tanzania and are associated with the recent FMD outbreaks. The lack of comprehensive animal movement records and ...
The replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is dependent on the virus-encoded 3C protease (3Cpro). As in other picornaviruses, 3Cpro performs most of the proteolytic processing of the polyprotein expressed from the single open reading frame in the RNA genome of the virus. Previous work revealed that the 3Cpro from serotype A -one of the seven serotypes of FMDV - adopts a trypsin-like fold. Phylogenetically the FMDV serotypes are grouped into two clusters, with O, A, C, and Asia 1 in one, and the three South African Territories serotypes, (SAT-1, SAT-2 and SAT-3) in another. We report here the cloning, expression and purification of 3C proteases from four SAT serotype viruses (SAT2/GHA/8/91, SAT1/NIG/5/81, SAT1/UGA/1/97, and SAT2/ZIM/7/83) and the crystal structure at 3.2Å resolution of 3Cpro from SAT2/GHA/8/91).
Summary Recombinant DNA clones were constructed in order to study the mechanisms of proteolytic processing and assembly in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). RNA transcripts from these clones were synthesized using SP6 polymerase and translated in rabbit reticulocyte lysates. Efficient translation occurred in the absence of all 5′ untranslated sequences and processing of the structural proteins occurred in the presence of functional 3C protease which can function in trans. The specificity of 3C protease activity is not limited to Glu-Gly bonds. Translation of correctly processed structural proteins leads to assembly of subviral structures resembling empty particles. Further studies on the processing of the FMDV genome show that the primary cleavage (P1-P2) is mediated neither by 3C nor the second FMDV protease L. Preliminary evidence suggests that an initial very rapid cleavage occurs between 2A and 2B with subsequent cleavage of the P1/2A junction probably being carried out by 3C.
The aim of the work is to search for loci of the genome of various types of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), characterized by the lowest variability, for use as genetic markers in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of virus identification. The nucleotide sequences of the genomes of FMDV of types A, Asia-1, C, O, and SAT (1, 2, and 3) were analyzed. When aligning the genomes of isolates of each type of virus, potentially conservative sites were identified. Comparing these loci, different types of the virus have one, the most conserved locus. Subsequent basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analysis established the correspondence of the conservative locus to the FMDV genome, and primers and a probe were developed to amplify this locus.
A synthetic peptide vaccine of the general sequence Cys-Cys-(200-213)-Pro-Pro-Ser-(141-158)-Pro-Cys-Gly(peptide A40), where the numbered residues refer to the VP1 sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strain A24 Cruzeiro, has previously been shown to elicit neutralizing and protective antibodies in guinea-pigs and cattle. To examine this immunogenic tract in more detail monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised to this peptide. One such MAb, C1.1, which recognized the homologous peptide, bound to native virus, neutralized infectivity in vitro and passively protected mice from challenge. Using overlapping dodecameric peptides the minimum binding footprint of this MAb incorporated residues 149-154 which were respectively Gly-Ser-Leu-Ala-Ala-Arg. Since this footprint occurs in several other A subtype strains of FMDV, the extent to which MAb C1.1 could cross-react was also examined. Using a liquid-phase competition ELISA, only viruses with a sequence that encompassed the same minimum binding
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a significant economically and distributed globally pathogen of Artiodactyla. Current vaccines are chemically inactivated whole virus particles that require large-scale virus growth in strict bio-containment with the associated risks of accidental release or incomplete inactivation. Non-infectious empty capsids are structural mimics of authentic particles with no associated risk and constitute an alternate vaccine candidate. Capsids self-assemble from the processed virus structural proteins, VP0, VP3 and VP1, which are released from the structural protein precursor P1-2A by the action of the virus-encoded 3C protease. To date recombinant empty capsid assembly has been limited by poor expression levels, restricting the development of empty capsids as a viable vaccine. Here expression of the FMDV structural protein precursor P1-2A in insect cells is shown to be efficient but linkage of the cognate 3C protease to the C-terminus reduces expression significantly.
