We studied the regulation of brain acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity during food deprivation and under the influence of hormones of glucose homeostasis: glucagon and insulin. Mice were deprived of food and water for time periods of 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 hours and were then allowed to re-feed for 5, 30 and 60 minutes. Mice that were deprived for up to 6 h, and then re-fed for 60 min, consumed the same amount of food compared to the ad libitum (control) animals. However, after 9 h of deprivation, mice consumed only 50% of food present even after 1 h of re-feeding, compared to the controls. The ACC activity was measured in the whole mouse brain of controls and after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h of food deprivation. Brain extracts assayed from control mice expressed an ACC activity of 0.988 ± 0.158 fmol/min/mg tissue without citrate and 0.941 ± 0.175 fmol/min/mg tissue with citrate. After 1 h of food deprivation, the total ACC activity without citrate decreased to 0.575 ± 0.087 fmol/min/mg and in the
Twice-daily injection of ICV administration of OXM for 7 days caused a reduction in daily food intake with no tachyphylaxis. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in body weight gain that was associated with a decrease in adipose tissue. Animals were observed daily and showed no signs of illness or behavioral abnormality. In the pair-fed group, animals gained slightly less weight than control animals, although this was not statistically significant. However, the OXM-treated animals gained significantly less weight than either of the two control groups. Furthermore, the reduction in WAT and BAT observed after chronic ICV OXM administration was not observed in the pair-fed group. This is suggestive of OXM causing weight loss and reduced body adiposity by mechanisms additional to its effects on food intake.. It is known that, during fasting and chronic food restriction, the expression of prepro-TRH in the PVN is suppressed. This reduces the secretion of TSH from the pituitary, which, in ...
The World Food Summit mandated FAO to measure and monitor progress towards the Summit goal of halving the number of hungry by 2015. The decision to hold a scientific symposium on the measurement of food deprivation and undernutrition was motivated by this objective and the need to review the current status of the widely used methods for measuring hunger. It also aimed to recommend improvements in the methods, which would help FAO to further its work in carrying out this mandate. Since the monitoring of the progress towards the World Food Summit goal involves national and international stakeholders, the Symposium also provided an opportunity for them to present their perspectives.. By promoting dialogue among advocates of various methods, the Symposium served to create a greater appreciation of the strengths and weaknesses of the different methods as well as how the corresponding measures complement each other. The main consensus to emerge at the Symposium was that no single measure can capture ...
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of 2 types of housing systems and early age feed restriction on heat shock protein (hsp) 70 expression and blood parameters in broiler chickens subjected to road transportation. On d 1, female chicks were housed either in windowless environmentally controlled chambers (temperature was set at 32°C on d 1 and gradually reduced to 23°C by d 21; CH) or in conventional open-sided houses (OH) with cyclic temperatures (minimum, 24°C; maximum, 34°C). Equal number of chicks from each housing system were subjected to either ad libitum feeding or 60% feed restriction on d 4, 5, and 6 (FR). On d 42, all of the birds were crated and transported for 6 h. Birds raised in OH had smaller increases in heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and plasma corticosterone concentrations than those of CH. Subjecting birds to FR dampened heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and corticosterone reactions to transportation. After 4 h of transportation, the OH birds had greater hsp 70 ...
Daily 23-h food deprivation for 1-5 days induced gastric ulcers and atrophic changes of the spleen and thymus, accompanied by a rise in plasma cortisol and catecholamine levels in mice. It also modulated several immune cell functions in the spleen including a drop in the B cell population but no cha …
The results of the childrens study have been published in a separate article in the American medical journal Pediatrics. In the families, there were 827 children who only participated in the diet intervention. Thus, they were never required to go on a diet or count calories -- they simply followed the same diet as their parents. Approx. 45% of the children in these families were overweight. The results of the childrens study were remarkable: In the group of children who maintained a high-protein, low-GI diet the prevalence of overweight dropped spontaneously from approx. 46% to 39% -- a decrease of approx. 15%. Proteins and low-GI foods ad libitum -- the way ahead. The Diogenes study shows that the current dietary recommendations are not optimal for preventing weight gain among overweight people. A diet consisting of a slightly higher protein content and low-GI foods ad libitum appears to be easier to observe and has been documented to ensure that overweight people who have lost weight ...
