accurately predicts the animal longevity. The regression analysis between lipid species and longevity demonstrated that the longer the longevity of a species, the lower is its plasma long-chain free fatty acid (LC-FFA) concentrations, peroxidizability index, and lipid peroxidation-derived products content. The inverse association between longevity and LC-FFA persisted after correction for body mass and phylogenetic interdependence. These results indicate that the lipidomic signature is an optimized feature associated with animal longevity, emerging LC-FFA as a potential biomarker of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Free fatty acid-induced peripheral insulin resistance augments splanchnic glucose uptake in healthy humans. AU - Bajaj, Mandeep. AU - Berria, Rachele. AU - Pratipanawatr, Thongchai. AU - Kashyap, Sangeeta. AU - Pratipanawatr, Wilailak. AU - Belfort, Renata. AU - Cusi, Kenneth. AU - Mandarino, Lawrence. AU - Defronzo, Ralph A.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - To investigate the effect of elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations on splanchnic glucose uptake (SGU), we measured SGU in nine healthy subjects (age, 44 ± 4 yr; body mass index, 27.4 ± 1.2 kg/m2; fasting plasma glucose, 5.2 ± 0.1 mmol/l) during an Intralipid-heparin (LIP) infusion and during a saline (Sal) infusion. SGU was estimated by the oral glucose load (OGL)insulin clamp method: subjects received a 7-h euglycemic insulin (100 mU·m-2·min-1) clamp, and a 75-g OGL was ingested 3 h after the insulin clamp was started. After glucose ingestion, the steady-state glucose infusion rate (GIR) during the insulin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to plasma free fatty acids. AU - Miles, J. M.. AU - Nelson, R. H.. PY - 2007/10. Y1 - 2007/10. N2 - Free fatty acids are the major lipid fuel of the body. Dysregulation of adipose tissue lipolysis results in increased plasma free fatty acid concentrations, and via that mechanism contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adipose tissue hormone sensitive lipase is thought to be responsible for the production of the majority of free fatty acids. However, a separate contribution comes from the action of endothelial lipases, especially lipoprotein lipase, on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins via a process known as spillover. The primary substrate for spillover appears to be chylomicrons derived from dietary fat. The spillover of fatty acids into the free fatty acid pool varies from one tissue to another. For example, spillover is low (∼14%) in the forearm of healthy volunteers, suggesting that triglyceride ...
Numerous studies have established that elevated FFAs can cause insulin resistance (5-10). However, as pointed out by Frias et al. (14), the effects of gender on the response to FFAs has been less well defined. The current experiments indicate that in the presence of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, elevated FFAs impair glucose metabolism in women. Glucose disposal was lower and splanchnic glucose production was higher in women during IL/hep than glycerol infusion. The lower rates of glucose disposal appear to be due to a decrease in muscle glucose uptake, since leg but not splanchnic glucose uptake was lower on the IL/hep than glycerol study days. These data indicate that alterations in fat metabolism potentially can contribute to alterations in carbohydrate metabolism in women.. The results of the current study and those of Frias et al. (14) differ in that the latter concluded that in the presence of hyperinsulinemia and euglycemia, elevated FFAs decreased whole-body glucose disposal in men ...
Abstract: Total content of unesterified fatty acids and activity of ATPases/latent, stimulated by Mg2+, 2,4-DNP, Mg2+ and 2,4-DNP/were studied in heart and liver mitochondria of rabbits with decompensated mitral valvular disease. The activities of Mg2+, DNP-, Mg2+ and DNP-stimulated ATPases were decreased in heart mitochondria. At the same time, content of unesterified fatty acids was increased. Content of the fatty acids was decreased in liver mitochondria and activity of ATPase was unaltered. Possible mechanisms of the alterations observed are discussed ...
The only conclusion here is that high serum FFA reduces energy expenditure. THIS is also able to explain why we get insulin resistant during high serum FFA. Ofcourse one could argue that perhaps its the affect of Niacin acting on the GPR109A receptor. I also get very energetic in deep ketosis, which is associated with activation of this receptor ...
