Author Summary Vaccinia virus, the prototypic poxvirus, is closely related to variola virus, the etiological agent of smallpox. A full understanding of the poxviral life cycle is imperative for the development of novel antiviral therapies, the design of new vaccines, and the effective and safe use of these viruses as oncolytic agents. Metabolomic studies have shed light on the novel mechanisms used by viruses to replicate efficiently within their hosts. de novo fatty acid biosynthesis has been shown to be of relevance for numerous viral infections as well as for the development of cancer. Here we describe an important role for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis during vaccinia infection. Ongoing synthesis of palmitate is needed to fuel the production of energy within mitochondria. The biochemical events of viral DNA replication and protein synthesis are minimally affected by inhibition of this pathway, but viral assembly is disrupted more dramatically. Further exploration of this pathway will provide
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The fatty acid compositions of the neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions of rat lymph node lymphocytes were characterized. Stimulation of rat lymphocytes with the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A resulted in significant changes in the fatty acid composition of both neutral lipids and phospholipids (a decrease in the proportions of stearic, linoleic and arachidonic acids and an increase in the proportion of oleic acid). Membrane fluidity was measured using nitroxide spin-label e.s.r., and increased during culture with concanavalin A. Culturing the lymphocytes in the absence of mitogen did not affect fatty acid composition or membrane fluidity. The uptake and fate of palmitic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were studied in detail; there was a time-dependent incorporation of each fatty acid into all lipid classes but each fatty acid had a characteristic fate. Palmitic and arachidonic acids were incorporated principally into phospholipids whereas oleic and linoleic acids were incorporated in similar
Background Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been evaluated. Methods and findings We measured plasma phospholipid fatty acids by gas chromatography in 27,296 adults, including 12,132 incident cases of T2D, over the follow-up period between baseline (1991-1998) and 31 December 2007 in 8 European countries in EPIC-InterAct, a nested case-cohort study. The first principal component derived by principal component analysis of 27 individual fatty acids (mole percentage) was the main exposure (subsequently called the fatty acid pattern score [FA-pattern score]). The FA-pattern score was partly characterised by high concentrations of linoleic acid, stearic acid, odd-chain fatty acids, and very-long-chain saturated fatty acids and low concentrations of γ-linolenic acid, palmitic acid, and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids, and it explained ...
Extracellular fatty acid incorporation into the phospholipids of Staphylococcus aureus occurs via fatty acid phosphorylation. We show that fatty acid kinase (Fak) is composed of two dissociable protein subunits encoded by separate genes. FakA provides the ATP binding domain and interacts with two distinct FakB proteins to produce acyl-phosphate. The FakBs are fatty acid binding proteins that exchange bound fatty acid/acyl-phosphate with fatty acid/acyl-phosphate presented in detergent micelles or liposomes. The ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 strains were unable to incorporate extracellular fatty acids into phospholipid. FakB1 selectively bound saturated fatty acids whereas FakB2 preferred unsaturated fatty acids. Affymetrix array showed a global perturbation in the expression of virulence genes in the ΔfakA strain. The severe deficiency in α-hemolysin protein secretion in ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 mutants coupled with quantitative mRNA measurements showed that fatty acid kinase activity was ...
This paper describes the fuel properties, combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of the methyl esters of saturated fatty acid with 6 to 10 carbons in the molecule chain. The fuels blend (50/50 mass%) of three saturated fatty acid methyl esters (methyl caproate, methyl caprylate, methyl caprate); with methyl laurate as a base fuel are tested using a DI diesel engine. From the experimental results, the blend of saturated fatty acid methyl ester with a lower carbon number has a lower kinematic viscosity, pour point and smoke emission, though having longer ignition delay, the same as long chain saturated fatty acid methyl ester ...
Nowadays the industrial chemistry reactions rely on green technologies. Enzymes as lipases are increasing its use in diverse chemical processes. Epoxidized fatty acid methyl esters obtained from transesterification of vegetable oils have recently found applications as polymer plasticizer, agrochemical, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food additives. In this research article, grapeseed, avocado and olive oils naturally containing high percents of mono and poly unsaturations were used as starting materials for the production of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters. The effect of lauric acid as an active oxygen carrier was studied on epoxidation reactions where unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters were converted to epoxy fatty acid methyl esters using immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase type B as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as oxygen donor at mild temperature and pressure conditions. After this study it was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and GC-MS that the addition of lauric acid to the enzymatic
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of n-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation on fatty acid composition of the single platelet phospholipids and on platelet functions. AU - Prisco, Domenico. AU - Filippini, Monica. AU - Francalanci, Isa. AU - Paniccia, Rita. AU - Gensini, Gian Franco. AU - Serneri, Gian Gastone Neri. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Twenty healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either four 1-g capsules of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ethyl esters or four 1-g capsules of olive oil (as placebo) for a period of 4 months, followed by a 3-month wash-out period. Fatty acids of platelet phospholipid fractions, platelet aggregation, and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) formation were analyzed at 0, 2, and 4 months of treatment and at 1, 2, and 3 months of wash-out. During n-3 PUFA supplementation, accumulations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids were markedly increased after 2 months, with slight differences in further accumulation up ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Imaging of myocardial fatty acid oxidation. AU - Mather, Kieren J.. AU - DeGrado, Timothy R. PY - 2016/1/21. Y1 - 2016/1/21. N2 - Myocardial fuel selection is a key feature of the health and function of the heart, with clear links between myocardial function and fuel selection and important impacts of fuel selection on ischemia tolerance. Radiopharmaceuticals provide uniquely valuable tools for in vivo, non-invasive assessment of these aspects of cardiac function and metabolism. Here we review the landscape of imaging probes developed to provide non-invasive assessment of myocardial fatty acid oxidation (MFAO). Also, we review the state of current knowledge that myocardial fatty acid imaging has helped establish of static and dynamic fuel selection that characterizes cardiac and cardiometabolic disease and the interplay between fuel selection and various aspects of cardiac function.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. ...
