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The report provides detailedinformation with respect to competitive landscape along with the top competitors in the Flocculant and Coagulant market.Furthermore, to help the clients make strategic decision, the reporthighlights a comprehensiveprofiling of leading players, their detailed analysis, their key developments along withthe market positioning. The report also foregrounds current and future market trends in order to justify the forthcoming attractive markets within the Flocculant and Coagulant market.Moreover, clients are also provided with segment-wise, region-wise, and country-wise analysis of the Flocculant and Coagulant market.To convey a proper analysis of all the data, the report comprises a number of figures, graphs, tables, and diagrams, which will help the clients get a crystal clear idea of the current trends in the Flocculant and Coagulant market. Additionally, the report also strategically analyzes the Flocculant and Coagulant market with regards to individual growth trends, ...
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Microbial flocculation is a good choice for harvest of microalgae biomass, which has gained extensive attention. There have been carried out massive studies in bacterial flocculation, many bacterial strains with flocculation activity were isolated and different types of bioflocculants were produced. However, harvest of algal biomass by bioflocculants which produced from actinomycete are deficiency. In this study, the bioflocculant from an actinomycete Streptomyces sp. hsn06 could be used to harvest Chlorella vulgaris biomass. Consecutive treatment with 20 mg·L− 1 bioflocculant and 5 mM CaCl2 for 5 min showed the highest flocculating activity. The bioflocculant was a nonprotein substance with thermal stability and pH stability, which can be used in comprehensive applications. Chemical analysis of the bioflocculant indicated that it is a small molecule substance of moderate polarity with containing triple bond and cumulated double bonds. Algal temperature, pH, and metal ions showed great effects on the
Algae have recently received much attention due to their potential as a source of clean biofuel. One of the key economic hurdles in the production of biofuel from algal feedstocks continues to be the harvesting process. Flocculation shows great potential for lowering the economic hurdle by providing a low energy, inexpensive method of separation. However, the mechanism of flocculation under varying environmental conditions is poorly understood. We aim to gain greater insight into the flocculation process by developing fundamental science-based models based on experimental measurements of floc formation and characteristics under a variety of environmental conditions (i.e., shear fields, flocculant addition, pH adjustment, etc.). Two critical conditions for flocculation with efficiencies above 90% with ferric chloride are identified for the freshwater alga Chlorella zofingiensis. First, a minimum amount of ferric chloride must be present in solution. The minimum amount of ferric chloride depends ...
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Flocculants, or flocculating agents, are chemicals that promote flocculation by causing colloids and other suspended particles in liquids to aggregate, forming a floc. Flocculants are used in water treatment processes to improve the sedimentation or filterability of small particles. For example, a flocculant may be used in swimming pool or drinking water filtration to aid removal of microscopic particles which would otherwise cause the water to be cloudy and which would be difficult or impossible to remove by filtration alone. Many flocculants are multivalent cations such as aluminium, iron, calcium or magnesium. These positively charged molecules interact with negatively charged particles and molecules to reduce the barriers to aggregation. In addition, many of these chemicals, under appropriate pH and other conditions, react with water to form insoluble hydroxides which, upon precipitating, link together to form long chains or meshes, physically trapping small particles into the larger floc. ...
Precipitation is the chemical conversion of soluble substances (including metals) into insoluble particles. Coagulation and flocculation causes a chemical reaction that promotes the formation, agglomeration or clumping of such particles to facilitate their removal from solution.. The amount or dosage of a precipitant, coagulant and/or flocculant required to precipitate and remove metals in wastewater solutions is not only dependent on the concentration of such metals in solution, but also on several other factors. To optimize the dosage, the following parameters must be considered:. -The solution pH.. -The chemical used to adjust the pH (i.e. NaOH, lime, Mg(OH)2, Na2CO3).. -The different types (and concentrations) of metals present in solution.. -The amount and types of chelants and complexing agents present in solution.. -The amount of residual oxidizers present in solution.. -The coagulants and flocculants used.. -The sequence in which chemicals are added.. JAR TEST PROCEDURE. As indicated ...
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Article Poly-(acryl amine-co-dimethyldiallyl ammonium chloride) graft starch flocculant for cleaning-up of wastewater. Graft starch flocculant (GSF) was synthesized by copolymerization of carboxymethylated soluble starch, acryl amine and dimethyldial...
