TY - JOUR. T1 - Design of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT). AU - Feigl, Polly. AU - Blumenstein, Brent. AU - Thompson, Ian. AU - Crowley, John. AU - Wolf, Michael. AU - Kramer, Barnett S.. AU - Coltman, Charles A.. AU - Brawley, Otis W.. AU - Ford, Leslie G.. PY - 1995/6. Y1 - 1995/6. N2 - The PCPT is a chemoprevention trial of finasteride with a primary endpoint of biopsyproven presence or absence of prostate cancer. A total of 18,000 healthy men, aged 55 years and older, will be randomized. Half will receive finasteride (5 mg/day) and half will receive placebo (one matching tablet per day) for 7 years. The trial is designed to have 92% power to detect a 25% reduction in period prevalence of biopsy-proven disease using a two-sided test with α = 0.05. The trial is complicated by the known impact of finasteride on the major screening test for prostate cancer, prostate specific antigen (PSA). This paper describes the PCPT design with reference to alternatives that were considered. The ...
Current research is inconclusive regarding the relationship between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk. Researchers led by Zhihong Gong Ph.D. of the University of California San Francisco, examined the associations of total alcohol, type of alcoholic beverage, and drinking pattern with risks of total, low- and high-grade prostate cancer. They used data from more than 10,000 men participating in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT). They found participants who reported heavy alcohol consumption (â"°¥50 g alcohol/day) and regular heavy drinking (â"°¥4 drinks/day on â"°¥5 days per week) were twice as likely or more to be diagnosed with high-grade prostate cancer (RR: 2.01, and 2.17, respectively). Less heavy drinking was not associated with risk. They also compared drinking patterns with treatment outcome among men enrolled on this placebo-controlled trial of the drug finasteride. They found finasterides ability to lower prostate cancer risk was blocked in men ...
In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial finasteride was found to reduce the risk of low-grade prostate cancer but to have no effect on overall survival. Results of the trial, in which 18,880 men were randomized to receive finasteride or placebo for 7 years, were reported in 2003.. In a recent study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Joseph M. Unger, PhD, of the SWOG Statistical Center, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and colleagues found that use of finasteride vs placebo was associated with a modestly increased risk of depression and a modestly reduced risk of procedures for benign prostatic hyperplasia-related events over 16 years of follow-up. The current analysis by Unger et al involved linked data from 13,935 trial participants (73.8% of the total population, including 6,941 finasteride and 6,994 placebo patients) and Medicare claims.. Long-Term Effects. Median Medicare follow-up assessment time was 16 years from trial registration. Patients in the finasteride ...
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We appreciate Dr. Walshs comments about our article and acknowledge that our study provides only one possible explanation for the findings from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. We are also familiar with the literature that he has cited. It is important to emphasize that the difference in the detection of high-grade cancer between finasteride and placebo during the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial was only seen in the "for cause biopsies," driven by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or an abnormal prostate examination. There was no difference in the detection of high-grade cancers at the end of the study biopsy, in which no "trigger" for biopsy was used other than the rules of the protocol. If small prostates are biologically more likely to harbor high-grade disease, why would not the smaller prostates at the end of study in the finasteride arm be more likely to have high-grade disease?. We appreciate his suggestion about analyzing the data from Stanford that was meticulously characterized by ...
Recent analyses suggest that lifetime intake and early-life alcohol use may significantly contribute to the development of high-grade prostate cancer.
The role of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis and whether IGFs interact with androgen-suppressing agents in relation to prostate carcinogenesis is unclear. This nested case-control study (n = 1,652 cases/1,543 controls) examined whether serum IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP2, IGFBP3, and the IGF1:IGFBP3 ratio were associated with prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of finasteride for prostate cancer prevention. Presence or absence of cancer was determined by prostate biopsy. Baseline serum was assayed for IGF-axis analytes using ELISA. Logistic regression estimated ORs and 95% confidence intervals for risk of total, low-grade (Gleason 2-6) and high-grade (Gleason 7-10) cancers. Results were stratified by intervention assignment. In both the placebo and finasteride arms, serum IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP3, and the IGF1:IGFBP3 ratio were not associated with prostate cancer. However, men in the highest versus lowest quartile of serum IGFBP2 had a ...