The heart relies predominantly on a balance between fatty acids and glucose to generate its energy supply. There is an important interaction between the metabolic pathways of these two substrates in the heart. When circulating levels of fatty acids are high, fatty acid oxidation can dominate over glucose oxidation as a source of energy through feedback inhibition of the glucose oxidation pathway. Following an ischaemic episode, fatty acid oxidation rates increase further, resulting in an uncoupling between glycolysis and glucose oxidation. This uncoupling results in an increased proton production, which worsens ischaemic damage. Since high rates of fatty acid oxidation can contribute to ischaemic damage by inhibiting glucose oxidation, it is important to maintain proper control of fatty acid oxidation both during and following ischaemia. An important molecule that controls myocardial fatty acid oxidation is malonyl-CoA, which inhibits uptake of fatty acids into the mitochondria. The levels of ...
This paper aims to report the authors study of the fatty acid methyl ester consisting of plant oil or animal fat in hope to improve the effectiveness and profitability of its practical application.As is known,the fatty acid methyl ester is a kind of bio-diesel that is likely to be used as fuel of diesel engine with the environment-friendly properties.The present paper has compared the properties of fatty acid methyl ester and diesel oil by conducting experiments on a four-cylinder turbo-charge direct injection diesel engine at a compression ratio of 18 and rated power of 76 kW at 3 800 r/min.When the engine is fueled with diesel oil,fatty acid methyl ester,the blended fuel consisting of fatty acid methyl ester and diesel at a ratio of 30% to 70% and 50% to 50% in weight under two working conditions.That is to say,let the engine work at its full load at the speed of 1 800 r/min and 2 200 r/min,and watch how about the engine performs its duty.While testing such behaviors as power,energy consumption
Resistance to the action of insulin affects fatty acid delivery to the liver, fatty acid synthesis and oxidation within the liver, and triglyceride export from the liver. To understand the metabolic consequences of hepatic fatty acid synthesis, partitioning, oxidation, and net liver fat content in the fasted and postprandial states, we used stable-isotope tracer methodologies to study healthy men and women with varying degrees of insulin resistance before and after consumption of a mixed meal. Subjects were classified as being normoinsulinemic (NI) (fasting plasma insulin |11.2 mU/L, n = 18) or hyperinsulinemic (HI) (fasting plasma insulin |11.2 mU/L, n = 19). Liver fat content was similar between HI and NI individuals, despite HI subjects having marginally more visceral fat. However, de novo lipogenesis was higher and fatty acid oxidation was lower in HI individuals compared with NI subjects. These data suggest that metabolic pathways promoting fat accumulation are enhanced in HI but, paradoxically,
The present study quantifies the relationships between diet fatty acid profile and fatty acid composition of rat skeletal muscle phospholipids. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed, for 8 weeks, on one of twelve moderate-fat diets (25% of total energy) differing only in fatty acid profile. SFA content ranged from 8-88% of total fatty acids, MUFA 6-65 %, total PUFA 4-81 %, n-6 PUFA 3-70% and n-3 PUFA 1-70 %. Diet PUFA included only essential fatty acids 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3. The balance between n-3 and n-6 PUFA (PUFA balance) in the diet ranged from 1 : 99 to 86 : 14% n-3 PUFA:n-6 PUFA. The slope of muscle phospholipid composition plotted against diet composition quantifies the response of muscle membrane composition to dietary fat (0, no response; 1, complete conformity with diet). The resulting slopes were 0·02 (SFA), 0·10 (PUFA), 0·11 (MUFA), 0·14 (n-3 PUFA) and 0·23 (n-6 PUFA). The response to PUFA balance was biphasic with a slope of 0·98 below 10% diet PUFA balance and ...
