A comparative study of feather morphogenesis and the development of feather pattern in normal and talpid3 embryos has been carried out.. The development of talpid3 CAM grafts shows that the effect of the gene is autonomous in the skin.. The most striking effect of the gene upon feather morphogenesis is the failure of normal feather germ condensations to appear within the dermis. This is reflected in the abnormal distribution of alkaline phosphatase through the dermis.. Dermal cells within and between condensations are not orientated in the mutant as they are in normal embryos, probably owing to the same defect in cell behaviour which causes condensation failure in talpid3 precartilage mesenchyme.. The role of dermal cell orientation and movement in generating the overall feather pattern is examined in both normal and talpid3 embryos.. ...
The aim of this study was the analysis and characterization of composites based on thermoplastics (ethylene vinyl acetate, polypropilene and high-density polyethylene) and chicken feathers. Several composite samples with a content of 20% v/v of chicken feathers have been studied to determine the optimal manufacturing conditions of temperature, mixing time, and mixing speed to achieve the best tensile properties. The results have shown that the addition of micronized chicken feather (20% v/v) to thermoplastic matrices increases stiffness and provides a more brittle behavior. Ethylene vinyl acetate matrix also shows an ability to participate in second-order intermolecular interactions with chicken feathers, providing better tensile properties (tensile strength and toughness) than polypropilene and high-density polyethylene. Optimal manufacturing conditions were found for a mixing time of around 5min; a mixing speed of 50rmin 1 ; and temperature values of 160 C in case of high-density polyethylene, ...
The formation of complex ectodermal organs begins with multipotent stem cells that undergo many basic cellular events. During the formation of a complex organ, there are many factors that need to be considered such as patterning, size, and shape in order to maintain proper organ function. Feather development is a good model. The feather field must be patterned to establish how many feathers, the size must be determined, and the shape of the feather must be appropriate for its function. Canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling has been implicated in many crucial steps in feather bud development.; Canonical Wnt signaling involves the stabilization and accumulation of beta-catenin, which is subsequently translocated to the nucleus. There, beta-catenin interacts with various coactivators including CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300, which results in the expression of different genes downstream of beta-catenin/TCF that may direct cells towards a path of pluripotency or differentiation. One of the ...
Bird feathers can contain pigmentation for a wide range of colors, with specific molecules reflecting certain hues when light touches them. They also can display "structural" colors, where the thicknesses of layers of cells and connective tissues are fine-tuned to refract certain colors.. Scientists recently described structural coloration that is still clearly discernible in well-preserved fossil feathers. Why do these fossil feathers have their original cell structures laid out in the original patterns if they are millions of years old?. In 1995, paleontologists Derek Briggs and Paul Davis provided an overview of fossil feathers from the 40 or so places on the globe where they were known to exist.1 Among their findings was that 69 percent of feather fossils are preserved not as impressions, but as carbon traces. This was verified by comparing the proportions of carbon in both the surrounding carbonaceous rock and the fossil within it, to the proportions of organically-derived carbon from the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Degradation and regeneration of feather keratin in NMMO solution. AU - Ma, Bomou. AU - Sun, Qisong. AU - Yang, Jing. AU - Wizi, Jakpa. AU - Hou, Xiuliang. AU - Yang, Yiqi. PY - 2017/7/1. Y1 - 2017/7/1. N2 - Chicken feather, a potential source of keratin, is often disposed as waste material. Although some methods, i.e., hydrolysis, reduction, and oxidation, have been developed to isolate keratin for composites, it has been limited due to the rising environmental concerns. In this work, a green solvent N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO) was used to extract keratin from chicken feather waste. Eighty-nine percent of keratin was extracted using 75% NMMO solution. However, the result from size exclusion HPLC showed that most of the keratin degraded into polypeptide with molecular weight of 2189 and only 25.3% regenerated keratin was obtained with molecular weight of 14,485. Analysis of amino acid composition showed a severe damage to the disulfide bonds in keratin during the extraction ...
Our research provides extraordinary insights into the origin of feathers. In particular, it helps to resolve a long-standing debate about the original function of feathers - whether they were used for flight, insulation, or display," says Professor Mike Benton, Professor of Palaeontology at the University of Bristol. "We now know that feathers came before wings, so feathers did not originate as flight structures.". "We therefore suggest that feathers first arose as agents for colour display and only later in their evolutionary history did they become useful for flight and insulation.". According to Dr Paddy Orr, UCD School of Geological Sciences, University College Dublin, one of the scientists involved in the research, "melanosomes are colour-bearing organelles buried within the structure of feathers and hair in modern birds and mammals, giving black, grey, and rufous tones such as orange and brown. Because melanosomes are an integral part of the tough protein structure of the feather, they ...