Although transport of long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) into cells is often analyzed in the same way as glucose transport, we argue that the transport of the lipid-soluble amphipathic FFA molecule must be viewed differently. The partitioning of FFAs into phospholipid bilayers and their interfacial ionization are particularly relevant to transport. We summarize new data supporting the diffusion hypothesis in simple lipid bilayers and in plasma membranes of cells. Along with previous supporting data, the new data indicate that transport of FFAs through membranes could occur rapidly by flip-flop of the un-ionized form of the FFA. It appears that, at least for the adipocyte, passive diffusion guarantees fast entry and exit of FFAs at both low and high concentrations. Although there are several candidate proteins for the membrane transport of FFAs, most of these proteins have other established functions. Thus, unlike the glucose transporters, these proteins would not be single-function proteins. ...
Reference: Gaevskaia M.S., Belitskaia R.A., Nonesterified fatty acid content of the blood plasma in hypobiosis, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1971, vol: 17(3), 263-266 ...
Dyslipidemia is a common metabolic disorder in diabetes. Nitric oxide (NO) production from endothelium plays the primary role in endothelium-mediated vascular relaxation and other endothelial functions. Therefore, we investigated the effects of elevated free fatty acids (FFA) on the stimulation of NO production by phospholipase C (PLC)-activating receptor agonists (potent physiological endothelium-dependent vasodilators) and defined the possible alterations of signaling pathways implicated in this scenario. Exposure of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) to high concentrations of a mixture of fatty acids (oleate and palmitate) for 5 or 10 days significantly reduced NO production evoked by receptor agonists (bradykinin or ATP) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Such defects were not associated with alterations of either endothelial NO synthase mass or inositol phospholipid contents but were probably due to reduced elevations of intracellular free Ca 2+ levels ([Ca 2+] i) under these ...
To date, there are no medications with US Food and Drug Administration indication for use in prediabetes. There are, however, clinical trials showing safety and benefit of several classes of antidiabetic therapies in the setting of prediabetes and insulin resistance. Metformin has long been the frontline medical treatment for diabetes, and has been shown repeatedly to slow or prevent progression to diabetes in prediabetics by enhancing insulin sensitivity. 36,37 Quick-release bromocriptine, a newly approved antidiabetic therapy with unique mechanism of action (a dopamine agonist), may also be effec tive in the setting of insulin resistance and prediabetes, as it helps correct the dyslipidemia, postprandial hyperglycemia, elevated free fatty acids, and effects due to increase in sympathetic tone.38,39 Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have proved to be very effective insulin sensitizers, and several large trials have shown reductions in progression from prediabetes to diabetes of 62% to 72%.40,41 ...
In the present study, we have directly demonstrated that overexpression of PKC-β2 in endothelial cells inhibits insulin signaling and insulin action and increases expression of ET-1, resulting in endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis. These findings may help explain the elevated risk for atherosclerosis in diabetic and insulin-resistant states because PKC activation, especially the β-isoform, has been shown to be induced by hyperglycemia or elevated free fatty acids in many vascular tissues.26 The inhibiting role of PKC-β on insulin activation of eNOS clearly has been shown in endothelial cells from diabetic patients.15 At the cell signaling level, the vasotropic effects of insulin, such as the activation of eNOS, induction of heme oxygenase-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor, and downregulation of VCAM-1, are mediated through activation of the IRS/PI3K/Akt pathway.6,27,28 PKC activation, especially β-isoform, has been shown to selectively inhibit this pathway by ...
The literature on non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in blood cell membranes from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is scarce and reports on concentrations in brain tissue from these patients are inconsistent. NEFAs are needed for several biological functions, for example, as precursors for inflammatory eicosanoid synthesis. The objective of this study was therefore to compare NEFA concentrations in blood cell membranes from patients with that of healthy control subjects, and to correlate possible changes with disease outcome. NEFA C18:2n-6 (9,12-octadecadienoic acid) was decreased in peripheral blood mononuclear cell membranes from patients, median (quartile range): patients: 0.05 (0.02) and controls: 0.07 (0.14)μg/mg protein, p=0.007. C18:2n-6 also showed a weaker relationship with other fatty acids: with C16:0: patients: R=0.40, p=0.04; controls: R=0.82, p=0.000001. Saturated and MUFA showed positive correlations with the Bowel and bladder Functional System Scores (FSS). In ...