Predicting fatty acid composition of beef cattle at slaughter using weaner data would enable an early selection decision thereby saving time and costs associated with progeny testing. The aim of this study was to examine genetic and phenotypic correlations between triacylglycerol fatty acid composition at weaning and slaughter. Subcutaneous fat between the 12th and 13th rib interface was biopsied from 324 weaner calves sired by Angus, Belgian Blue, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, South Devon and Wagyu. Fat from the same anatomical site was sampled from their carcasses at slaughter and analysed for fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography. Statistical analysis was by Mixed Model and Maximum Likelihood procedures of Harvey (1990) after adjusting for genotype, sire nested within genotype, sex and location. Results indicated strongly positive genetic correlations between biopsy and carcass stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1n-9), total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and delta-nine desaturase enzyme index ...
The aim of this thesis was to investigate how dietary fatty acids affect the risk for cardiometabolic disease, i.e. cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and obesity. The overall hypothesis was that unsaturated fatty acids and especially the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid (LA), 18:2n-6, would decrease cardiometabolic risk compared with saturated fatty acids (SFAs), in line with current recommendations to partly replace dietary SFA with PUFA.. Papers I and V were observational studies based on the community-based cohort Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM). Adipose tissue fatty acid composition was determined as biomarker for dietary fat intake. Studies II, III and IV were randomised short-term interventions on human volunteers, in which different dietary fats were provided to the participants.. In 71-year-old men, adipose tissue LA and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) were associated with insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic clamp), although this ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophage fatty acid composition and phagocytosis. T2 - Effect of unsaturation on cellular phagocytic activity. AU - Schroit, A. J.. AU - Gallily, R.. PY - 1979. Y1 - 1979. N2 - In order to manipulate the physical properties of the macrophage membrane, methods were developed which potentiated the incorporation of exogenously supplied fatty acids into membrane lipids. Chromatograms of macrophages which were grown in the presence of a variety of fatty acids demonstrated that exogenously supplied unsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic, oleic, elaidic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acids) were readily incorporated into the cells and selectively altered the fatty acyl composition of macrophage phospholipids. Up to 38% of the total cellular phospholipids were found to be derived from the exogenously added fatty acid supplements. The incorporation of the different fatty acids into cellular phospholipids had striking effects on cellular phagocytic activity. These effects were found ...
In the category, there can be observed a trend for the toxicity of aquatic invertebrates. This is related to the toxicity mode of action (narcosis). Thus, a linear dependence on log Kow is expected. The highest toxicity was determined for methyl laurate (CAS 111-82-0, fatty acid chain length C12). In the GLP-study (Ministry of the Environment of Japan, 2006) according to OECD 202 the EC50 (48h) was determined as 0.255 mg/L for Daphnia magna. The toxicity decreases with shorter and longer chain length of the fatty acids. For methyl decanoate (CAS 110-42-9, fatty acid chain length C10), a lower toxicity for Daphnia magna was estimated. In one GLP-study (Bouwman, 2010) according to OECD 202 an EC50 of 1.1 mg/L was determined for methyl decanoate. Two QSAR-calculations for methyl octanoate (CAS 111-11-5, fatty acid chain length C8) yielded LC50 of 5.6 mg/L (ECOSAR, 2010) and LC50 = 11.6 mg/L (von der Ohe, 2005). The more conservative of the two values was accepted as the key value, what is ...
The intramuscular fat deposition and the fatty acid profiles of beef affect meat quality. High proportions of unsaturated fatty acids are related to beef flavor and are beneficial for the nutritional value of meat. Moreover, a variety of clinical and epidemiologic studies showed that particularly long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from animal sources have a positive impact on human health and disease. To screen for genetic factors affecting fatty acid profiles in beef, we initially performed a microsatellite-based genome scan in a F2 Charolais × German Holstein resource population and identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fatty acid composition in a region on bovine chromosome 27 where previously QTL affecting marbling score had been detected in beef cattle populations. The long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1) gene was identified as the most plausible functional and positional candidate gene in the QTL interval due to its direct impact on fatty acid metabolism and its position in the QTL
We investigated the potential of using multivariate factor analysis to extract metabolic information from data on the quantity and quality of milk produced under different management systems. We collected data from individual milk samples taken from 1,158 Brown Swiss cows farmed in 85 traditional or modern herds in Trento Province (Italy). Factor analysis was carried out on 47 individual fatty acids, milk yield, and 5 compositional milk traits (fat, protein, casein, and lactose contents, somatic cell score). According to a previous study on multivariate factor analysis, a variable was considered to be associated with a specific factor if the absolute value of its correlation with the factor was ≥0.60. The extracted factors were representative of the following 12 groups of fatty acids or functions: de novo fatty acids, branched fatty acid-milk yield, biohydrogenation, long-chain fatty acids, desaturation, short-chain fatty acids, milk protein and fat contents, odd fatty acids, conjugated ...
Abstract: Seasonal variations of fatty acids were studied in the lipid fractions of the bivalve mollusk, Saccostrea cucullata, at the intertidal zone of Chabahar bay in the northern part of Oman Sea (Iran). Samples were collected in rocky shores between two stations. The analysis were carried by GC/MS chromatography. Thirteen fatty acids were identified, of which, the most important saturated fatty acids (SFA) were 14:0, 4, 8, 12 tri Me- 13:0, 16:0 and 18:0, the mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) included 16:1n-9, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-11, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were linoleic acid 9,12 18:2 , eicosapentaenoic acid EPA 20:5n-3 and arachidonic acid 20:4n-6.Variability of the fatty acid components were studied in four seasons. Maximum percentage level in Saccostrea cucullata for 14:0, 4, 8, 12 tri Me 13:0, 16:0 and 15:0 as saturated fatty acids was observed in summer, while for 18:1n-9, 20:1n-11 and 20:5n-3 (as unsaturated fatty acids) maximum concentration was observed in winter. The ...