The quantitative role of sheep in the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is not well known. To estimate the role of sheep in the transmission of FMDV, a direct contact transmission experiment with 10 groups of animals each consisting of 2 infected lambs and 1 contact calf was performed. Secretions and excretions (oral swabs, blood, urine, faeces and probang samples) from all animals were tested for the presence of FMDV by virus isolation (VI) and/or RT-PCR. Serum was tested for the presence of antibodies against FMDV. To estimate FMDV transmission, the VI, RT-PCR and serology results were used. The partial reproduction ratio R0p i.e. the average number of new infections caused by one infected sheep introduced into a population of susceptible cattle, was estimated using either data of the whole infection chain of the experimental epidemics (the transient state method) or the final sizes of the experimental epidemics (the final size method). Using the transient state method, R0p was
Understanding virus antigenicity is of fundamental importance for the development of better, more cross-reactive vaccines. However, as far as we are aware, no systematic work has yet been conducted using the 3D structure of a virus to identify novel epitopes. Therefore we have extended several existing structural prediction algorithms to build a method for identifying epitopes on the appropriate outer surface of intact virus capsids (which are structurally different from globular proteins in both shape and arrangement of multiple repeated elements) and applied it here as a proof of principle concept to the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). We have analysed how reliably several freely available structure-based B cell epitope prediction programs can identify already known viral epitopes of FMDV in the context of the viral capsid. To do this we constructed a simple objective metric to measure the sensitivity and discrimination of such algorithms. After optimising the parameters for five
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsids are inherently labile under mildly acidic conditions, dissociating to pentamers at pH values in the region of 6.5, with the release of protein 1A and the viral RNA. This acid-induced disassembly is thought to be required for the entry of the virus genome into the host cell. Previous work has highlighted a histidine-alpha-helix charge-dipole interaction at the twofold axes of symmetry between pentamers and has suggested that this interaction plays a role in acid-induced disassembly. The validity of this theory has now been tested by converting the implicated residue, His-142 of protein 1C, to Arg, Phe and Asp. The effects of such changes were studied by using a previously described vaccinia virus expression system, in which synthesis and processing of FMDV capsid proteins results in the self-assembly of capsids. In agreement with the histidine-alpha-helix charge-dipole theory, assembly in the arginine mutant was found to be greatly reduced, while capsids of the
Researchers at The Pirbright Institute have shown that when drugs are used to inhibit the cellular protein, hsp90, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) production is reduced. Hsp90 is a protein used by cells to fold other proteins correctly and it was shown to be required by FMDV to form the outer shell of the virus which protects the viral genome. This provides new insights
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes persistent infection of nasopharyngeal epithelial cells in ~50% of infected ruminants. The mechanisms involved are not clear. This study provides a continued investigation of differentially expressed genes (DEG) identified in a previously published transcriptomic study analyzing micro-dissected epithelial samples from FMDV carriers and non-carriers. Pathway analysis of DEG indicated that immune cell trafficking, cell death and hematological system could be affected by the differential gene expression. Further examination of the DEG identified five downregulated (chemerin, CCL23, CXCL15, CXCL16, and CXCL17) and one upregulated (CCL2) chemokines in carriers compared to non-carriers. The differential expression could reduce the recruitment of neutrophils, antigen-experienced T cells and dendritic cells and increase the migration of macrophages and NK cells to the epithelia in carriers, which was supported by DEG expressed in these immune cells. Downregulated
Foot-and-mouth disease virus has been crystallized with the objectives of (1) determining the composition and conformation of the major immunogenic site(s) and (2) comparing its structure with those of the related polio, rhino and Mengo viruses, representing the other three genera of the picornaviruses. Most of the work has been done with virus strain O1BFS 1860, which crystallized as small rhombic dodecahedra of maximum dimension 0.3 mm. Virus recovered from crystals was infectious, and was indistinguishable from native virus both in protein composition and buoyant density. The stability of the crystals in the X-ray beam was comparable with that of other picornavirus crystals and they diffracted to a resolution of better than 2.3 A. Initial analysis of the X-ray diffraction data shows the virus to be positioned on a point of 23 symmetry in a close-packed array so that examples of all the icosahedral symmetry elements, except the 5-fold axes, are expressed crystallographically. The cell dimensions are a
The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Exploiting innate responses for antiviral, therapeutic and vaccine adjuvation strategies is being extensively explored. We have previously described, the ability of small in vitro RNA transcripts, mimicking the sequence and structure of different domains in the non-coding regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome (ncRNAs), to trigger a potent and rapid innate immune response. These synthetic non-infectious molecules have proved to have a broad-range antiviral activity and to enhance the immunogenicity of an FMD inactivated vaccine in mice. Here, we have studied the involvement of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) in the ncRNA-induced innate response and analyzed the antiviral and cytokine profiles elicited in swine cultured cells, as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
Mwiine, F. N., Ayebazibwe, C., Olaho-Mukani, W., Alexandersen, Soren, Balinda, S. N., Masembe, C., Okurut, A. R. Ademun, Christensen, L. S., Sørensen, K. J. and Tjørnehøj, K. 2010, Serotype specificity of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle in selected districts in Uganda, Transboundary and emerging diseases, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 365-374, doi: 10.1111/j.1865-1682.2010.01157.x. ...
