At the present time virus grown in one layer tissue culture is successfully used for preparing deactivated antifoot-and-mouth disease vaccine. This article discusses the effect of some conditions on the multiplication foot-and-mouth disease virus in a tissue culture of pig embryo kidney cells (PEK). The article discusses the materials and methods used in the study and the results of the study, contains a discussion of the results, and makes the following conclusions: (1) The multiplication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in PEK tissue culture does not depend on preliminary adsorption of virus on cells. (2) Growing foot-and-mouth disease virus in PEK culture for the preparation of vaccine is a promising method. (Author)*TISSUE CULTURE)
A total of 18 foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia1 field isolates belonging to two different lineages (including the divergent group) as delineated earlier in VP1-based phylogeny were sequenced in the non-structural 3A and 3C protein-coding regions. The phylogenetic trees representing the regions coding for the non-structural proteins were very similar to that of the structural VP1 protein-coding region. Phylogenetic comparison at 3C region revealed clustering of Asia1 viruses with the isolates of serotypes O, A and C in the previously identified clade. Comparison of amino acid sequences identified lineage-specific signature residues in both the non-structural proteins. Overall analysis of the amino acid substitutions revealed that the 3A coding region was more prone to amino acid alterations than 3C region.
In Niger, the epidemiological situation regarding foot-and-mouth disease is unclear as many outbreaks are unreported. This study aimed (i) to identify Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strains currently circulating in cattle herds, and (ii) to identify risk factors associated with Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)-seropositive animals in clinical outbreaks. Epithelial tissues (n = 25) and sera (n = 227) were collected from cattle in eight districts of the south-western part of Niger. Testing of clinical material revealed the presence of FMDV serotype O that was characterized within the O/WEST AFRICA topotype. The antigenic relationship between one of the FMDV isolates from Niger(O/NGR/4/2015) and three reference vaccine strains was determined by the two-dimensional virus neutralization test (2dmVNT), revealing a close antigenic match between the field isolate from Niger and three FMDV serotype O vaccine strains. Serological analyses using a non-structural protein (NSP) test provided evidence for ...
Foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) target epithelial cells via integrin receptors, but can acquire the capacity to bind cell-surface heparan sulphate (or alternative receptors) on passage in cell culture. Vaccine viruses must be propagated in cell culture and, hence, some rationale for the selection of variants in this process is important. Crystal structures are available for type O, A and C viruses and also for a complex of type O strain O(1)BFS with heparin. The structure of FMDV A10(61) (a cell culture-adapted strain) complexed with heparin has now been determined. This virus has an RGSD motif in place of the otherwise conserved RGD integrin-binding motif and the potential to bind heparan sulphate (suggested by sequence analyses). FMDV A10(61) was closely similar in structure to other serotypes, deviating most in antigenic sites. The VP1 GH loop comprising the integrin-binding motif was disordered. Heparin bound at a similar site and in a similar conformation to that seen in the analogous
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute systemic disease of domestic and wild bovids that causes great agroeconomic losses worldwide. The etiological agent, FMD virus (FMDV), is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Aphthovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family (1), which includes seven distinct serotypes (O, A, C, Asia-1, SAT-1, SAT-2, and SAT-3) and multiple subtypes worldwide (2). In Bangladesh, the FMDV type O Ind2001 lineage of the ME-SA topotype was reported to be homogenously distributed across the regions during 2011 and 2012 (3).. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of an FMDV serotype O strain (BAN/GO/Ka-236(Pig)/2015) isolated from vesicular lesion of the feet of an infected pig, collected on 25 August 2015 in Gopalganj, Bangladesh. Viral RNA was extracted from the infected cell culture supernatant at passage 2 in the BHK-21 cell line, and cDNA was synthesized with random and oligo(dT) primers. A total of 16 overlapping amplicons covering the ...
An amino acid mutation (R127→I) in the 3A non-structural protein of an FMDV serotype Asia1 rabbit-attenuated ZB strain was previously found after attenuation of the virus. To explore the effects of this mutation on viral replication and infection, the amino acid residue isoleucine (I) was changed to arginine (R) in the infectious cDNA clone of the rabbit-attenuated ZB strain by site-directed mutagenesis, and the R127-mutated virus was rescued. BHK monolayer cells and suckling mice were inoculated with the R127-mutated virus to test its growth property and pathogenicity, respectively. The effects of the R127 mutation on viral replication and virulence were analyzed. The data showed that there was a slight difference in plaque morphology between the R127-mutated and wild-type viruses. The growth rate of the mutated virus was lower in BHK-21 cells and its virulence in suckling mice was also attenuated. This study indicates that the R127 mutation in 3A may play an important role in FMDV replication in
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can cause transplacental infection and death in fetal lambs. This study investigates the pathogenesis of FMDV infection in ovine fetuses using in-situ hybridization (ISH) to detect viral transcripts in tissue and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays to quantify the fetal cytokine response to infection. FMDV ribonucleic acid (RNA) was localized mainly to the heart and skeletal muscles of fetuses and was only occasionally expressed in the lingual epithelium, demonstrating that FMDV has a different tissue tropism in the fetus compared with that in adult sheep. There was early expression of genes encoding anti-viral cytokines (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) in fetuses at 2 and 4 days post-infection (dpi), followed by a marked rise in the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha) from 7 to 18 dpi, particularly in the heart. The degree of cytokine mRNA expression correlated with fetal ...
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and Afghanistan; serotypes O, A and Asia-1 of the virus are responsible for the outbreaks in these countries with FMDV type O usually being the most common. In the present study, the nucleotide sequences encoding the FMDV capsid protein VP1 from virus samples were determined. Phylogenetic analysis of the serotype O FMD viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan between 1997 and 2009 revealed the presence of at least three different lineages within the ME-SA (Middle East South Asia) topotype. The three lineages detected in this study are Pak98, Iran2001 and PanAsia. The PanAsia lineage is currently dominant in the area and is evolving with time as revealed by the appearance of distinct variants e.g. PanAsia-II and a new variant designated here as PanAsia-III. The rates of evolution of the O-PanAsia-II and III sublineages prevalent in the region were found to be 6.65×10−3 (95% CI=5.49-7.80×10−3) and 7.80×10−3 (95% ...