METHODS: Biopsy specimens were collected from 9 male patients from both the balding area and nonbalding occipital area before and after 4 months of finasteride therapy. DP were microdissected and total RNA was extracted from an equal number of DP from each biopsy specimen. The expression of various cytokines, including insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The signals were detected by autoradiography. All 9 patients were given finasteride for 1 year and evaluated for efficacy at month 12. Efficacy was graded on a 7-point scale on the basis of comparison with initial baseline photography.. RESULTS: IGF-1 was up-regulated by finasteride treatment in 4 of 9 patients. Among the patients with increased IGF-1 expression, 3 of them showed moderate clinical improvement after 12 months of treatment and another patient remained unchanged. In contrast, 3 patients with decreased IGF-1 expression in the balding scalp showed clinical worsening ...
Inflammation may play an etiologic role in prostate cancer. Several dietary factors influence inflammation; studies have shown that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are anti-inflammatory, whereas n-6 and trans fatty acids are proinflammatory. We evaluated whether serum phospholipid n-3, n-6, and trans fatty acids were associated with intraprostatic inflammation, separately in 191 prostate cancer cases and 247 controls from the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT). Men without a prostate cancer diagnosis underwent prostate biopsy at trial end, and benign prostate tissue inflammation was evaluated in approximately three biopsy cores per man; this was expressed as no, some, or all cores with inflammation. In controls, serum eicosapentaenoic acid [OR of all cores with inflammation versus none (95% CI), 0.35 (0.14-0.89)] and docosahexaenoic acid [OR (95% CI), 0.42 (0.17-1.02)] were inversely associated with, whereas linoleic acid [OR (95% CI), 3.85 (1.41-10.55)] was ...
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MitoFit page name}} {{Publication ,title=Schöpf B, Weissensteiner H, Schäfer G, Fazzini F, Charoentong P, Naschberger A, Rupp B, Fendt L, Bukur V, Eichelbrönner I, Sorn P, Sahin U, Kronenberg F, Gnaiger E, Klocker H (2019) OXPHOS remodeling in high-grade prostate cancer involves mtDNA mutations and a prognostic gene expression signature. MitoFit Preprint Arch [[doi:10.26124/mitofit:190003]]. ,info=[[File:MitoFit Preprint Arch pdf.png,left,160px,link=http://www.mitofit.org/images/d/dc/Schoepf_2019_MitoFit_Preprint_Arch.pdf ,MitoFit pdf]] ,big>,big>[http://www.mitofit.org/images/d/dc/Schoepf_2019_MitoFit_Preprint_Arch.pdf OXPHOS remodeling in high-grade prostate cancer involves mtDNA mutations and a prognostic gene expression signature],/big>,/big> ,br /> ,authors=Schoepf B, Weissensteiner H, Schaefer G, Fazzini F, Charoentong P, Naschberger A, Rupp B, Fendt L, Bukur V, Eichelbroenner I, Sorn P, Sahin U, Kronenberg F, Gnaiger E, Klocker H ,year=2019 ,journal=MitoFit Preprint Arch ...
Although it is not yet clear how obesity affects HCC incidence in relation to other risk factors, recent studies have suggested that obesity is independently related to liver cancer in patients with liver cirrhosis [126] and hepatitis C patients [110]. Furthermore, in the United States, obesity has become a major cause of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) among adults and children. As NASH may progress to chronic active hepatitis, which is a common precursor to the development of HCC, it is anticipated that obesity may become a major cause of HCC in the United States. 49. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC (1997). Height, body weight, and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 6(8):557-563. 50. Gong Z, Neuhouser ML, Goodman PJ et al. (2006). Obesity, diabetes, and risk of prostate cancer: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 15(10):1977-1983. 51. Greenland S, Gago-Dominguez M, Castelao JE (2004). The ...
Moinpour CM, Lovato LC, Thompson IM, Ware JE, Ganz PA, Patrick DL, Shumaker SA, Donaldson GW, Ryan A, Coltman CA. Profile of men randomized to the prostate cancer prevention trial: baseline health-related quality of life, urinary and sexual functioning, and health behaviors. J Clin Oncol. 2000 May; 18(9):1942-53 ...
A recent article in the Journal of General Internal Medicine argues that using 5α-reductase (5-ARI) therapy (i.e., with dutasteride or finasteride) to prevent the early onset of prostate cancer is not justified by the available data. ... And we entirely agree, when the argument is based on the premise that such preventive therapy should not be used…
Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective...
OncoLink, the Webs first cancer resource,provides comprehensive information on coping with cancer, cancer treatments, cancer research advances, continuing medical education, cancer prevention, and clinical trials
Use of pomegranate juice, peel, and oil has been shown to possess anticancer activities, including interference with tumor cell proliferation, cell cycle & invasiveness.