Interpretive Summary: We are conducting research to find nonfood uses for animal by-products, such as blood, to help the animal processing industry supplement its income and provide renewable alternatives to products which are manufactured from natural gas or petroleum. We have found that beef blood and some of its component proteins are renewable flocculants with potential use in industrial processes and waste water treatment facilities. The flocculation activities of beef blood and one of its component proteins, hemoglobin, were measured under variations of salt concentration and acidity. The flocculation activities of beef blood and hemoglobin were compared to the activities of three nonrenewable commercial flocculants, and it was found that in some respects, beef blood and hemoglobin had equivalent or better activities. The results of this research will help promote the utilization of animal by-products as renewable flocculants. Technical Abstract: Polymeric flocculants are used extensively ...
What is the difference between Coagulation and Flocculation in Water Treatment? Coagulation is a chemical process while flocculation is a physical process...
2018 Elsevier B.V. In this study, the influence of electrolytes on bentonite dispersions flocculated with different polyacrylamides varying in charge type, density and molecular weights has been investigated. The presence of electrolytes was found to induce profound impact on the flocculation behavior of bentonite-polyacrylamide dispersions, which was analyzed by means of residual turbidity, zeta potential and floc size distribution tests. Electrolytes enhanced the adsorption of anionic polyacrylamide chains on negative bentonite surface, while hindering adsorption of cationic polyacrylamides. Electric double layer compression and mediated flocculation by metal cations were the principle mechanisms involved in the improvement of flocculation behavior. High molecular weight and charge density variants greatly reduced the turbidity and negative zeta potential of dispersions for anionic polyacrylamides. Furthermore, charge density of metal ions was found to be a determining factor. Divalent salts ...
Depletion flocculation is a well-known instability mechanism that can occur in oil-in-water emulsions when the concentration of non-adsorbed polysaccharide exceeds a certain level. This critical flocculation concentration depends on the molecular characteristics of the polysaccharide molecules, such as their molecular weight and hydrodynamic radius. In this study, a range of analytical methods (dynamic shear rheology, optical microscopy, and static light-scattering) were used to investigate the interaction between lipid droplets and polysaccharides (guar gum and β-glucans) of varying weight-average molecular weight and hydrodynamic radius, and concentration. The aim of this work was to see if the health benefits of soluble fibers like β-glucans could be explained by their influence on the structure and digestibility of lipid emulsions. The apparent viscosity of the emulsions increased with increasing polysaccharide concentration, molecular weight, and hydrodynamic radius. Droplet flocculation ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Iron chloride flocculation of bacteriophages from seawater. AU - Poulos, Bonnie T.. AU - John, Seth G.. AU - Sullivan, Matthew. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Viruses influence ecosystem dynamics by modulating microbial host population dynamics, evolutionary trajectories and metabolic outputs. While they are ecologically important across diverse ecosystems, viruses are challenging to study due to minimal biomass often obtained when sampling natural communities. Here we describe a technique using chemical flocculation, filtration and resuspension to recover bacteriophages from seawater and other natural waters. The method uses iron to precipitate viruses which are recovered by filtration onto large-pore size membranes and then resuspended using a buffer containing magnesium and a reductant (ascorbic acid or oxalic acid) at slightly acid pH (6-6.5). The recovery of bacteriophages using iron flocculation is efficient (,90%), inexpensive and reliable, resulting in preparations ...
MIG1 overexpression causes flocculation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An important role of glutathione and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase in the supply of growth requirements during nitrogen starvation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Bacillus alvei NRC-14, a soil bacterial isolate, was found to exhibit multiple-adaptive response when exposed to abiotic stress factors. In the present study, chemical and flocculation properties of a viscous biopolymer flocculant produced by the strain under cold-shock stress are investigated.
Cationic polyelectrolyte flocculant agent for gathering together all solid matter in water treatment areas. Ideal for pools and wastewater treatment, and also recommended for fountains, dams, air conditioning cooling towers, decorative ponds, etc.
Water Treatment Chemicals Market By Type (Corrosion Inhibitor, Scale Inhibitor, Coagulants and Flocculants, Biocides & Disinfectants, Chelating Agents, Anti-foaming Agents, pH Adjusters and Stabilizers, and - Market research report and industry analysis - 8653119
flocculant plant_Good practices in sludge management - Sludge... Different types of sludges generated in an urban waste water treatment plant process. Principles of Design and Operations of Wastewater... -----
Article Biodegradable flocculants: Power of natto. Just by adding and stirring (1 agent, 1 process) PG alpha 21Ca to polluted water, it separates supernatant water with better turbidity, BOD, and COD, and sediments in a short time. This high-mole...
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SNF (Australia) Pty Ltd is a wholly owned subsidiary of SNF SPCM, the worlds largest manufacturer of organic coagulants and flocculants.. We have an unrivalled understanding of customers requirements and through our extensive product research and development facilities, SNF (Australia) Pty Ltd has a continuous commitment to delivering the highest level of customer service and quality product support within the world of solid liquid separation technology.. SNF (Australia) Pty Ltd has a strong environmental policy and is committed to protecting the environment. We endeavour to carry out our activities with a minimum impact on pollution and resources.. With our environmental policy, extensive experience, innovative technology and ability to provide practical support to customers, we will continue to provide quality products and service.. ...