The experiments described herein are designed to elucidate many metabolic changes that occur to regulate the partitioning of nutrients between production and animal maintenance with particular regard to glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. The onset of milk production and parturition causes dramatic stress to the cow. The challenge of improving metabolism during this period is being addressed by nutritional management with the possibility of the addition of supplements. The use of Ca-propionate as a supplement did not affect glucose metabolism in transition cows. The data revealed that insulin sensitivity was low during the transition period, but the tissue responses to insulin and the acute insulin response to a glucose infusion increased slightly after calving as compared to late gestation. Glucagon and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations increased throughout the transition period, while glucose, insulin, and thyroxine concentrations decreased. A need for a relatively easy and inexpensive
Free fatty acid (FFA) accumulation in proximal tubules plays a fundamental role in the progress of kidney disease. Here, we reported a rare case with undetectable serum FFAs and further evaluated the changes of serum FFAs in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). We analyzed the clinical data of a rare case and 574 CRF patients. The mRNA expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hepatic lipase (HL) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) were determined in the rare case and 30 age-matched healthy males with qPCR. This rare case had serious proteinuria, hyperglycemia, lipid disorders and bilateral renal glomerular filtration dysfunction. Compared with healthy males, this case showed a 1.49-fold increase of LPL expression (P | 0.01), a 3.38-fold reduction of HL expression (P | 0.001), and no significant change of FASN expression (P | 0.05). In total, 21.6% of CRF patients showed abnormal FFAs. Biochemical parameters such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CREA) significantly differed among groups with
Our study showed that a 10-week AE program in a young population of obese women without DM significantly decreased levels of long-chain AC (C18 and C14), only in the case group, with a non-significant difference on plasma free fatty acids during the study period. Although there are many aspects that are still needed to be identified between the link of lipotoxicity and insulin resistance, it is well known that an increase in intracellular lipid levels leads to a decrease in insulin action [8, 16, 31]. If this is secondary to an excess of plasma free fatty acids and/or a decrease in their beta-oxidation is unclear [32]. This last defect in patients with type 2 DM and obesity has been shown to persist in the fasting state and is not removed after an insulin stimulus with a euglycemic clamp [33, 34]. This disorder, also known as metabolic inflexibility, has been attributed to inhibition of CPT1 by malonyl-CoA leading to an inability to transport long-chain AC into the mitochondrial matrix and thus ...
Sudden death remains a critical problem in industrially developed countries, and treatment of sudden death victims frequently is unsuccessful.1,2 Therefore, early identification of subjects at high risk of sudden death is essential to preventive treatment strategies. Circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), also called free fatty acids, have been described as responsible for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death after myocardial infarction.3-6 However, a possible arrhythmogenic role of NEFA has not been investigated in nonischemic patients. The main source of circulating NEFA is release from adipose tissue. A higher frequency of premature ventricular complexes was found to be associated with increased circulating NEFA concentration in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.7 A recent study observed an association between high NEFA concentration in offspring and increased risk of cardiovascular disease in their parents.8 Additionally, direct arrhythmogenic action of an ...
One potential explanation for the downward shift in myocardial oxidative metabolism could be due to a shift in substrate preference to a more energy-efficient substrate. A switch in substrate utilization from fatty acids to glucose oxidation would be more energy efficient (30). However, the findings regarding substrate metabolism in the failing heart are controversial. Recent studies have shown an increase in the whole-body free fatty acid turnover rate and oxidation (31)and myocardial free fatty acid uptake (32)in HF patients. In contrast, some studies have found that in the failing heart, substrate metabolism may revert to a more fetal condition, with enhanced glucose uptake and reduced fatty acid oxidation (33-35).. Two previous intervention studies investigating the effects of beta-blocker therapy in patients with HF demonstrated that beta-blocker therapy decreased LV oxidative metabolism by 24% (36)and also decreased myocardial free fatty acid uptake by 57% (37). It is important to note ...
