Called Hypoxia of anoxia. If the fetus is in the womb for some reason cant get oxygen in sufficient quantities, doctors to talk about fetal hypoxia. The causes of intrauterine fetal hypoxia is diverse. These are common in pregnant women with asthma, chronic bronchitis, heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, and smokers. Hypoxia may occur due to severe toxemia, fetoplacental insufficiency, iron deficiency anemia, intrauterine infection of the fetus with herpes, toxoplasmosis, mycoplasmosis. Hypoxia and hemolytic disease of the fetus occurring as a result of rhesus-conflict. This happens in multiple pregnancies and polyhydramnios.It is important to detect intrauterine hypoxia of the fetus. To do this, a pregnant woman should regularly visit the gynecologist and to pass all the examinations, which she appoints.Distinguish between chronic and acute hypoxia of the fetus. In the second case, the fetus may die in a few minutes. This occurs when obvity umbilical cord, uterine rupture, placental abruption. In
Pregnancy complications associated with chronic fetal hypoxia have been linked to the development of adult cardiovascular disease in the offspring. Prenatal hypoxia has been shown to increase placental oxidative stress and impair placental function in a sex-specific manner, thereby affecting fetal development. As oxidative stress is central to placental dysfunction, we developed a placenta-targeted treatment strategy using the antioxidant MitoQ encapsulated into nanoparticles (nMitoQ) to reduce placental oxidative/nitrosative stress and improve placental function without direct drug exposure to the fetus in order to avoid off-target effects during development. We hypothesized that, in a rat model of prenatal hypoxia, nMitoQ prevents hypoxia-induced placental oxidative/nitrosative stress, promotes angiogenesis, improves placental morphology, and ultimately improves fetal oxygenation. Additionally, we assessed whether there were sex differences in the effectiveness of nMitoQ treatment. Pregnant ...
Fetal life occurs in a relatively hypoxic environment. During normal pregnancy, several compensatory mechanisms secure fetal oxygenation and wellbeing. In complicated pregnancies, however, intrauterine hypoxia predisposes the fetus to growth restriction, stillbirth, neurodevelopmental sequelae such as cognitive dysfunction and cerebral palsy (CP), and adverse long-term health impacts. Impairment of respiratory gas exchange-during either pregnancy or delivery-leads to tissue hypoxia, and, if prolonged, to metabolic acidosis and asphyxia. Worldwide, such asphyxia, diagnosed at birth, annually accounts for a million neonatal deaths. Furthermore, neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) originating from perinatal asphyxia may lead to a variety of neurodevelopmental impairments. Therapeutic neuroprotective interventions such as hypothermia have significantly improved the prognosis of severe neonatal encephalopathy. Increased risk for intrauterine fetal hypoxia and perinatal asphyxia occur in ...
Since preeclampsia was first described by Hippocrates in 400 BC, the theory of its causation has shifted from toxins to a current theory that incorporates both vascular and immunological causation. Poor placentation whether it is genetically predisposed or due to low expression of defective HLA-G on fetal trophoblasts is believed to be the initial insult. Oxidative stress from placental ischemia/hypoxia leads to an overload of trophoblast debris by stimulating apoptosis or necrosis. Partial failure of the maternal immune system to tolerate the paternal alloantigens activates maternal immune cells to secrete cytokines whose pleiotropic functions lead to dysfunction of the maternal vascular and placental endothelium, blood coagulation, and fibrinolytic system ...
Foetal lactate estimation has long been recognised as an alternative method of establishing the presence of foetal metabolic acidaemia. With recent updates to the NICE clinical guideline 190 (for intrapartum care for healthy women and babies), more obstetricians are using lactate foetal blood sampling (FBS) to determine intrapartum foetal hypoxia and acidosis. Lactate testing can be revolutionary in cases where pH FBS testing is inappropriate or the sample is inadequate or of a poor quality. Although routinely used in Sweden, France and Australia, UK obstetricians have been hesitant to adopt lactate point-of-care testing (POCT) without evidence-based practice. This webinar will cover the benefits of lactate POCT using FBS, how lactate FBS compares to pH in identifying intrapartum foetal distress, and an overview of a NHS trust study to determine the impact of lactate POCT on the detection of foetal hypoxia and acidosis during labour. ...