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The trash screen underflow slurry gravitates to the 25 m diameter high rate pre leach thickener along with pregnant solution from the counter current decant ccd circuitiluted flocculant and barren solution are added to the feed box of the thickener to assist in solids settling and thickeningive chat.
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WESTMAN, Johan O; TAHERZADEH, Mohammad J y FRANZEN, Carl Johan. Inhibitor tolerance and flocculation of a yeast strain suitable for second generation bioethanol production. Electron. J. Biotechnol. [online]. 2012, vol.15, n.3, pp.5-5. ISSN 0717-3458.. Background: Robust second generation bioethanol processes require microorganisms able to ferment inhibitory lignocellullosic hydrolysates. In this study, the inhibitor tolerance and flocculation characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCUG53310 were evaluated in comparison with S. cerevisiae CBS8066. Results: The flocculating strain CCUG53310 could rapidly ferment all hexoses in dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, while CBS8066 was strongly inhibited in this medium. In synthetic inhibitory media, CCUG53310 was more tolerant to carboxylic acids and furan aldehydes, but more sensitive than CBS8066 to phenolic compounds. Despite the higher tolerance, the increase in expression of the YAP1, ATR1 and FLR1 genes, known to confer resistance to ...
Membrane fouling is a critical limitation on the application of membranes to wastewater reuse. This work aims to understand the fouling phenomenon which occurs in ultrafiltration (UF; 17500 molecular weight cutoff (MWCO)) and nanofiltration (NF; 250 MWCO) membranes, with and without pretreatment. For this purpose, the molecular weight (MW) distribution of the organics has been used as a parameter to characterize the influent, the permeate, and the foulant on the membrane surface. The variation of foulant concentration on the membrane due to pretreatment of the influent by flocculation and/or adsorption was investigated in detail. With the UF membrane, the peak of the MW distribution of organics in the permeate depended on the pretreatment; for example, the weight-averaged MW (Mw) of 675 without pretreatment shifted down to 314 with pretreatment. In the case of the NF membrane, the Mw of organics in the permeate was 478 (without pretreatment) and 310 (with flocculation followed by adsorption). ...
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From a biological perspective, a dynamic model describing the cultivation and flocculation of a microorganism that uses two different kinds of nutrients (carbon source and nitrogen source) is proposed. For the proposed model, there always exists a boundary equilibrium, i.e., R h o d o p s e u d o m o n a s p a l u s t r i s -free equilibrium. Furthermore, under additional conditions, the model also has five positive equilibria at most, i.e., the equilibria for which carbon source, nitrogen source, R h o d o p s e u d o m o n a s p a l u s t r i s and flocculants are coexistent. The phenomena of backward and forward bifurcations are extensively discussed by using center manifold theory. The global stability of the boundary equilibrium of the proposed model is deeply investigated. Moreover, the local stability of the positive equilibrium and the uniform persistence of the proposed model are discussed. Under additional conditions, the global stability of the positive equilibrium is
An aqueous organic or inorganic suspension can be coagulated and then flocculated by flowing it past a shaped body comprising a mixture of water soluble multivalent metal coagulant and a water soluble organic polymeric flocculant in the form of substantially discrete particles. The surface of the shaped body is eroded by the flowing stream to form a solution of the coagulant in which the polymeric flocculant particles are entrained, and these subsequently dissolve into the suspension.
China is a major textile manufacturer in the world; as a result, large quantities of dyeing effluents are generated every year in the country. Textile dyeing effluents are distinguished by high levels of chrominance, chemical oxygen demand, and salinity.
