The members of this lab share the fascination for animal flight, which we explore in a sophisticated wind tunnel equipped with cutting-edge equipment for high-speed wing motion analysis, airflow visualization, and force measurement.. The research within the Animal Flight Lab is focused on the ecology and evolution of animal flight. ...
Mechanisms involved in establishing the organization and numbers of fibres in a muscle are not completely understood. During Drosophila indirect flight muscle (IFM) formation, muscle growth is achieved by both incorporating hundreds of nuclei, and hypertrophy. As a result, IFMs provide a good model with which to understand the mechanisms that govern overall muscle organization and growth. We present a detailed analysis of the organization of dorsal longitudinal muscles (DLMs), a subset of the IFMs. We show that each DLM is similar to a vertebrate fascicle and consists of multiple muscle fibres. However, increased fascicle size does not necessarily change the number of constituent fibres, but does increase the number of myofibrils packed within the fibres. We also find that altering the number of myoblasts available for fusion changes DLM fascicle size and fibres are loosely packed with myofibrils. Additionally, we show that knock down of genes required for mitochondrial fusion causes a severe ...
Insects could minimize the high energetic costs of flight in two ways: by employing high-efficiency muscles and by using elastic elements within the thorax to recover energy expended accelerating the wings. However, because muscle efficiency and elastic storage have proven difficult variables to measure, it is not known which of these strategies is actually used. By comparison of mechanical power measurements based on gas exchange with simultaneously measured flight kinematics in Drosophila, a method was developed for determining both the mechanical efficiency and the minimum degree of elastic storage within the flight motor. Muscle efficiency values of 10 percent suggest that insects may minimize energy use in flight by employing an elastic flight motor rather than by using extraordinarily efficient muscles. Further, because of the trade-off between inertial and aerodynamic power throughout the wing stroke, an elastic storage capacity as low as 10 percent may be enough to minimize the energetic ...
Insects could minimize the high energetic costs of flight in two ways: by employing high-efficiency muscles and by using elastic elements within the thorax to recover energy expended accelerating the wings. However, because muscle efficiency and elastic storage have proven difficult variables to measure, it is not known which of these strategies is actually used. By comparison of mechanical power measurements based on gas exchange with simultaneously measured flight kinematics in Drosophila, a method was developed for determining both the mechanical efficiency and the minimum degree of elastic storage within the flight motor. Muscle efficiency values of 10 percent suggest that insects may minimize energy use in flight by employing an elastic flight motor rather than by using extraordinarily efficient muscles. Further, because of the trade-off between inertial and aerodynamic power throughout the wing stroke, an elastic storage capacity as low as 10 percent may be enough to minimize the energetic ...
A mean lift coefficient quasi-steady analysis has been applied to the free flight of the dragonfly Sympetrum sanguineum and the damselfly Calopteryx splendens. The analysis accommodated the yaw and accelerations involved in free flight. For any given velocity or resultant aerodynamic force (thrust), the damselfly mean lift coefficient was higher than that for the dragonfly because of its clap and fling. For both species, the maximum mean lift coefficient L was higher than the steady CL,max. Both species aligned their strokes planes to be nearly normal to the thrust, a strategy that reduces the L required for flight and which is different from the previously published hovering and slow dragonfly flights with stroke planes steeply inclined to the horizontal. Owing to the relatively low costs of accelerating the wing, the aerodynamic power required for flight represents the mechanical power output from the muscles. The maximum muscle mass-specific power was estimated at 156 and 166 W kg-1 for S. ...
To study the visual cues that control steering behavior in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, we reconstructed three-dimensional trajectories from images taken by stereo infrared video cameras during free flight within structured visual landscapes. Flies move through their environment using a series of straight flight segments separated by rapid turns, termed saccades, during which the fly alters course by approximately 90° in less than 100 ms. Altering the amount of background visual contrast caused significant changes in the flys translational velocity and saccade frequency. Between saccades, asymmetries in the estimates of optic flow induce gradual turns away from the side experiencing a greater motion stimulus, a behavior opposite to that predicted by a flight control model based upon optomotor equilibrium. To determine which features of visual motion trigger saccades, we reconstructed the visual environment from the flys perspective for each position in the flight trajectory. From ...
Insect flight is a highly energy demanding type of locomotion. In butterflies, males may locate females by different behavioural tactics. The tactics correspond to different flight types that, in turn, are assumed to reflect different energetic costs. Costs need to be considered to fully understand the pay-offs of co-existing alternative tactics relative to the environmental context and the phenotypes of the individuals. We addressed the issue in the speckled wood Pararge aegeria, in which males either adopt a territorial wait-and-fight tactic (i.e. territorial perching) in a sunlit patch on the forest floor, or a fly-and-search tactic to locate females in a wider area of the forest (i.e. patrolling). Perching corresponds to high frequency of take-off flights and aerial combats with high levels of manoeuvrability and is assumed to be energetically more costly than longer, continuous flights at lower speed in patrollers. We tested the effect of different flight activity levels and of the ...
Bird flight is the primary mode of locomotion used by most bird species. Flight assists birds while feeding, breeding, avoiding predators, and migrating. Bird flight is one of the most complex forms of locomotion in the animal kingdom. Each facet of this type of motion, including hovering, taking off, and landing, involves many complex movements. As different bird species have adapted to specific environments, prey, predators, and other needs, they have developed varied forms of wings and varied forms of flight. Research into how birds fly has yielded various theories as to the evolution of bird flight, a topic that is still hotly debated among scholars. Some suggest that flight originated from falling/gliding behaviors (the trees down hypothesis); some suggest feathers developed for other reasons and gradually enabled birds to lift off the ground (the ground up hypothesis); and yet others suggest variations on these theories such as the wing-assisted incline running theory and the pouncing ...
