TY - JOUR. T1 - Methanol crossover through PtRu/Nafion composite membrane for a direct methanol fuel cell. AU - Jung, E. H.. AU - Jung, U. H.. AU - Yang, T. H.. AU - Peak, D. H.. AU - Jung, D. H.. AU - Kim, Sung Hyun. PY - 2007/5/1. Y1 - 2007/5/1. N2 - This study examined methanol crossover through PtRu/Nafion composite membranes for the direct methanol fuel cell. For this purpose, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.10 wt% PtRu/Nafion composite membranes were fabricated using a solution impregnation method. The composite membrane was characterized by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis. The methanol permeability and proton conductivity of the composite membranes were measured by gas chromatography and impedance spectroscopy, respectively. In addition, the composite membrane performance was evaluated using a single cell test. The proton conductivity of the composite membrane decreased with increasing number of PtRu particles embedded in the pure Nafion membrane, while the ...
Water soluble positively charged 2-(dimethylamino) ethanethiol (DAET)-protected core-shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized and incorporated within negatively charged Nafion polymer films. The water soluble QDs were characterized using UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopies. Nafion/QDs composite films were deposited on glassy carbon electrodes and characterized using cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) using hydrogen peroxide as co-reactant was enhanced for Nafion/QDs composite films compared to films of the bare QDs. Significantly, no ECL was observed for Nafion/QDs composite films when peroxydisulfate was used as the co-reactant, suggesting that the permselective properties of the Nafion effectively exclude the co-reactant. The ECL quenching by glutathione depends linearly on its concentration when hydrogen peroxide is used as the co-reactant, opening up the possibility to use Nafion/QDs composite films for various electroanalytical applications.. ...
A process for preparing a fluorocarbon polymer coated substrate includes heating a surface coating containing a fluorocarbon polymer and a copolymer based on vinylidene chloride, the surface coating being on a priming coating containing chromium oxide, or chromium oxide with chromium, such that the heating decomposes the copolymer to etch the priming coating to key the fluorocarbon polymer to the priming coating.
The microphase separation of hydrated perfluorinated sulfonic acid membrane Nafion was investigated using Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD). The nafion as a polymer was modelled by connecting coarse grained beads which corresponds to the hydrophobic backbone of polytetrafluoroethylene and perfluorinated side chains terminated by hydrophilic end particles of sulfonic acid groups [1, 2]. Each four water molecule coarse grained in a bead to obtain the same bead size as built in Nafion model. The morphology of hydrated Nafion is studied for branching density of 1144, an example of Nafion EW1200, water content of 10%, 20% and 30% and polymer molecular weight of 5720, 11440 and 17160. The results show water particles and hydrophilic particles of Nafion side chains spontaneously form aggregates and are embedded in the hydrophobic phase of Nafion backbone. The averaged water pore diameter and the averaged water clusters distance were found to rises with water volume fraction.
The introduction of sulfonic acid modified silica in Nafion nanocomposite membranes is a good method of improving the Nafion performance at high temperature and low relative humidity. Sulfonic acid-modified silica is bifunctional, with silica phase expected to offer an improvement in membranes hydration while sulfonic groups enhance proton conductivity. However, as discussed in this paper, this may not always be the case. Proton conductivity enhancement of Nafion nanocomposite membranes is very dependent on silica particle size, sometimes depending on experimental conditions, and by surface modification. In this study, Sulfonated Preconcentrated Nafion Stober Silica composites (SPNSS) were prepared by modification of Stober silica particles with mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane, dispersing the particles into a preconcentrated solution of Nafion, then casting the membranes. The mercapto groups were oxidized to sulfonic acids by heating the membranes in 10 wt % hydrogen peroxide for 1 h. At 80 °C and 100%
Page contains details about high oxygen-containing iron-nitrogen-amorphous carbon nanofibers/Nafion composite film . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Nafion is a sulfonated tetrafluoroethylene based fluoropolymer-copolymer discovered in the late 1960s by Walther Grot of DuPont. It is the first of a class of synthetic polymers with ionic properties which are called ionomers. Nafions unique ionic properties are a result of incorporating perfluorovinyl ether groups terminated with sulfonate groups onto a tetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) backbone. Nafion has received a considerable amount of attention as a proton conductor for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells because of its excellent thermal and mechanical stability. The chemical basis of Nafions superior conductive properties remain a focus of research. Protons on the SO3H (sulfonic acid) groups "hop" from one acid site to another. Pores allow movement of cations but the membranes do not conduct anions or electrons. Nafion can be manufactured with various cationic conductivities. Nafion can be produced as both a powder resin and a copolymer. It has various chemical configurations and thus ...