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The present invention provides a kind of methods for handling stainless steel acid cleaning waste water, are related to environment protection field.It the described method comprises the following steps: flushing water pH is adjusted to 1-2, be added first and fluorine agent and second is gone to go fluorine agent, be then allowed to stand, filter, obtain filter cake and filtrate;Filtrate pH is adjusted to 2-3, is added and removes ferric flocculant, be then allowed to stand, filter, obtain filter cake and filtrate;Filtrate pH is adjusted to 4-5, is added and removes chromium flocculant, be then allowed to stand, filter, obtain filter cake and filtrate;Filtrate pH is adjusted to 6-7, is added and removes nickel flocculant, be then allowed to stand, filter, obtain filter cake and filtrate;Filtrate pH is adjusted to 7-8, then through film process, concentrated water is handled through triple effect evaporation, then dope crystallisation by cooling carries out harmless treatment.Each element
Flocculation Test Procedure Mineral Processing & MetallurgyA Flocculation Test Procedure is used to determine how much Flocculants need be added to solids in su
A bioflocculant-producing bacterium isolated from seawater was identified based on 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence to have 99% similarity to that of Halomonas sp. Au160H and the nucleotide sequence was deposited as Halomonas sp. OKOH (Genbank accession number is HQ875722). Influences of carbon source, nitrogen source, salt ions and pH on flocculating activity were investigated. The bioflocculant was optimally produced when glucose (87% flocculating activity) and urea (88% flocculating activity) were used as sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Also, initial pH of 7.0 and Ca2+ supported optimal production of the bioflocculant with flocculating activities of 87% respectively. Chemical analyses revealed the bioflocculant to be a polysaccharide.
As the volume of oil sands tailings continues to increase each year with a concurrent need for better flocculants to replace the inorganic electrolytes and synthetic polymers, natural polymers are being considered as good substitutes. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) possess interesting properties such as high specific area, biodegradability, surface functionalization capabilities and their large scale availability. This thesis explores the development of CNC-based flocculants for bentonite clay removal. Cationic and thermo-responsive CNC-based copolymers were prepared via the free radical polymerization technique. The thermo-responsive characterization of the CNC-gpoly( oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (CNC-POEGMA) indicated that the LCST could be tuned by adjusting the poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride (PDMC) content. The cloud point measurements revealed that the LCST of CNC-POEGMA decreased in the presence of salt following a typical salting-out effect. ...
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Definition of flocculation reaction. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
This study investigated the improvement in dewaterability of activated sludge (ACS) and anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) through bioacidification approach using iron-oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. ACS and ADS were treated with A. ferrooxidans culture with addition of different concentrations of energy substrate, in terms of Fe(2+):sludge solids ratio (0:1, 0.01:1, 0.05:1 and 0.1:1), and the dewaterability was assessed by determining the capillary suction time (CST), time to filter (TTF) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of the sludge. The results revealed that the levels of Fe(2+) significantly influenced the sludge acidification (pH⩽3). The CST, TTF and SRF values rapidly decreased in treated sludge, indicating that dewaterability of the sludge was significantly (p|0.05) improved than untreated sludge. This investigation clearly demonstrates that A. ferrooxidans culture, as biogenic flocculant, can be potentially used for improving the sludge flocculation,
Drinking Water Treatment. Disinfection of drinking water is vital to protect public health from waterborne diseases.. Water treatment and disinfection are such an important part of public health that the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has called it one of the ten greatest public health achievements of the 20th century.. To make untreated source water (e.g., lake and river water) safe to drink, water must be carefully treated using a combination of physical and chemical processes. Water treatment consists of removing organic material, particles, bacteria, and other contaminants and disinfection to kill or inactivate microorganisms. Our water treatment process includes: coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. The first step, coagulation and flocculation, consists of adding a chemical to the water that allows particles to bind together forming larger particles called floc. The floc then settles out in the sedimentation process. After the ...
Water treatment at the household level (termed household water treatment or point-of-use water treatment) comprises activities and projects used to improve water quality at the home. Examples of these projects include: chlorine tablet distributions (i.e. Aquatabs®), use of liquid chlorine, flocculant/disinfectants (i.e. P&G Purifier of Water™), ceramic water filters, biosand filters, hollow-fiber filters, solar disinfection, and boiling ...
Polyglutamic acid (PGA) is a polymer of the amino acid glutamic acid (GA). Gamma PGA has a wide number of potential uses ranging from food and medicine to water treatment.
Bentonite is a type of clay used as a weighting agent in water high in color and low in turbidity and mineral content. The bentonite joins with the small floc, making the floc heavier and thus making it settle more quickly ...
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Selective separation of haematite from alumina and silica/calcite was achieved through microbiologically induced flotation and flocculation in presence of Bacillus subtilis. Bacterial metabolites containing extracellular proteins were characterized from mineral-grown bacterial cell free extract. Bacteria can adhere to mineral surfaces and influence subsequent flotation of the minerals. Cells and metabolic products of bacteria were used in flotation, flocculation and adsorption studies on oxide minerals. Bacteria functions as a stronger depressant for haematite. Selective affinity of the bacterial cells towards the mineral surface was observed through adsorption studies. Bacterial byproduct like extracellular protein (EP) was isolated from bacteria. The protein profile of the EP of bacterial cells grown in presence and absence of minerals (haematite, corundum, quartz and calcite) was also studied. The role of such proteins in selective mineral separation was demonstrated through microbially ...