Australian children are bombarded with junk food ads on their way to school.. NSW researchers looked for ads within 500 metres of 40 schools and found more than 9,000. A quarter of these were food ads - mostly for non-core items such as soft drinks and alcohol. Read the abstract: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, Dec 2008. Read more: The Australian, 10 Dec 2008. ...
Michael: I agree. Animal care in general, and food restriction in particular, are not just appropriate topics, they are at the core of what I look for zebrafish listserv. Its is the only one that everybody working on zebrafish is guaranteed to find relevant! I do not know any of the animal care literature on whether fish (or other ectotherms) experience pain and suffering from food restriction. One positive health effect of food restriction could come from an improvement in water quality. From my aquaria at home, I can report that over-feeding is a much greater fish welfare problem than not feeding. Fish at my house (not covered by an animal care and use protocol!) have gone months without food; if anything this seemed to make them more robust. On the other hand, when we had a neighbor stop by to feed the fish and the cat for a week, most fish died, and the ones that survived her over-feeding were grotesquely distended. Stephen ----------------------- Stephen H. Devoto, Associate Professor ...
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At the beginning of the 20th century, dietary deficiency diseases were at the forefront of nutritional and medical research. A new paradigm was becoming widely accepted, notably that minor constituents of food were essentialfor life. From 1915 to the 1950s, some 40 essential nutrients were identified and characterized and their functions were explored (1). Among the approaches used to study these essential compounds were dietary studies in humans, which bridged the gap between the human population-based studies of deficiency and the animal studies of essentiality.. Controlled feeding studies in healthy humans were used to establish the quantitative requirements and confirm essentiality of nutrients in humans. Typically, these studies had small sample sizes, were intensively controlled, and often focused on restriction and refeeding ofspecific nutrients or nutrient sources. They evaluated the acute effects of food deprivation (2), showed experimentally the effects of dietary restrictions on ...
Feed withdrawal in broiler flocks that are about to be taken to slaughter, greatly influences processing and carcase quality. It does not only affect carcass yield, but also increases the operating expenses if this is not done properly. Managing this process well in advance at the farm, may help reduce unwanted consequences later on in the processing plant.
Good question: why am I in such a rush to lose weight? I dont know the answer to that. Maybe because I dont believe that real life will ever allow me to be thin; only crash diets, food deprivation etc. I am scared of being myself, eating what I want etc, cos I know where that has got me over the last 20 yrs. ...
Professor Ortiz is also pursuing studies that address the link between diabetes and obesity with hypertension.. From an evolutionary perspective, he is interested in the physiological mechanisms marine-adapted vertebrates use to regulate water and electrolytes during a variety of altered environmental conditions, such as prolonged food deprivation or extended fresh water exposure.. ...
Two 42-d studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of restricted feed intake and feeding frequency on the performance of pigs weighing from 150 to 250 lb (initially 148 lb in Exp. 1 and 155 lb in Exp. 2). Our objective ...
Highlights 17 million people are food insecure, a staggering seven million of whom are at risk of famine. Acute food insecurity is expected to deteriorate further without continued, ...read more ...