Introduction. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) belongs to the genus Aphthovirus, family Picornaviridae which principally infects cloven-hoofed animals including wildlife animals. The virus is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus and is categorised into seven serotypes: A, O, C, Asia 1, South Africa Territory 1, 2 and 3 (SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) (Domingo et al. 2003). FMDV can be genetically classified based on its geographic origin (topotypes); for example, the serotype SAT1 can be grouped into eight topotypes (I-VIII) based on nucleotide differences (within virus protein 1 [VP1] coding sequence) of up to 15% (Samuel & Knowles 2001). The serotype SAT1 topotype III is found in Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Kenya and Zimbabwe according to the study conducted by Vosloo et al. (2002).. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is highly contagious and, combined with its high antigenic diversity, this makes the disease difficult to control. The disease has caused significant economic losses as a result of the ...
The current measures to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) include vaccination, movement control and slaughter of infected or susceptible animals. One of the difficulties in controlling FMD by vaccination arises due to the substantial diversity found among the seven serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV) and the strains within these serotypes. Therefore, vaccination using a single vaccine strain may not fully cross-protect against all strains within that serotype, and therefore selection of appropriate vaccines requires serological comparison of the field virus and potential vaccine viruses using relationship coefficients (r1 values). Limitations of this approach are that antigenic relationships among field viruses are not addressed, as comparisons are only with potential vaccine virus. Furthermore, inherent variation among vaccine sera may impair reproducibility of one-way relationship scores. Here, we used antigenic cartography to quantify and visualize the antigenic relationships among FMD serotype ...
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a single stranded RNA virus in the picornavirus family. It is the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, globally the most important a�iction of cloven hoofed animals. The FMDV genome has several features that are not found amongst other viruses within the Picornaviridae. These include a large 50 untranslated region (UTR), almost twice the length of that found in enteroviruses, containing highly structured RNA elements unique to FMDV, such as the S-fragment and several tandemly repeated pseudoknots. Unique aspects are also found within the coding region, where FMDV is the only picornavirus reported to contain multiple copies of the 3B gene. The reasons behind possession of these unusual deviations from the dogma of the picornaviral genome is so far unknown and therefore poses an attractive target for further research. The S-fragment is a predicted 360 nucleotide stem-loop at the 50 end of the FMDV genome. The better studied poliovirus (PV) has a well ...
MKAMA, Mathias et al. Serosurveillance of foot-and-mouth disease virus in selected livestock-wildlife interface areas of Tanzania. Onderstepoort j. vet. res. [online]. 2014, vol.81, n.2, pp.1-4. ISSN 2219-0635.. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is caused by a virus of the genus Aphthorvirus of the family Picornaviridae. There is great scientific need for determining the transmission dynamics of FMD virus (FMDV) by drawing more attention to the livestock-wildlife interface areas. A variety of literature suggests that buffalo could serve as reservoir of FMDV in wildlife and cattle. However, many FMDV research studies conducted on experimentally infected cattle as carriers and groups of animal highly susceptible to FMDV (i.e. bovine calves) have shown lower chances of transmission of the virus between carriers and the susceptible groups. These findings underscore the importance of continued research on the role played by carrier animals on FMDV transmission dynamics under natural conditions. The aim of ...
We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Replacement of foot-and-mouth disease virus cattle tongue titration by in vitro titration. AU - Dekker, Aldo. AU - van Hemert-Kluitenberg, Froukje. AU - Oosterbaan, Anna H.. AU - Moonen, Kimberly. AU - Mouton, Laure. PY - 2018/10/24. Y1 - 2018/10/24. N2 - Titration of foot-and-mouth disease cattle challenge virus in cattle tongue has been the standard for many years in many countries, although titration in animals has been replaced by in vitro methods for all other applications. The objective of the analysis was the replacement of in vivo titration of cattle challenge virus by in vitro titration. Using data from 32 in vivo titration experiments together with the in vitro titration results of the same samples obtained by plaque count on primary lamb or pig kidney cells, as well as data from the virus isolation control chart used in the laboratory, we show that the reproducibility of the in vitro titration is much higher than that of the in vivo titration. The titer on primary ...
This study was conducted to investigate the presence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in different geographic locations of Tanzania. Epithelial tissues and fluids (n = 364) were collected from cattle exhibiting oral and foot vesicular lesions suggestive of FMD and submitted for routine FMD diagnosis. The analysis of these samples collected during the period of 2002 and 2010 was performed by serotype-specific antigen capture ELISA to determine the presence of FMDV. The results of this study indicated that 167 out of 364 (46.1%) of the samples contained FMDV antigen. Of the 167 positive samples, 37 (28.4%) were type O, 7 (4.1%) type A, 45 (21.9%) SAT 1 and 79 (45.6%) SAT 2. Two FMDV serotypes (O and SAT 2) were widely distributed throughout Tanzania whilst SAT 1 and A types were only found in the Eastern zone. Our findings suggest that serotypes A, O, SAT 1 and SAT 2 prevail in Tanzania and are associated with the recent FMD outbreaks. The lack of comprehensive animal movement records and ...
The replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is dependent on the virus-encoded 3C protease (3Cpro). As in other picornaviruses, 3Cpro performs most of the proteolytic processing of the polyprotein expressed from the single open reading frame in the RNA genome of the virus. Previous work revealed that the 3Cpro from serotype A -one of the seven serotypes of FMDV - adopts a trypsin-like fold. Phylogenetically the FMDV serotypes are grouped into two clusters, with O, A, C, and Asia 1 in one, and the three South African Territories serotypes, (SAT-1, SAT-2 and SAT-3) in another. We report here the cloning, expression and purification of 3C proteases from four SAT serotype viruses (SAT2/GHA/8/91, SAT1/NIG/5/81, SAT1/UGA/1/97, and SAT2/ZIM/7/83) and the crystal structure at 3.2Å resolution of 3Cpro from SAT2/GHA/8/91).