A separate tank, called a contact clarifier, provides hydraulic contact flocculation and surface storage clarification. This replaces traditional paddle flocculation and four hours of quiescent clarification. The sand filter which followed in the traditional system has been replaced by a more efficient multi-media filter.
2. R. Defay, I. Prigogine, and A. Bellemans, Surface Tension and Adsorption, Longmans, London, 1966, pp. 1f, 71f. 3. T. Davis, Statistical Mechanics of Phases, Interfaces and Thin Films, VCH Publishers, New York, 1996, p. 358. 4. C. -H. Kohler, and J. Seidel, Langmuir, 12, 5550- 5556, 1966. 5. J. Seidel, C. -H. Kohler, Langmuir, 12, 5557, 1966. 6. W. Adamson, Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982, pp. 216, 530, and 575. 7. J. Hunter, Foundations of Colloid Science, Vol. 9. D. H. , Adsorption from Solution at the Solid/Liquid Interface, Academic Press, London, 1983, p. 256. 10. J. Leja, Surface Chemistry of Froth Flotation, Plenum Press, New York, 1982, p. 370. 11. A. -H. Kohler, Colloid Polym. , 278, 911, 2000. -H. Kohler and S. Woelki Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo- and Biosensors, University of Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg, Germany I. Introduction .................................................................. 44 II. The Diffuse Double Layer ...
nifloc 972, polyacrylamide, MW 2 X 106. The polymers were added as 0.1% solutions. Clays. Ca++-Montmorillonite M-20 was the clay used. Flocculation experiments. Flocculation was carried out using a jar test procedure in 1-L beakers. Agitation was at 100 r/min for 5 min., followed by a 25 r/min for 25 min. Samples were taken after 2 and after 30 .... Get Price ...
Verticillium dahliae gehört zu den bodenbürtigen Askomyceten. Dieser Pilz verursacht Welke-Erkrankungen und verfrühtes Altern in mehr als 200 verschiedenen, auch ökonomisch wichtigen Pflanzen. Verticillium kann im Boden ohne Wirtspflanze durch die Bildung von Mikrosklerotien bis zu 10 Jahre überleben. Wurzelexsudate induzieren die Auskeimung der Mikrosklerotien. V. dahliae infiziert seinen Wirt durch die Wurzel, besiedelt den Wurzelkortex und dringt dann in die Xylemgefäße ein. Die Infektion des Wirts durch pathogene Pilze erfordert Penetrations- und Kolonisierungsprozesse. Am Eindringen durch die Wurzeloberfläche sind adhäsive Proteine an verschiedenen Stellen der Wirt-Parasit-Interaktion beteiligt. Adhäsive Proteine sind in S. cerevisiae gut untersucht, während nur wenig über sie in V. dahliae bekannt ist. Der Adhäsions-Transkriptionsfaktor Flo8 aus Hefe reguliert die Expression der sogenannten „Flocculation-Gene wie zum Beispiel FLO1 und FLO11. Ein Stamm ohne FLO8 ist nicht in ...
1. No fining or filtration. It has long been reported that fining and filtration reduce hop flavor and aroma. To a large degree this makes sense. Hop compounds stick to cell walls of microorganisms, so removing those microorganisms removes those hop compounds as well. This is well established in scientific literature, and is also the mechanism of action of hops to inhibit bacterial growth in beer. Whether or not those hop compounds that are removed with yeast flocculation are good or bad is up for debate to some degree. But in the interest of keeping as many hop compounds in the beer as possible, these beers are not filtered or fined, and I suspect that their popularity is at least a decent indication that the hop compounds attached to non-flocculent yeast are not overtly off-putting, at least for these yeasts, or in this style. Filtration has always been avoided for almost all examples of highly rated IPA, even for the clear west coast style.. 2. Lots of late hops. The vast majority of the hops ...
As a flocculant, cationic polyacrylamide is mainly used in industrial solid-liquid separation processes, including sedimentation, clarification, concentration and sludge dewatering. The main using industries are: municipal sewage treatment, paper industry, food processing industry, petrochemical industry, metallurgical industry, mineral processing industry, dyeing industry and sugar industry.. Get Price ...
We developed a microsensor for the amperometric detection of dissolved hydrogen sulfide,H2S, in sedirnents and biofilms. The mlcrosensor exhibits a fast (tgOc 0.2 to 0.5 S) and linear response to H2S over a concentration range of 1 to ,l000 pm01 H2S-I and has a low stirring dependency of the microsensor signal (c1 to 2%). We used the new mlcrosensor to obtain the first microprofiles of H2S in an acidic lake sediment with a several cm thick flocculant surface layer. Despite the low pH of 4.6, a relative low SO,- level in the lake water, and a broad O2 respiration zone of ca 6 mm, we were able to measure H2S depth profiles in the sediment at a good resolution, that allowed for calculation of specific sulfate reduction and H2S oxidation activities. Such calculations showed highest sulfate reduction activity in the anoxic sediment down to ca 20 mm depth A comparison of calculated area1 rates of O2 consumption and sulfate reduction Indicated that sulfate reduction accounted for up to 13 % of total ...