Feather is known for its robust regenerative ability. Stem cells in the feather have recently been mapped. However different parts of the chicken body have different size feathers. How stem cells are managed differently in these different feathers has not been elucidated. Here we analyze the growth pattern of feathers from neck and saddle feather. We analyze the topological arrangement of stem cell, TA cell, differentiated cell during different regenerative feather cycling. We found the stem cell is in a ring configuration during growth phase but shifted down to smaller ring or to assume a Ushape flanking the dermal papilla. The number of stem cells remains rather constant during stem cell cycling but also changes around three folds. On the contrast the number of TA cells change up to twenty thirty fold differences. There also appear to have higher stem cell number and a larger dermal papilla in the saddle compared to the neck feather. We found N-CAM and Tenascin-C expressed in the niche next to ...
Feathers are little too perfect, that is the problem. Feathers give no indication that they ever needed improvement. In fact, the "earliest known fossil feather is so modern-looking as to be indistinguishable from the feathers birds flying today. The fossil feather is from archaeopteryx, an extinct creature sometimes presented as a "missing link" in the line of descent to modern birds. Most paleontologists, however, no longer consider it an ancestor of modern birds. Yet, evolutionary theory teaches that feathers must be the result of gradual, cumulative change in earlier skin outgrowths. Moreover, feathers could not have evolved without some plausible adaptive value in all of the intermediate steps ...
The brilliant red, orange and yellow colours of parrot feathers are the product of psittacofulvins, which are synthetic pigments known only from parrots. Recent evidence suggests that some pigments in bird feathers function not just as colour generators, but also preserve plumage integrity by increasing the resistance of feather keratin to bacterial degradation. We exposed a variety of colourful parrot feathers to feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis and found that feathers with red psittacofulvins degraded at about the same rate as those with melanin and more slowly than white feathers, which lack pigments. Blue feathers, in which colour is based on the microstructural arrangement of keratin, air and melanin granules, and green feathers, which combine structural blue with yellow psittacofulvins, degraded at a rate similar to that of red and black feathers. These differences in resistance to bacterial degradation of differently coloured feathers suggest that colour patterns within the ...
In a recent exhibit in London, a circuit board made from soybeans and chicken feathers drew a great deal of attention. The board was developed by Mingjiang Zhan and Richard Wool in collaboration with Intel. A micrograph of feathers (seen here) shows
SEM investigation of representative isolated feathers from Messel showed that the keratin has degraded, exposing the melanosomes, which display two main types of organization. Most feathers revealed elongate oblate eumelanosomes roughly aligned along barbs and barbules, with little variation in their morphology or arrangement over the surface of the feather (as in the Crato example illustrated by Vinther et al. 2008). Three contour feathers, on the other hand, showed a striking contrast in the arrangement of melanosomes in the proximal and distal regions of the feather. These specimens range up to 3 cm in length. In the best-preserved specimen (SMF ME 3850, figure 1a), the basal 20 mm of the vane displays a closed pennaceous structure with interlocking barbules. The distal 8 mm of the vane has a conspicuously open pennaceous structure with prominent barbules that do not overlap or interlock. The barbules, which are 10-15 µm wide and oriented to the barb ramus at approximately 30°, are ...
Second, we have discovered a lot about the evolution of feathers which Carl Zimmer outlines in an article for National Geographic (read it here). Bird feathers are marvels of the biological world which have perplexed many scientists. Shortly after Darwin published On the Origin of Species, paleontologists unearthed archaeopteryx with a mixture of avian and reptilian traits. Most importantly, this bird/reptile had feathers. Later on, scientists discovered more similarities between our modern birds and the extinct dinosaurs. Theropod dinosaurs (T. rex and Velociraptors) shared many anatomical and behavioral similarities with birds, but most importantly they had feathers even though they were far to big to fly. It seems the fight evolved from reptiles with feathers, rather than feathers evolving in flying reptiles. ...