The role of nutrition on the develo pment of the endocrine pancreas was studied in a rat model obtained by maternal food restriction. A 50 % food restriction was a p plied to female rats from day 15 o
TY - JOUR. T1 - Branched-chain amino acid supplemented diet during maternal food restriction prevents developmental hypertension in adult rat offspring. AU - Fujii, T.. AU - Yura, S.. AU - Tatsumi, K.. AU - Kondoh, E.. AU - Mogami, H.. AU - Fujita, K.. AU - Kakui, K.. AU - Aoe, S.. AU - Itoh, H.. AU - Sagawa, N.. AU - Fujii, S.. AU - Konishi, I.. PY - 2011/6. Y1 - 2011/6. N2 - Maternal food restriction is known to cause developmental hypertension in offspring. We have previously shown that maternal high-protein diet can reverse fetal programming of hypertension and that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations in maternal and fetal plasma were increased by maternal high-protein intake. Then, we hypothesized that isocaloric supplementation with BCAA to a maternal food restriction can reverse the adverse outcome. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups at 7.5 days postcoitum: normally nourished (NN) and 70% undernourished (UN) groups with and without BCAA supplementation (NN-standard ...
The ability to maintain adequate nutrient intake is critical for survival. Complex interrelated neuronal circuits have developed in the mammalian brain to regulate many aspects of feeding behaviour, from food-seeking to meal termination. The hypothalamus and brainstem are thought to be the principal homeostatic brain areas responsible for regulating body weight. However, in the current obesogenic human environment food intake is largely determined by non-homeostatic factors including cognition, emotion and reward, which are primarily processed in corticolimbic and higher cortical brain regions. Although the pleasure of eating is modulated by satiety and food deprivation increases the reward value of food, there is currently no adequate neurobiological account of this interaction between homeostatic and higher centres in the regulation of food intake in humans. Here we show, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, that peptide YY(3-36) (PYY), a physiological gut-derived satiety signal, ...
The ability to maintain adequate nutrient intake is critical for survival. Complex interrelated neuronal circuits have developed in the mammalian brain to regulate many aspects of feeding behaviour, from food-seeking to meal termination. The hypothalamus and brainstem are thought to be the principal homeostatic brain areas responsible for regulating body weight. However, in the current obesogenic human environment food intake is largely determined by non-homeostatic factors including cognition, emotion and reward, which are primarily processed in corticolimbic and higher cortical brain regions. Although the pleasure of eating is modulated by satiety and food deprivation increases the reward value of food, there is currently no adequate neurobiological account of this interaction between homeostatic and higher centres in the regulation of food intake in humans. Here we show, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, that peptide YY(3-36) (PYY), a physiological gut-derived satiety signal, ...
The ability to maintain adequate nutrient intake is critical for survival. Complex interrelated neuronal circuits have developed in the mammalian brain to regulate many aspects of feeding behaviour, from food-seeking to meal termination. The hypothalamus and brainstem are thought to be the principal homeostatic brain areas responsible for regulating body weight. However, in the current obesogenic human environment food intake is largely determined by non-homeostatic factors including cognition, emotion and reward, which are primarily processed in corticolimbic and higher cortical brain regions. Although the pleasure of eating is modulated by satiety and food deprivation increases the reward value of food, there is currently no adequate neurobiological account of this interaction between homeostatic and higher centres in the regulation of food intake in humans. Here we show, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, that peptide YY(3-36) (PYY), a physiological gut-derived satiety signal, ...
The ability to maintain adequate nutrient intake is critical for survival. Complex interrelated neuronal circuits have developed in the mammalian brain to regulate many aspects of feeding behaviour, from food-seeking to meal termination. The hypothalamus and brainstem are thought to be the principal homeostatic brain areas responsible for regulating body weight. However, in the current obesogenic human environment food intake is largely determined by non-homeostatic factors including cognition, emotion and reward, which are primarily processed in corticolimbic and higher cortical brain regions. Although the pleasure of eating is modulated by satiety and food deprivation increases the reward value of food, there is currently no adequate neurobiological account of this interaction between homeostatic and higher centres in the regulation of food intake in humans. Here we show, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, that peptide YY(3-36) (PYY), a physiological gut-derived satiety signal, ...