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Really a nice article you shared. Thanks for it. We really need to clean our pools regularly. I think that one of the most annoying pool problems is cloudy water. It is very important to use a pool water clarifier. For example, I use it at least once a week. I also read in this article http://bestpooladviser.com/why-is-my-pool-cloudy-and-how-to-clear-cloudy-pool-water about chemical flocculant that helps in clearing of the pool at a very fast rate. But it engages a lot of hard labour and intensive workforce ...
Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) is a guanidine derivative that is used as a biocidal disinfectant, often in the form of its salt polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-P). Studies have shown that PHMG in solution has fungicidal as well as bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The substance also has detergent, anti-corrosive, and flocculant properties and prevents biofouling. PHMG-P is a white powdered solid, and as all polyguanidine salts, readily soluble in water. Unlike the related polymer polyhexanide (PHMB), PHMG has been described as a relatively new compound with properties, potency, and effects being not yet fully recognized. Preliminary findings indicate that PHMG and its derivatives primarily rely on damaging the cell membrane by inhibiting the activity of cellular dehydrogenases. When PHMG is aerosolized and inhaled, it harms the lungs, causing death of the cells lining the bronchioles and widespread damage to alveoli, along with ...
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Open full size. Gas bubble emissions from bottom sediments of Lake Baikal. Methane emissions from bottom sediments in Lake Baikal have been known for a long time. Even the first travelers, who visited the lake in the 17th century, noticed gas emissions. Later gas emissions in Baikal were explored by the East Siberian Branch of the Russian Imperial Geographical Society. A review of the available materials on gas seeps in Baikal is presented in the publication [Granin and Granina, 2002]. A new stage of research on gas seeps in Baikal started after the discovery of gas hydrates [Kuzmin et al., 1998] and mud volcanoes at the bottom of the lake [Van Rensbergen et al., 2002] at the turn of the 20th century.. Gas seeps are found in oceans, seas and freshwater bodies. To study gas seeps hydroacoustic methods are used, as they enable an extensive search due to the strong backscattering of sound from the bubbles of floating-up gas. To locate and monitor the activity of gas plumes a digital record of ...
The aim of present work was to assess the concentration levels as well as vertical distribution of indicator bacteria including total coliform, fecal coliform, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) in the marine environment (seawater and coastal sediments) and evaluate the correlation between indicator bacteria and some physicochemical parameters of surface sediments as well as seawaters. A total number of 48 seawater and sediment samples were taken from 8 stations (each site 6 times with an interval time of 2 weeks) between June and September 2014. Seawater and sediment samples were collected from 30 cm under the surface samples and different sediment depths (0, 4, 7, 10, 15, and 20 cm) respectively, along the Persian Gulf in Bushehr coastal areas. Based on the results, the average numbers of bacterial indicators including total coliform, fecal coliform, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as HPC in seawater samples were 1238.13, 150.87, 8.22 MPN/100 ml and 1742.91 CFU/ml,
The typical analysis of the active dried strain: Percent solids 93%-95% Living yeast cells 7 x 109 per gram of dry yeast Wild yeast < 1 per 106 yeast cells (Lysine method)* Bacteria < 1 per 106 yeast cells* -Finished product is released to the market only after passing a rigorous series of tests. *According to ASBC and EBC methods of analysis. Brewing Properties: -Quick start and vigorous fermentation, which can be completed in 5 days above 12°C. -High attenuation. -Fermentation rate, fermentation time and degree of attenuation is dependent on inoculation density, yeast handling, fermentation temperature and the nutritional quality of the wort. -Flocculent strain; settling can be promoted by cooling and use of fining agents and isinglass. -The aroma and taste are almost neutral and do not display off-flavours when properly handled. It may tend, because of flocculation, to slightly reduce hop bitter levels. -Best used at traditional lager temperatures (10-15ºC) after rehydration in the ...