Optimal medium was used to improve the production of keratinase by Bacillus licheniformis ZJUEL31410, which has a promising application in the transformation of feather into soluble protein. The results of single factor design revealed that the concentration of feather at 20 g/l and the initial pH at value 8 was the best for the production of keratinase and the degradation of feather. Ammonia salt and nitrate salt strongly restricted the production of keratinase and the degradation of feather. Result of Box-Behnken design (BBD) experiment which was used to optimize concentrations of glucose, corn steep flour and K2HPO4 for further improvement of keratinase productivity showed that the optimal medium was composed of glucose (20 g/l), corn steep flour (7.5 g/l), K2HPO4 (1 g/l) and feather (20 g/l). The result of submerged batch cultivation of B. licheniformis ZJUEL31410 in the 5 L fermentor indicated that the optimal medium had the highest keratinase and the degree of feather degradation (DFD) at ...
Plumage (Latin: plūma "feather") refers both to the layer of feathers that cover a bird and the pattern, colour, and arrangement of those feathers. The pattern and colours of plumage differ between species and subspecies, and may vary with age classes. Within species there can be different colour morphs. The placement of feathers on a bird are not haphazzard, but rather emerge in organized, overlapping rows and groups, and these feather tracts are known by standardized names. Most birds moult, usually before and after breeding, resulting in a breeding or nuptial plumage and a basic plumage. Many ducks and some other species such as the red junglefowl have males wearing a bright nuptial plumage while breeding and a drab eclipse plumage for some months afterwards. The painted buntings juveniles have two inserted moults in their first autumn, each yielding plumage like an adult females. The first starts a few days after fledging replacing the juvenile plumage with an auxiliary formative plumage; ...
We predicted that habitat quality, T, and energetic condition would be positively related to the quality of colorful feathers. In studies focused on the breeding season, these factors have been known to influence feather color (e.g., Hill and Montgomerie 1994; Blâs et al. 2007; Ferns and Hinsley 2008; Lindsay et al. 2011; Barron et al. 2013). Here, however, we experimentally induced colorful plumage production in a wintering migratory bird and failed to find support for these predictors. Furthermore, we found that the quality of colorful feathers is diminished when replaced on the wintering grounds, particularly for mature males. Our findings suggest that 1) condition-mediated mechanisms for plumage quality may not be operating in winter and 2) there is a significant cost to plumage quality when feathers are lost in winter. Furthermore, we suggest that plumage maturation in young males may be accelerated by events that induce feather replacement.. Both ASY and SY males exhibited reductions in ...
One-step RT-PCR was performed on the total RNA extracted from the same samples as in virus isolation to detect the H5 AI virus gene (SuperScript One-Step RT-PCR System; Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA). The 1:10 dilution of RNA templates was used for feathers. The primers used were H5-248-270F and H5-671-647R; the expected product was 424 bp (7). The sensitivity of RT-PCR was slightly higher than that of virus isolation except for the results with cloacal swabs (Table).. Immunohistochemical testing was performed to detect influenza virus nucleoprotein in the feather tissue by using a rabbit polyclonal antibody (ab22285; Abcam Ltd., Cambridge, UK). Virus antigens were detected in feather epidermal cells from days 3 through 6 pi, and in a few stromal cells in the feather pulp on days 3 and 4 pi (Appendix Figure, panel C).. Our results indicate that larger amounts of viruses can be isolated for a longer time from feathers than from swabs. Therefore, feathers can be considered useful samples for ...
Male blue-black grassquit feather barbules present a single keratin layer over a layer comprising melanin granules. This simple arrangement is sufficient to produce iridescent coloration, as confirmed by thin-film optical modelling. Shifts in hue and shape of the reflected spectrum derived from changing angles of light incidence were well explained by the modelled differences in the optical path that light encounters at each angle. This result reinforces the conclusion that these barbules are photonic structures that interact with light as predicted by the thin-film models of refraction.. Thin-film optical modelling also revealed that light can only penetrate the melanin layer and interact with the keratin core when the melanin layer is sufficiently thin (fewer than two melanin granules, on average). Although this configuration can be found in some male grassquit feathers, most individuals have melanin layers of two to three granules, with little variation across average values. This suggests ...