What is fetal distress? Fetal distress is the term commonly used to describe fetal hypoxia. It is a clinical diagnosis made by indirect methods and should be defined as:- Hypoxia that may result in fetal damage or death if not reversed or the fetus delivered immediately. More commonly a fetal scalp pH of less than 7.2 is used to indicate distress
Future PoC trials for traumatic brain injury (TBI), heart attacks, foetal hypoxia, limb ischaemia/peripheral artery disease and neurological disorders such as epilepsy are planned.. ...
Here, we show that male, but not female, offspring that were exposed to prenatal hypoxia develop altered circulatory and vascular function that implicates the ET-1 system. To summarize, we found the following: (1) IUGR males had increased conversion of bET-1 to active ET-1 compared with controls, and this effect was partially normalized with L-NAME treatment; (2) no differences in bET-1 conversion to active ET-1 were observed between aged control and IUGR female offspring; (3) no differences in ET-1 interaction with its receptors were observed between control and IUGR offspring in either male or female offspring; (4) male IUGR offspring were hypertensive, and this increase in BP was partially mitigated by treatment with the dual ETA/B receptor antagonist tezosentan; (5) female IUGR offspring were not hypertensive compared with control offspring, and tezosentan treatment had little effect in either female treatment group. These results suggest that the ET-1 system, and possibly the conversion of ...
Percussion pacing involves using ones fist to repeatedly strike a patients left sternal border in a rhythmic manner. The resulting increase in ventricular pressure can trigger myocardial depolarization and subsequent contraction. We describe the successful treatment of acute preoperative symptomatic sinus bradycardia with percussion pacing in a 63-year-old patient scheduled for placement of a gastric feeding tube after trauma involving spinal cord injury. Although no longer included in current advanced cardiovascular life support guidelines, percussion pacing may be a suitable alternative to chest compressions in multitrauma cases where the force of compressions could cause further complications ...
Introduction: Fetal hypoxia from intrapartum events can lead to absent heart rate (HR) or bradycardia (BC) at birth requiring neonatal resuscitation. Neonatal resuscitation guidelines do not differentiate infants with BC (HR,100/min) from absent HR at birth;. Hypothesis: As HR is the primary determinant of resuscitation, we hypothesize that infants with no HR at 1min [determined by Apgar score (AS) of 0 @ 1min] would require more extensive resuscitation with worse clinical outcomes compared to infants with BC at 1min (determined by AS=1 @ 1 min).. Methods: A retrospective analysis was done on infants born from 1/1/00 - 12/31/15 with AS of 0 (ASZ grp) or AS of 1 (ASN grp) at 1min. Patient demographics, resuscitation characteristics & clinical outcomes were analyzed in both the groups. Descriptive statistics & logistic procedure was performed (SAS System, Cary, NC).. Results: Table.1 summarizes the resuscitation characteristics analyzed. AS were different between the groups over time (Fig.1). ...
Fetal abnormality: breed-associated, random, fetal death (?). Diagnosis. Physical and reproduction examination, digital rectal, abdominal palpation, vaginal cytology, hematology, biochemistry, blood gas and electrolytes, imaging.. Management. Deliver any pup in the birth canal; diagnostic workup; correct any fluid, electrolyte, calcium, and glucose imbalances. Caesarian section is indicated if medical management will not result in timely delivery of live pups. Uterine ecbolics are indicated in special circumstances only. Oxytocin is misused, with excess causing tetanic and unproductive uterine contractions, placental separation and fetal hypoxia. Oxytocin stimulates smooth muscle contraction by increasing sodium permeability of uterine myofibrils. Oxytocin affects the rate of influx of calcium into myometrial cells and requires adequate extracellular calcium concentration. Oxytocin is contraindicated for obstructive dystocia, closed cervix, fetal distress, systemic bitch illness, placental ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ultrasonographic assessment of growth and estimation of birthweight in late gestation fetal sheep. AU - Carr, David J. AU - Aitken, Raymond P. AU - Milne, John S. AU - David, Anna L. AU - Wallace, Jacqueline M. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - Our aim was to identify which ultrasound parameters can be most accurately measured and best predict ovine fetal weight in late gestation. Singleton pregnancies were established using embryo transfer in 32 adolescent ewes, which were subsequently overnourished to produce fetuses of variable size (1720-6260 g). Ultrasound measurements at 126-133 days gestation were compared with fetal weight/biometry at late-gestation necropsy (n = 19) or term delivery (n = 13). Abdominal circumference (AC) and renal volume (RV) correlated best with physical measurements (r = 0.78-0.83) and necropsy/birth weight (r = 0.79-0.84). Combination of AC + RV produced an estimated fetal weight equation [Log EFW = 2.115 + 0.003 AC + 0.12 RV - 0.005 RV2] with highest ...