Non-structural proteins (NSPs) based diagnostics are useful for large-scale sero-surveillance of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and to monitor viral activity as a follow up to the vaccination campaign in FMD endemic countries like India which aim at disease control through vaccination. These diagnostics are also handy in the serology of import/export of cloven-footed animals. In the present study, non-structural protein RNA polymerase (3D gene) of FMD virus (FMDV) was expressed using baculovirus expression system. Protein expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and confirmed by its immuno-reactivity with serum from a FMDV infected bovine, in the western blot. Recombinant 3D protein was purified and evaluated in the indirect ELISA with 1072 cattle serum samples. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the assay were found to be 92 and 100 %, respectively, when tested with cattle sera of known FMD status. The 3D based ELISA developed here is useful for screening the animals as an adjunct to other NSP ...
Risk of between-herd transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus by milk collection. Interventions in wild and domestic animals: synergy or ...
Reid, SM, Grierson, SS, Ferris, NP, Hutchings, GH and Alexandersen, Soren 2003, Evaluation of automated RT-PCR to accelerate the laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus., Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 129-139, doi: 10.1016/S0166-0934(02)00210-0. ...
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Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. To further understand its complex epidemiology, which involves multiple virus serotypes and host species, we characterized the viruses recovered from FMD outbreaks in Ethiopia during 1981-2007. We detected 5 of the 7 FMDV serotypes (O, A, C, Southern African Territories [SAT] 1, and SAT 2). Serotype O predominated, followed by serotype A; type C was not recognized after 1983. Phylogenetic analysis of virus protein 1 sequences indicated emergence of a new topotype within serotype O, East Africa 4. In 2007, serotype SAT 1 was detected in Ethiopia and formed a new distinct topotype (IX), and serotype SAT 2 reappeared after an apparent gap of 16 years. The diversity of viruses highlights the role of this region as a reservoir for FMD virus, and their continuing emergence in Ethiopia will greatly affect spread and consequent control strategy of the disease on this continent.
Potency tests for commercial oil-adjuvanted foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines are usually carried out in cattle, using a full dose (2 ml) of vaccine and homologous virus challenge. However, in sheep the recommended vaccine dose is half of the cattle dose (1 ml) and most vaccines have not been potency tested for this species, especially with heterologous viruses. To determine the efficacy of a high potency (,6PD50) FMD virus (FMDV) O1Manisa vaccine in sheep, we carried out a study using a heterologous FMDV (FMDV O/SKR/2010 - Mya-98 strain) challenge. Groups of seven animals each were vaccinated with 2×, 1×, 1/2× or 1/4× dose (2 ml, 1 ml, 0.5 ml or 0.25 ml respectively) and challenged at 7 days post vaccination (dpv). Only 3 of the 7 sheep in the group vaccinated with 2 ml were protected. With 2 additional groups, receiving double or single doses and challenged at 14 dpv, 4 of 7 sheep were protected in each group. None of the sheep had measurable neutralising antibodies against the vaccine ...
Foot-and-mouth disease Virus (FMDV) is the prototypical member of the Aphthovirus genus, in the family Picornaviridae and is a small nonenveloped virus with a pseudo T=3 icosahedral capsid of 25-30 nm in size.. Inside the capsid is a 8.4-kilobase, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome (making FMDV a Group IV virus in the Baltimore classification) that is covalently bound at its 5′ end to the small viral protein 3B and is polyadenylated at its 3′ end. Upon virus entry into a cell, the viral genome is translated into a polyprotein which is co- and post-translationally cleaved by viral proteinases into 12 mature proteins.. ...