Overall, the evidence from the interventions reviewed suggests that weight loss of 5% in NAFLD or 7-10% in NASH is beneficial, and this should be achieved by a combination of moderate dietary restriction and 30-60 min of moderate-intensity exercise on 3-5 days per week. Moderate-intensity exercise requires moderate effort and noticeable acceleration of the heart rate with some increase in rate of breathing, but the person should still be able to hold a conversation. Moderate-intensity activities include brisk walking, taking stairs, using a cross trainer, gardening or vigorous housework. High-intensity exercise requires a large effort with substantial increase in heart rate and rapid breathing, for example, running or fast cycling; individuals are considerably less able to hold a conversation. The combination of diet and exercise appears to increase the likelihood of achieving the required weight loss and leads to greater improvements in markers of NAFLD activity; current guidelines reflect ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - On the edge of death: Rates of decline and lower thresholds of biochemical condition in food-deprived fish larvae and juveniles. AU - Meyer,Stefan. AU - Caldarone,E.M.. AU - Chicharo,M.A.. AU - Clemmensen,C.. AU - Faria,A.M.. AU - Faulk,C.. AU - Folkvord,A.. AU - Holt,G.J.. AU - Høie,H.. AU - Mahlzahn,A.. AU - Moran,D.. AU - Petereit,C.. AU - Støttrup,Josianne. AU - Peck,M.A.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Gaining reliable estimates of how long fish early life stages can survive without feeding and how starvation rate and time until death are influenced by body size, temperature and species is critical to understanding processes controlling mortality in the sea. The present study is an across-species analysis of starvation-induced changes in biochemical condition in early life stages of ninemarine and freshwater fishes. Datawere compiled on changes in body size (dry weight, DW) and biochemical condition (standardized RNA-DNA ratio, sRD) throughout the course of starvation of ...
Haitis rural communities already faced poverty, lack of infrastructure before quake World Vision providing food and other essential items to rural communities Contact: Laura Blank, World Vision, 646-245-2496, [email protected] PORT-AU-PRINCE, Haiti, March 2 /Christian Newswire/ -- World Vision warns Haitis rural communities are at risk for chronic food and water shortages as the burden to care for the displaced grows. Families in these communities are struggling
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Dietary restriction (DR)-related delay of ageing is hypothesized to be mediated by the reduction of the metabolic rate (MR). However, studies on the effect of DR on MR have produced equivocal results. We demonstrated that this lack of congruency can be due to a variation in the initial level of MR within a given pool of experimental subjects. We subjected laboratory mice from two line-types divergently selected for basal MR (BMR) to 30% DR lasting 6 months, to test whether the effect of DR depends on the initial variation in BMR and peak MR. BMR and peak MR were independently affected by DR. The effect of DR was stronger in line-types with higher initial levels of MR. Line-type specific changes in the proportions of body components explained contrasting effects of DR on the mass-corrected BMR, which decreased in the high, and did not change in the low BMR line-type. We conclude that the initial variation in MR can significantly affect response to DR. However, we found no association between the ...
Energy restriction (ER) without malnutrition extends lifespan in mice and postpones age-related changes in immunity. However, we have previously shown that aged (22 mo old) ER mice exhibit increased mortality, impaired viral clearance, and reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity following influenza infection compared with aged mice that consumed food ad libitum (AL). To determine whether the detrimental effects of ER in response to influenza infection occur independently of advanced age, young adult (6 mo) male C57BL/6 mice consuming an AL or ER diet were infected with influenza A virus (H1N1, PR8). Young adult ER mice exhibited increased mortality (P < 0.05) and weight loss (P < 0.01) in response to infection. ER mice exhibited decreased total (P < 0.001) and NK1.1+ lymphocytes (P < 0.05) in lung and reduced influenza-induced NK cell cytotoxicity in both lung (P < 0.01) and spleen (P < 0.05). Importantly, the mRNA expression of interferon (IFN){alpha}/ß (P < 0.05) was also reduced in the ...