Increased plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity (AO). However, this association remains controversial in children. This study analyzed plasma FFA concentration in children with and without AO. Twenty-nine children classified with AO were matched by age and sex with 29 non-obese individuals. Blood samples were collected after fasting for 10-12 h. Plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined by automatized methods. FFAs were analyzed by gas chromatography. Children with and without AO had similar age (7.1 ± 2.6 vs. 7.2 ± 2.7 years; p > 0.05) but obese children showed higher (p < 0.05) body mass index (BMI) (+4.3 kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (+5.1 mmHg), and insulin (+27.8 pmol/L). There were no significant differences in plasma total FFA concentration between groups (1.02 ± 0.61 vs
The process of fat mobilization has become accessible to study in man with the recognition that the albumin-bound nonesterified or free fatty acids are the major form of transport of lipid moving from the adipose tissue depots to the sites of lipid utilization elsewhere. Previously, information concerning fat mobilization was derived primarily from animal studies. The animal studies have been extensively reviewed elsewhere (1) and will be mentioned only when human studies have only incompletely settled specific issues. During the past five years a number of observations have been made in man which now merit review and which permit the ...
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During the onset of an acute coronary syndrome, an immediate increase in plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations presents the ischaemic underperfused myocardium with a metabolic challenge to its survival. For the maintenance of contraction and to
MRRLTAALCALTLLSTGAQAQTIKDFLAVAMKKWTAPFEPFQLIDNIYYVGTDGIAVYVIKTSQGLILMDTAMPQSTGMIKDNIAKLGFKVADIKLILNTHAHLDHTGGFAEIKKETGAQLVAGERDKPLLEGGYYPGDEKNEDLAFPAVKVDRAVKEGDRVTLGDTTLTAHATPGHSPGCTSWEMTVKDGKEDREVLFFCSGTVALNRLVGQPTYAGIVDDYRATFAKAKAMKIDVLLGPHPEVYGMQAKRAEMKDGAPNPFIKPGELVTYATSLSEDFDKQLAKQTAALEKK ...
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MSRHSTSACLLGFATLCASPLLLAACTTSSGTGNFGSLSSFTVASTAQTITGTTGFKCTGSLLSILSTNTIDATIASTANPLGTTPRLYNAASGTYLPYSICKDNGCGTVYNVGSTVRWSSTTFLGILGLFNATDGSLPLYLRTATGVTLPAGTYTDTIGLNWAWHLCAAGIGPVCVYDDGTASSSVNVTLTVLKDCFIDSAPDLSFGSAALVSAFTAVNQNIGVRCTLNATYTIGFDNGNNFSGGWRRMLSGANAIQYNLYKPGDSTVWTTSNTQAGTGSGAAQNVPYRAIVNPAQGNVPAGTYSDTVRVILTY ...
In conclusion, contrary to the classical mechanism of free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance as proposed by Randle et al. (2, 27, 28) in which free fatty acids exert their effect through initial inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase, we found that elevation in plasma free fatty acid concentration causes insulin resistance by inhibition of glucose transport and/or phosphorylation with a subsequent reduction in rates of glucose oxidation and muscle glycogen synthesis. This reduction in insulin inducible glucose transport/phosphorylation is similar to what is observed in patients with NIDDM (20) and their normoglycemic-insulin-resistant offspring (24) and suggests that alterations in intramuscular FFA metabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the insulin resistance observed in patients with NIDDM ...
Ca2+ binding and concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and phospholipids were compared in membrane fractions of rat small intestine. These fractions differed in density and were enriched for galactosyltransferase activity, a Golgi-membrane marker. Ca2+ binding was highest in the Golgi subfraction with the least density, as were the concentrations of both non-esterified fatty acids and phospholipids; galactosyltransferase activity was distributed differently. The large amount of non-esterified fatty acids was sufficient to account for a 2:1 complex of fatty acid-Ca2+. In vitamin D-deficient animals, the yield of protein in the lightest subfractions was decreased, but Ca2+ binding per mg of protein was further decreased to about 60%. In Golgi fractions from vitamin D-deficient animals, Ca2+ binding and the concentration of non-esterified fatty acids were decreased in parallel, but phospholipids were not significantly changed. There was a close correlation between Golgi Ca2+ binding and ...