Risk Summary For use in prophylaxis of migraine headaches, valproate is contraindicated in women who are pregnant and in women of childbearing potential who are not using effective contraception [see Contraindications (4)].. For use in epilepsy or bipolar disorder, valproate should not be used to treat women who are pregnant or who plan to become pregnant unless other medications have failed to provide adequate symptom control or are otherwise unacceptable [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3)]. Women with epilepsy who become pregnant while taking valproate should not discontinue valproate abruptly, as this can precipitate status epilepticus with resulting maternal and fetal hypoxia and threat to life.. Maternal valproate use during pregnancy for any indication increases the risk of congenital malformations, particularly neural tube defects including spina bifida, but also malformations involving other body systems (e.g., craniofacial defects including oral clefts, ...
Journal of Pregnancy is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to all aspects of pregnancy and childbirth. The journal welcomes submissions on breastfeeding, labor, maternal health and the biomedical aspects of pregnancy.
van den Thillart, G., J.D. Via, G. Vitali and P. Cortesi, 1994. Influence of long-term hypoxia exposure on the energy metabolism of Solea solea I. Critical O2 levels for aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 104:109-117 ...
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the third leading cause of infant mortality between birth and the first year of life in the United States. Along with the identification of various maternal risk factors, the role of fetal hypoxia has been hypothesized to be one of many causal factors associated with SIDS. The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of the SIDS infant and assess whether six pregnancy complications consistent with fetal hypoxia were associated with the increased outcome of SIDS. The secondary data analysis of Florida linked birth to death certificate data specific to Hillsborough County and Duval County were analyzed retrospectively for the period of time between 1998 and 2000. Of the 86, 342 births, 69 SIDS cases were identified, 34 in Hillsborough County and 35 in Duval County. A majority of the infants were White males with an average age of death of 80 days. The Chi-Square test for Independence with Cramers V, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in carrying out pre-induction cervical ripening on an outpatient basis. However, there are concerns about the use of prostaglandins, the agents commonly used in hospital settings for this indication, because prostaglandins induce uterine contractions that may lead to fetal hypoxia. Indeed, in a recent study we demonstrated abnormalities in 9% of fetal heart rate tracings performed following prostaglandin induced cervical ripening at term. In contrast, we confirmed in the same study that isosorbide mononitrate (IMN) (administered on an inpatient basis) was both effective in inducing cervical ripening at term, and was associated with no associated fetal heart rate abnormalities. METHODS/DESIGN: The aim of this study is to determine whether IMN self administered by women on an outpatient basis improves the process of induction of labour. Specifically, we hypothesise that the use of outpatient IMN will result in a shorter inpatient stay before delivery, ...
abdominal decompression during pregnancy allows for 97% of the cases save it and cut the woman stays in the hospital.Local decompression enhances transfer of metabolites and oxygen, thus ensuring proper functioning of the placenta and fetus eliminates hypoxia.According to the doctors - even women who are at risk (gynecological complications, chronic illness, late delivery), but passed the required course of procedures, carried and gave birth without complications.. Indications: · early toxicosis in pregnant women;. · fetal hypoxia;. · fetal malnutrition;. · late toxicosis;. · risk of miscarriage;. · atherosclerosis, a disease of the lower extremities erysipelas, varicose;. · inflammation of internal genital organs;. · radiation and toxic lesions, drug and alcohol addiction, constipation, liver diseases, weight correction.. Contraindications: · Hypertension third stage;. · oncology;. · infectious diseases;. · heavy bleeding during pregnancy;. · acute inflammatory diseases;. · acute ...