I read an article today suggesting that on-line flyers would replace print flyers, not immediately, but in the next five to ten years.. The article noted that flyer printing is a large expense for retail establishments, and from the point of view of the offset or digital custom printing services, flyer printing generates abundant revenue.. I have some thoughts on digital flyers, since I have been receiving them in my email box for some time now.. 1. Digital flyers are useful for researching goods or services: When Im already on the computer, digital flyers are welcome and useful if I am searching for a particular item. Therefore, I often read or at least skim email flyers about computer hardware and software. Some digital flyers or magazines even have useful links to product reviews or videos.. 2. But they can be annoying when youre not interested in the product or service: If Im not looking for a particular item, Ill delete the digital flyer without even skimming it. In fact, I delete about ...
Time-Varying Wing-Twist Improves Aerodynamic Efficiency of Forward Flight in Butterflies Lingxiao Zheng 1, Tyson L. Hedrick 2, Rajat Mittal 1 * 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, the Johns Hopkins
On the Wing: Insects, Pterosaurs, Birds, Bats and the Evolution of Animal Flight by David E Alexander Synopsis: Ask anybody what superpower they wished to possess and odds are the answer just might be the ability to fly. What is it about soaring through the air held up by the power of ones own body that…
Here we show, by qualitative free- and tethered-flight flow visualization, that dragonflies fly by using unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms to generate high-lift, leading-edge vortices. In normal free flight, dragonflies use counterstroking kinematics, with a leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the forewing downstroke, attached flow on the forewing upstroke, and attached flow on the hindwing throughout. Accelerating dragonflies switch to in-phase wing-beats with highly separated downstroke flows, with a single LEV attached across both the fore- and hindwings. We use smoke visualizations to distinguish between the three simplest local analytical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations yielding flow separation resulting in a LEV. The LEV is an open U-shaped separation, continuous across the thorax, running parallel to the wing leading edge and inflecting at the tips to form wingtip vortices. Air spirals in to a free-slip critical point over the centreline as the LEV grows. Spanwise flow is not a dominant feature
The limits of flight performance have been estimated in tethered Drosophila melanogaster by modulating power requirements in a virtual reality flight arena. At peak capacity, the flight muscles can sustain a mechanical power output of nearly 80 W kg^(-1) muscle mass at 24 °C, which is sufficient to generate forces of approximately 150% of the animals weight. The increase in flight force above that required to support body weight is accompanied by a rise in wing velocity, brought about by an increase in stroke amplitude and a decrease in stroke frequency. Inertial costs, although greater than either profile or induced power, would be minimal with even modest amounts of elastic storage, and total mechanical power energy should be equivalent to aerodynamic power alone. Because of the large profile drag expected at low Reynolds numbers, the profile power was approximately twice the induced power at all levels of force generation. Thus, it is the cost of overcoming drag, and not the production of ...
During muscle development myosin molecules form symmetrical thick filaments which integrate with the thin filaments to produce the regular sarcomeric lattice. In Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFM) the details of this process can be studied using genetic approaches. The weeP26 transgenic line has a GFP-encoding exon inserted into the single Drosophila muscle myosin heavy chain gene, Mhc. The weeP26 IFM sarcomeres have a unique MHC-GFP-labelling pattern restricted to the sarcomere core, explained by non-translation of the GFP exon following alternative splicing. Characterisation of wild type IFM MHC mRNA confirmed the presence of an alternately spliced isoform, expressed earlier than the major IFM-specific isoform. The two wild-type IFM-specific MHC isoforms differ by the presence of a C-terminal tailpiece in the minor isoform. The sequential expression and assembly of these two MHCs into developing thick filaments suggest a role for the tailpiece in initiating A-band formation. The ...
When commuting or migrating, birds are assumed to fly near the speed yielding minimum energetic costs per unit distance travelled (called maximum range speed, Umr) [1,2]. Therefore, the majority of bird flight research has focused on flight performance around this flight speed [3-7]. Many small birds, however, often fly much slower, particularly those that hunt or feed on the wing or live in cluttered environments [8,9], although not much is known about flight speed distributions in the wild. Still, it can be assumed that natural selection has resulted in efficient and controlled flight at low speeds for birds that often fly at these speeds, just as it has resulted in efficient flight at migratory flight speeds for migratory birds.. Most research on hovering and slow flight in birds has been done on small specialized hoverers, such as hummingbirds [10-12]. Hummingbirds are considered specialized hoverers because they have a relatively stiff wing that turns upside down during the upstroke, much ...
Most insects use a method that creates a spiralling leading edge vortex. These flapping wings move through two basic half-strokes. The downstroke starts up and back and is plunged downward and forward. Then the wing is quickly flipped over (supination) so that the leading edge is pointed backward. The upstroke then pushes the wing upward and backward. Then the wing is flipped again (pronation) and another downstroke can occur. The frequency range in insects with synchronous flight muscles typically is 5 to 200 hertz (Hz). In those with asynchronous flight muscles, wing beat frequency may exceed 1000 Hz. When the insect is hovering, the two strokes take the same amount of time. A slower downstroke, however, provides thrust.[6][7] Identification of major forces is critical to understanding insect flight. The first attempts to understand flapping wings assumed a quasi-steady state. This means that the air flow over the wing at any given time was assumed to be the same as how the flow would be over ...
How Do I Release Free-Flying Helium Balloons Safely? The release of free-flying helium balloons is strictly prohibited during the operating hours of military airbases (Monday to Friday, 7am to 7pm; Saturday, 7am to 1pm).. Beyond these hours, free-flying helium balloons should not be released within 5km of an airport or airbase without a permit. Balloons, individually or as a cluster, should not exceed 2 metres in any linear dimension.. Do I Need To Notify CAAS To Release Free-Flying Helium Balloons? Yes. If you are planning to release free-flying helium balloons within the area and height limits, you will need to submit a notification to CAAS.. When Do I Need A Permit To Release Free-Flying Helium Balloons? A permit is required from CAAS when releasing free-flying helium balloons outside the area and height limits. Applications will be assessed on a case-by-case basis. It will take 7 working days to process your application, as assessment will be conducted in consultation with the Republic of ...