In January 2017, two villages located in Rakhine State of Myanmar reported clinical signs in cattle suggestive of foot‐and‐mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection. Laboratory analysis identified the outbreak virus as FMDV serotype Asia 1, which represented the first detection of this serotype in Myanmar since 2005 and in the region of South‐East Asia (SEA) since 2007. Genetic analysis revealed that the outbreak virus was different from historical viruses from Myanmar and was more closely related to viruses circulating in Bangladesh and India during 2012-2013, indicating that a novel viral introduction had occurred. The precise origin of the outbreaks was not clear, but frequent informal livestock trade with South Asia was reported. Responses to the outbreaks involved disinfection, quarantine and animal movement restrictions; no further outbreaks were detected under the present passive surveillance system. Detection of serotype Asia 1 highlights the complex and dynamic nature of FMDV in SEA. ...
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is caused by FMD virus (FMDV). FMD outbreaks have occurred in livestock-containing regions worldwide. Apigenin, which is a flavonoid naturally existing in plant, possesses various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant and antiviral activities. Results show that apigenin can inhibit FMDV-mediated cytopathogenic effect and FMDV replication in vitro. Further studies demonstrate the following: (i) apigenin inhibits FMDV infection at the viral post-entry stage; (ii) apigenin does not exhibit direct extracellular virucidal activity; and (iii) apigenin interferes with the translational activity of FMDV driven by internal ribosome entry site. Studies on applying apigein in vivo are required for drug development and further identification of potential drug targets against FDMV infection.
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Foot-and-mouth disease (FMDV). NS-non-structural proteins. (MAB7770) - Products - Abnova
Epidemiological comments: the 1st outbreak occurred in 4th regiment, 1st Agricultural Division, Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, and is located in Wushi county. The 2nd outbreak occurred in 6th Agricultural Division, and is located in Fukang city. Clinical signs were observed by local veterinary authority through active surveillance. WAHIAD note: both outbreaks were first notified on [9 May 2017] within follow-up report no. 2 about foot-and-mouth disease serotype O. [WAHIAD: World Animal Health Information and Analysis Department-OIE. - Mod.CRD ...
Since 2015, outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the Middle East have been caused by a new emerging viral lineage, A/ASIA/G-VII. In-vitro vaccine matching data indicated that this virus poorly matched (low r1-value) with vaccines that were being used in the region as well as most other commercially available vaccines. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of two candidate vaccines against challenge with a representative field virus from the A/ASIA/G-VII lineage. The results from an initial full dose protection study provided encouraging data for the A/MAY/97 vaccine, while the A22/IRQ/64 vaccine only protected 2/7 vaccinated animals. In view of these promising results, this vaccine was tested in a potency test (PD50) experiment in which 5 cattle were vaccinated with a full dose, 5 cattle with a 1/3 dose and 5 cattle with a 1/9 dose of vaccine. Vaccines were prepared as would be done during an emergency vaccination campaign using a double oil emulsion adjuvant. At 21 days post
Define foot-and-mouth (disease). foot-and-mouth (disease) synonyms, foot-and-mouth (disease) pronunciation, foot-and-mouth (disease) translation, English dictionary definition of foot-and-mouth (disease). foot-and-mouth (disease). Translations. English: foot-and-mouth n afta epizootica. Italian / Italiano: afta epizootica.
Looking for foot-and-mouth disease? Find out information about foot-and-mouth disease. or highly contagious disease almost exclusive to cattle, sheep, swine, goats, and other cloven-hoofed animals. It is caused by a virus, specifically an... Explanation of foot-and-mouth disease
OTTAWA, ONTARIO--(Marketwire - Jan. 31, 2011) - The North American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine Bank, administered jointly by commissioners from the United States, Canada and Mexico, is providing the Republic of Korea with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine needed to assist the country with its ongoing FMD outbreak. The vaccine bank will...
The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the pathogen that causes foot-and-mouth disease. This test kit can detect the FMD O antibody.