Providing Evidence That Seafood and Replacing Dietary Saturated Fatty Acids With More Complex Carbohydrates Protect Against Coronary Artery Disease: Spotlight: Erik Berg Schmidt, MD, DMSc, FESC ...
This paper describes a method for manipulating plant membrane fatty acid compositions without altering growth temperature or other conditions. Tween-fatty acid esters carrying specific fatty acids were synthesized and applied to various organs of plants growing axenically in glass jars. Treated plan …
Structural, energetic, biochemical, and ecological information suggests that germination temperature is an important selective agent causing seed oils of higher-latitude plants to have proportionately more unsaturated fatty acids than lower-latitude plants. Germination temperature is predicted to select relative proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in seed oils that optimize the total energy stores in a seed and the rate of energy production during germination. Saturated fatty acids store more energy per carbon than unsaturated fatty acids; however, unsaturated fatty acids have much lower melting points than saturated fatty acids. Thus, seeds with lower proportions of saturated fatty acids in their oils should be able to germinate earlier and grow more rapidly at low temperatures even though they store less total energy than seeds with a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids. Seeds that germinate earlier and grow more rapidly should have a competitive advantage. At higher ...
The objective of the present study was to investigate the mobilization of individual fatty acids from human white fat cells. Mammary adipose tissue from eight healthy non-obese women in their normal dietary state was collected, and isolated adipocytes were incubated with lipolytic agents. The mobilization of 34 individual fatty acids was measured by comparing the composition of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) with that of the triacylglycerols (TAG) from which they originated through lipolysis. Compared with TAG, NEFA were enriched in some polyunsaturated fatty acids with 18-20 carbon atoms. Conversely, the percentage of very-long-chain (20-22 carbon atoms) saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids was approx. 2 times lower in NEFA than in TAG. The relative mobilization (% in NEFA/% in TAG) of the most readily mobilized fatty acid (C20:5,n-3; 2.25) was more than 6-fold higher than that of the least readily mobilized (C22:1,n-11; 0.37). Relationships were found between the molecular structure of ...
Background Palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), and oleic acid (18:1n-9) are major saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids that are synthesized via de novo lipogenesis (DNL) or obtained from the diet. Circulating levels of these fatty acids are linked to several diseases including diabetes and heart disease. Prior family and twin studies suggest high heritability of circulating levels, but potential genes involved are unknown.. Objective To carry out a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) to investigate genetic determinants of circulating levels of these fatty acids.. Methods GWAS in 5 population-based cohorts (n=8,961) of European ancestry. Each study conducted linear regression analysis using an additive genetic model. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, site of recruitment, and principal components to account for possible population genetic substructure where appropriate. Study-specific results were combined using inverse-variance weighted ...
Omega-3 fatty acids are quite beneficial for human health. These play a vital role in lowering blood cholesterol, blood triglycerides and, hence, blood pressure. Omega-3 fatty acids are helpful in preventing heart diseases, skin diseases and auto immune disorders. The daily intake of 0.5 to 1.0 gram omega-3 fatty acids is recommended for an individual for a healthy life. The food industry is taking steps to return these healthful fatty acids to the human diets. In this regards, poultry meat and eggs can serve the purpose if enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Laying hens have the ability to absorb and deposit dietary fatty acids without considerable modification in the composition. Thus, the lipid metabolism in the hens permits the fortification of eggs with omega-3 fatty acids by dietary supplementation to increase the provision of these fatty acids which are appropriate for human consumption. This book provides the necessary information about the enrichment of eggs with omega-3 fatty acids by ...
Venäläinen TM. Lankinen MA. Schwab US. (2017). Odd-chain fatty acids as dietary biomarkers for fiber and fish intake. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, 106 (3) , 954. 10.3945/ajcn.117.162347. ...
The major finding of the present study was that serum linoleic acid was inversely associated with the risk of total stroke, ischemic stroke, and more specifically lacunar infarction. These associations remained significant even after adjustment for known cardiovascular risk factors and the matching variables of age, sex, years of serum storage, and community. Further adjustment for other fatty acids such as saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids did not materially alter the relation with risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke. Serum saturated fatty acids were positively associated with the risk of total stroke, ischemic stroke, and lacunar infarction, but these associations disappeared when adjusted further for linoleic and monounsaturated fatty acids. The adjustment for these fatty acids may be unreliable because saturated fatty acids and linoleic acid were strongly correlated. However, the analysis is likely to be correct statistically because we verified that the relationship of ...