Respiration rates of muscle mitochondria in flying hummingbirds range from 7 to 10 ml of O2 per cm3 of mitochondria per min, which is about 2 times higher than the range obtained in the locomotory muscles of mammals running at their maximum aerobic capacities (VO2max). Capillary volume density is higher in hummingbird flight muscles than in mammalian skeletal muscles. Mitochondria occupy approximately 35% of fiber volume in hummingbird flight muscles and cluster beneath the sarcolemmal membrane adjacent to capillaries to a greater extent than in mammalian muscles. Measurements of protein content, citrate synthase activity, and respiratory rates in vitro per unit mitochondrial volume reveal no significant differences between hummingbird and mammalian skeletal muscle mitochondria. However, inner membrane surface areas per unit mitochondrial volume [Sv(im,m)] are higher than those in mammalian muscle. We propose that both mitochondrial volume densities and Sv(im,m) are near their maximum ...
Flight Muscle Mitochondria This image is of non-human tissue. Flight muscle is the most powerful type of muscle, to cope with the aerobic demands of flying the balance of muscle fibres and mitochondria has to be optimal. Here we see flight muscle from a bird in a transverse cut. Mitochondria generate the energy that cells need to function. The energy made by the mitochondria is in the form of a chemical called adenosine triphosphate or ATP. The mitochondria are the pink/red structures in this image. Cellular level art, paint on silk, digitised.
Crying babies, drooling seat mates and coughing passengers are everyday minor annoyances on planes, but body slamming someone for being sick and having to cough? Not the right reaction, but it was the one a man from Georgia had at the end of a flight last week.. The 31-year-old was on an American Airlines flight to Jacksonville International Airport in Florida, says The Daily Mail, upon which a sick 19-year-old woman had the gumption to cough.. The police say he spent the flight harassing the woman, and as the passengers deboarded the plane, he called her obscene names, saying she had infected everyone on the flight.. According to the report, he then charged her and body slammed her with his shoulder, knocking her against the wall. He was arrested on charges of misdemeanor battery.. We hope he brings plenty of cough drops with him should he ever dare to have a ticklish throat or a cold.. Youve infected everyone! Germaphobe body slams woman who was coughing on flight [The Daily Mail]. ...
Singh, Salam Herojeet and Kumar, Prabodh and Ramachandra, Nallur B and Nongthomba, Upendra (2019) Roles of the troponin isoforms during indirect flight muscle development in Drosophila (vol 93, pg 379, 2014). INDIAN ACAD SCIENCES, C V RAMAN AVENUE, SADASHIVANAGAR, P B #8005, BANGALORE 560 080, INDIA. ...
Exploding foil initiators (EFIs), also known as slapper initiators or detonators, offer clear safety and timing advantages over other means of initiating detonation in high explosives. The work described here outlines a new capability for imaging and reconstructing three-dimensional images of operating EFIs. Flyer size and intended velocity were chosen based on parameters of the imaging system. The EFI metal plasma and plastic flyer traveling at 2.5 km/s were imaged with short ~80 ps pulses spaced 153.4 ns apart. A four-camera system acquired 4 images from successive x-ray pulses from each shot. The first frame was prior to bridge burst, the 2 nd images the flyer about 0.16 mm above the surface but edges of the foil and/or flyer are still attached to the substrate. The 3 rd frame captures the flyer in flight, while the 4 th shows a completely detached flyer in a position that is typically beyond where slappers strike initiating explosives. Multiple acquisitions at different incident angles and ...
After the allergy attack suffered by a college student on a flight, a coalition was recently formed for carrying EpiPens on commercial flights. The founder of government relations firm, Robert Houton, launched the Coalition for Carrying Auto-Injector Epinephrine Rights (CLEAR) on flights and the first member.... ...
Similar flight control principles operate across insect and vertebrate fliers. These principles indicate that robust solutions have evolved to meet complex behavioral challenges. Following from studies of visual and cervical feedback control of flight in insects, we investigate the role of head stabilization in providing feedback cues for controlling turning flight in pigeons. Based on previous observations that the eyes of pigeons remain at relatively fixed orientations within the head during flight, we test potential sensory control inputs derived from head and body movements during 90° aerial turns. We observe that periods of angular head stabilization alternate with rapid head repositioning movements (head saccades), and confirm that control of head motion is decoupled from aerodynamic and inertial forces acting on the birds continuously rotating body during turning flapping flight. Visual cues inferred from head saccades correlate with changes in flight trajectory; whereas the magnitude of neck
uly 2, 1929. PfE. H. GRIPoN AIRFOIL 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Aug. 3, 1928 July 2, 1929. P. E. H. GRlPoN AIRFOIL Filed Aug. 3, 1928 s sneet-sheet 5 l INVENTOR. PAL/L-l/GfR/PON I. Patented July 2, 1929. PAUL i E. H. GRIPON, OF WASHINGTON, DISTRICT F COLUMBIA. Anwen.. .application mea August a, 192s. sum1 No. 297,293. In this specification the term airfoil means any surface designed to be subjected to fluid streams, in order to produce a useful dynamic reaction. The invention relates to the-formation, utilization and control on airfoil surfaces of vortices of a surrounding fluid, with the ob ject of reducing to the smallest possible de gree the drag or resistance normally cncountered when said airfoil is in relative motion comparatively to that fluid. Figures l and 2 give cross-sections of the present airfoils such as are used for wings on airplanes. l5 Figure 3 is the cross-section of a birds wing. Figure 4 shows the diagrammatic crosssection of the wing of a bird, when in gliding flight, Fig. 4a ...
Barbara Kingsolver is a rarity-a trained scientist who became a graceful novelist. Now shes trying something even more unusual, making the very wonky subject of climate change the heart of her new novel Flight Behavior.
Well its been like forever since Ive been on like years ... So much has changed .. Im divorced sad to sa.. Anyway I am needing to go back to see Dr.B anyone know of any airlines the help wih flight costs ...
Well its been like forever since Ive been on like years ... So much has changed .. Im divorced sad to sa.. Anyway I am needing to go back to see Dr.B anyone know of any airlines the help wih flight costs ...