Introduction Asphyxia in modern English is another term for suffocation, the failure of respiratory gas exchange. In the fetus, this suffocation occurs because of a failure of gas exchange between the fetal blood in the placenta and the maternal uterine blood perfusing the placenta. The effect of asphyxia is a lowering of tissue oxygen…
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Results: CHU significantly increased body mass (P , 0.001) compared with age-matched control rats but was without effect on relative cardiac mass. For incremental increases in left ventricular balloon volume, diastolic pressure was preserved. However, systolic pressure was significantly greater following CHU for balloon volume = 50 μl (P , 0.01) and up to 200 μl (P , 0.05). For higher balloon volumes systolic pressure was not significantly different from control. Developed pressures were correspondingly increased relative to controls for balloon volumes up to 250 μl (P , 0.05).Left ventricular free wall capillary density was significantly decreased in both epicardium (18%; P ,0.05) and endocardium (11%; P , 0.05) despite preserved coronary flow. Western blot analysis revealed no change to the expression of SERCA2a or nNOS but immuno-detectable eNOS protein was significantly decreased (P , 0.001) in cardiac tissue following chronic hypoxia in utero ...
The value of STAN (ST analysis) was assessed in 2 randomized trials and shows: 1) A reduction in the incidence of severe hypoxia in fetuses during labor and 2) A reduction in frequency of redemption with suction and caesarean section due to lack of oxygen during the birth process.. Within the last year however, there is substantial new information regarding. STAN. The Swedish Social Board has published a newsletter (17) which describes a possible risk of birth of asphyxiated children, some died and others have cerebral palsy. A new Finnish study (18) suggests that there may be an increased risk of (moderate) acidosis after using STAN.. The above has led to considerable debate, not just in Sweden but also throughout Europe. This has led to the Swedish, Danish (Newsletter 1, Annex 1b) and the common Nordic reference group for STAN orally has announced new clinical guidelines for STAN application. A recently held workshop in Utrecht, Holland will generate joint European guideline, these will be ...
In addition to the higher risk of having identical twins, a dermoid cyst grew rapidly, due to the parenthooc, and planend had it surgically removed 13 into pregnancy. This can keep one on the move, busy or where we can appear to be in a rush. Half the people hope to fail, while the other half hope to pass. Other people you ask might think that parentuood know the answer but have themselves been told white lies. Fish with high levels of industrial pollutants like PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls): Fish such as striped bass, bluefish, riverside planned parenthood freshwater fish like pike, salmon and trout, that come from contaminated lakes and rivers must be completely avoided. The major cause riversude death in antepartum period is fetal hypoxia because of placental insufficiency it is more in case of pregnancy with hypertension, elderly patients, with history of bleeding in riverside planned parenthood etc. Phees expertise includes patient advocacy, health coaching and riverside planned ...
You are correct. The current wisdom is that most cases of cerebral palsy have origins other than intrapartum events, although it is certainly also possible that the normal stress of labor or the excessive stress of induced or augmented labor could overwhelm a compromised babys ability to compensate. Research obstetricians have been trying to come up with a set of symptoms indicative of intrapartum hypoxia so as to identify those cases of neurologic injury that can be attributed to labor events. Leaving aside acute events such as uterine scar rupture, tetanic contractions, or umbilical cord prolapse, this isnt as easy as you would think. Neonatal seizure, for example, can be precipitated by overheating due to maternal fever, hyponatremia (low blood sodium) from too much IV fluid with insufficient salt, infection, congenital abnormality, etc. Other symptoms such as abnormal fetal heart rate or low blood pH at birth have very low predictive value for long-term outcome. In fact, those symptoms may ...
Ultrasound-guided percutaneous delivery of adenoviral vectors encoding the beta-galactosidase and human factor IX genes to early gestation fetal sheep in utero.
Using the isolated perfused neonatal sheep liver model, we examined the disposition of propranolol (n = 8, age 0.25-10 days) and compared our findings with our previous study from the perfused near-term fetal sheep liver (Ring JA, et al. 1995. Drug M
Buy Cardioprint CTG Cardiotocography Paper online at best prices. 142 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm Size, Clear Print, Exclusive Discounts.
Hypoxemia and/or hypoxia is a condition in which there is a deficiency of oxygen reaching the tissues. Know about the symptoms, causes, prevention and treatment.