Men over the age of 50 pay attention. Avodart and Proscar are drugs in a class known as 5-ARIs. This class of drugs was developed to treat enlarged
Schöpf B, Weissensteiner H, Schäfer G, Fazzini F, Charoentong P, Naschberger A, Rupp B, Fendt L, Bukur V, Eichelbrönner I, Sorn P, Sahin U, Kronenberg F, Gnaiger E, Klocker H (2019) OXPHOS remodeling in high-grade prostate cancer involves mtDNA mutations and a prognostic gene expression signature. MitoFit Preprint Arch doi:10.26124/mitofit:190003 ...
The objective of anabolic steroid therapy (when nonmedical applications are involved) should be to elicit the desired benefits with the lowest cumulative exposure and side effects
J-PAL, CEGA, and ATAI affiliates may submit off-cycle proposals aimed at helping generate rapid, useful, and responsible research that can help individuals and communities fight and respond to the COVID-19 crisis. Proposals are accepted on a rolling basis, and must be related to agriculture or rural markets to be considered for funding from ATAI. If you are interested in submitting an off-cycle COVID-19 proposal, please email your proposal to [email protected] with details on the proposed research context, key research questions, and the potential value of this rapid research.. ...
Background and Objectives In previous studies, obesity (measured according to the body mass index) has correlated inconsistently with the risk of biopsy-measured prostate cancer, and specifically high-grade prostate cancer. This meta-analysis aimed to clarify these correlations. Methods A comprehensive literature search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was conducted for relevant studies published through January 2014. The pooled estimates of odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) were computed, and the meta-analysis was performed with the STATA software according to a random effects approach. Results A total of 11 studies that included 29,464 individuals were identified. A 5-kg/m2 increase in body mass index was associated with a 15% (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.98-1.34) higher risk of prostate cancer detection and a 37% (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.19-1.57) higher risk of high-grade prostate cancer detection at biopsy. There were no differences among the results of studies conducted in the USA, Europe or
TY - CHAP. T1 - Phase III prostate cancer chemoprevention trials. AU - Parnes, Howard L.. AU - Brawley, Otis W.. AU - Minasian, Lori M.. AU - Ford, Leslie G.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Chemoprevention refers to the use of pharmacologic interventions to delay, prevent, or reverse carcinogenesis with the ultimate goal of reducing cancer incidence. Two large, population-based, phase 3 prostate cancer prevention trials reported that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors significantly reduce prostate cancer risk. However, this class of agents were also associated with increased detection of high-grade prostate cancer. Another large, phase 3 prostate cancer prevention clinical trial showed no benefit for long-term supplementation with the trace element Se, given in the form of selenomethionine, or vitamin E, either individually or in combination. Paradoxically, a significant increase in prostate cancer was observed among men randomized to receive vitamin E alone. A great deal of progress had been made in the ...
Healthy men 55 and older are needed for the largest-ever prostate cancer prevention study, recently launched by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Health Science Center. The university is part of a network of research sites known as the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG). The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial, or SELECT, seeks to learn if these two dietary supplements can protect against prostate cancer, which in men is the most common form of cancer after skin cancer. More than 400 sites in the United States, Puerto Rico and Canada are recruiting participants for SELECT, which will take up to 12 years to complete. The study will enroll a total of 32,400 men, including 500 at the Health Science Center. "SELECT is the first study designed to look directly at the effects of vitamin E and selenium, both separately and together, in preventing prostate cancer," said Dr. Joseph W. Basler, associate professor of surgery at the Health Science Center and the principal investigator for ...
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most frequently occurring cancer in men. Its clinical incidence and mortality rates vary geographically, being much lower in Asia than in Western countries. Notably, latent PCs seem to be equally distributed, thus supporting the hypothesis, that environmental factors may be important in prostate cancer progression. Moreover, epidemiological evidence strongly supports the concept that the incidence of clinical prostate cancer depends on lifestyle factors, mainly related to diet. The isoflavone genistein and the flavonoid quercetin have been identified as likely preventive candidates. The aim of the intended clinical trial is to evaluate the hypothesized effectiveness of polyphenolic phytochemicals with highly purified dietary supplements in patients at high risk of clinical PC and without systemic treatment. This will provide data, which serve as an important pre-requesite for targeted dietary interventions using alternative medicine as preventive measures in men with ...