In PaInT, the group of Prof. dr. ir. Arne Verliefde has built extensive expertise on physico-chemical treatment of drinking, waste- and process water, with a main focus on membrane filtration and filtration in general, adsorption, oxidation/reduction and traditional physico-chemical techniques such as coagulation/flocculation/dewatering.. ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae IR-2 was first isolated in 1985 from fermented food in Indonesia, which showed unusual flocculation properties even under normal cultivation (1-4). In our previous report, we constructed a draft genome sequence of the original IR-2 diploid strain, which comprised ∼300 contigs with a number of heterogenous variations on both chromosomes (5). To overcome these problems, we used consanguineous inbreeding to establish isogenic strain pairs from the IR-2 diploid with improved efficiency in sporulation and spore germination.. IR-2idA30 (MATa and MATα) is a representative isogenic (identical except for the mating-type region) strain pair that we established from the original IR-2 diploid by repetitious syngenesis (zygoses, sporulation, and haploid selection) as follows. To prevent homothallism, two HO genes were disrupted by kanMX (G418R) and bleMX (ZeocinR) using a traditional lithium acetate (LiAc) transformation method and homologous recombination (6, 7). After four ...
The adsorption of Pb ̄(2+), Cd ̄(2+)and Cr ̄(3+)ions respectively on the raw be ntonite and theconditions of flocculation of bentonite are studied in this paper.Combining the adsorption andflocculation,a new technology for treating wastewater is thus presented.When 0.04%of ben-tonite and 0.006%of PAC are added,93%of Pb ̄(2+) iOn can be removed from the low concentra-tion wastewater.
In this work, performances of coagulation and flocculation were tested for two different industrial effluents. Coagulation-Flocculation and activated carbon adsorption were applied for the remediation of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), generated from oil sands operations in Alberta, Canada. OSPW is a complex mixture of suspended solids, various suspended and dissolved organic compounds. Alum and natural coagulant Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) were used as the coagulants, and the process was optimized to improve the removal of turbidity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The maximum removal of 98% and 63% in turbidity and DOC from OSPW, respectively occurred at pH=6.32, with an alum dosage of 190.44 mg/L and activated carbon at 0.28 g/L. Whereas a comparable removal of turbidity and DOC from OSPW occurred at similar pH and carbon loading at a much higher dosage of 780 mg/L for natural coagulant. Adsorption on polymer seems to be the mechanism of removal of DOC from OSPW during coagulation. Natural
The first facies consists of stratified silty sand which fines upward, transitionally, into pebbly mud. Several successions, each approximately 0.6 m thick, comprise a proximal meltwater facies thought to have been deposited in a shallow (, 10 m) submarine-fan environment. Both the positive (lobe shape) morphology of the exposure and the inferred depositional processes support this view. Underflow currents, either high-concentration turbidity currents or grain flows, are thought to have deposited the silty sand while flocculation, settling from turbid overflow and/or interflow plumes, and ice rafting were responsible for pebbly mud deposition. Such inferences are based on textural analysis and observations of sedimentary structures. The rhythmic interbedding is explained by invoking seasonal fluctuations of meltwater discharge. This caused a variation of depositional process in areas proximal to meltwater input into the basin.--Modified journal abstract. ...
Red Star Montrachet yeast, is a great strain for full-bodied red and white wines. Ferments strongly, has a high-alcohol tolerance, and can be used in an environment without good temperature control. Good yeast choice for Chardonnay, Merlot, Syrah, and Zinfandel. Ideal Temp Range: 59-95F (15-35C) | Alcohol Tolerance: 15% | Flocculation: Low
A review of the current literature concerning retention is presented. The current models for flocculation are discussed. Methods for the measurement of retention are outlined and the procedure employed is detailed. The goal of this work was to study the effective o molecular weight and charge density of cationic starch on its effectiveness as a retention aid. Two molecular weight starches were reacted to give three charge densities. Each cationic starch was studied at three addition levels, each at three shear levels. The results of the retention tests are discussed in terms of starch loading, nitrogen loading, molecular weight, and shear resistance. The results indicate that higher molecular weight gives better retention and shear stability. By increasing charge loading, the effect of molecular weight can be overcome. The results also indicate that there is an optimum charge loading for high retention and shear stability.
Citrus cranks out orange and lemon aromas along with some tropical fruit. Use this strain at high temps for big ester production. A wild saccharomyces strain, it will get a bit funky without the worries of a brettanomyces strain. Temp: 67-80F, 19-27C // Flocculation: Low // Attenuation:74-78% Liquid Yeast Shipping Up C
From Mexico City, this yeast produces clean lager beer, with a crisp finish. Good for Mexican style light lagers, as well as dark lagers. High attenuation. Attenuation: 70-78% Flocculation: Medium Ideal Fermentation Temperature Range: 50-55°F Alcohol Tolerance: Medium *NOTE:*During summer months, we include complimenta
Polyquaternium-74 is a synthetic high performance conditioning polymer whose flocculation and deposition characteristics enable it to match or outperform traditional conditioning polymers in detangling, overall hair conditioning, shine enhancement and buildup reduction when combined, as shown here, with a submicron dimethicone emulsion. Benefits are noted for 2-in-1 shampoo formulations.