This paper describes the technical and operational challenges of the first cross-Channel flight performed by an unmanned autonomous glider. The glider chosen for the attempt was a quarter scale Slingsby Type 45 Swallow. It was found to have a lift-to-drag ratio of 8, as verified by wind tunnel force balance tests. Essential retrospective aerodynamic refinements to the design, including modifications of the wing root and tip sections and wing aspect ratio, were modelled analytically and found to increase the aircrafts lift-to-drag ratio to 19. The launch mechanism devised for the modified glider featured a bespoke crate suspended under an airborne helicopter at an altitude of 10,000 ft, from which the aircraft was released from an internal recess. The glider was pre-programmed to fly autonomously via waypoint navigation and completed the 22 mile mission in less than one hour at an average ground speed of 27 knots, a sink rate of 3 ft/s and with 3,500 ft altitude to spare. The successful flight, ...
Dec. 4, 1951 c; SMWH 2,577,436 TRAP FOR FLYING INSECTS Filed Nov. 26 1947 Patented Dec. 4, 1951 UNITED STATES ?ATENT OFFICE 2 Claims. 1 This invention relates to a trap for catching and killing flying insects of various kinds. It is a well known fact that flying insects are attracted by a bright light during the night. The present invention is based on this known fact. It has for its main objects to provide such a trap that will be highly efilcient for its purpose, cheap to manufacture, simple in structure, very durable, and easy to understand and use by unskilled labor. The problem of getting rid of flying insects that destroy growing crops is a serious one. The present invention will provide simple and highly effective means that will go a long way towards solving this diflicult problem. Other objects and advantages will appear from the drawing and description. By referring to the drawing part of this application, it will be observed that Fig. 1 is a plan view of the trap, a portion of the ...
Environmental changes are responsible for the evolution of flexible physiology and the extent of phenotypic plasticity in the regulation of birds organ size has not been appreciated until recently. Rapid reversible physiological changes during different life-history stages are virtually only known from long-distance migrants, and few studies have focused on less extreme aspects of organ flexibility. During moult, birds suffer from increased wing loading due to wing-area reductions, which may impair flight ability. A previous study found that tree sparrows escape flight (Passer montanus) is unaffected during moult, suggesting compensatory aptness. We used non-invasive techniques to study physiological adaptations to increased wing loading in tree sparrows. As wing area was reduced during natural moult the ratio of pectoral-muscle size to body mass increased. When moult was completed this ratio decreased. We show experimentally a novel, strategic, organ-flexibility pattern. Unlike the general ...
Oh, that damn ping-pong ball. With a little luck in the 2007 lottery, the Flyers would have had the first overall draft pick that summer and would have selected winger Patrick Kane. The Flyers had the worst record that season, but they lost the lottery to the Chicago Blackhawks, who chose Kane. The same guy who broke the collective hearts of the Flyers and their loyal fans Wednesday night at the Wachovia Center. Kane scored 4:06 into overtime to give the Blackhawks a 4-3 win that clinched their first Stanley Cup since 1961. “It stings. It hurts,” said Flyers winger Scott Hartnell after a heroic, two-goal performance. “It’ll give us more fuel in training camp next year.” Kane had three goals and five assists in the Finals. On Wednesday, he also had a pair of assists as Chicago won the series, four games to two. The Flyers played gallantly and had a remarkable playoff run, highlighted by their comeback from a 3-0 series deficit against Boston in the conference semifinals. But
A new Personal Care & Household Deal flyer started today in Publix. This is a green flyer that says Sweetheart Savings across the top. Youll find these at the front of the store near the weekly ad, or behind customer service.. The deals in the flyer arent the lowest prices we will see across all stores, but for Publix some of the prices are pretty good. For the coupons in the flyer, Ive gotten the prices at a local store for you. Remember though, some of these may go on sale before the coupon ends. I try to wait and use the coupons when the items are on sale, or the last week of the flyer if I need the item and they didnt go on sale.. See all the deals in the Publix Weekly Ad.. ...
Low Cost Flyer Creator Software to Create Print and share interactive Flyers Brochures leaflets Certificate Door Hangers from Templates Just 3999 with more then 100 Free Templates Easy Flyer Creator is the best way to Create Print and
Studying the routes flown by long-distance migratory insects comes with the obvious challenge that the animals body size and weight is comparably low. This makes it difficult to attach relatively heavy transmitters to these insects in order to monitor their migratory routes (as has been done for instance in several species of migratory birds. However, the rather delicate anatomy of insects can be advantageous for testing their capacity to orient with respect to putative compass cues during indoor experiments under controlled conditions. Almost 20 years ago, Barrie Frost and Henrik Mouritsen developed a flight simulator which enabled them to monitor the heading directions of tethered migratory Monarch butterflies, both indoors and outdoors. The design described in the original paper has been used in many follow-up studies to describe the orientation capacities of mainly diurnal lepidopteran species. Here we present a modification of this flight simulator design that enables studies of nocturnal long
|p|Kingsolver is a gifted magician of words.|br /|—|em|Time|/em||/p||p|The extraordinary |em|New York Times|/em| bestselling author of |em|The Lacuna|/em| (winner of the Orange Prize), |em|The Poisonwood Bible|/em| (nominated for the Pulitzer Prize), and |em|Animal, Vegetable, Miracle|/em|, Barbara Kingsolver returns with a truly stunning and unforgettable work. |em|Flight Behavior|/em| is a brilliant and suspenseful novel set in present day Appalachia; a breathtaking parable of catastrophe and denial that explores how the complexities we inevitably encounter in life lead us to believe in our particular chosen truths. Kingsolvers riveting story concerns a young wife and mother on a failing farm in rural Tennessee who experiences something she cannot explain, and how her discovery energizes various competing factions—religious leaders, climate scientists, environmentalists, politicians—trapping her in the center of the conflict and ultimately opening up her world. |em|Flight Behavior
The basic changes in body angle γ, stroke plane angle β and wingbeat amplitude A can be understood in terms of the varying balance of lift and thrust requirements with varying U. In a time-averaged sense, the wingbeat kinematics are such that the mean momentum flux, which has both magnitude and direction, will be directed so as to support steady locomotion. When U is small, the mass flow per unit time over the wings is also comparatively small, and so a large fraction must be directed downwards to support the weight. As U increases, the mass flow rate also increases, and generating lift to balance weight requires less circulation, and less downward deflection of the oncoming air. The viscous and pressure drags on the wings and body increase with U2, however, and therefore the average force vector must be directed increasingly forward. β and γ both change in ways to perform this redirection, and when A increases, the magnitude of the differences between thrust from the downstroke and drag on ...