Researchers at The Pirbright Institute in collaboration with partners at the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory on Plum Island USA, have shown that foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can be detected in milk samples using a method that is potentially sensitive enough to identify the virus in pooled milk stored in bulk tanks or milk tankers. These encouraging results indicate that testing of milk samples could contribute to disease surveillance both during and after outbreaks.. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has a huge economic impact, costing an estimated US $11 billion globally each year in direct losses and vaccination costs. Outbreaks in countries that are usually free from FMD can have devastating consequences, such as the UK 2001 outbreak which resulted in the slaughter of six million animals and losses of over £8 billion.. The control of the disease is heavily reliant on the rapid and accurate detection of the virus. Current ...
Guinea pig antiserum containing known quantities of antibody to foot-and-mouth disease virus (140S antigen) and virus protein subunit (12S antigen) was used as a standard in radial immunodiffusion (RID) analyses for determining the antibody content of other antisera. The antibody contents estimated by RID for the unknown sera were in close agreement with those subsequently established by quantitative precipitin analyses. Relatively small amounts of reagents are required and the procedure is simple to perform. Consequently, it provides a feasible procedure for the quantitative estimation of the antibody content of many antisera to the different antigenic components occurring in foot-and-mouth disease. The RID techniques used were approximately 10 times more sensitive for detecting either antibody or virus (140S antigen) than the Ouchterlony double diffusion method. The sensitivity of the procedure used was such that it approached that of complement fixation for the detection of 7S antibody. The ...
According to the information included in the European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease monthly report Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Situation, January 2018: Regarding China, FMD outbreaks due to O were reported on 3 and 10 Jan 2018 in swine, respectively, at Buyi and Miao Autonomous Prefecture of QianNan, Sandu, Guizhou and Yinchuan, Xingqing District, Ningxia. As in the previous outbreak, diagnosis was carried out by the National and OIE Reference laboratory using RT-PCR and virus isolation. Source of outbreak is unknown and control measures applied are as those described in the previous outbreak, (see reports below ...
Are you a veterinarian from Asia and interested in learning how to investigate and control outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)? The FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific and the European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease invite you to take part in the upcoming FMD Investigation Training Course for Asia.. The online course involves twelve hours of interactive virtual learning content studied over a four-week period, with a mix of live webinars and self-directed online modules. The course will begin on 8th July 2021 ...
It is more due to good management than good luck that Australias agriculture sector has yet to be decimated by foot-and-mouth disease, writes Tracey Porter It is not by chance that an outbreak of the highly contagious foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), […]. Read More ». ...
Global Foot-And-Mouth Disease (FMD) Vaccine Market Research Report 2021 with 131 pages available at USD 2900 for single User PDF at ReportsWeb research database.
PubMedID: 23305464 | Proper Quality Control of Formulated Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccines in Countries with Prophylactic Vaccination is Necessary. | Transboundary and emerging diseases | 1/10/2013
Researchers at The Pirbright Institute have secured almost $1.5 million from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to fund the development of improved foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines for East Africa.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals. Six (out of 7 that have been identified) different serotypes of the FMD virus continue to circulate in different parts of the world. Within each serotype there is also extensive diversity as the virus constantly changes. Vaccines need to be
[email protected] WASHINGTON (June 29, 2015) - National Farmers Union (NFU) President Roger Johnson said today that he was extremely disappointed in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) decision to allow importation of fresh and chilled beef from some regions of Brazil and Argentina, a move that has potentially devastating consequences for American family farmers and ranchers.. U.S. farmers and ranchers are known throughout the world for the high standards to which livestock herds are raised in this country and our long-standing disease prevention efforts, said Johnson. Todays decision to allow imports of beef from Brazil and Argentina, regions with a history of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD), puts the economic livelihood of American producers at risk, as it unnecessarily exposes the U.S. livestock industry to a highly contagious disease.. Johnson noted that because FMD is highly contagious, it has the potential to spread very quickly. ...
1) VACCINATION REGIMES. Vaccination may be used to prevent major epidemics of disease. By providing vaccinated animals with protection, the number of susceptible animals is kept below the level required for disease transmission to be sustained.. In many areas of the world where foot-and-mouth disease is enzootic or there is a high risk of the disease, vaccination is used on a routine, prophylactic basis. Following initial vaccination, booster vaccinations are given at appropriate intervals for the area. Species other than cattle are not always included in these programmes.. In the face of an epidemic, whether or not in an endemic area, vaccination may be used alongside other measures to limit the spread of disease. In such a situation, it is advisable to vaccinate as many animals as possible of all susceptible species. It has been suggested that vaccination of at least 80-85% of the livestock in an area is required to provide herd immunity and effectively prevent disease spread.. The vaccine ...