A synthetic peptide vaccine of the general sequence Cys-Cys-(200-213)-Pro-Pro-Ser-(141-158)-Pro-Cys-Gly(peptide A40), where the numbered residues refer to the VP1 sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strain A24 Cruzeiro, has previously been shown to elicit neutralizing and protective antibodies in guinea-pigs and cattle. To examine this immunogenic tract in more detail monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised to this peptide. One such MAb, C1.1, which recognized the homologous peptide, bound to native virus, neutralized infectivity in vitro and passively protected mice from challenge. Using overlapping dodecameric peptides the minimum binding footprint of this MAb incorporated residues 149-154 which were respectively Gly-Ser-Leu-Ala-Ala-Arg. Since this footprint occurs in several other A subtype strains of FMDV, the extent to which MAb C1.1 could cross-react was also examined. Using a liquid-phase competition ELISA, only viruses with a sequence that encompassed the same minimum binding
The quantitative role of sheep in the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is not well known. To estimate the role of sheep in the transmission of FMDV, a direct contact transmission experiment with 10 groups of animals each consisting of 2 infected lambs and 1 contact calf was performed. Secretions and excretions (oral swabs, blood, urine, faeces and probang samples) from all animals were tested for the presence of FMDV by virus isolation (VI) and/or RT-PCR. Serum was tested for the presence of antibodies against FMDV. To estimate FMDV transmission, the VI, RT-PCR and serology results were used. The partial reproduction ratio R0p i.e. the average number of new infections caused by one infected sheep introduced into a population of susceptible cattle, was estimated using either data of the whole infection chain of the experimental epidemics (the transient state method) or the final sizes of the experimental epidemics (the final size method). Using the transient state method, R0p was
Summary Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) A22 Iraq 24/64 adapted to grow in BHK monolayer cells induced antibodies which neutralized many isolates belonging to the A serotype. Plaque-purified virus isolated from this stock also induced broadly reactive antibodies, showing that this property is not due to the combined response to a mixture of variants in the original stock virus. However, viruses obtained by passage in suspension BHK cells of either the monolayer cell-adapted virus or a virus cloned from this stock resulted in the selection of virus which induced antibodies with highly specific neutralizing activity. In addition to their antigenic properties the monolayer and suspension cell-adapted viruses could be distinguished by plaque morphology, tendency to aggregate and ability to attach to BHK cells. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) induced with the plaque-purified monolayer-adapted virus had neutralizing activity almost as broad as polyclonal serum, showing that this property can be represented by
The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Exploiting innate responses for antiviral, therapeutic and vaccine adjuvation strategies is being extensively explored. We have previously described, the ability of small in vitro RNA transcripts, mimicking the sequence and structure of different domains in the non-coding regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome (ncRNAs), to trigger a potent and rapid innate immune response. These synthetic non-infectious molecules have proved to have a broad-range antiviral activity and to enhance the immunogenicity of an FMD inactivated vaccine in mice. Here, we have studied the involvement of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) in the ncRNA-induced innate response and analyzed the antiviral and cytokine profiles elicited in swine cultured cells, as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
Mwiine, F. N., Ayebazibwe, C., Olaho-Mukani, W., Alexandersen, Soren, Balinda, S. N., Masembe, C., Okurut, A. R. Ademun, Christensen, L. S., Sørensen, K. J. and Tjørnehøj, K. 2010, Serotype specificity of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle in selected districts in Uganda, Transboundary and emerging diseases, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 365-374, doi: 10.1111/j.1865-1682.2010.01157.x. ...
Non-structural proteins (NSPs) based diagnostics are useful for large-scale sero-surveillance of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and to monitor viral activity as a follow up to the vaccination campaign in FMD endemic countries like India which aim at disease control through vaccination. These diagnostics are also handy in the serology of import/export of cloven-footed animals. In the present study, non-structural protein RNA polymerase (3D gene) of FMD virus (FMDV) was expressed using baculovirus expression system. Protein expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and confirmed by its immuno-reactivity with serum from a FMDV infected bovine, in the western blot. Recombinant 3D protein was purified and evaluated in the indirect ELISA with 1072 cattle serum samples. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the assay were found to be 92 and 100 %, respectively, when tested with cattle sera of known FMD status. The 3D based ELISA developed here is useful for screening the animals as an adjunct to other NSP ...
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Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. To further understand its complex epidemiology, which involves multiple virus serotypes and host species, we characterized the viruses recovered from FMD outbreaks in Ethiopia during 1981-2007. We detected 5 of the 7 FMDV serotypes (O, A, C, Southern African Territories [SAT] 1, and SAT 2). Serotype O predominated, followed by serotype A; type C was not recognized after 1983. Phylogenetic analysis of virus protein 1 sequences indicated emergence of a new topotype within serotype O, East Africa 4. In 2007, serotype SAT 1 was detected in Ethiopia and formed a new distinct topotype (IX), and serotype SAT 2 reappeared after an apparent gap of 16 years. The diversity of viruses highlights the role of this region as a reservoir for FMD virus, and their continuing emergence in Ethiopia will greatly affect spread and consequent control strategy of the disease on this continent.
Potency tests for commercial oil-adjuvanted foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines are usually carried out in cattle, using a full dose (2 ml) of vaccine and homologous virus challenge. However, in sheep the recommended vaccine dose is half of the cattle dose (1 ml) and most vaccines have not been potency tested for this species, especially with heterologous viruses. To determine the efficacy of a high potency (,6PD50) FMD virus (FMDV) O1Manisa vaccine in sheep, we carried out a study using a heterologous FMDV (FMDV O/SKR/2010 - Mya-98 strain) challenge. Groups of seven animals each were vaccinated with 2×, 1×, 1/2× or 1/4× dose (2 ml, 1 ml, 0.5 ml or 0.25 ml respectively) and challenged at 7 days post vaccination (dpv). Only 3 of the 7 sheep in the group vaccinated with 2 ml were protected. With 2 additional groups, receiving double or single doses and challenged at 14 dpv, 4 of 7 sheep were protected in each group. None of the sheep had measurable neutralising antibodies against the vaccine ...
In April 2008, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks were reported in Kamuli district of the eastern region of Uganda. Soon after lifting the quarantines in this area, further FMD outbreaks were reported in northern Uganda, which spread to more than 10 districts. The aim of this study was to identify the serotype and compare the variable protein (VP)1 coding sequences of the viruses responsible for FMD outbreaks during 2008 and 2009, to trace the transmission pathways of the disease in Uganda. Probang and epithelial swab samples were collected from cattle with clinical signs of FMD in the two regions, and the presence of FMDV RNA in these samples was determined using a standard diagnostic RT-PCR assay. From the total of 27 positive samples, the VP1 coding region was amplified and sequenced. Each of these sequences showed ,99% identity to each other, and just five distinct sequences were identified. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analysis of the complete variable protein (VP)1 coding sequences ...