Keep posted. This looks like a story that will either run or be stopped dead in its tracks.. UPDATE 2300 hrs. BBC Radio / TV News and Newsnight do not mention existence of VLA labs within the 3 Km. Egham exclusion zone. Farm adjacent to outbreak is undergoing a cull of 200 cattle and 300 pigs.. The causative strain of FMV has not been fully decoded but is an "O" series - the final results will be known in the morning. Paradoxically the testing is being udertaken at NIAH Pirbright.. Not a peep from Mr Benn - but BBC TV news showed CVO Debbie announcing, pleased as Punch last week that FMV had been exterminated in the UK in 20o7.. UPDATE Wimbledon Press report traffic gridlock for hours - woman gives birth in traffic. All traffic is being diverted. Now why would Plod divert traffic for FMV ? How very odd. Headline is - "Traffic gridlock around foot and mouth exclusion zone". ...
Fluorocarbon polymer, any of a number of organic polymers whose large, multiple-unit molecules consist of a chain of carbon atoms to which fluorine atoms are appended. Owing to the presence of the highly polar fluorine atoms, which form extremely strong bonds with the carbon chain and resist
A metered dose inhaler having part or all of its internal surfaces coated two or more times with a polymer comprising one or more fluorocarbon polymers, optionally in combination with one or more non-
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Nafion is the first and the most well-known and commonly used ionomer membrane, applied nowadays in a broad variety of applications. This wide suitableness comes up in last instance from its chemical structure: a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene backbone containing regularly spaced long perfluorovinyl ether pendant side chains ended by a sulfonic group. It is widely accepted that Nafion self-organizes in a membrane to form hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains in a way that is not yet perfectly understood. Despite there have been several models under debate, the pioneering cluster-network model (in which the polymer chains form reverse micelles with sulfonic groups lined in the wall and encapsulating water cavities) proposed by Gierke et al. is frequently reported in the literature. With the rise of Nanotechnology, a brilliant idea carne up less than two decades ago: the use of hydrated clusters as reactive vessels for the synthesis of a myriad of nanoparticles (NPs). Nevertheless, most of the ...
An ideal surface for implantable glucose sensors would be able to evade the events leading to chronic inflammation and fibrosis, thereby extending its utility in an in vivo environment. Nafion™, a perfluorinated ionomer, is the membrane material preferred for in situ glucose sensors. Unfortunately, the surface properties of Nafion™ promote random protein adsorption and eventual foreign body encapsulation, thus leading to loss of glucose signal over time. Details of the techniques to render Nafion™ nonprotein fouling are given in a previous article [T. I. Valdes et al., Biomaterials 29, 1356 (2008)]. Once random protein adsorption is prevented, a biologically active peptide can be covalently bonded to the treated Nafion™ to induce cellular adhesion. Cellular responses to these novel decorated Nafion™ surfaces are detailed here, including cell viability, cell spreading, and type I collagen synthesis. Normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) were cultured on control and modified Nafion™ surfaces
In other words, as the Chernobyl Forum states, the mental health impact of Chernobyl was "the largest public health problem created by the accident" - a conclusion of great significance for Fukushima[ii]. In particular, this suggests that ideologically-motivated anti-nuclear campaign groups - some of which continue to stir up scientifically unwarranted fear of radiation in the affected Japanese population[iii] - may increase the trauma of the displaced people, and worsen their mental and physical health as a result. So far as I can tell, none of the campaign groups currently operating in the area, or those issuing wildly-inflated estimates of the likely eventual death toll, realise that their activities are likely to worsen the overall suffering of the Japanese people.. This is not to suggest that the levels of radiation now being measured in the exclusion zone, and some heavily-contaminated areas beyond, are inconsequential. In fact, the latest (August 7) radiation readings released by the ...