Female Urination Device, Female Urinal Silicone Funnel Urine Cups Portable Urinal for Women Standing Up to Pee Funnel Reusable Women Pee Funnel, Outdoor, Activities, Camping Pink #ad - 4. This is the best invention for women - Female Urination Device If your arthritic knees were making sitting on the toilet extremely painful. Pregnant women squat on the toilet for a long time and easily oppress the baby to cause fetal hypoxia. You can pick female urinal when you go camping, hiking. The new generation upgraded female urinal are soft, compact and leak-free, with a long spout and arcs design to make the aiming direction simple and accurate, foldable, anti-odor, lightweight, moisture-proof, does not contain any harmful chemical components, close to your body to keep urine from back splashing or getting urine on clothes ...
This book promotes an evidence-based paradigm of fetal heart rate monitoring during labour, with a move away from the traditional pattern-based interpretation to physiology-based interpretation. Chapters are presented in a systematic and accessible format, covering topics such as non-hypoxic causes of fetal brain injury, pre-existing hypoxia, types of intrapartum hypoxia, erroneous monitoring of maternal heart rate, fetal scalp blood sampling and fetal ECG (STAN), intermittent auscultation and medico-legal issues. Sections on pearls and pitfalls highlight good practice and common errors to promote best practice. End-of-chapter exercises allow the reader to engage with the theory and test their knowledge of key areas. This is a highly practical manual aimed at obstetricians and midwives, particularly those undergoing CTG training. The book will also be very useful to midwifery and medical students and to all those involved in multiprofessional intrapartum care. ...
A pilot case-control study was done to collect data on whether susceptibility to newborn encephalopathy and neonatal seizures is influenced by the degree of maternal-fetal sharing of HLA antigens. Cases included 13 infants with moderate or severe newborn encephalopathy and seven infants with neonatal seizures but no other signs of encephalopathy. Controls were neurologically normal infants matched to cases by date of birth, sex, race, and payment status. Infants and their mothers were typed for HLA-A, -B, -DR, and -DQ antigens. The observed frequency of sharing of maternal antigens was greater than expected (ie, 0.5) for cases compared to controls at the HLA-B, -DR, and -DQ loci but not for HLA-A. The risk of neurologic problems in the neonatal period was increased 6.3 times when there was more than one match at the HLA-DR or -DQ locus. Placental abnormalities were noted at delivery only among cases, and the mean placental weight in cases was 598 g versus 695 g in controls. Further studies with sample
Papers pp 1549,1544. Neonatal encephalopathy is a significant problem. The United States collaborative perinatal project studied 39 000 infants born with birth weights greater than 2500 g and found that 70% of the infants who showed early neonatal depression and encephalopathy died or were disabled.1 For many years it was accepted that fetal asphyxia during labour was the major cause of both neonatal encephalopathy and cerebral palsy. However, the evidence for this is surprisingly thin. Diagnosis of cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia during labour is difficult and is usually inferred from non-specific signs, such as low Apgar scores or seizures observed after delivery. More precise assessment using specialist technologies like magnetic resonance is possible but not widely available,2 and a working diagnosis of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy may sometimes be applied with less than irrefutable proof of its presence. Nevertheless, several large studies have been unable to show significant perinatal ...
A cassette which is adapted to be insertable into and removable from an infusion pump. The cassette has a housing, a length of flexible tubing supported by the housing, and a first vertically movable member disposed in the housing. The first vertically movable member has a slot formed therein, and a portion of the flexible tubing is disposed within the slot. The first vertically movable member is movable between a clamped position in which the flexible tubing is clamped to prevent any substantial liquid flow therethrough and an unclamped position in which substantial liquid flow through the flexible tubing is enabled, and a spring is provided for biasing the first vertically movable member to the clamped position. The first vertically movable member may be designed so that the closure of a door of an infusion pump in which the cassette is inserted will cause the vertically movable member to be in the unclamped position to allow liquid flow through the flexible tubing. The cassette may have means for
Learn about the veterinary topic of Neonatal Encephalopathy. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
Learn about the veterinary topic of Neonatal Encephalopathy. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
Looking for online definition of acute hypoxia in the Medical Dictionary? acute hypoxia explanation free. What is acute hypoxia? Meaning of acute hypoxia medical term. What does acute hypoxia mean?
Learn more about Perinatal Asphyxia at West Hills Hospital DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ....