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of feeding alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of seminal plasma. Nine bulls (ALA bulls) were fed with 800 g rumen-resistant linseed oil with a content of 50% linolenic acid and eight bulls with 400 g palmitic acid (PA bulls). Sperm quality was evaluated for plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), the amount of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the percentage of sperm with a high DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Fatty acid content of sperm was determined using gas chromatography. Total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity were determined in seminal plasma. Feeding ALA increased (P , 0.05) the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in bulls whereas in PA bulls did not change. PMAI increased after cryopreservation in ALA bulls as well as in PA bulls during the experiment period (P , 0.005). LPO of sperm directly after ...
Novel findings of the current study include: 1) significant increase in fractional myocardial dietary fatty acid uptake in IGT+ individuals not explained by difference in age, body fat, central obesity markers, or sex; 2) an association between the latter myocardial metabolic abnormality and reduction in systolic and diastolic left ventricular functions and increased myocardial oxidative metabolism; and 3) no significant changes in liver and skeletal muscle dietary fatty acid uptake in IGT+ individuals. The present results extend the association between increased myocardial NEFA uptake and oxidation and IGT observed during fasting (16) to postprandial dietary fatty acids. In addition, we confirmed the findings of others of reduced subcutaneous abdominal and visceral adipose tissue fractional uptake of dietary fatty acids in abdominally obese individuals (17,18). We furthermore found a direct association between impaired relative dietary fatty acid uptake in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue ...
In this prospective study, we examined the fatty acid composition of phospholipids in serum of 394 subjects to determine the role of different types of fatty acids in the incidence of breast cancer.. Overall, we did not find an association between individual or total MUFA or PUFA and breast cancer risk. The only systematic finding was a significant positive association between serum SFA levels and breast cancer risk after menopause.. Our investigation was based on blood samples collected at baseline in a prospective cohort study. The major strength of this approach is that it is very unlikely that the fatty acid profile we measured could be influenced by the presence of undetected cancer. A study on reliability of fatty acid composition in human serum phospholipids in the NYUWHS cohort (38) showed that fatty acid levels in a single blood sample per subject have a good correlation with repeat measurements after a 2-3-year interval. The fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids can therefore ...
A new cyanobacterial strain was isolated and purified from salt Lake Balkhash, Kazakhstan. According to its morphological and ultrastructural characteristics, 16S rRNA sequence and the fatty acid profile, the strain has been classified as Cyanobacterium spp. and assigned as Cyanobacterium sp. IPPAS B-1200. The strain is characterized by a non-temperature inducible Δ9-desaturation system, and by high relative amounts of myristic (14:0-30%) and myristoleic (14:1Δ9-10%) acids. The total amount of C14 fatty acids reaches 40%, which is unusually high for cyanobacteria, and it has never been reported before. The remaining fatty acids are represented mainly by palmitic (16:0) and palmitoleic (16:1Δ9) acids (the sum reaches nearly 60%). Such a fatty acid composition, together with a relatively high speed of growth, makes this newly isolated strain a prospective candidate for biodiesel production.
The mitochondrial acyl-carrier protein (ACP) functions in the synthesis of fatty acids within the mitochondrial matrix. Fatty acids are elongated on the covalently bound 4-phosphopantetheine cofactor on ACP. ACP has a second essential function within the mitochondria in the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters. Cells depleted of ACP are impaired in FeS cluster formation throughout the cell. ACP is a stable subunit of the cysteine desulfurase (Nfs1) and Isd11 subcomplex that generates sulfide ions for FeS cluster formation. The FeS defect observed in cells depleted of ACP can be partially suppressed by overexpression of the mitochondrial iron transporter Mrs3. The stability of ACP is dependent of the iron status of mitochondria. Thus, the central role of Acp1 in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, lipoic acid formation and FeS cluster biogenesis suggests that these processes are tied to Fe availability within the mitochondria. ...
Abstract: Fatty Acid Effect on Carcass The Influence of Various Blends of Dietary Fats Added to Corn-Soybean Meal Based Diets on the Fatty Acid Composition of Broilers
The function of fatty acid biosynthesis in mitochondria has remained an enigma. In eukaryotic plants, synthesis of fatty acids occurs primarily in plastids such as chloroplasts, and products of this pathway supply acyl precursors for mitochondrial and other extraplastidial membranes. The discovery of ACP in plant mitochondria (4, 5) has raised the possibility that these organelles also participate in de novo fatty acid synthesis. However, ACP has been considered to have several other functions in metabolism, and, in mitochondria, ACP is reported to be one component of the respiratory electron transport chain (14). Thus, whether ACP participates in fatty acid synthesis in plant mitochondria and what function this pathway might have in any eukaryotic organism has been unclear. In this study, we have demonstrated that the de novo synthesis of fatty acids does occur in pea mitochondria, indicating that these organelles possess the complete set of enzymes needed to assemble fatty acids. The analysis ...