Foot-and-mouth disease Virus (FMDV) is the prototypical member of the Aphthovirus genus, in the family Picornaviridae and is a small nonenveloped virus with a pseudo T=3 icosahedral capsid of 25-30 nm in size.. Inside the capsid is a 8.4-kilobase, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome (making FMDV a Group IV virus in the Baltimore classification) that is covalently bound at its 5′ end to the small viral protein 3B and is polyadenylated at its 3′ end. Upon virus entry into a cell, the viral genome is translated into a polyprotein which is co- and post-translationally cleaved by viral proteinases into 12 mature proteins.. ...
In January 2017, two villages located in Rakhine State of Myanmar reported clinical signs in cattle suggestive of foot‐and‐mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection. Laboratory analysis identified the outbreak virus as FMDV serotype Asia 1, which represented the first detection of this serotype in Myanmar since 2005 and in the region of South‐East Asia (SEA) since 2007. Genetic analysis revealed that the outbreak virus was different from historical viruses from Myanmar and was more closely related to viruses circulating in Bangladesh and India during 2012-2013, indicating that a novel viral introduction had occurred. The precise origin of the outbreaks was not clear, but frequent informal livestock trade with South Asia was reported. Responses to the outbreaks involved disinfection, quarantine and animal movement restrictions; no further outbreaks were detected under the present passive surveillance system. Detection of serotype Asia 1 highlights the complex and dynamic nature of FMDV in SEA. ...
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is caused by FMD virus (FMDV). FMD outbreaks have occurred in livestock-containing regions worldwide. Apigenin, which is a flavonoid naturally existing in plant, possesses various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant and antiviral activities. Results show that apigenin can inhibit FMDV-mediated cytopathogenic effect and FMDV replication in vitro. Further studies demonstrate the following: (i) apigenin inhibits FMDV infection at the viral post-entry stage; (ii) apigenin does not exhibit direct extracellular virucidal activity; and (iii) apigenin interferes with the translational activity of FMDV driven by internal ribosome entry site. Studies on applying apigein in vivo are required for drug development and further identification of potential drug targets against FDMV infection.
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Foot-and-mouth disease (FMDV). NS-non-structural proteins. (MAB7770) - Products - Abnova
Epidemiological comments: the 1st outbreak occurred in 4th regiment, 1st Agricultural Division, Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, and is located in Wushi county. The 2nd outbreak occurred in 6th Agricultural Division, and is located in Fukang city. Clinical signs were observed by local veterinary authority through active surveillance. WAHIAD note: both outbreaks were first notified on [9 May 2017] within follow-up report no. 2 about foot-and-mouth disease serotype O. [WAHIAD: World Animal Health Information and Analysis Department-OIE. - Mod.CRD ...
US Department of Agriculture scientists have identified the primary site where the virus that causes foot-and-mouth disease begins infection in cattle.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly infectious picornavirus that causes disease in cloven-hoofed animals. Neutralizing antibodies are thought to play a primary role in FMDV immunity, and their induction forms the basis for current vaccine approaches. However, the role of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) in recovery and protection has remained largely unexplored. Immune evasion strategies of FMDV are predicted to impair the development of functional CTL assays. Specifically, virus encoded proteases inhibit expression of Class I MHC molecules by infected cells. In order to overcome these difficulties, we have analyzed the response to a recombinant, human Adenovirus 5 (huAd5) vectored, FMDV vaccine. Swine homozygous for MHC were vaccinated with a replication-defective huAd5 expressing the unprocessed capsid polyprotein of FMDV, strain A24. An MHC-matched cell line was used for antigen stimulation and as a source of target cells in cellular cytotoxicity assays. PBMCs from vaccinated ...
Poster (2013, October). Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed mammals and one of the biggest concerns for veterinary authorities. The control measures to be applied in case of an ... [more ▼]. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed mammals and one of the biggest concerns for veterinary authorities. The control measures to be applied in case of an outbreak vary in function of the disease-free or disease-enzootic status. Vaccination depends on the prior identification of the involved viral serotype and subtype, it confers an immunity limited to 6 months and it requires between 4 to 7 days to trigger the immune response (i.e. immunity-gap). The use of anti-FMD drugs has been discussed as an alternative or supplementary method to be used in previously FMD-free countries/zones. Such an antiviral treatment could protect against the viral dissemination to fill the gap between vaccination and the rise of a ...
Faster diagnosis and new knowledge. Current studies are focused on better ways to fight the disease, for example through the development of new, improved vaccines and diagnostic methods. With the support of EuFMD, which is part of FAO, we are developing rapid methods, based on real-time RT-PCR systems, to differentiate between different serotypes.. We study the important processes of virus biology including RNA replication, viral protein synthesis and virus capsid assembly. Furthermore, we analyse the features of the virus, which determine its ability to cause disease. This is central to the development of new control strategies (for instance by interfering with the ability of the virus to block the defense mechanisms in the host). An important foundation of this work is the ability to modify the virus genome in order to determine the effects of these targeted changes on the properties of the virus in animal cells and in the natural host.. Thus, we use a reverse genetics approach to introduce ...
We asked one of our Virology Section Editors, Peter Sommer, also team head of the Cell Biology of Retroviruses group at the Institut Pasteur Korea for his picks in this field. Not only did he choose 6 articles from those he has edited but he also provided notes on why they were on his list. Please feel free to share these research articles with colleagues:. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Persists in the Light Zone of Germinal Centres by Juleff N et al. Persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (the carrier state) is considered to be a common sequel to both clinical and subclinical FMD in ruminants. The mechanism(s) employed by the virus to persist and evade immune elimination from the host as well as the site of viral persistence in vivo is not well defined. This work provides good evidence that intact, non-replicating FMDV particles trapped by immune cells called follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) within the germinal centres of lymph nodes persist for at least 38 days in carrier ...