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Page contains details about PdNP with Ketjen EC-600JD carbon in Nafion on glassy carbon . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
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Assimilating hydrophilic hollow polymer spheres (HPS) into Nafion matrix by a loading of 0.5 wt % led to a restructured hydrophilic channel, composed of the pendant sulfonic acid groups (-SO3H) and the imbedded hydrophilic hollow spheres. The tiny hydrophilic hollow chamber was critical to retaining moisture and facilitating proton transfer in the composite membranes. To obtain such a tiny cavity structure, the synthesis included selective generation of a hydrophilic polymer shell on silica microsphere template and the subsequent removal of the template by etching. The hydrophilic HPS (100-200 nm) possessed two different spherical shells, the styrenic network with pendant sulfonic acid groups and with methacrylic acid groups, respectively. By behaving as microreservoirs of water, the hydrophilic HPS promoted the Grotthus mechanism and, hence, enhanced proton transport efficiency through the inter-sphere path. In addition, the HPS with the -SO3H borne shell played a more effective role than those with
The unique cathodic electrochemiluminescence(ECL) emission of Ru(bpy)32+(bpy=2,2′-bipyridine) was observed via Nafion film at Au electrode[Au/Nafion/Ru(bpy)32+] at about 0.20 V(vs. Ag/AgCl) and applied to the determination of several amino acids without prior derivatization with high sensitivity. The cathodic electrochemiluminescence(ECL) exhibits the detection limits and linear ranges of several amino acids comparable to or better than those of capillary electrophoresis with conventional ECL detection method(at 1.10-1.20 V vs. Ag/AgCl) based on precolumn derivatization. The results suggest that the cathodic ECL is promising for the detection of amino acids in bioanalysis.. ...
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According to FTC regulations I am required to disclose any material benefit I receive from any blog post. OK. I get paid from Amazon if you order from any of the links provided. I will give you an honest opinion of any products I have ordered if I blog about them. If you dont trust me read the Amazon reviews. If there is no review you are on your own. If you pay me enough and promise to cover my lawyers fees I may say something nice about you. Or I may not. Enough is generally more than you can afford. Unless you have a a really really big bank account or more that a few large gold bars under the mattress. If you do pay I expect to be transported to a country with no extradition treaty with the US. If I review a book it may be because the author or publisher sent me a review copy. Other wise I will quote a review of some one else. If I say a product looks interesting it is because it interests me. Sometimes I will link to books so you can educate yourself on a subject and so I can make some off ...
Disclosed are methods and apparatus to control the actions of a user terminal (UT) located at a remote location, possibly far from a gateway (GW), which has an interface to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) and/or to the Internet. The methods and apparatus provide for operation of a mobile satellite communication system having at least one gateway (GW), at least one user terminal (UT), and a constellation of satellites. The methods and apparatus allow access to the communication satellites by specifying an exclusion zone having a confidence limit (CL) associated therewith. The methods and apparatus selectively provide service to a UT depending on a determined location of the UT relative to the exclusion zone and on an estimated error (E) of the determined UT location, wherein location of the UT is determined by the UT, and transmitted to the GW, or location of the UT is determined by the GW.
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A Mn-incorporated Ni(OH)2/carbon fiber cloth (Mn-Ni(OH)2/CFC) fabricated via a room-temperature solution route exhibited superior electrocatalytic activities of the oxygen reduction and urea oxidation reactions, delivering 12-21% energy saving in the charging process of Mn-Ni(OH)2/CFC assembled Zn-air batter
Compression measurements were conducted on plastic-bonded explosive PBX 9502 and its binder, Kel-F 800[SUP™], as a function of temperature from -55°C to +55°C using an improved split Hopkinson pressure bar at high strain rates (≈ 1400 s[SUP-1] ) and at low strain rates (≈ 0.001 to 0.1 s[SUP-1]) at ambient temperatures. PBX 9502 exhibits lower dynamic compressive strength, but is much less sensitive to strain rate and temperature, than PBX 9501. In contrast, the mechanical response of the Kel-F 800[SUP™] binder is stronger than pure (or plasticized) Estane[SUP™], but is again less strain rate and temperature dependent. The effects of longitudinal and transverse loading orientations (due to preferred orientation of TATB) and virgin versus recycled TATB on the properties of PBX 9502 are presented ...