Phospholipid fatty acid composition and vitamin E levels in the retina of obese (fa/fa) and lean (FA/FA) Zucker rats.: We have compared the fatty acid compositi
One pathway by which endotoxemia and lipid peroxidation act in concert to promote alcoholic liver injury is via NF-κB. NF-κB is a ubiquitous transcription factor that is implicated in the activation of many genes, including those involved in alcoholic liver injury (May and Ghosh, 1997; Nanji et al., 1999). The results of this study confirm our previous finding that activation of NF-κB occurs in association with development of necroinflammatory changes in the liver (Nanji et al., 1999). In addition, we show that the reduction in necrosis and inflammation induced by treatment with saturated fatty acid is accompanied by a marked reduction of NF-κB activation. The saturated fatty acid-induced inhibition of NF-κB activation was accompanied by increased amounts of IκBα. The mechanism by which saturated fatty acids stabilize IκBα and suppress NF-κB activation remains to be elucidated, but a role for decreased levels of endotoxin and lipid peroxidation is likely. Although we did not, in the ...
How much of 17:0 heptadecanoic, margaric fatty acid is present in McDONALDS, Apple Dippers with Low Fat Caramel Sauce in details, quantity how high or low 17:0 heptadecanoic, margaric fatty acid nutrient content it has.
1. The highest surface pressure of phosphatidylcholine monolayers allowing penetration of delipidated serum albumin decreased in the order dibehenoyl,distearoyl,dipalmitoyl=dimyristoyl. This pressure was not related to the area occupied or to the space available between the phospholipid molecules at the interface. 2. Penetration of albumin into yeast phosphatidylcholine monolayers was increased by adding a small percentage of long-chain anions (phosphatidic acid, dicetylphosphoric acid) to the film but only when the protein was below its isoelectric point (i.e. positively charged). 3. Stearylamine added to phosphatidylcholine monolayers had no effect on albumin penetration even when the protein was oppositely charged to that of the phospholipid/water interface. 4. The results are discussed in relation to the activation of certain phospholipases by anionic amphipathic substances.. ...
Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are triglycerides whose fatty acids have an aliphatic tail of 6-12 carbon atoms. The fatty acids found in MCTs are called medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). Like all triglycerides, MCTs are composed of a glycerol backbone and three fatty acids. In the case of MCTs, 2 or 3 of the fatty acid chains attached to glycerol are of medium length. Rich sources for commercial extraction of beneficial MCTs include palm kernel oil and coconut oil. With regard to MCFAs, apart from the above listed straight chain (unbranched chain) fatty acids, side chain (branched chain) fatty acids also exist. Molecular weight analysis of milk from different species showed that while milk fats from all studied species were primarily composed of long-chain fatty acid (16 and 18 carbons long), approximately 10-20% of the fatty acids in milk from horses, cows, sheep, and goats were medium-chain fatty acids. Some studies have shown that MCTs can help in the process of excess calorie burning, ...
Beef semitendinosus muscles were collected from ten bulls carcasses and used to determine fatty acids changes with different thermal treatment, boiling or microwave cooking. The results obtained show variabilities of fatty acids profiles in neutral lipid (NL), polar lipid (PL) and total lipid (TL) fraction under different internal temperature (60°C, 70°C or 80°C). Generally, in NL fraction (mainly beef intramuscular fat), content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (P | 0.05) significantly with boiling compared with raw beef, however, content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and PUFA unchanged (P | 0.05) with the method of microwave cooking. On considering health benefit, it is proposed that beef with abundant intramuscular fat were more suitable for being treated with boiling, not microwave cooking. In PL and TL fraction, content of PUFA decreased (P | 0.05) with boiling and microwave cooking comparing with raw beef. Ratios of P/S (PUFA to saturated fatty acid (SFA)) decreased in
Read "Effect of Wheatgrass on Membrane Fatty Acid Composition During Hepatotoxicity Induced by Alcohol and Heated PUFA, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Omega-3 fatty acids provide many health benefits, from reducing cardiovascular disease to improving mental health, and consumer interest in foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids is increasing. Formulating a product enriched with these fatty acids that is stable and has an acceptable flavour is challenging. Food enrichment with omega-3 fatty acids provides an overview of key topics in this area. Part one, an introductory section, reviews sources of omega-3 fatty acids and their health benefits. Chapters in part two explore the stabilisation of both fish oil itself and foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Part three focuses on the fortification of different types of foods and beverages with omega-3 fatty acids, including meat products, by the modification of animal diets and other methods, infant formula and baked goods. Finally, part four highlights new directions in the field and discusses algal oil as a source of omega-3 fatty acids and labelling and claims in foods containing omega-3 ...
Dairy cows with greater subcutaneous fat stores release greater concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) into the blood during the periparturient period. Large quantities of circulating NEFA alter circulating phospholipids (PL) fatty acid (FA) profile. Modified cellular FA profile effects immune cell function. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated lipid mobilization during the periparturient period on serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and polymorphonucleocytes (PMN) NEFA and PL fraction and milk fatty acid (FA) profile, PBMC and PMN gene expression of selected markers of inflammation and production measures. Thirty-four cows were blocked by parity; treatment group received a high-energy prepartum ration. Control group received a normal-energy ration and monensin. In summary, increased subcutaneous fat stores altered the FA profile of serum, PBMC and PMN NEFA and PL fractions and milk as well as gene expression of PBMC in periparturient ...