To examine the mechanism by which lipids cause insulin resistance in humans, skeletal muscle glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate concentrations were measured every 15 min by simultaneous 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in nine healthy subjects in the presence of low (0.18 +/- 0.02 mM [mean +/- SEM]; control) or high (1.93 +/- 0.04 mM; lipid infusion) plasma free fatty acid levels under euglycemic (approximately 5.2 mM) hyperinsulinemic (approximately 400 pM) clamp conditions for 6 h. During the initial 3.5 h of the clamp the rate of whole-body glucose uptake was not affected by lipid infusion, but it then decreased continuously to be approximately 46% of control values after 6 h (P , 0.00001). Augmented lipid oxidation was accompanied by a approximately 40% reduction of oxidative glucose metabolism starting during the third hour of lipid infusion (P , 0.05). Rates of muscle glycogen synthesis were similar during the first 3 h of lipid and control infusion, but thereafter ...
Much attention has been focused recently on functional foods. Ume, the Japanese name for the apricot of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., is an example of a Japanese traditional functional food. There are, however, few reports on the effects of fiber from this fruit on bowel function. With this objective, we prepared ume fiber to test the hypothesis that it can change gut function and intestinal flora in mice. Mice were fed an ume fiber (UF) or cellulose (CF) diet (control) for 40 days. The fecal weight, fecal lipids, plasma lipids and cecal composition of the microflora were analyzed. The amount of feces was significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p | 0.01). The fecal lipids content (% DW) of the feces sampled on the final days of the experiment were significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p | 0.01). Plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations tended to be lower in the UF compared to the CF group (p = 0.058). Occupation ratios of Bacteroides and Clostridium
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 have a high prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), as diabetes is implicated in the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Hyperglycemia, elevated free fatty acid, increased amount of circulating end-glucosylated serum products and insulin resistance are the main mechanisms involved in the accelerated atherosclerotic process observed in type 2 DM patients. Novel treatments have been proposed to prevent and treat CAD in patients with diabetes, mainly in those with diabetes type 2. Several clinical trials have been designed in order to examine the effectiveness of these agents, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers, glitazones, statins and antioxidants, but the results are still controversial.
Introduction: Insulin resistance (IR) and obesity coexist in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and contribute to increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. An intrinsic insulin signalling defect is present in skeletal muscle of PCOS and it affects insulin mediated glucose transport in the presence of lipid in vitro studies.. Methods: The effect of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) on IR, postprandial lipids and cardiovascular risk in obese women with PCOS compared to controls was examined by lowering NEFA levels with acute overnight acipimox and chronic 12 week tredaptive therapy. Additional studies included elevating NEFA by lipid infusions and improving NEFA metabolism by moderate intensity exercise.. Results: Effective lowering of NEFA with overnight acipimox therapy improved fasting and postprandial IR in PCOS. It enhanced chylomicron clearance with reduced overnight VLDL production. A rebound rise in NEFA following chronic tredaptive therapy worsened fasting and postprandial IR. ...
Levels of serum cortisol, plasma free fatty acids (FFA), and urinary catecholamines were collected in 31 patients with acute myocardial infarction on the day of admission to the coronary care unit (samples obtained from 15 patients with diseases other than myocardial infarction were considered as controls). These values were correlated with the presence or subsequent development of left ventricular failure, arrhythmias, shock, or death. Sixteen of 17 infarction patients without the above complications had cortisol levels less than 20 µg%; 10 of 12 patients with complications had higher cortisol levels. All of the infarction patients without complications had plasma FFA levels less than 1100 µEq/liter, while six of nine patients with complications had levels of 1100 µEq/liter or higher. Fourteen of 16 patients without complications had urinary catecholamines less than 12.5 µg%, while seven of 10 patients with complications had levels greater than this. Of interest were a few patients without ...