In our previous studies, we showed that a finasteride-induced DHT deficiency may cause changes in the morphology of the seminiferous epithelium without any morphological alteration of the epididymis. In this study, we demonstrated the constitutive immunoexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the testis and epididymis of Wistar rats treated with finasteride for 28 days (the duration of two cycles of the seminiferous epithelium) and 56 days (the duration of one spermatogenesis). We noted that a 56-day finasteride treatment mainly caused a decrease in the level of circulating DHT, as well as a statistically insignificant decrease in the level of T. The hormone deficiency also led to a change in the iNOS immnoexpression in the testis and epididymis of the finasteride-treated rats. In vitro, DHT did not modify NO production by the epithelial cells of the caput epididymis even when stimulated with LPS and IFNγ, but it did give rise to an increase in NO production by the epithelial ...
Finasteride treatment reduces the risk of low-grade prostate cancer (PCa) in men taking the drug for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), data show.
Health, By Steven Reinberg HealthDay Reporter ...THURSDAY Aug. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Even though a major study found ...Under the name Proscar finasteride is commonly prescribed to treat th...In 2003 the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) involving more t...But a much-publicized follow-up analysis undercut that good news when ...,,Docs,Shying,Away,From,Drug,That,May,Prevent,Prostate,Cancer,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Algotar AM, Stratton MS, Ahmann FR, et al. Phase 3 clinical trial investigating the effect of selenium supplementation in men at high-risk for prostate cancer. Prostate. 2013;73(3):328-35.. Beck MA, Nelson HK, Shi Q, Van Dael P, Schiffrin EJ, Blum S, Barclay D, Levander OA. Selenium deficiency increases the pathology of an influenza virus infection. FASEB J. 2001;15(8):1481-3.. Bleys J, Navas-Acien A, Guallar E. Selenium and diabetes: more bad news for supplements.Ann Intern Med. 2007 Aug 21;147(4):271-2.. Bleys J, Navas-Acien A, Guallar E. Serum selenium levels and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality among US adults. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(4):404-10.. Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Simonetti RG, Gluud C. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2004;364:1219-28.. Brawley OW, Panes H. Prostate cancer prevention trials in the USA. Eur J Cancer. 2000;36(10):1312-5.. Cai J, Nelson KC, Wu M, Sternberg P Jr, Jones DP. ...
Aloia JF. Clinical Review: The 2011 report on dietary reference intake for vitamin D: where do we go from here? J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Oct;96(10):2987-96. Epub 2011 Jul 27. Review.. Autier P, Gandini S. Vitamin D supplementation and total mortality: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Sep 10;167(16):1730-7.. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Staehelin HB, Orav JE, Stuck AE, Theiler R, Wong JB, Egli A, Kiel DP, Henschkowski J. Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2009 Oct 1;339:b3692. Review.. Bjelakovic G, Gluud LL, Nikolova D, Whitfield K, Wetterslev J, Simonetti RG, Bjelakovic M, Gluud C. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of mortality in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jul 6;(7):CD007470. Review.. Braun J, Sieper J. [Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis]. Orthopade. 2001;30(7):444-450. German.. Brawley OW, Parnes H. Prostate cancer prevention trials in ...
亞力山大蝴蝶生態教育農場. 台南市仁德區一甲里忠義一街38巷26號 , 預約專線:06-2796037 / 0936-982-214. Copyright © 2012. All Rights Reserved.. ...
Novel urine-based test demonstrates ability to accurately predict high-grade prostate cancer; holds potential to advance new prognostic paradigm, reduce unnecessary tissue biopsies Outcomes and Economic Studies Planned in 2015, Commercial Launch Planned in 2016
A case of a portal venous aneurysm found incidentally on the staging of high-grade prostate cancer. In this case, the patient was asymptomatic and has not experienced any complications.
Low-grade cancers are more similar to normal tissue. High-grade cancers differ from normal tissue in the way cells are organized, and in cell size and shape. The higher the grade, the faster the cancer is likely to be growing.
Candidates must apply online at www.morganstanley.com/campus and are encouraged to apply early as we recruit on an ongoing basis. Applicants will be required to complete online tests within 48 hours of submitting an application.. This programme, in this location is not currently open for applications. Please note we may have some additional off-cycle positions available throughout the year, depending on business needs.. Learn more about Our Recruitment Process ...
Dr. Marc Garnick discusses prostate cancer chemoprevention with the use of the 5 Alpha Reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride.
Finasteride at a dose of 1 mg (Propecia®) has been used for the treatment of androgenic alopecia in men. Though finasteride has been successfully used, there is ongoing controversy surrounding its use since the publication of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) which includes claims of increased risk for higher grade prostate cancers. This has produced confusion on consulting and treatment of patients interested in starting finasteride for androgenic alopecia. We felt there was a need to clarify further the results of PCPT for our readers and help understanding the real risk of prostate cancer development of patients on finasteride ...