In order to predict omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet of humans, seventy-three pork back fat adipose tissue samples were measured with Raman spectroscopy directly on adipose tissue and on melted fat. Melted fat samples were, in addition, measured with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Gas chromatography analyses were conducted as the reference analysis. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to calibrate and validate all models predicting omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids contents from spectra. Omega-6 fatty acids in melted fat measured with FT-IR was predicted with a correlation coefficient (,i,R,/i,) of 0.93 and a root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 1.61% of the total amount of fatty acids. Raman spectra measured on melted fat gave a prediction of omega-6 fatty acids with ,i,R,/i, = 0.97, and RMSECV = 0.99% of total amount of fatty acids. Omega-6 fatty acids were predicted with ,i,R,/i, = 0.94, and RMSECV = 1.50% of the total amount of fatty ...
Abstract Background Porcine fatty acid composition is a key factor for quality and nutritive value of pork. Several QTLs for fatty acid composition have been reported in diverse fat tissues. The results obtained so far seem to point out different genetic control of fatty acid composition conditional on the fat deposits. Those studies have been conducted using simple approaches and most of them focused on one single tissue. The first objective of the present study was to identify tissue-specific and tissue-consistent QTLs for fatty acid composition in backfat and intramuscular fat, combining linkage mapping and GWAS approaches and conducted under single and multitrait models. A second aim was to identify powerful candidate genes for these tissue-consistent QTLs, using microarray gene expression data and following a targeted genetical genomics approach. Results The single model analyses, linkage and GWAS, revealed over 30 and 20 chromosomal regions, 24 of them identified here for the first time, ...
Ever since the emergence of the hypothesis that linked the aetiology of schizophrenia with abnormal membrane phospholipids composition, an increasing number of evidences have suggested reduced membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with schizophrenia. This has led to a conduct of several studies to evaluate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplement in the modification of membrane phospholipids and treatment of schizophrenia. The two main omega-3 fatty acid classes, EPA and DHA, play a vital role in membranes. This project work reviews omega-3 fatty acid studies and summarizes their outcomes. Eight original articles (nine studies) were reviewed. Six out of nine studies measured RBC membrane fatty acids levels and all six studies reported a significant increase in EPA after EPA supplement. Two studies reported increased DHA post omega-3 fatty acid and DHA supplement, respectively. One study observed a dose-dependent increment in DHA after EPA supplement. Improved symptoms were ...
The main findings in the present study were the differences in the fatty acid profiles of skeletal muscle phospholipids and triglycerides between the TRA group and the UNT group despite their similar dietary fatty acid composition. The fatty acid pattern in muscle phospholipids is probably partly genetically determined (4) but has also been shown to be influenced by environmental factors such as diet (2, 3) and physical activity (1, 19, 35). In the present study, the fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle was determined after 8 wk of diet with a controlled fatty acid composition. According to the food records, the study groups had similar proportions of fatty acids in the diet both at baseline and during the standardized period. The compliance to the controlled diet was verified by the similarity between TRA and UNT groups regarding the fatty acid compositions of serum cholesterol esters and serum phospholipids. Thus the observed dissimilarity in the fatty acid profile of skeletal muscle was ...
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Fatty acid homeostasis and induction of lipid regulatory genes in skeletal muscles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha knock-out mice. Evidence for compensatory regulation by PPAR delta.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Up-regulation of uncoupling protein 3 gene expression by fatty acids and agonists for PPARs in L6 myotubes. AU - Son, C.. AU - Hosoda, K.. AU - Matsuda, J.. AU - Fujikura, J.. AU - Yonemitsu, S.. AU - Iwakura, H.. AU - Masuzaki, H.. AU - Ogawa, Yoshihiro. AU - Hayashi, T.. AU - Itoh, H.. AU - Nishimura, H.. AU - Inoue, G.. AU - Yoshimasa, Y.. AU - Yamori, Y.. AU - Nakao, K.. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), which uncouples electron transport from ATP synthesis, is expressed at high levels in the skeletal muscle, an important organ in glucose and lipid metabolism. Because several reports proposed that fatty acids induced UCP3 gene expression in skeletal muscle in vivo, in the present study we examined the regulation of UCP3 gene expression by various fatty acids using L6 myotubes. UCP3 gene expression was increased in L6 myotubes by various fatty acids or by α-bromopalmitate, a nonmetabolized derivative of palmitic acid. Because fatty acids are also ...