Energy restriction (ER) without malnutrition extends lifespan in mice and postpones age-related changes in immunity. However, we have previously shown that aged (22 mo old) ER mice exhibit increased mortality, impaired viral clearance, and reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity following influenza infection compared with aged mice that consumed food ad libitum (AL). To determine whether the detrimental effects of ER in response to influenza infection occur independently of advanced age, young adult (6 mo) male C57BL/6 mice consuming an AL or ER diet were infected with influenza A virus (H1N1, PR8). Young adult ER mice exhibited increased mortality (P < 0.05) and weight loss (P < 0.01) in response to infection. ER mice exhibited decreased total (P < 0.001) and NK1.1+ lymphocytes (P < 0.05) in lung and reduced influenza-induced NK cell cytotoxicity in both lung (P < 0.01) and spleen (P < 0.05). Importantly, the mRNA expression of interferon (IFN){alpha}/ß (P < 0.05) was also reduced in the ...
We have demonstrated that the mGlu5 receptor modulates food intake and energy balance in rodents. Adult mice with a transgenic deletion of the receptor weigh less than their wild-type littermates. Although mGluR5-/- mice ingested the same number of kilocalories per gram of body weight, they tended to gain less weight and ate less in response to food deprivation. When placed on a high fat diet, mGluR5-/- mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity, they gained less weight, and had lower plasma insulin and leptin concentrations than their wild-type counterparts. The selective mGlu5 antagonist MTEP dose-dependently decreased fasting-induced refeeding in wild-type, but not mGluR5-/- mice, suggesting that acute reduction in food intake by MTEP is mGlu5-dependent. MTEP decreased food intake in rats, and when chronically administered, it decreased body weight and adiposity in lean and DIO rats.. Acute Appetite. In both rats and mice, MTEP decreased food intake. In mouse, pharmacological effects of MTEP ...
Synonyms for starvation in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for starvation. 6 synonyms for starvation: lack of food, famine, malnourishment, food deprivation, famishment, starving. What are synonyms for starvation?
Historically, a moderate degree of overweight was considered desirable. In a society in which food was scarce, fatness demonstrated greater than average wealth and prosperity.. This attitude persists in many developing countries today; food is scarce, and few people have enough to eat, let alone too much.. There is a good biological (evolutionary) argument in favour of a modest degree of overweight. A person who has reserves of fat is more likely to be able to survive a period of food deprivation or famine than a person with smaller fat reserves. So, at least in times past, fatter people may have been at an advantage. This is no longer so in developed countries, where there are no longer seasonal shortages of food. Widespread hunger is not been a problem in Western Europe or North America, although, as discussed in Chapter 8, lack of food is still a major problem in many countries.. Figure 6.3 shows that in 1998 (the most recent year for which data are available) more than half of all people in ...
Caloric restriction (CR) can trigger gorging behavior. We examined macronutrient choice and behavior in mice that gorged during restriction compared to restricted non-gorgers and controls. Fifty MF1 male mice were restricted to 75% of ad-libitum food intake (FI), while ten controls were fed ad-lib. Body mass (BM) and FI were measured two and 24-h after food inclusion over 14-days. Gorging mice were defined as those which ate over 25% of their daily FI in 2-h. The top 11 gorgers and the lowest 9 gorgers, along with 10 controls, had their behavior analysed during restriction, and were then provided with an unrestricted food choice, consisting of three diets that were high in fat, protein or carbohydrate. During restriction gorgers ate on average 51% of their daily FI in the 2-h following food introduction while the non-gorgers ate only 16%. Gorgers lost significantly more BM than non-gorgers possibly due to an increased physical activity linked to anticipation of daily food provision. Controls and non
The researchers found that so-called hypocretin neurons--having important roles in both arousal and appetite--lack the ability of most neurons to filter "noise" from signal, reported Tamas Horvath and Xiao-Bing Gao of Yale University School of Medicine. The neurons also rapidly reorganize themselves, becoming even more excitable, in response to stresses such as food deprivation, they found ...