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that affects important livestock species. FMDV is a small non-enveloped virus belonging to the Picornaviridae family (Aphthovirus genus). The FMDV genome, which consists of a positive RNA strand, is enclosed inside an icosahedral capsid built up with 60 copies of each of the four structural protein (VP1 to VP4). Five protomers associate in a pentamer, the smallest unit of assembly and disassembly of the capsid. The acidic pH inside cellular endosomes promotes the capsid dissociation in pentameric subunits and triggers virus uncoating and genome release. As a direct consequence of this mechanism of penetration in the cells, FMDV capsids are extremely sensitive to acidic pH. We have analyzed the molecular basis of FMDV acid-induced disassembly by isolating and characterizing a panel of novel FMDV mutants differing in acid sensitivity. Amino acid replacements altering virion stability were preferentially ...
Serotypes of the Foot-and-Mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) were generally determined by biological experiments. The computational genotyping is not well studied even with the availability of whole viral genomes, due to uneven evolution among genes as well as frequent genetic recombination. Naively using sequence comparison for genotyping is only able to achieve a limited extent of success. We used 129 FMDV strains with known serotype as training strains to select as many as 140 most serotype-specific nucleotide strings. We then constructed a linear-kernel Support Vector Machine classifier using these 140 strings. Under the leave-one-out cross validation scheme, this classifier was able to assign correct serotype to 127 of these 129 strains, achieving 98.45% accuracy. It also assigned serotype correctly to an independent test set of 83 other FMDV strains downloaded separately from NCBI GenBank. Computational genotyping is much faster and much cheaper than the wet-lab based biological experiments, upon the
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1BCV: Solution structure of a retro-inverso peptide analogue mimicking the foot-and-mouth disease virus major antigenic site. Structural basis for its antigenic cross-reactivity with the parent peptide.
Our group The picornavirus family of viruses includes a number of important pathogens of animals and humans, for example foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), poliovirus and human rhinovirus (the common cold). We are interested in picornavirus cell entry, replication, assembly, structure, antigenicity and evolution. Our aims Research in our group is intended to improve our
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 2wv4. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS 3C PROTEASE IN COMPLEX WITH A DECAMERIC PEPTIDE CORRESPONDING TO THE VP1-2A CLEAVAGE JUNCTION
1. Test the virulence in swine of FHA mutant FMDV. In vivo studies will be conducted in swine to test the virulence of an available mutant FMDV strain containing mutations in a conserved domain (FHA) of the virus leader coding region. 2. Construction and in vitro characterization of FMDV strains with mutations in the CTE domain and/or the SAP and/or FHA domains. Several mutant FMDV strains will be constructed by using the infectious clone and targeting conserved residues contained in the CTE region of the leader coding region with the goal of obtaining new stable attenuated phenotypes that have a low probability of reversion to virulent wild type phenotype. 3. Test the virulence in swine of FMDV strains containing multiple mutations in the leader coding region (SAP and/or FHA and/or CTE mutations). In vivo studies will be conducted in swine with newly constructed FMDV containing multiple attenuating mutations in the leader coding region. 4. Test the efficacy of vaccination with attenuated FMDV ...
T he GMP requirements for veterinary vaccine processes are very similar to GMP requirements for human vaccine manufacturing. All materials should be subjected...
Hand, foot and mouth is a common and highly contagious disease that mainly affects children under ten. It results in spotty blisters across the hands, feet and around the mouth, as well as in the mout...
UK - More than 50 organisations and companies from across the agricultural industry are backing a campaign which aims to eliminate a highly contagious disease of cattle from England.
Pertussis or "whooping cough" is on the rise. Rates of pertussis have increased over the past 20 years. Data shows that an average of 30,000 cases of pertussis are reported each year in the United States among children and adults.* This highly contagious disease is the most common vaccine-preventable childhood disease and the least well-controlled bacterial vaccine-preventable disease. Also, adolescents and adults play a significant role in transmitting pertussis to vulnerable infants at home, in the community, and in health care and daycare settings.. *Average reported cases in U.S., 2010-2014, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Division of Bacterial Diseases. ...
Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious disease that people catch after inhaling a very small number of TB germs and becoming infected. One-third of the worlds population is currently infected with the TB bacillus, and five to ten percent of these people will become sick or infectious at some time during their life. Nearly one third of people with HIV are also infected with TB.. ...
Using vaccinated (FMDV serotype O1) and non-vaccinated cattle, we have demonstrated that the majority of the specific reaction between antibody and antigen in sera occurs within 10 to 60 seconds. In contrast, aspecific and non-specific reactions are still at low levels within such a short time span. When dilutions of sera were employed and compared with the original reactivity of the sera, it was observed that the use of diluted sera provided an assessment of antibody activity resulting from the dilutions, and not as pertaining directly to the reactivity in the serum itself. Results from serum which can be related to its capacity to function under in vivo conditions, can only be obtained when the in vitro analytical methodology creates conditions close to those found in the serum itself. Method and Results ...
Looking for foot-and-mouth disease? Find out information about foot-and-mouth disease. or highly contagious disease almost exclusive to cattle, sheep, swine, goats, and other cloven-hoofed animals. It is caused by a virus, specifically an... Explanation of foot-and-mouth disease
OTTAWA, ONTARIO--(Marketwire - Jan. 31, 2011) - The North American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine Bank, administered jointly by commissioners from the United States, Canada and Mexico, is providing the Republic of Korea with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine needed to assist the country with its ongoing FMD outbreak. The vaccine bank will...
The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the pathogen that causes foot-and-mouth disease. This test kit can detect the FMD O antibody.
Researchers at The Pirbright Institute in collaboration with partners at the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory on Plum Island USA, have shown that foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can be detected in milk samples using a method that is potentially sensitive enough to identify the virus in pooled milk stored in bulk tanks or milk tankers. These encouraging results indicate that testing of milk samples could contribute to disease surveillance both during and after outbreaks.. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has a huge economic impact, costing an estimated US $11 billion globally each year in direct losses and vaccination costs. Outbreaks in countries that are usually free from FMD can have devastating consequences, such as the UK 2001 outbreak which resulted in the slaughter of six million animals and losses of over £8 billion.. The control of the disease is heavily reliant on the rapid and accurate detection of the virus. Current ...