The study was aimed at assessing whether the peri-parturient period is associated with changes of intracellular and plasma inducible heat shock proteins (Hsp) 72 kDa molecular weight in dairy cows, and to establish possible relationships between Hsp72, metabolic, and immunological parameters subjected to changes around calving. The study was carried out on 35 healthy periparturient Holstein cows. Three, two, and one week before the expected calving, and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after calving, body conditions score (BCS) was measured and blood samples were collected to separate plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Concentrations of Hsp72 in PBMC and plasma increased sharply after calving. In the post-calving period, BCS and plasma glucose declined, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased. The proliferative responses of PBMC to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) declined progressively after calving. The percentage of PBMC expressing CD14 ...
The Nonesterified Fatty Acids (Free Fatty Acids) assay is useful in evaluating lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation. Nonesterified Fatty Acids may be useful in evaluating patients with hypoglycemia and for nutritional assessment. ...
Elevated non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels may influence insulin secretion and contribute to the development of Type 2 DM. We investigated the effects of acute NEFA elevation in controls (n = 6) and subjects predisposed to Type 2 DM (n = 6) on basal insulin levels, and following glucose and arginine stimulation. Each subject had one study with a triglyceride (TG) plus heparin infusion (elevated NEFA levels) and another with normal saline. Twenty minutes after the TG or saline infusion began a glucose bolus was given and 10 min later a 90-min hyperglycaemic clamp (approximately 9 mmol l(-1)) was started. Intravenous arginine was given at 110 min. Elevated NEFA levels (approximately 4000 micromol l(-1)) did not enhance basal or first phase glucose stimulated insulin levels. During hyperglycaemia, NEFA elevation further increased insulin levels in both groups by 20-44% (p | 0.05) and C-peptide levels by 17-25% (p | 0.05). The post-arginine insulin levels during hyperglycaemia were increased by 45% in
OBJECTIVE Fat metabolism is increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Endurance training has been shown to prevent hepatic steatosis and to alter skeletal muscle fat metabolism, and regional free fatty acid (FFA) uptake adaptations were suggested as a mechanism. Thus, we tested whether endurance training modifies the uptake of plasma FFAs occurring in the liver and in skeletal muscle during anabolic, i.e., hyperinsulinemic, conditions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Trained and untrained healthy male subjects underwent positron emission tomography scanning of the liver and thigh regions, with the FFA analog 14(R,S)-[(18)F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid, during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Tracer influx rate constants in skeletal muscle (MK(i)) and liver (LK(i)) were multiplied by plasma FFA levels to obtain FFA uptake for skeletal muscle (MFU) and liver (LFU), respectively. RESULTS Athletes showed increased Vo(2max) (P | 0.0001), insulin-mediated glucose disposal (M value, 61 +/
2. Since the glucose utilization diminishes in adipose tissue and the inhibitory effect of insulin on lipolysis becomes less, fat becomes mobilized as free fatty acids and glycerol. The free fatty acids are oxidized or esterified in the tissues. Glycerol is ac-tivated to glycerol 3-phosphate in the liver and kidney. 3. In fasting state, endogenous glucose pro-duction (from amino acid and glycerol) does not keep pace with its utilization and oxidation. Therefore, the stores of liver glycogen become depleted and blood glu-cose level falls. 4. Fat is mobilized rapidly and in several hours the plasma free fatty acids and blood glucose stabilize at the fasting level. At this point, there is the increased oxida-tion of fatty acids forming ketone bodies. In case of demands of more glucose, car-bohydrate in the form of glycerol in adi-pose tissue performs an important func-tion, for it is only this source of carbohy-drate together with that provided by gluconeogenesis from protein. ...
We hypothesize that myocardial free fatty acid and glucose utilization and oxidation rates are dysregulated in HIV+ people with The Metabolic Syndrome in comparison to HIV+ people without The Metabolic Syndrome, and in comparison to HIV-seronegative people with and without The Metabolic Syndrome. We hypothesize that dysregulated myocardial fatty acid and glucose metabolism is associated with impaired heart function (diastolic dysfunction) in HIV+ people with The Metabolic Syndrome. We will use myocardial positron emission tomography, radioactive isotope tracers of palmitate and glucose, and echocardiography to evaluate myocardial metabolism and function. HIV+ people with The Metabolic Syndrome will receive 16wks of exercise training or pioglitazone (Actos), and we will evaluate their potential beneficial effects on myocardial metabolism and function ...