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Summary A tertiary alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP) pilot flood was implementedduring 2010 in the Illinois basin of the US, and is continuing currently. Withinitial discovery of the Bridgeport sandstone formation in the early 1900s andmore than 60
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140. Abstract The transition of semiconductor chalcogenides from molecular CdX (X = Se. S) to bulk material has been observed in Nafion, a cation-exchange membrane. The two-phase structure of Nafion, consisting of a hydrophobic region and ionic clusters, has been utilized to form ultrasmall particles of CdS/Se by using a technique analogous to an inverted micelle microemulsion method, where the Cd ion/ionomer cluster ratio is controlled by diluting the cadmium-exchange solution with an inert ion (Ca2+). The absorption onset for the cadmium chalcogenides formed can be tuned over a range of more than 3.5 eV by varying the Cd2+/Ca2+ ratio in the solution used to exchange the acidic form of the ionomer membrane ...
The mysterious world of the rhizosphere revealed.. Understanding soil processes is essential for addressing global issues of food security, disease transmission and climate change. However, techniques for observing soil biology are lacking. Artificial soil-like materials have been developed to help scientists image the secret world of plant roots. This could help biologists, chemists and physicists improve crops and identify ways to prevent the outbreak of plant-based diseases.. The transparent soil was developed by theoretical biologist Lionel Dupuy at the James Hutton Institute in Dundee, Scotland. It gives scientists a much better and more realistic window into how a plants rhizosphere - the roots and the organisms living within them - works. It is composed of a material called Nafion, which has a low refractive index and high transparency. Nafion is normally used in power-generating fuel cells that also has the ability to support bacteria and can be modified to mimic the chemicals of ...
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Methods of forming composite optical film (100) are disclosed. The methods include exposing a composite film to a first energy source (340) to cure the composite film to (321) a first cure state. The composite film includes reinforcing (102) fibers dispersed within a curable resin (104). Then the method includes removing the first energy source from the first cure state composite film and then exposing the first cure state composite film to a second energy source (341) to further cure the composite film to a second cure state. The method includes 10 combining the composite film with an optical element to from the composite optical film.
Mobilization of specific tRNA and cell division proteins to specific intracellular locations may suggest that instructions and mechanisms are needed. The alternative is that molecular crowding in the cytoplasm is sufficient for gentle contact between mRNA, ribosomes and tRNA. It may be possible that the bacterial cytoplasm and its contents are mobilized with the outcome being more gentle collisions between molecules than by a diffusion only mechanism. One hypothesis is that cytoplasmic and molecule mobilization and spatial organization are possibly driven by the photons in thermal infrared (IR) radiation and generation of exclusion zone (EZ) water in the cytoplasm.
For example, a cage might be constructed to let prey (e.g., snails) in, but keep predators (e.g., crabs) out. But thats hard to do with seagulls that eat large crabs: both organisms move long distances rapidly. Covering 100 square meters with wire mesh isnt any more realistic than caging off a 1 square meter area both organisms can cross in a matter of seconds.. So how do you create a "gull exclusion zone?" Heres how:. ...
Theres been a big hoo-hah locally because the HSE have asked for a new housing exclusion zone around AWE. Apparently they are worried about increased numbers of people causing problems with evacuation procedures in case of an accident at the plant. Tesco own a bit of land next door to the plant and as they cant get planning for a new store there they want to build houses. The HSE have said no! Ha! Ha! Couldnt have happened to a nicer company. It would make a nice park ...
Car exclusion zones should be set up around schools to make families walk as part of a bid to tackle obesity and climate change, a report suggested today.
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The oil recovery factor (ORF) at the pilot licence block reached 67 percent, of which 15 percent is attributable to the use of ASP technology. The company will producing oil under this pilot project until its completion in Q1 2018.
The 3-layer or Catalyst Coated Membrane (CCM) version of the popular 5-layer Hydrogen/Oxygen MEA, this high performance Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) is used where performance and efficiency is critical and when you need a free-floating GDL layer. It can be used in Hydrogen/Air or Hydrogen/Oxygen Fuel Cells. The standard configuration features a high Platinum loading (4 mg/cm²) and a 0.005" membrane (Nafion® 115). Custom sizes and configurations are also available with no minimum order quantities and short lead times even for custom configurations.. ...