Definition of Traumatic asphyxia with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
While the bulls have regained some fresh near-term upside technical momentum to begin to suggest that a near-term low is in place, they still have some more heavy lifting to do to better suggest the present rally has been nothing more than just a short-covering bounce in a market that is still overall technically bearish ...
Fetal asphyxia is a condition in which a fetus has decreased oxygen levels (hypoxemia) and increased levels of carbon dioxide ... Birth Injuries
(2017) Alfirevic et al. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Background: Cardiotocography (CTG) records changes in the fetal heart rate and their temporal relationship to uterine contractions. The aim is to identify babies who may be short of oxygen (hypoxic) to guide additional assessments o...
Data set related to heart diseases. It describes 3 classes: normal, suspect, or pathological. Normal patients are treated as inliers and the remaining as outliers. Download all data set variants used (8.8 MB). You can also access the original data. (CTG.xls) ...
Data set related to heart diseases. It describes 3 classes: normal, suspect, or pathological. Normal patients are treated as inliers and the remaining as outliers. Download all data set variants used (8.8 MB). You can also access the original data. (CTG.xls) ...
The solution to having too much of a data strategy or none at all is is to find the middle way. Read more to find out how to create an effective data strategy.
The solution to having too much of a data strategy or none at all is is to find the middle way. Read more to find out how to create an effective data strategy.
A break below near-term support & the weekly opening range keeps our short scalp bias in play. Here are the updated targets & invalidation levels.
MECP2-related severe neonatal encephalopathy has an X-linked pattern of inheritance. A condition is considered X-linked if the mutated gene that causes the disorder is located on the X chromosome, one of the two sex chromosomes in each cell. In males, who have only one X chromosome, a mutation in the only copy of the gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the condition. In females, who have two X chromosomes, a mutation in one of the two copies of the gene in each cell is usually sufficient to cause the condition. However, females with a mutation in the MECP2 gene do not develop MECP2-related severe neonatal encephalopathy. Instead, they typically develop Rett syndrome, which has signs and symptoms that include intellectual disability, seizures, and movement problems.. In some cases, males with MECP2-related severe neonatal encephalopathy inherit the mutation from a mother with mild neurological problems or from a mother with no features related to the mutation. A characteristic of X-linked ...
Per partum fetal asphyxia is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Fetal heart rate monitoring plays an important role in early detection of acidosis, an indicator for asphyxia. This problem is addressed in this paper by introducing a novel complexity analysis of fetal heart rate data, based on producing a collection of piecewise linear approximations of varying dimensions from which a measure of complexity is extracted. This procedure specifically accounts for the highly nonstationary context of labor by being adaptive and multiscale. Using a reference dataset, made of real per partum fetal heart rate data, collected in situ and carefully constituted by obstetricians, the behavior of the proposed approach is analyzed and illustrated. Its performance is evaluated in terms of the rate of correct acidosis detection versus the rate of false detection, as well as how early the detection is made. Computational cost is also discussed. The results are shown to be extremely promising and further
This database, from the Czech Technical University (CTU) in Prague and the University Hospital in Brno (UHB), contains 552 cardiotocography (CTG) recordings, which were carefully selected from 9164 recordings collected between 2010 and 2012 at UHB.. The CTG recordings start no more than 90 minutes before actual delivery, and each is at most 90 minutes long. Each CTG contains a fetal heart rate (FHR) time series and a uterine contraction (UC) signal, each sampled at 4 Hz.. The priority was to create as homogeneous a set as possible; thus only recordings fulfilling the following criteria were included:. ...
Although tumor progression involves genetic and epigenetic alterations to normal cellular biology, the underlying mechanisms of these changes remain obscure. Numerous studies have shown that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is overexpressed in many human cancers and up-regulates a host of hypoxia-responsive genes for cancer growth and survival. We recently identified an alternative mechanism of HIF-1α function that induces genetic alterations by suppressing DNA repair. Here, we show that long-term hypoxia, which mimics the tumor microenvironment, drives a perpetual epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through up-regulation of the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein ZEB2, whereas short-term hypoxia induces a reversible EMT that requires the transcription factor Twist1. Moreover, we show that the perpetual EMT driven by chronic hypoxia depends on HIF-1α induction of genetic alterations rather than its canonical transcriptional activator function. These mesenchymal tumor cells not ...