With regards to the FMD Management area, Zokwana said no cloven-hoofed animals are allowed to move within, into or out of the area.. Movement permits, which were previously issued for this purpose, were withdrawn. Products from cloven-hoofed animals may be allowed to move WITHIN this area, but movements OUT of the area will be considered on merit and only allowed with permits issued by the local state veterinarian and in compliance with the conditions of such permits, Zokwana explained.. In addition, the Minister said the movement of cloven-hoofed animals, including wildlife and unprocessed products out of Mopani District and Vhembe District, as well as the Molemole Municipality of Capricorn District is discouraged until further notice.. It is only products processed using methods validated to inactivate the FMD virus that are safe to be moved out of the area.. The Minister reiterated to consumers that the product on the shelves is safe for consumption.. He appealed to farmers and all other ...
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Kenya where serotypes A, O, SAT1 and SAT2 are frequently encountered. Despite the importance of the dairy industry and the frequent reporting of disease, the epidemiology of FMD and field-based vaccine effectiveness has been poorly described in these endemic settings. Additionally, the disease impact has been inadequately characterised, despite the importance of such information when allocating scarce resources for animal health in national disease control strategies. The objectives of this doctoral thesis were to gain field experience of FMD in endemic settings and to use appropriate outbreaks to assess the vaccine effectiveness, gather evidence to optimise the use of vaccines and inform national policy, and to estimate disease impact. Outbreaks on two large-scale dairy farms located within Nakuru County, Kenya, were investigated and detailed descriptions of the outbreaks are presented. Both farms regularly used locally produced, aqueous adjuvanted, ...
Foot-and-mouth disease has been known for at least four centuries. The earliest reports of its occurrence are from Italy; it did not reach England until 1839. Its occurrence in South America was first described in 1871 and is probably linked to the movement of infected cattle from Europe to that part of the world. The earliest reports of the disease in Asia and Africa date from 1842 and 1892 respectively. The causal agent of the disease, a virus belonging to the family Picornaviridae, was discovered by Loeffler & Frosch in 1897; its antigenic diversity was described in the early 1920s. Seven serologically distinct types of the virus are now recognized, thus rendering the task of vaccination more complex, particularly as there is also considerable antigenic diversity within the serotypes. Nevertheless, good inactivated vaccines are available and, as demonstrated in western Europe over the last 30 years, these have proved to be extremely effective when applied prophylactically in efficiently ...
A total of 2126 herds, an attack rate of 0.82 per cent, were affected during an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in Argentina in 2001. The spatial and temporal distribution of the epidemic was investigated using nearest-neighbour and spatial scan tests and by estimating the frequency distributions of the times to intervention, and distances and times between outbreaks. The outbreaks were clustered and associated significantly (P<0.01) with herd density; 94 per cent were located in the Pampeana region, where the cattle population is concentrated, which had an attack rate of 1.4 per cent. The clustering results suggested that the virus had spread locally between outbreaks. Most of the outbreaks were separated by one day and the maximum distance between outbreaks was almost 2000 km, indicating that the infection spread rapidly over large distances. The index outbreak was detected more than 15 days after the primary outbreak, and restrictions on the movement of cattle were probably not ...
Thinking about a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak is not really high on farmers lists of things to do. Its not on their daily agenda of concerns and issues to deal with and they have plenty of those already. When you do get a discussion going around FMD and farmers realize how real the threat is and how serious the consequences could be, the fear can be almost paralyzing. People really dont like to think about scary things.. StopScaringUs. Yet, there is common acknowledgement that we need to be prepared for this sort of thing. Most people figure the government will tell them what to do in the event FMD is found in this country. To some extent, that is true. But when you start to delve into the plans and policies in place, given the imperfect and not unlimited resources at the disposal of the government, you may begin to wonder whether we can do better.. I set out about six years ago to better understand FMD response plans in the US and the role of farmers in those plans. A lot of ...
Chapter Abstract from Control of Foot-and-mouth Disease by Using Replication-defective Human Adenoviruses to Deliver Vaccines and Biotherapeutics
Vaccinating livestock against Foot-and-Mouth disease (FMD) and returning them to the food chain could be a 'viable alternative' to mass culls in the case of a future outbreak.