Guinea pig antiserum containing known quantities of antibody to foot-and-mouth disease virus (140S antigen) and virus protein subunit (12S antigen) was used as a standard in radial immunodiffusion (RID) analyses for determining the antibody content of other antisera. The antibody contents estimated by RID for the unknown sera were in close agreement with those subsequently established by quantitative precipitin analyses. Relatively small amounts of reagents are required and the procedure is simple to perform. Consequently, it provides a feasible procedure for the quantitative estimation of the antibody content of many antisera to the different antigenic components occurring in foot-and-mouth disease. The RID techniques used were approximately 10 times more sensitive for detecting either antibody or virus (140S antigen) than the Ouchterlony double diffusion method. The sensitivity of the procedure used was such that it approached that of complement fixation for the detection of 7S antibody. The ...
According to the information included in the European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease monthly report "Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Situation," January 2018: Regarding China, "FMD outbreaks due to O were reported on 3 and 10 Jan 2018 in swine, respectively, at Buyi and Miao Autonomous Prefecture of QianNan, Sandu, Guizhou and Yinchuan, Xingqing District, Ningxia. As in the previous outbreak, diagnosis was carried out by the National and OIE Reference laboratory using RT-PCR and virus isolation. Source of outbreak is unknown and control measures applied are as those described in the previous outbreak," (see reports below ...
It is more due to good management than good luck that Australias agriculture sector has yet to be decimated by foot-and-mouth disease, writes Tracey Porter It is not by chance that an outbreak of the highly contagious foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), […]. Read More ». ...
... with 131 pages available at USD 2900 for single User PDF at ReportsWeb research database.
PubMedID: 23305464 | Proper Quality Control of Formulated Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccines in Countries with Prophylactic Vaccination is Necessary. | Transboundary and emerging diseases | 1/10/2013
[email protected] WASHINGTON (June 29, 2015) - National Farmers Union (NFU) President Roger Johnson said today that he was extremely disappointed in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) decision to allow importation of fresh and chilled beef from some regions of Brazil and Argentina, a move that has potentially devastating consequences for American family farmers and ranchers.. "U.S. farmers and ranchers are known throughout the world for the high standards to which livestock herds are raised in this country and our long-standing disease prevention efforts," said Johnson. "Todays decision to allow imports of beef from Brazil and Argentina, regions with a history of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD), puts the economic livelihood of American producers at risk, as it unnecessarily exposes the U.S. livestock industry to a highly contagious disease.". Johnson noted that because FMD is highly contagious, it has the potential to spread very quickly. ...
1) VACCINATION REGIMES. Vaccination may be used to prevent major epidemics of disease. By providing vaccinated animals with protection, the number of susceptible animals is kept below the level required for disease transmission to be sustained.. In many areas of the world where foot-and-mouth disease is enzootic or there is a high risk of the disease, vaccination is used on a routine, prophylactic basis. Following initial vaccination, booster vaccinations are given at appropriate intervals for the area. Species other than cattle are not always included in these programmes.. In the face of an epidemic, whether or not in an endemic area, vaccination may be used alongside other measures to limit the spread of disease. In such a situation, it is advisable to vaccinate as many animals as possible of all susceptible species. It has been suggested that vaccination of at least 80-85% of the livestock in an area is required to provide herd immunity and effectively prevent disease spread.. The vaccine ...
With regards to the FMD Management area, Zokwana said no cloven-hoofed animals are allowed to move within, into or out of the area.. "Movement permits, which were previously issued for this purpose, were withdrawn. Products from cloven-hoofed animals may be allowed to move WITHIN this area, but movements OUT of the area will be considered on merit and only allowed with permits issued by the local state veterinarian and in compliance with the conditions of such permits," Zokwana explained.. In addition, the Minister said the movement of cloven-hoofed animals, including wildlife and unprocessed products out of Mopani District and Vhembe District, as well as the Molemole Municipality of Capricorn District is discouraged until further notice.. "It is only products processed using methods validated to inactivate the FMD virus that are safe to be moved out of the area.". The Minister reiterated to consumers that the product on the shelves is safe for consumption.. He appealed to farmers and all other ...
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Kenya where serotypes A, O, SAT1 and SAT2 are frequently encountered. Despite the importance of the dairy industry and the frequent reporting of disease, the epidemiology of FMD and field-based vaccine effectiveness has been poorly described in these endemic settings. Additionally, the disease impact has been inadequately characterised, despite the importance of such information when allocating scarce resources for animal health in national disease control strategies. The objectives of this doctoral thesis were to gain field experience of FMD in endemic settings and to use appropriate outbreaks to assess the vaccine effectiveness, gather evidence to optimise the use of vaccines and inform national policy, and to estimate disease impact. Outbreaks on two large-scale dairy farms located within Nakuru County, Kenya, were investigated and detailed descriptions of the outbreaks are presented. Both farms regularly used locally produced, aqueous adjuvanted, ...
Foot-and-mouth disease has been known for at least four centuries. The earliest reports of its occurrence are from Italy; it did not reach England until 1839. Its occurrence in South America was first described in 1871 and is probably linked to the movement of infected cattle from Europe to that part of the world. The earliest reports of the disease in Asia and Africa date from 1842 and 1892 respectively. The causal agent of the disease, a virus belonging to the family Picornaviridae, was discovered by Loeffler & Frosch in 1897; its antigenic diversity was described in the early 1920s. Seven serologically distinct types of the virus are now recognized, thus rendering the task of vaccination more complex, particularly as there is also considerable antigenic diversity within the serotypes. Nevertheless, good inactivated vaccines are available and, as demonstrated in western Europe over the last 30 years, these have proved to be extremely effective when applied prophylactically in efficiently ...
A total of 2126 herds, an attack rate of 0.82 per cent, were affected during an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in Argentina in 2001. The spatial and temporal distribution of the epidemic was investigated using nearest-neighbour and spatial scan tests and by estimating the frequency distributions of the times to intervention, and distances and times between outbreaks. The outbreaks were clustered and associated significantly (P<0.01) with herd density; 94 per cent were located in the Pampeana region, where the cattle population is concentrated, which had an attack rate of 1.4 per cent. The clustering results suggested that the virus had spread locally between outbreaks. Most of the outbreaks were separated by one day and the maximum distance between outbreaks was almost 2000 km, indicating that the infection spread rapidly over large distances. The index outbreak was detected more than 15 days after the primary outbreak, and restrictions on the movement of cattle were probably not ...