Summary Flight is thought to be one of the most energetically costly of bird activities. These costs matter by virtue of their magnitude, as factors affecting flight costs can have a disproportionate impact on the overall energy balance. Flight costs are fundamentally linked to airflows, as well as behavioural responses to them, because birds react to horizontal and vertical currents by changing flight mode (i.e. flapping/ gliding), speed and route. Even minor route adjustments can radically affect the flow conditions that birds experience due to the uniquely dynamic and heterogeneous nature of the aerial environment. Yet our understanding of how airflows impact birds is in its infancy, being constrained by a lack of information on the metabolic costs of flight. Currently, the main methods for measuring flight costs in the laboratory either restrain the bird (thereby increasing energy expenditure) or suffer from low resolution, and field methods do not allow costs to be resolved in relation to ...
In our study, we investigated if and how proprioceptive feedback influences the rhythm of the myogenic wing beat oscillator. We concentrated on mechanosensory input from the halteres - specialized „gyroscopic sensory organs of flies. The halteres are known to activate the motor neurons of miniscule steering muscles, which in turn modulate the motion of the wings. In our experiments [2], tethered flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) were vibrated by a piezoelectric actuator to stimulate the haltere mechanosensory pathways. We used a laser Doppler interferometer to measure the vibrations of the tether resulting from the superposition of the piezo-delivered stimulus and the flys wing beat. We determined the phase relationship between the wing motion and the mechanical stimulus in each wing stroke and applied an automated synchrogram analysis [3] to detect entrainment and higher-order synchronization. The flies synchronized with the stimulus for specific ranges of stimulus amplitude and ...
The goal of the micromechanical flying insect (MFI) project is to develop a 25 mm (wingtip-to-wingtip) device capable of sustained autonomous flight. The MFI is designed based on biomimetic principles to capture some of the exceptional flight performance achieved by true flies. The high performance of true flies is based on large forces generated by non-steady state aerodynamics, a high power-to-weight ratio motor system, and a high-speed control system with tightly integrated visual and inertial sensors. Our design analysis shows us that piezoelectric actuators and flexible thorax structures can provide the needed power density and wing stroke, and that adequate power can be supplied by lithium batteries charged by solar cells. The MFI project started in May 1998. In the first 3 years of this MURI grant, research concentrated on understanding fly flight aerodynamics and on analysis, design and fabrication of MFI actuators, thorax and wings. In August 2001, our MFI prototype (with 1 wing) showed ...
This report deals with the effect of small variations in ordinates specified by different laboratories for the airfoil section. This study was made in connection with a more general investigation of the effect of small irregularities of the airfoil surface on the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil. These tests show that small changes in airfoil contours, resulting from variations in the specified ordinates, have a sufficiently large effect upon the airfoil characteristics to justify the taking of great care in the specification of ordinates for the construction of models.
Flight Simulator Seats Market 2020 Overview:. The market research report on the Global Flight Simulator Seats Market offered by Reports Monitor, analyses the major opportunities, CAGR, yearly growth rates to help the readers to understand the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the Global Flight Simulator Seats Market. The competition landscape, company overview, financials, recent developments and long-term investments related to the Global Flight Simulator Seats Market are mentioned in this report. Various parameters have been studied while estimating the market size. The revenue generated by the leading industry participants in the sales of the Flight Simulator Seats has been calculated through primary and secondary research. The Global Flight Simulator Seats Market analysis has been provided for the international and domestic markets, including trends, landscape analysis and key regions of development.. Understand the influence of COVID-19 on the Flight Simulator Seats Market with our ...
Flight activity in females of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis(Walker) was examined by measuring still-air tethered flight. There was a large amount of variation among females in flight duration. The longest single flight (with no pauses of more than 5 s) was more than 2 h long. Mating status had a significant and large effect on flight: mated females flew twice as long as virgin females. There also was a slight but significant effect of age on flight, with 3-day-old females being less likely to fly than 1-day-old females. Flight duration was not affected by prior exposure to other females, to honey, or to a low or a high host density.
The fine structure of fibrillar flight muscle of the mature adult beetle Tenebrio molitor is described. Although the very high frequency of contraction of fibrillar muscle has previously been in part accounted for as the result of mechanical specialization of the wing-bearing segment rather than of a correspondingly high rate of motor impulse supply, the problem of the nature of the pathway by which excitation is conducted into these large fibers remained. Therefore, particular attention has been given to the disposition and relationships of the plasma membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum in this tissue. The invading tracheoles draw with them a sheath of plasma membrane from the surface to all depths in the fiber, and it is suggested that these sheaths, together with the extensive tubular arborisations arising from them, reduce the maximum plasma membrane-to-fibril distance from the radius of the fiber to a value of less than 2 µ. The evidence presented here confirms Verattis contention that in ...