We hypothesize that myocardial free fatty acid and glucose utilization and oxidation rates are dysregulated in HIV+ people with The Metabolic Syndrome in comparison to HIV+ people without The Metabolic Syndrome, and in comparison to HIV-seronegative people with and without The Metabolic Syndrome. We hypothesize that dysregulated myocardial fatty acid and glucose metabolism is associated with impaired heart function (diastolic dysfunction) in HIV+ people with The Metabolic Syndrome. We will use myocardial positron emission tomography, radioactive isotope tracers of palmitate and glucose, and echocardiography to evaluate myocardial metabolism and function. HIV+ people with The Metabolic Syndrome will receive 16wks of exercise training or pioglitazone (Actos), and we will evaluate their potential beneficial effects on myocardial metabolism and function ...
The following question was posted on Facebook: I had thought that free fatty acids were triglycerides. But I am reading a study that measured both. Can someone enlighten me on free fatty acids? ... please. I think I can help. The good news is that, contrary to the college myth, organic chemistry is easy --…
Knowledge of how an individuals genome influences their likelihood of developing (or not developing) a broad range of medical conditions promotes directed wellness and disease prevention: for example, if a persons genomic information indicates a higher-than-average risk of developing metabolic syndrome, that person may choose a lifestyle, or sometimes be prescribed medications, to better regulate the aspects of health and wellness over which he or she has control. The person may benefit in the long run. Applications to Metabolic Syndrome. Candidate Genes. Rapid progress has already been made in identifying the "Candidate genes" associated with Metabolic Syndrome:[v] (Candidate genes are those genes whose variances are associated with phenotyically defined disease states). Genes causing monogenic obesity: Leptin; Leptin receptor; Melanocortin receptor; and Pro-opiomelanocortin. Genes regulating free fatty acid metabolism: Adiponectin; β-Adrenergic receptors; Fatty acid binding protein-2; ...
Involvement of Dynamin-Related Protein 1 in Free Fatty Acid-Induced INS-1-Derived Cell Apoptosis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Circulating free fatty acids are a reflection of the balance between lipogenesis and lipolysis that takes place mainly in adipose tissue. We found that mice deficient for regulator of G protein signaling (RGS)-4 have increased circulating catecholami
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Stable recombinant cell line expressing the Free Fatty Acid FFA1 (GPR40) receptor. Human recombinant, in 1321N1 host cell. We provide: Two vials of the recombinant cell line as frozen cells; Detailed product information including sequence, cell line properties, culture conditions, pharmacological properties of the recombinant receptor in binding and functional assays (cAMP ...
Diese Annahme free Fatty Acids in und food territory Standardmodellen der relativistischen Kosmologie air. Systemen des Lebens als Symmetriebrechung verstehen. Forschungsprogramm von Physik, Chemie control Biologie ab, in dem idea Evolution des Universums untersucht werden kann.
Low Sodium Diet: High FFA, Insulin Resistance, Atherosclerosis August 21, 2012 Posted in General.. Comments Off on Low Sodium Diet: High FFA, Insulin Resistance, Atherosclerosis ...
To further understanding of the multiple temporal relationships of the physiological process, we monitored simultaneously 25 different variables in individual cows. We used 6 Bruna Italiana non - pregnant and non - lactating cows from the same farm. The animals were housed individually in a 12 m2 box under natural 14/10 light/dark cycle. They were fed twice daily and water was available ad libitum. Locomotor activity and heart rate were recorded continuously. The rectal temperature, respiratory rate and blood samples were recorded every 4 hours for 24 consecutive hours. To describe the periodic phenomenon analytically we applied a trigonometric statistical model according to the single cosinor procedure. Twelve of the 25 variables studied showed a daily rhythm: locomotor activity, rectal temperature, respiratory rate, haemoglobin, glucose, creatinine, urea, total cholesterol, total lipids, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), phosphorus and magnesium. Our results contribute to the understanding of ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Young Taek Oh, Hyun Hee Oh, Anh-Khoi Nguyen, Cheol Soo Choi, Jang H Youn].