February 24, 2005. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists who have developed a method to turn chicken feathers into plastic products are continuing to bring the technology closer to the marketplace. ARS chemist Walter Schmidt developed the technology to clean feathers and separate them into chopped fibers and quill pieces. Now Schmidt and fellow ARS chemist Justin Barone have developed and applied for a patent for a process to convert cleaned and chopped feather material into plastic products on a laboratory scale. Schmidt and Barone work in ARS Environmental Quality Laboratory in Beltsville, Md. According to Barone, the material is made on traditional plastics processing equipment using chopped chicken feathers and other easily obtainable, naturally derived materials. The feather-derived plastic can be molded just like any other plastic and has properties very similar to commodity plastics such as polyethylene and polypropylene. This makes the feather-derived plastic a unique material ...
Use of wheat straw and chicken feather hydrolysates as a complete medium for lactic acid production | Lucia Gharwalová, Leona Paulová, Petra Patakova, Barbora Branská, Karel Melzoch | Agricultural Journals
Background The holotype of the theropod non-avian dinosaur Microraptor gui from the Early Cretaceous of China shows extensive preservation of feathers in a halo around the body and with flight feathers associated with both the fore and hindlimbs. It has been questioned as to whether or not the feathers did extend into the halo to reach the body, or had disassociated and moved before preservation. This taxon has important implications for the origin of flight in birds and the possibility of a four-winged gliding phase. Methodology/Principal Findings Examination of the specimen under ultraviolet light reveals that these feathers actually reach the body of the animal and were not disassociated from the bones. Instead they may have been chemically altered by the body tissues of the animal meaning that they did not carbonise close into the animal or more likely were covered by other decaying tissue, though evidence of their presence remains. Conclusions/Significance These UV images show that the feathers
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There are both medical and non-medical causes for feather picking. The major medical causes include changes in hormone levels, external and internal parasites, malnutrition, internal disease, and bacterial or fungal infections of the skin and/or feather follicles. Interestingly, and con" to popular opinion, external parasites (mites in particular) are extremely rare among caged birds. The non medical causes are psychologic and/or stress related. Infection with the 1-celled intestinal parasite, Giardia, may be related to feather picking. Many birds with giardiasis, especially parakeets, cockatiels and some lovebirds, also show intense feather pulling, self-mutilation and loud screaming Giardiasis is diagnosed by microscopic fecal examination. Treatment is difficult and may be unsuccessful. Further, giardiasis, can be transmitted to people. Feather picking is generally a problem of birds in captivity. Wild birds do not feather pick because they are too preoccupied with their own survival and with ...
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Missing Feathers Around The Vent Area. Many times you will see hens that have a bare backside. This is common, but the cause could be an infestation of plumage or biting parasites. Hens can be bothered enough by the parasites that congregate near the vent that they will pick themselves bare while trying to rid themselves of the troubling pestilence. For more information on mites and lice, read my article; Hidden Health Problems: Mites And Lice.. Bare Feather Shafts. Another possible sign of parasites is bare feather shafts. If your birds have an inordinate amount of feathers missing fluff and vane, you may have feather lice eating your birds feathers bare. Look for white rice-looking critters running among your birds feathers and treat accordingly. If there are no parasites present, your birds may be coming in contact with something such as a fence or cage that is fraying and destroying their plumage. Observe your birds habits, especially when flying to roosts or using doorways to find the ...
Theres a whole lot of moulting going on at the moment in the bird world, as they begin to shed their well-worn breeding plumage. My wife found this distinctive feather on our garden path last week. Under the microscope the underside of the feather (top photo) reveals the beautiful repeated pattern of rows of barbs attached to the central shaft (rachis). At higher magnification (second photo down) you can see the rows of barbules on each barb, each ending in a tiny hook (barbicel). When a bird preens a feather by drawing it through its beak, its zipping these rows of hooks on adjacent barbules back together again, to restore the feathers aerodynamic efficiency. In the bottom two photographs the feather has been flipped over to view the upper surface and reveal a clue to its identity - the blue iridescence in some of the barbules. It belonged to a magpie. ...
The wing of a hatching-year (first fall) owl shows no contrast, with all feathers glossy, new and unfaded. By the next autumn, as a second-year bird, the owl has replaced its outermost and innermost flight feathers, which contrast with the older, faded retained feathers in the middle of the wing.. Like all banders, saw-whet researchers must infer the age of the owls they catch by examining the molt, or replacement pattern of the birds feathers, especially those in the wings. In owls, complete molt is a process that can take up to four years.. A saw-whet with flight feathers that are all bright, glossy and unworn is an owl that was just born the previous spring - an HY, or hatching-year, bird, in bander jargon. By the following fall, an SY (second-year) owl will have replaced its outermost and innermost wing feathers, with the old, retained juvenal feathers in the middle of the wing now faded and worn. Older birds may have as many as three generations of feathers.. A pigment in owl feathers ...