Gamma irradiation is known to inactivate various pathogens that negatively affect honey bee health. Bee pathogens, such as Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Nosema spp., have a deleterious impact on foraging activities and bee survival, and have been detected in combs. In this study, we assessed the effects of gamma irradiation on the flight activities, pathogen load, and survival of two honey bee stocks that were reared in irradiated and non-irradiated combs. Overall, bee genotype influenced the average number of daily flights, the total number of foraging flights, and total flight duration, in which the Russian honey bees outperformed the Italian honey bees. Exposing combs to gamma irradiation only affected the age at first flight, with worker bees that were reared in non-irradiated combs foraging prematurely compared to those reared in irradiated combs. Precocious foraging may be associated with the higher levels of DWV in bees reared in non-irradiated combs and also with the lower amount of pollen
The flight simulator yoke is almost real looking yoke designed for the computer pilots.. This gives a realistic feel to the users of the flight simulators.. The yoke has three axes of control including the pitch, roll and a throttle lever.. Along with this it has 14 button functions including- the gear and flap, four way hat switch, two way rocker switch and three push buttons.. As the yoke is used for flying the aircraft, it also real like mechanism trim wheel mounted on the left side of the yoke case.. This wheel allows the pilot to adjust the centre of the yoke.. There are several more buttons on the yoke, each having a different function helpful in flying an aircraft.. All these buttons on the flight simulator yoke are programmed to function on their respective given commands when needed during the game.. As the flight simulators are very safe to use, they are extensively being used by the aviation industry for the training purposes of the flight crew.. And since the accessories related to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Flight mechanics and control of escape manoeuvres in hummingbirds. I. Flight kinematics. AU - Cheng, Bo. AU - Tobalske, Bret W.. AU - Powers, Donald R.. AU - Hedrick, Tyson L.. AU - Wethington, Susan M.. AU - Chiu, George T.C.. AU - Deng, Xinyan. N1 - Funding Information: Provided by the National Science Foundation [NSF CMMI 1234737 to X.D., B.W.T. and T.L.H.] and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration [Climate and Biological Response 10-BIOCLIM10-0094 to D.R.P.].. PY - 2016/11/15. Y1 - 2016/11/15. N2 - Hummingbirds are natures masters of aerobatic manoeuvres. Previous research shows that hummingbirds and insects converged evolutionarily upon similar aerodynamic mechanisms and kinematics in hovering. Herein, we use three-dimensional kinematic data to begin to test for similar convergence of kinematics used for escape flight and to explore the effects of body size upon manoeuvring.We studied four hummingbird species in North America including two large species ...
This is a collaborative project between the Phenotypic Evolution Lab and the Animal Flight Lab.. Damselflies of the genus Calopteryx are highly aerial creatures that depend on their flight capabilities for hunting, territory defense, courtship displays, mating success and predator avoidance. All these requirements put selective pressure on wing morphology, although potentially in opposing directions. While we have a good conceptual understanding of the consequences of wing shape on flight performance, few studies have shown a direct link between wing morphology, flight performance and individual fitness and survival in the field.. Our study system comprises of two sympatric damselfly species: Calopteryx splendens, and C. virgofor which previous studies suggest differential selection pressure on wing morphology by avian predators. We use geometric morphometric methods to analyze variations in wing morphology, both between and within the species, and combine these data with flight performance ...
Knowing that your flight simulator is capable of letting you experience what is it about flying.. The flight simulator controls would allow you to understand more about what to do when you are up there as well as what to consider when it comes to maneuvering one aircraft to another.. You aircraft simulator is merely concentrated on the graphics needed for you to take part in the visual effects that is related to flying.. While with the use of certain controls it would be easier for you to focus on what do you have to do when you are flying a war or a commercial plane.. As well as learning how to fly fighter jets and various aircrafts stored on the database of the software.. You can truly enjoy the whole experience with various flight simulator controls.. More often these aviation simulators includes controls integrated with your keyboard however there is more to experience from this gaming system than just controlling it with your keyboard.. You should opt to look for a software which supports ...
If you are fond of flying aircrafts via the use of simulators, you definitely would be interested enough to get access to flight simulator charts so you can get enough information regarding runway headings as well as frequencies.. This information is absolutely available online, you just have to know how to search for the right information.. You can check several websites that would provide you the necessary charts needed to correlate with you flight simulator.. More often the frequencies change from time to time.. So one should take note that the charts that you will be getting are the ones that would match your own database.. One way of doing this is through getting access to charts all at the same time when they have already been revised accordingly.. These flight simulator charts functions as an aid for the aircraft simulator pilot to navigate the aircraft properly as well as provide the necessary approach when it comes to weather reporting and runways.. Having these charts handy would make ...
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Wings are the most obvious adaptation bats have for powered flight and differences in wing morphology are known to correlate with flight behaviour. However, the function(s) of ancillary structures such as the ears and tail, which may also play an important role during flight, are less well understood. Here we constructed a simplified model of a bat body with ears based upon morphological measurements of a brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) to examine the aerodynamic implications of flying with large ears. The forces and moments produced by the model were measured using a sensitive 6-component force and torque balance during wind tunnel testing. The large ears of the model bat produced positive lift as well as positive drag of the same order of magnitude. At small ears angles (0° to 10°), increasing the angle of the ears resulted in an increase of the lift-to-drag ratio. At higher ear angles (| 10°) separation of the flow occurred which caused a large decrease in the lift-to-drag ratio produced.
The original finding aid described this as: Description: Flyaround of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on Flight Day 9 of the second servicing mission (HST SM-02). The telescope is backdropped by the Earth in frames 007-38. Subject Terms: STS-82, DISCOVERY (ORBITER), HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE, EARTH OBSERVATIONS (FROM SPACE), DEPLOYMENT Date Taken: 2/19/1997 Categories: Hubble Space Telescope Interior_Exterior: Exterior Ground_Orbit: On-orbit Original: Film - 35MM CN Preservation File Format: TIFF. less ...
A system may include at least one computer device configured to attain a two-dimensional used profile of a leading edge at a specified radial position on a turbomachine airfoil after use. The system aligns opposing substantially straight alignment portions of the two-dimensional used profile with opposing substantially straight alignment portions of a previously attained, two-dimensional, baseline profile of the turbomachine airfoil. The alignment portions of each profile are in substantially identical radial locations of the turbomachine airfoil. Comparing the used profile to the baseline profile determines whether the leading edge at the specified radial position of the used turbomachine airfoil has erosion. The system may also include a laser profiler for measuring the turbomachine airfoil.