Thinking about a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak is not really high on farmers lists of things to do. Its not on their daily agenda of concerns and issues to deal with and they have plenty of those already. When you do get a discussion going around FMD and farmers realize how real the threat is and how serious the consequences could be, the fear can be almost paralyzing. People really dont like to think about scary things.. StopScaringUs. Yet, there is common acknowledgement that we need to be prepared for this sort of thing. Most people figure "the government" will tell them what to do in the event FMD is found in this country. To some extent, that is true. But when you start to delve into the plans and policies in place, given the imperfect and not unlimited resources at the disposal of "the government", you may begin to wonder whether we can do better.. I set out about six years ago to better understand FMD response plans in the US and the role of farmers in those plans. A lot of ...
Animal health officials in Texas are watching with concern the relentless westward march of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), the most recent outbreak of which was confirmed in late February at several sites in England, where livestock operations already have been financially ravaged by the brain-wasting disease, BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) and outbreaks of the viral infection, hog cholera.
The 2001 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic was controlled by culling of infectious premises and preemptive culling intended to limit the spread of disease. Of the control strategies adopted, routine culling of farms that were contiguous to infected premises caused the most controversy. Here we perform a retrospective analysis of the culling of contiguous premises as performed in 2001 and a simulation study of the effects of this policy on reducing the number of farms affected by disease. Our simulation results support previous studies and show that a national policy of contiguous premises (CPs) culling leads to fewer farms losing livestock. The optimal national policy for controlling the 2001 epidemic is found to be the targeting of all contiguous premises, whereas for localized outbreaks in high animal density regions, more extensive fixed radius ring culling is optimal. Analysis of the 2001 data suggests that the lowest-risk CPs were generally prioritized for culling, however, even in this case, ...
The Mexican Epizootic of Foot-and-Mouth Disease: A Study in the Spread, Eradication and Impact of Infectious Livestock Disease, and Associated Modernization in the Livestock ...
The Huong Khe Districts Peoples Committee in the central Ha Tinh Province has ordered localities to conduct aggressive checks to prevent the spread of the foot-and-mouth disease among its livestock, which was reported on Monday.
Great Britain: In Search of Greener Pastures In April, faced with the escalating foot-and-mouth disease crisis, the United Kingdom did what it always
Most recent tests show that four of the 24 gaurs that died mysteriously in December in Kui Buri National Park in Prachuap Khiri Khan had foot-and-mouth disease, Nipon Chotibal, acting chief of the National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department
Why must animals with foot-and-mouth disease, or those that might have been exposed to foot-and-mouth disease, be destroyed? Primarily for economic rea ...
Define contagious disease. contagious disease synonyms, contagious disease pronunciation, contagious disease translation, English dictionary definition of contagious disease. Noun 1. contagious disease - any disease easily transmitted by contact contagion communicable disease - a disease that can be communicated from one person...
...BLUE BELL Pa. March 2 2011 /- Inovio Pharmaceuticals ...The FMD virus is one of the most infectious diseases affecting farm an...Because FMD can spread rapidly and beyond regional boundaries there is...,Inovio,Pharmaceuticals,Foot-and-Mouth,Disease,DNA,Vaccine,Introduces,Critical,Advantages,in,Fight,Against,Most,Serious,Farm,Animal,Disease,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Read more about Surinder Sud: The foot-and-mouth scourge on Business Standard. After the eradication of dreaded livestock ailments like rinderpest and contagious bovine pleura-pneumonia, the focus now is on stamping out another equally perilous malaise called foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). The World Animal Health Organisation
it would do so monotonically and thus be compensated for by the resultant change in the fitted value of the risk threshold P*).. By making use of dispersion models driven by meteorological data from numerical weather prediction models or single-site observational data (Sørensen et al. 2000; Gloster et al. 2006), these profiles can be used to predict the spatio-temporal distribution of virus particles around a source or multiple sources, the output of which can be achieved in a matter of minutes or hours. It has been shown that these results can be easily applied to predict both the relative risk and, in specific cases, the absolute risk of airborne infection to local herds or flocks based upon their location and size.. Risk estimates do not perfectly predict subsequent events due to the inherent nature of stochastic events. For example, an analysis of the 2001 foot-and-mouth outbreak in the UK suggested that only 5-15% of infected premises were consistently identified with the use of ...
... - A large epidemic Peuterey Online Shop of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) occurred in the United Kingdom (UK) over a seven month period in Northwest England from late 1967 to the summer of Veste Peuterey Prix 1968. This was preceded by a number of smaller FMD outbreaks in the country, two in 1967, in Hampshire and Warwickshire and one in Northumberland during 1966. The causative agent of all four events was identified as FMD virus (FMDV) serotype O and the source of the large epidemic was attributed to infected bone marrow in lamb products imported from Argentina. However, the diagnostic tools available at the time were unable to entirely rule out connections with the earlier UK FMD outbreaks, as well as other potential sources from Europe. The aim of this study was to apply molecular sequencing to investigate the likely source of this epidemic using VP1 region and full genome (FG) sequences
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Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nMAbs) elicited against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of serotype C were assayed with field isolates and variant FMDVs using several immunoassays. Of a total of 36 nMAbs tested, 23 recognized capsid protein VP1 and distinguished at least 13 virion conformation-independent epitopes involved in neutralization of FMDV C. Eleven epitopes of FMDV C-S8c1 have been located in segments 138-156 or 192-209 of VP1 by quantifying the reactivity of nMAbs with synthetic peptides and with nMAb-resistant mutants of FMDV C-S8c1 carrying defined amino acid substitutions. The main antigenic site of FMDV C-S8c1 (VP1 residues 138 to 150) consists of multiple (at least 10), distinguishable, overlapping epitopes. Some amino acid replacements abolished one of the epitopes, whereas other replacements affected several epitopes in this region. The conservative substitution His(146) → Arg, found in many nMAb-resistant mutants analysed, abolished the reactivity of the virus with all nMAbs
Synonyms for contagious disease in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for contagious disease. 1 synonym for contagious disease: contagion. What are synonyms for contagious disease?