Bird Brained - How Dinosaur Scales became Bird Feathers - BBC News How scales turned into feathers The genes that caused scales to become feathers in the early ancestors of birds have been found by US scientists. Read more from BBC News
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This report examines the Down and Feather market standing and opportunity of global plus major regions, from plans of manufacturers, regions, product types and end industries; this report investigates the best manufacturers in global and major regions and splits the Down and Feather market by product type and applications/end industries. The Global Down and Feather…
Martin The woodpecker is a very special little bird. The beak of a woodpecker is, like, industrial strength. It is stronger than other birds beaks. He has special feet. Most birds have three toes out the front, one toe out the back, where the woodpecker has two toes out the front, two toes out the back. And thats so he can climb around on a tree trunk--a vertical tree trunk---right side up, upside down, sideways, he can crawl anyway he wants to. He has special tail feathers. His tail feathers are different than other birds tail feathers; theyre more resilient, theyre spongy, and theyre very strong and tough, because he tripods himself with his two feet and his tail feathers. So he grabs a hold of that tree, fans out his tail feathers, and then bangs his head into the tree. now you would think that a woodpecker would go home every night and say to Mrs. Woodpecker, Oh, I got the headache. I was banging my head on a tree all day. But he doesnt. Why? Well, cause God made him with special ...
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Iridescent structures in feathers are typically produced with either laminar or crystal-like nanostructures located in the barbules (Prum 2006). Laminar structures that can result in glossy, black iridescence rely on a single layer of keratin above a layer of melanin (e.g. satin bowerbirds, Ptilonorhynchus violaceus minor; Doucet et al. 2006) or multiple layers of keratin and melanin (e.g. European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris; Cuthill et al. 1999), wherein the interfaces between both air and keratin or keratin and melanin create iridescence (Doucet et al. 2006). Crystal-like nanostructures, such as those found in the peacocks tail (Zi et al. 2003), use ordered arrays of keratin, melanin and air, which give rise to coherent scattering of light waves. While the development of both laminar and crystal-like nanostructures has not been extensively studied, here we summarize possible developmental pathways in the context of general feather development.. Laminar nanostructures require one or more ...
I have some pheasant tail feathers I want to dye , is Rit dye ok? Will it bleed later on ? Any tips on dying feathers would be appreciated.
Previous studies have focused on the effect of bacterial infections on the production of ornamental traits. However, bacteria not only live inside birds but on the surface, in their feathers. Few bacteria living in feathers will have deleterious effects on their host. A diverse group of species, including keratinolytic (feather-degrading) and non-keratinolytic bacteria, may live in feathers. Studies have indicated that energy trade-offs are involved in the bacterial diversity of a birds feathers, as in males with larger broods having less bacterial diversity on their feathers due to the energy spent foraging instead of preening/sanitational behaviors that may prevent harmful,pathogenic bacteria from growing (18). A 2007 study predicted that a relationship between feather color and bacteria could occur because high-quality males will have more energy than low quality males to allocate to cleaning behaviors and reducing bacterial abundance (19). This would be beneficial, not only in maintaining ...
Sp far, there hasnt been any direct fossil evidence of feathers in the species that followed Similicaudiptery, but there is a lot of other, strong evidence, that they possessed a feathered tail.. "Persons reasons that because the later oviraptor had the same tail structure as the feathered Similicaudipteryx, the tails of later oviraptors still served the same purpose, waving feathered tail fans.". This hypothesis is strongly supported by the structure of the bones and muscles of their tail.. "Individual vertebrae at the base of an oviraptors tail were short and numerous, indicating great flexibility. Based on dissections of modern reptile and bird tails, Persons reconstruction of the dinosaurs tail muscles revealed oviraptors had what it took to really shake their tail feathers.". "Large muscles extended far down the tail and had a sufficient number of broad connection points to the vertebrae to propel oviraptors tail feathers vigorously from side to side and up and down.". The image that ...