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Manifestation of appropriate behavior in adult animals requires developmental mechanisms that help in the formation of correctly wired neural circuits. Flight circuit development in Drosophila requires store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) through the STIM/Orai pathway. SOCE-associated flight deficits in adult Drosophila derive extensively from regulation of gene expression in pupal neurons, and one such SOCE-regulated gene encodes the small GTPase Ral. The cellular mechanism by which Ral helps in maturation of the flight circuit was not understood. Here, we show that knockdown of components of a Ral effector, the exocyst complex, in pupal neurons also leads to reduced flight bout durations, and this phenotype derives primarily from dopaminergic neurons. Importantly, synaptic release from pupal dopaminergic neurons is abrogated upon knockdown of dSTIM, Ral, or exocyst components. Ral overexpression restores the diminished synaptic release of dStim knockdown neurons as well as flight deficits ...
Copyright 2013 by Steven J. Lane. This material is copyrighted and any further reproduction or distribution is prohibited without the permission of the copyright owner ...
If you have been an aircraft enthusiast for years now, you probably would like to enhance your experience in flying and bring it to a higher level.. To do this, it would be necessary for you to look into modern options and get a new flight simulator version into your own gaming system.. Of course it would be very advantageous on your part to make use of a newer version than stick with the older one youve got.. Aside from the added features that you can benefit from, you will also have the chance to learn more from the simulator itself than merely using it for just gaming purposes.. Since these are newer versions, you can definitely count on the high quality graphics and sound effects that you can get from it.. You can also benefit from a very realistic approach in terms of flying aircrafts, navigating them properly, and getting to experience what it is like to fly various aircrafts without having to put yourself at risk in danger.. It is that hard to find a new flight simulator nowadays, youll ...
We examined how heart (HR) varies as a function of flight speed in a flying bird, examining changes in HR of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) flying in a wind tunnel at different speeds. In mammals, heart rate (HR) correlates well with the rate of metabolism (metabolic power), indicating that heart rate is adjusted to meet the oxygen demand for a particular level of exertion and that increased oxygen demand at higher metabolic power is (at least partially) met by increased cardiac output. Measurements of the rate of respiratory oxygen consumption (VO2) can be used to estimate metabolic aerobic power for animals that burn fuel using oxidative phosphorylation. However, respirometry is experimentally challenging to achieve for flying birds over a range of sustained flight speeds, and relatively few studies have successfully accomplished this. Assuming a strong correlation between HR and VO2, HR measurements have been used to estimate the metabolic power requirements of freely flying birds. We ...
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In flight the adult dragonfly can move in six directions; upward, downward, forward, back, and side to side.[2][9] They can also hover quite well in midair, and then they can take off at speeds of up to 35 mph (56 km/h). Scientists discovered dragonflies can move each of their four wings independently which gives them their flying abilities. Dragonflies bend and twist their wings to cause little whirlwinds that move the air even faster over the upper part of the airfoil, reducing air pressure even more than most flying animals can. This gives them a lot of lift, even in the face of powerful winds. The flight style of different families of dragonfly is one of their distinguishing features. It gives rise to some terms which are widely used by dragonfly observers: Hawkers (family Aeshnidae). They are among the largest and fastest flying dragonflies. The adults live mostly in the air, and even mate in flight. They have large and powerful wings, and can fly forwards or backwards or hover like a ...
A transportable three-dimensional calibration wind tunnel system is comprised of a small wind tunnel portion for creating a three-dimensional calibration air having a suitable wind velocity, and a two-axis rotational deformation device portion for causing said wind tunnel portion to effect a conical motion with a nozzle blow port being an apex to suitably change a flow angle. The two-axis rotational deformation device is comprised of a β-angle rotational deformation device having a β-angle deformation base supported to be rotated horizontally, and a α-angle rotational deformation device having a α-angle deformation base supported to be rotated vertically. A rotational axis of the α-angle deformation base, a rotational axis of the β-angle deformation base and a center axis of the small wind tunnel portion are arranged so that they intersect at a point. In a method for the verification of a flight control system of an aircraft using the transportable three-dimensional calibration wind tunnel system,
The majority of PMDC gearmotors and motors used in industry require speed controls in order to operate.. Typically, the control is wired to the motor through a costly, complicated cable system and the motor and control can be many steps away from each other.. Bison Gear and Engineerings Tightdrive motor-mounted speed control can be easily field-mounted on Bison PMDC gearmotors up to 1/6 horsepower (124W) and offers a 20:1 speed range with maximum output of 90V.. The Tightdrive is housed in a durable aluminium extrusion that offers NEMA 1 (IP30) protection and good heat dissipation.. Speed is controlled with a combination on/off switch and speed potentiometer.. In addition, three easily accessible adjustable potentiometers provide settings for minimum rpm, maximum rpm, and current limiting.. The SCR control architecture also provides tighter speed regulation than alternative controls.. The Tightdrive is designed for 115V 50/60Hz operation and comes complete with a 3ft power cord and NEMA 5-15P ...
Summary: Wing-assisted incline running (WAIR) is a form of locomotion in which a bird flaps its wings to aid its hindlimbs in climbing a slope. WAIR is used for escape in ground birds, and the ontogeny of this behavior in precocial birds has been suggested to represent a model analogous to transitional adaptive states during the evolution of powered avian flight. To begin to reveal the aerodynamics of flap-running, we used digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and measured air velocity, vorticity, circulation and added mass in the wake of chukar partridge _Alectoris chukar_ as they engaged in WAIR (incline 65?85°; N=7 birds) and ascending flight (85°, N=2). To estimate lift and impulse, we coupled our DPIV data with three-dimensional wing kinematics from a companion study. The ontogeny of lift production was evaluated using three age classes: baby birds incapable of flight [6?8 days post hatching (d.p.h.)] and volant juveniles (25?28 days) and adults (45+ days). All three age classes of ...