Red Star Premier Blanc Dry Wine Yeast- Red Star Pasteur Blanc Red Star UCD #595 Species : Wine Fermentation Temp Range (°F) : 59-86 Apparent Attenuation Range (%) : n/a Flocculation : Medium-Low Alcohol Tolerance : 13-15% Pitching/Fermentation : It w
Clean fermentation profile and high attenuation, quite similar to Cali Ale. Suitable for production of clean West Coast style beers. Attenuation: 75-85% Temperature: 18-20°C (64-68°F) Diastatic: No Fermentation Rate: Medium Beer Types: Clean, focused American ales Flocculation: High Alcohol Tolerance: High Phenolic: No
Ready to attack your IPA, Barbarian produces stone fruit esters that work great when paired with citrus hops. Barbarian will give you what you need for an exceptionally balanced IPA. Temp: 62-70F, 16-21C // Flocculation: Medium // Attenuation: 73-74%
The US release of this highly-anticipated dry yeast selected for wheat beer fermentations. WB-06 produces estery and phenol notes typical of Bavarian-style wheat beers. Flocculation: low Final gravity: high. Optimum temp: 59°-75° F ...
The most used electron donors include hydrogen gas and reduced sulfur compounds i.e. elemental sulfur sulfide and thiosulfate. Plain sedimentation is the cheapest method to isolate S 0 bio although flocculation filtration extraction and flotation have shown higher efficiency due to the the relatively high cost low solubility and
A method for removing a gas from a site comprising placing cells having gas vesicles under conditions that induce the cells to float to a surface of an aqueous medium, harvesting the cells from the surface of the medium, lysing the cells, separating the gas vesicles from the lysed cells, crosslinking the gas vesicles with a crosslinking agent, loading a gas with a lowered partial pressure for the compound to be removed into the gas vesicles, and placing the gas vesicles such that the gas compound is removed from the site. Harvesting gas-vesicle-containing cells is achieved by placing the cells under conditions that induce the cells to rise to the surface of an aqueous medium-such as darkness, exponential growth stage, flocculation, or dissolved gas flotation-then collecting the cells from the surface of the medium. Gas vesicles are isolated by lysing the cells and separating the gas vesicles from the lysate. Once the gas vesicles are isolated, they can be modified, such as by crosslinking with
While drinking milk (or better while seeing the milk Im gonna drink) a question came up to my mind:. Why does the milk sometimes flake, even if not in contact with some other substances?. I guess the correct term to use is flocculation, at least this is the word that raises up when talking about cheese production. I just learned the word casein. However, my question is not about cheese production.. My question is also not about flaking milk when poured into a cup of coffee which seems to be dependent on the acidity of the coffee. But casein is again the keyword.. I think the answer to my actual question will also contain the word casein, but heres the scenario:. I open a milk carton for the first time. This package doesnt have any hole and the shelf life isnt reached yet. I pour the milk into a clean cup and then observing some flakes at top of the milk.. What I was told as a child, when curiously asking, flaking is an indicator that the milk is getting acid. And in that case the keyword ...
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Background/Aims: In vitro constant calcitriol [1,25-(OH)|sub|2|/sub|D|sub|3|/sub|] inhibits healthy individuals T lymphocyte proliferation at supraphysiological concentrations. In contrast, among hemodialysis patients, intravenous 1,25-(OH)|sub|2|/sub|D|sub|3|/sub| pulse therapy of secondary hyperparathyroidism has been shown to be even immunostimulatory. We studied the effect of in vitro constant and intermittent 1,25-(OH)|sub|2|/sub|D|sub|3|/sub| on lymphocyte antigen response of hemodialysis patients. Methods: Twelve hemodialysis patients peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with purified protein derivative of tuberculin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/l) or tetanus toxoid (TT; 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 Lf/l, limit of flocculation) for 7 days. Constant 1,25-(OH)|sub|2|/sub|D|sub|3|/sub| was added to all cultures at concentrations of 0, 10|sup|-10|/sup| or 0.25 × 10|sup|-9|/sup| mol/l (0, 42 and 105 ng/l) and to half of the cultures additionally as a 0.75 × 10|sup|-9|/sup| mmol/l (315-ng/l)
DOI 10.24411/1728-323X-2018-16016 Section Ecology Title ESTIMATION OF BACKGROUND CONTAMINATION OF THE WATER BODIES BOTTOM SEDIMENTS IN THE NORTH-EASTE...