Anti-androgen can be used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, acne, hirsutism, and androgenic alopecia. For the search of anti-androgenic activity through steroid 5-alpha reductase...
Background:Biopsies performed for elevated serum PSA often show inflammatory infiltrates. However, the influence of intraprostatic inflammation on serum PSA in men without biopsy indication and negative for prostate cancer has not been described in detail.Methods:We studied 224 men in the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) who underwent end-of-study biopsy per trial protocol, had PSA |4 ng ml−1, normal digital rectal examination and a biopsy negative for cancer. We analyzed data from hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides containing a mean of three biopsy cores. Inflammation measures included the extent (percentage of tissue area with inflammation) and intensity (product of scores for extent and grade) of total, acute and chronic inflammation in the entire tissue area examined, and by tissue compartment. We calculated median measures of inflammation by prebiopsy serum PSA tertile (|0 to ≤0.8, |0.8 to ≤1.5 and |1.5 to |4.0 ng ml−1). We estimated the association between
ABSTRACTIntroductionBenign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common problem affecting middle-aged and elderly men. First-line medical therapy includes α 1blockers and 5α-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs), such as finasteride and dutasteride. 5ARI use has been associated with adverse sexual outcomes, inclu
12-O-Methylcarnosic acid (12-Methoxycarnosic acid), a diterpene carnosic acid isolated from the acetone extract of Salvia microphylla, is an active constituent of 5α-reductase inhibition with an IC50 value of 61.7 μM. 12-O-Methylcarnosic acid inhibits proliferation in LNCaP cells. 12-O-Methylcarnosic acid has antioxidant, anti-cancer and antimicrobial activity. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Consistent with a previous nested case-control study and with the recent observations on cholesterol-lowering statin drugs and prostate cancer, in the placebo arm of the PCPT, we observed that men with low serum cholesterol had a lower risk of high-grade prostate cancer. We did not observe associations between low cholesterol and total, organ-confined, or low-grade prostate cancer. We also extended the previous observations by showing that the association was restricted to the highest grade cases, Gleason 8 to 10. No association was observed between serum cholesterol and prostate cancer in the men randomized to finasteride. The plausibility that cholesterol may influence prostate cancer cell survival has been reviewed recently (23). Our findings add to the literature supporting a role for cholesterol in the etiology of prostate cancer with a worse prognosis.. There is a large literature indicating that low serum cholesterol is associated with a higher risk of all-cause cancer incidence and ...
We have demonstrated that CD117/c-kit expression on circulating tumor cells and in primary tumors correlates with advanced disease in prostate cancer patients. In addition, the ligand for CD117, stem cell factor (SCF) is increased in high-grade prostate cancer patients. To examine the effects of CD117 activation and expression on prostate cancer progression, we sorted CD117 positive and negative RM1 murine prostate cancer cells and LNCaP-C4-2 human prostate cancer cells. Sorted cells were then examined for tumorigenicity, proliferation, cell signaling, cell migration, angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. A xenograft model demonstrated that CD117 positive LNCaP-C4-2 tumors generate larger tumors characterized by increased vascularization and proliferation. In vitro, SCF induced CD117 activation results in altered cell signaling, migration and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In addition, in vivo imaging of tumor growth demonstrated changes in tumor cell organization between ...
Epidemiological observations increasingly implicate nutritional energy balance as a key risk factor for cancer development. Excess body weight is associated with increased risks of cancers of the endometrium, breast (postmenopausal women), kidney (renal cell tumours), colon, pancreas and oesophagus (adenocarcinomas), and is also a well-documented risk factor for high-grade prostate cancer. By contrast, regular physical activity reduces the risks of breast and colorectal cancers and potentially other tumour types, and overall, excess weight and lack of physical activity have been estimated to potentially account for one quarter to half of the occurrence of the most frequent tumour types in affluent, industrialized societies. Animal experiments have shown uniformly protective effects of dietary energy restriction against tumor development.. Physiologic mechanisms that are thought to account for these effects of nutritional energy balance on cancer risks include changes in the metabolism of ...
The overall goal of this research project is to develop Oriental herbal compound 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl- beta-D-glucose (PGG) for the chemoprevention of pros...
Little progress has been made in the medical treatment of prostate problems, but we know a lot about how to prevent prostate enlargement and prostate cancer prevention.
Selenium trace mineral powerful anti-oxidant prevents hemoglobin oxidation. Synergistically vitamin E together maintain healthy heart liver add zinc relief enlarged prostate cancer prevention.
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