Report by AGRA warns that Africa will not alleviate its chronic food shortages and unemployment unless youth get more involved in agriculture
The Japanese blogs are always among the most interesting, so Im really looking forward to yours. Im feeling very Japanese food-deprived (its just about ...
Do you suffer from vitiligo? Did you know that your diet may be making your symptoms worse? The following foods have been linked with increasing symptoms of vitiligo. Read more about the connection below.
Well, you really are what you eat.The following foods when taken in excess can lead to pain in the joint. A little change in this area can do a lot of good.
The following foods are awesome muscle packed foods to keep yourself updated of when creating, cooking or even buying your diet. What you take into program is so important, and will affect package from this tool.. My first tip that you choose to build muscle and lose weight quick while traveling is to workout either the day you are leaving or go with the day prior to this. The reason you should achieve is mainly because weight room at the hotel you are staying out may have weird opening hours and also the equipment at the weight room might be limited and unable to fulfill your lifting needs.. Knowing how to build muscle when you are skinny doesnt really require much skill, just one little bit of helpful facts. One of the items that are convinced do wrong is feel their meals are just superior.. Next you have to get enough free weights and the bars. Each morning . spend any cash on dumbbells, because tips for building muscle you need two dumbbell rods and it is simple to add weight to ...
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Diets falling into the low-carb category restrict carbohydrates in favor of protein. While the diet concept is the same, the specific food restrictions and plans vary between the major low-carb diets.
7CFR Restrictions on the Introduction of Regulated Articles Definitions Groups of organisms which are or contain plant pests Notification for the introduction of certain regulated
I am opening this up for discussion: what are the limits to posting here.For those that dont know, SpiceWorks admins have the powe... | 14 replies | PowerShell
Background: Despite the high prevalence of acute, uncomplicated diverticulitis there has been little original research regarding its dietary management upon presentation to acute care. Due to the lack of evidence and conflicting clinical guidelines, practice varies widely between physicians, but frequently involves a combination of bowel rest and liquid diets hypothesised to decrease patient symptoms and promote recovery. However, these dietary restrictions are not well evidenced and may increase patient burden and length of stay. Therefore, a prospective observational cohort study was undertaken to investigate the effect of inpatient dietary restriction on length of stay and 30-day diverticulitis reoccurrence in adults with acute, uncomplicated diverticulitis. Methods: Participants were recruited from patients admitted to Robina Hospital during the 14-week period from January to April 2017. Outcomes were compared for physician-prescribed liberalised (no dietary restrictions; n=11) versus restricted
Define compensatory growth. compensatory growth synonyms, compensatory growth pronunciation, compensatory growth translation, English dictionary definition of compensatory growth. n. 1. a. The process of growing. b. Full development; maturity. 2. Development from a lower or simpler to a higher or more complex form; evolution. 3.
The objective of this study was to investigate food restriction-related changes in several indices of immune competence in young (11 wk old) and adult (33 wk old) female lean (+/?) and obese (ob/ob) C57BL/6J mice. Body weight accumulation, tail length accretion and organ weights were more severely curtailed by food restriction in obese mice than in lean mice. Tail collagen denaturation time increased with age, although the magnitude was greater in obese mice, and this change was minimized by food restriction. Splenocyte mitogen responses were generally not altered with age in lean or obese mice, whereas food restriction augmented these responses in lean mice while having no effect or reducing them in obese mice. The concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin responses of splenocytes from young and adult obese mice were greater than those for lean mice, whereas the bacterial lipopolysaccharide response was elevated only in adult obese vs. lean mice. Flow cytometric analysis of splenocytes
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
A number of recent studies implicate the gut-brain peptide ghrelin as a putative hunger signal. Most of these studies, however, rely on either consummatory behavior (in humans or nonhuman animals) or self-report (in humans) to draw conclusions rega
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Alteration of glutathione and antioxidant status with exercise in unfed and refed rats.: The influences of food deprivation and refeeding on glutathione (GSH) s
The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) provides comprehensive integrated biological information for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.