The first case of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has occurred in Bulgaria in the past 12 years on Wednesday.. A wild boar with FMD has been killed in the region of the southeastern Bulgarian city of Burgas. A 10 km security zone has been established and all vehicles passing through the region are being disinfected. All living animal trade in the Burgas region has been stopped.. The European Commission has already been informed about the accident.. FMD is highly contagious and, while it is not so dangerous for humans, a possible outbreak may cause severe economical damages, the Bulgarian Agriculture Minister Miroslav Naydenov has explained.. "Bulgaria may face a ban on the export of animal products if the disease is to spread," Naydenov has said.. Several centers of infection have already been registered in Turkey.. FMD is a sometimes fatal viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic animals such as cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats and pigs. Humans are very rarely affected. ...
23 April 2001 Haulier fuels foot-and-mouth fears by Robert Davies FARMING organisations are reporting floods of telephone calls after foot-and-mouth was fo
30 April 2001 Hotel breaks for foot-and-mouth victims By FWi staff FARMING families suffering because of foot-and-mouth in Cumbria are being offered free h
One of the most economically devastating diseases in the world for those who raise cows, sheep, pigs, goats, deer and other cloven-hoofed animals is foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). This incredibly contagious and fast-spreading disease causes fever, blisters on the feet and […] ↓ Read the rest of this entry…. ...
Looking for aphthous fever? Find out information about aphthous fever. or highly contagious disease almost exclusive to cattle, sheep, swine, goats, and other cloven-hoofed animals. It is caused by a virus, specifically an... Explanation of aphthous fever
FMD is the first animal virus recognized by human beings. FMD occurs and prevails in most countries in the world, except for few countries with favorable
The materials in this section specifically address FMD. There are many other generic materials that are also applicable to FMD, as well as other foreign animal diseases. Please find these materials here.. Preparedness Information. ...
state of the progressive control pathway in the world, reports by experts on wide range of fmd topics, real time training on fmd in the field,update on eufmd meetings, links to fmd related topics, fmd manuals on training, pcp and related topics, fmd networking
state of the progressive control pathway in the world, reports by experts on wide range of fmd topics, real time training on fmd in the field,update on eufmd meetings, links to fmd related topics, fmd manuals on training, pcp and related topics, fmd networking
If you think youve seen a case of FMD, call your local vet immediately - they will contact MPIs pest and disease hotline. If a vet isnt available, contact our hotline directly on 0800 80 99 66.. If you have questions about FMD, email [email protected] ...
The prime minister, who broke off a vacation to handle a response to the outbreak, said investigators were trying to pinpoint the cause of the outbreak - but acknowledged that the disease strain found in the first infected herd was the same used at the research laboratory ...
Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) represents an essential element in controlling and combating outbreaks, which can otherwise have disastrous consequences such as during the FMD outbreak in the UK in 2001. This is pertinent to regions in large parts of the developing world in which the FMD virus (FMDV) is endemic, as well as during an epidemic in FMDV-free areas such as Europe. Nevertheless, successful vaccination against FMDV requires selection of the appropriately matching vaccine strain providing protection against a particular circulating field virus. This problem originates from the existence of seven known serotypes of FMDV, with which a high antigenic variation of the virus is observed. In addition, subtypical antigenic variation within a serotype is under constant evolutionary change due to the high mutation rate of FMDV. For these reasons, continuous vaccine testing and modification in the light of recent antigenic changes to the virus is required. Traditionally, vaccines ...
Future outbreaks of foot-and-mouth (FMD) disease can be combatted quickly and efficiently from early on-when authorities have minimal information-thanks to a new real-time strategy, developed by researchers at the University ...
MeatInfo: The processing industry is calling on the entire meat supply chain to equally share the burden of costs caused by the foot-and-mouth crisis.
Number 5" disease is found in hog farms in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hebei and Sichuan. "Number 5" disease is commonly known as ulcer and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) which are caused by viral infection on cloven-hoofed animals. Hogs are prone to the disease, which is highly contagious and spread rapidly with 2 to 5 years of periodic pandemic. The virus causes high fever for two to three days and is followed by sores and blisters inside the mouth and on the feet that may rupture and cause lameness. It is reported that most farms do not use any medication to treat infected hogs ...
Improved immunization and control strategies and platforms are greatly needed for foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and mucosal vaccines propose an effective strategy for the control FMDV by blocking viral entry. In this study, several immunization strategies, using two FMDV vaccine formulations, including Montanide ISA 206 oil-based FMD inactivated vaccine and Montanide IMS 1313 VG N PR-based concentrated semi-purified FMD mucosal vaccine, were applied. Results of intranasal immunization with the prepared FMD mucosal vaccine, given once or twice, induced IgA levels in both nasal and salivary secretions besides a high response of lymphocyte proliferation with protection levels reaching 20% and 40%, respectively, in a challenge trial in cattle ...
There are different kinds of vaccines that can keep us safe from contagious diseases. Therefore, if there is a necessity is it wise for you to obtain such vaccines. There are also antibiotics that you can take. But, it is important that you consult a doctor before taking antibiotics since it would be dangerous to consume medicine without knowing proper details about the conditions that you are in.. Be Careful With Food. If there is a contagious disease circulating, make sure to avoid things such as street food. Additionally, make sure to wash the fruits and vegetables you buy from shops well before consuming. It would be wise to cook them before consuming rather than consuming them raw.. ...
lessons as are yielded above. Since 1848 there have been seven Acts of Parliament bearing the general titles of Contagious Diseases (Animals) Acts. Measures to "stamp out," as the phrase goes, this or that disease, have been called for as imperative. Measures have been passed, and then, expectation not having been fulfilled, amended measures have been passed, and then reamended measures; so that of late no session has gone by without a bill to cure evils which previous bills tried to cure, but did not. Notwithstanding the keen interest felt by the ruling classes in the success of these measures, they have succeeded so ill, that the "foot-and-mouth disease" has not been "stamped out," has not even been kept in check, but during the past year has spread alarmingly in various parts of the kingdom. Continually the Times has had blaming letters and reports of local meetings called to condemn the existing laws, and to insist on better. From all quarters there have come accounts of ineffective ...
UK - Researchers at The Pirbright Institute have secured almost $1.5 million from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to fund the development of improved foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines for East Africa.