THE AA rosette La Bonne Auberge brasserie at Holiday Inn Glasgow is inviting diners to catch a wine flight and explore the world of wine from the comfort of their table.. Diana Espersen, restaurant manager at La Bonne Auberge, said: We love our wines at La Bonne Auberge, so our wine flights offer diners the chance to sample a selection of fine wines specially chosen by our team.. A flight of wine is the perfect opportunity to compare, contrast and discover new favourites. Diners can explore the world of wine from their table with three styles of wine side by side, so they can enjoy a flight as an aperitif, or discover how each wine pairs with your meal.. The three options are a: rosé & Prosecco flight, featuring a French syrah rosé, a Californian white zinfandel and an extra dry Prosecco; a flight to regional France featuring a sauvignon blanc, a pinot noir and a syrah, and a worldwide white wine flight featuring a South African sauvignon blanc, an Italian pinot grigio and a chardonnay from ...
This is the flight simulator installed into a cockpit that equips players with the same flight controls found in actual aircraft. The missions range from dropping bags of flour onto waterborne targets to taking off from an aircraft carrier aboard an F/A-18 Hornet.
Page 112-Discussion Free Flight FF Auto Balance Controller with 3D Acceleration Sensor For QuadCopter Multirotor Drone Electronics
Ten months after its unveiling, the space vehicle VSS Unity completed its first free flight on Saturday at the Mojave Air & Spaceport in the Antelope Valley.
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What is Leaflet MailDrop & Flyer Distribution? Flyer Distribution / maildrop also know as leaflets distribution service , is a service that your adv flyer or brochures will be sent from houses to houses, or door to door delivery.
Branch lengths-measured in character changes-are an essential requirement of clock-based divergence estimation, regardless of whether the fossil calibrations used represent nodes or tips. However, a separate set of divergence time approaches are typically used to date palaeontological trees, which may lack such branch lengths. Among these methods, sophisticated probabilistic approaches have recently emerged, in contrast with simpler algorithms relying on minimum node ages. Here, using a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for Mesozoic dinosaurs, we apply two such approaches to estimate divergence times for: (i) Dinosauria, (ii) Avialae (the earliest birds) and (iii) Neornithes (crown birds). We find: (i) the plausibility of a Permian origin for dinosaurs to be dependent on whether Nyasasaurus is the oldest dinosaur, (ii) a Middle to Late Jurassic origin of avian flight regardless of whether Archaeopteryx or Aurornis is considered the first bird and (iii) a Late Cretaceous origin for Neornithes that is ...
A common example of this is confusion between FL 100 and FL 110 (i.e. the pilot is cleared to fly at FL 110 but levels at FL 100, or vice-versa). ICAO standard phraseology is FLIGHT LEVEL ONE ZERO ZERO and FLIGHT LEVEL ONE ONE ZERO; Alternative non-standard phraseology used with success by a number of European air navigation service providers (ANSPs) is FLIGHT LEVEL ONE HUNDRED, and some states have extended this phraseology to include FLIGHT LEVEL TWO HUNDRED and FLIGHT LEVEL THREE HUNDRED. Similar confusion can occur at other flight levels or between altitudes, although it is much less common and FL100/110 confusion is both the most common and the most hazardous flight level confusion seen in Europe and North America. ...
This activity first asks the students to study the patterns of bird flight and understand that four main forces affect the flight abilities of a bird. They will study the shape, feather structure, and resulting differences in the pattern of flight. They will then look at several articles that feature newly designed planes and the birds that they are modeled after. The final component of this activity is to watch the Nature documentary, Raptor Force which chronicles the flight patterns of birds, how researchers study these animals, and what interests our military and aeronautical engineers about these natural adaptations. This activity serves as an extension to the biomimetics lesson. Although students will not be using this information in the design process for their desert resort, it provides interesting information pertaining to the current use of biomimetics in the field of aviation. Students may extend their design process by using this information to create a means of transportation to ...
Using a simulator is crucial for any vehicle; whether in a flight, vessel, or any type of training that requires realistic environments and interaction.. From driving cars to flying planes, there are many simulators available in the market.. But to get the best experience and essential knowledge, a learner has to choose the best simulator.. The various characteristics a good flight simulator should have- are the following: - Any simulator no matter what the field is- should be as realistic as possible.. This enables the trainee to feel the pressure of the real condition.. Good sky and terrain rendering should be available also.. Sound effects also play an important role and without it, the software will feel like a nicely modelled game.. The person using it must know the different conditions he must go through in order to learn how to fly a plane.. - The real time physics calculation should be accurate.. Even if the textures and lighting are perfect, incorrect physics calculation will make ...
300 million-year-old discovery in an unlikely setting -- a suburban strip mall. While paleontologists may scour remote, exotic places in search of prehistoric specimens, Tufts researchers have found what they believe to be the worlds oldest whole-body fossil impression of a flying insect in a wooded field behind a strip mall in North Attleboro, Mass.. During a recent exploration as part of his senior project, Richard J. Knecht, a Tufts geology major, and Jake Benner, a paleontologist and senior lecturer in the Geology Department, set out to hunt for fossils at a location they learned of while reading a masters thesis that had been written in 1929. With chisels and hammers, the team reached the shale and sandstone outcropping described in the paper. There they delicately picked away pieces of rock before reaching a section that yielded fossils. Just below the surface, they uncovered a fossilized impression of a flying insect.. Not just any fossil. It was not just any fossil. Knecht says it is ...
Ornithopters or flapping wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have potential applications in both civil and military sectors. Amongst all categories of UAVs, ornithopters have a unique ability to fly in low Reynolds number flight regimes and have the agility and maneuverability of rotary wing aircraft. In nature, birds achieve such performance by exploiting various wing kinematics known as gaits. The objective of this work was to improve the steady level flight wing performance of an ornithopter by implementing the Continuous Vortex Gait (CVG) using a novel passive compliant spine. The CVG is a set of bio-inspired kinematics that natural flyers use to produce lift and thrust during steady level flight. A significant contribution of this work was the recognition that the CVG is an avian gait that could be achieved using a passive morphing mechanism. In contrast to rigid-link mechanisms and active approaches, reported by other researchers in the open literature, passive morphing mechanisms require ...