Animal health officials in Texas are watching with concern the relentless westward march of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), the most recent outbreak of which was confirmed in late February at several sites in England, where livestock operations already have been financially ravaged by the brain-wasting disease, BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) and outbreaks of the viral infection, hog cholera.
Clinical and laboratory investigations carried out on 7 January 2019 in cattle with symptoms suggestive of foot-and-mouth disease, on a farm located in Douar Ouled Sidi Chennane, in the rural commune of Krifate (Fquih Ben Saleh province), allowed to confirm the presence of this disease in the said farm, says the National Food Safety Authority (ONSSA) in a statement.. The public body announced that measures have been taken by the provincial veterinary service of Fquih Ben Saleh in collaboration with the local authorities, at the level of the infected farm. This included the slaughter and destruction of all cattle and sheep on the holding; cleaning and disinfection of the holding, including premises and equipment; vaccination of all cattle around the home; launching investigations into the origin and traceability of cattle affected by the disease and launching an epidemiological livestock survey at the zone level.. Since 2014, and in order to protect the national herd, ONSSA regularly carries out ...
The 2001 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic was controlled by culling of infectious premises and preemptive culling intended to limit the spread of disease. Of the control strategies adopted, routine culling of farms that were contiguous to infected premises caused the most controversy. Here we perform a retrospective analysis of the culling of contiguous premises as performed in 2001 and a simulation study of the effects of this policy on reducing the number of farms affected by disease. Our simulation results support previous studies and show that a national policy of contiguous premises (CPs) culling leads to fewer farms losing livestock. The optimal national policy for controlling the 2001 epidemic is found to be the targeting of all contiguous premises, whereas for localized outbreaks in high animal density regions, more extensive fixed radius ring culling is optimal. Analysis of the 2001 data suggests that the lowest-risk CPs were generally prioritized for culling, however, even in this case, ...
The Mexican Epizootic of Foot-and-Mouth Disease: A Study in the Spread, Eradication and Impact of Infectious Livestock Disease, and Associated Modernization in the Livestock ...
The Huong Khe Districts Peoples Committee in the central Ha Tinh Province has ordered localities to conduct aggressive checks to prevent the spread of the foot-and-mouth disease among its livestock, which was reported on Monday.
Great Britain: In Search of Greener Pastures In April, faced with the escalating foot-and-mouth disease crisis, the United Kingdom did what it always
Most recent tests show that four of the 24 gaurs that died mysteriously in December in Kui Buri National Park in Prachuap Khiri Khan had foot-and-mouth disease, Nipon Chotibal, acting chief of the National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department
Why must animals with foot-and-mouth disease, or those that might have been exposed to foot-and-mouth disease, be destroyed? Primarily for economic rea ...
Define contagious disease. contagious disease synonyms, contagious disease pronunciation, contagious disease translation, English dictionary definition of contagious disease. Noun 1. contagious disease - any disease easily transmitted by contact contagion communicable disease - a disease that can be communicated from one person...
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Read more about Surinder Sud: The foot-and-mouth scourge on Business Standard. After the eradication of dreaded livestock ailments like rinderpest and contagious bovine pleura-pneumonia, the focus now is on stamping out another equally perilous malaise called foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). The World Animal Health Organisation
it would do so monotonically and thus be compensated for by the resultant change in the fitted value of the risk threshold P*).. By making use of dispersion models driven by meteorological data from numerical weather prediction models or single-site observational data (Sørensen et al. 2000; Gloster et al. 2006), these profiles can be used to predict the spatio-temporal distribution of virus particles around a source or multiple sources, the output of which can be achieved in a matter of minutes or hours. It has been shown that these results can be easily applied to predict both the relative risk and, in specific cases, the absolute risk of airborne infection to local herds or flocks based upon their location and size.. Risk estimates do not perfectly predict subsequent events due to the inherent nature of stochastic events. For example, an analysis of the 2001 foot-and-mouth outbreak in the UK suggested that only 5-15% of infected premises were consistently identified with the use of ...
British authorities tests for a new outbreak of foot-and-mouth diseaseBritish Chief Veterinary Officer Debby Reynolds said cows in a second area of the sout...