The most common peafowl is the India Blue, the bird with which most of us are familiar. There are also greens, pieds (mottled with white), albino whites, and other varieties. Males have that amazing "train" of tail feathers that includes long, wispy iridescent "eye" and "sword" feathers, held up when they display by a fan of shorter, stiff, dull-brown feathers (see Francoise in the picture, shown from behind, displaying for a lawn chair, poor dear). Wing feathers are brown or white with black bars, and they have a bank of russet feathers on their lower sides, which they beat rapidly when displaying-more crazy peafowl percussion. Their long necks are iridescent blue-green. Legs are featherless, beige, with heavy-duty nails and a bony "spur" on the inside of each leg a few inches above the foot, used for mid-air sword-fighting with other males ...
In the newly created placode, the Shh and Bmp2 proteins are expressed in a polarized anterior-posterior fashion, and then subsequently expressed at the tip of the cylindrical feather-germ to facilitate elongation. Next, the genes are expressed in the epithelium separating the barb ridges that are beginning to form, and they begin to establish a growth pattern for each ridge. In pennaceous feathers, the signaling of Shh and Bmp2 proteins then lay down the pattern needed for the helical growth of barb ridges, and the formation of the rachis. In plumulaceous feathers the proteins create a pattern for the growth of barbs much simpler than that in pennaceous feathers. This signaling pattern can be observed in the following figure. ...
This work deals with the preparation and characterisation of cellulose-keratin biocomposites. A method of manufacturing fibrous composite materials by wet spinning is presented. We used natural polymers, biomodified cellulose and keratin obtained from chicken feathers. Keratin waste is a potential renewable starting material. Spinning solutions were prepared from these polymers, and after filtration and aeration they were used for the formation of fibres and fibrids . The investigations included the preparation of biomodified cellulose-keratin spinning solutions of different keratin content, estimation of the influences of formation speed and drawing on the fibre properties, estimation of the sorption properties of the composites obtained. The biomodified cellulose-keratin fibres obtained are characterised by better sorption properties, higher hygroscopicity and smaller wetting angle, than those of cellulose fibres. The introduction of keratin into cellulose fibres lowered their mechanical properties
I was trying to figure out why different forms of collagen in tendons and skin have different properties. Then I wanted to compare something to collagen, so I tried [keratin] from feathers. When I ground it up-which is really difficult to do because feathers are so tough-it felt just like wood pulp. So I [thought] you should be able to make paper from it, and I did. Cellulose is much weaker than feather fiber and it takes 15 minutes on a machine to turn wood into pulp, while it would take two hours to pulp the feather fiber. Since feathers are much more durable, you could recycle [feather pulp] paper more times. [But still], even if all the feathers were used to make paper, it would only be about three percent of the paper produced in the U.S.-you wouldnt replace paper from wood pulp ...
Researchers at Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future (CLF) and Arizona State University tested feather meal - a byproduct made of ground-up poultry feathers commonly added to chicken, swine, cattle and fish feed - and found a surprising variety of drug residues, including fluoroquinolones, a class of antibiotics critical for fighting infections in humans. The findings surprised scientists because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration banned the class of drugs, which includes cipro, in poultry production in 2005 in response to rising fluoroquinolone resistance among Campylobacter bacteria, a leading cause of foodborne illness.. "The discovery of certain antibiotics in feather meal strongly suggests the continued use of these drugs, despite the ban put in place in 2005 by the FDA," said David Love, PhD, project director at CLF and lead author of the report, which was published in Environmental Science & Technology. "The public health community has long been frustrated with the unwillingness of ...
San Diego CA (SPX) May 25, 2015 - Inspired by the way iridescent bird feathers play with light, scientists have created thin films of material in a wide range of pure colors - from red to green - with hues determined by physical str
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Biotechnologists have identified and refined a micro-organism that can convert bird feathers and other forms of organic waste into food products and cosmetics, as Jim Drury reports.}
Feather-plucking, sometimes termed feather-picking, feather damaging behaviour or pterotillomania, is a maladaptive, behavioural disorder commonly seen in captive birds which chew, bite or pluck their own feathers with their beak, resulting in damage to the feathers and occasionally the skin. It is especially common among Psittaciformes, with an estimated 10% of captive parrots exhibiting the disorder. The areas of the body that are mainly pecked or plucked are the more accessible regions such as the neck, chest, flank, inner thigh and ventral wing area. Contour and down feathers are generally identified as the main target, although in some cases, tail and flight feathers are affected. Although feather-plucking shares characteristics with feather pecking commonly seen in commercial poultry, the two behaviours are currently considered to be distinct as in the latter, the birds peck at and pull out the feathers of other individuals. Feather-plucking has characteristics that are similar to ...
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