In our screening to search inhibitors of phosphoinositide(PI)-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC), two inhibitors, MT965-A and -B were isolated from a culture broth of an actinomycetes. MT965-A and -B were identified as fatty acid derivatives, 14-methylpentadecanoic acid and 16-methyllinoleic acid methyl ester, respectively, based on the spectral data including NMR and MS. Both inhibitors directly inhibited not only in vitro PLCγ1 activity but also the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced inositol phosphates (IPt) formation in NIH 3T3γ1 cells overexpressing PLCγ1. However, the inhibitors enhanced in vitro protein kinase C (PKC) activity. On examination of the effects of various fatty acids (FAs) on activities of PLC, PKC, and PDGF-induced IPt formation, the unsaturated FAs (UFAs) showed the same activities like the inhibitors, but the saturated FAs (SFAs) did not show similar activities. It was inferred that the chain length, degree of unsaturation, methyl esterification, branching with ...
Background: Studies have found that HDL particle (HDL-P) concentration is inversely associated with risk of CVD, independent of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). Dietary factors (such as fatty acid intake) have been found to affect levels of HDL-C and influence risk of CVD. However, little is known about the associations of dietary fatty acid with serum HDL-P levels.. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that dietary fatty acid associations with HDL-P are independent of HDL-C in men.. Methods: Data were from 463 male participants in the 1996-98 cross-sectional INTERLIPID Study, ages 40-59 years, randomly selected from five populations; four in Japan (n=386) and one in Hawaii (n=77). Fatty acid intake was estimated from the mean of four in-depth 24-hour dietary recalls (% kcal per day). Individuals were excluded due to missing data on HDL-P or HDL-C and use of lipid lowering medication. Serum HDL-P was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance and HDL-C was measured using standard methods. Multiple linear ...
Fatty acid metabolism consists of catabolic processes that generate energy, and anabolic processes that create biologically important molecules (triglycerides, phospholipids, second messengers, local hormones and ketone bodies). Fatty acids are a family of molecules classified within the lipid macronutrient class. One role of fatty acids in animal metabolism is energy production, captured in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). When compared to other macronutrient classes (carbohydrates and protein), fatty acids yield the most ATP on an energy per gram basis, when they are completely oxidized to CO2 and water by beta oxidation and the citric acid cycle. Fatty acids (mainly in the form of triglycerides) are therefore the foremost storage form of fuel in most animals, and to a lesser extent in plants. In addition, fatty acids are important components of the phospholipids that form the phospholipid bilayers out of which all the membranes of the cell are constructed (the cell wall, and the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dietary fatty acids alter blood pressure, behavior and brain membrane composition of hypertensive rats. AU - De Wilde, Martijn C.. AU - Hogyes, Endre. AU - Kiliaan, Amanda J.. AU - Farkas, T.. AU - Luiten, Paul G M. AU - Farkas, E.. PY - 2003/10/24. Y1 - 2003/10/24. N2 - The beneficial effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on developing hypertension has been repeatedly demonstrated. However, related changes in brain membrane composition and its cognitive correlates have remained unclear. Our study aimed at a comprehensive analysis of behavior and cerebral fatty acid concentration in hypertension after long-term PUFA-rich dietary treatment. Hypertensive and normotensive rats were provided a placebo, or one of two PUFA-enriched diets with a reduced (n-6)/(n-3) ratio for 75 weeks. Exploratory behavior and spatial learning capacity were tested. Systolic blood pressure (BP) was repeatedly measured. Finally, brain fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas ...
1. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the administration of glycine, a non-essential amino acid, on blood alcohol levels and tissue fatty acid composition in experimental rats. 2. Liver cell damage was induced by the admini
The fats we consume in our diet are mainly triglycerides. Triglycerides are composed of three molecules of fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule. The type of fatty acids in triglycerides determines the characteristics of fatty foods, such as whether it is solid or liquid at room temperature. Measurements of fatty acids in red blood cell membranes can provide important information about fatty acid intake. Recently, the relative amount of omega-3 fatty acids in red blood cells has attracted interest as it may provide information about the future risk of heart disease.. Taking the OMEGA HealthTest from Lipomic Healthcare will provide you a detailed and a complete fatty acid profile of your blood sample. Lipomic Healthcare will categorize your fatty acid profile into 4 important categories of fatty acids found in red blood cells which are: saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3), and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6). Unfortunately ...
Composition of follicular fluid to which the preovulatory follicle is exposed may be one of the major factors determining subsequent fertility, as fatty acids are a precursor of hormones involved in dominance, ovulation and atresia mechanisms. The objective of this paper is to observe fatty acid profiles in various lipid classes according to estrogenic activity of follicles. For each of the 18 cows, we analysed plasma and follicular fluid fatty acid profiles of phospholipids, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), cholesteryl esters and triglycerides fractions. Follicles were classified as active (ratio oestrogen to progesterone E2/P4 , 1) and inactive (E2/P4 , 1). For seven cows, we get both types of follicles, six had only one active follicle and five cows had only one inactive follicle. The NEFA profile for palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, C20:3n6, arachidonic acid and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; p , 0.001) is different between inactive and active follicles and plasma. ...
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Omega-3 fatty acids are considered essential fatty acids: They are necessary for human health but the body can t make them -- you have to get them through food. Omega-3 fatty acids can be found in fish, such as salmon, tuna, and halibut, other seafood including algae and krill, some plants, and nut oils. Also known as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), omega-3 fatty acids play a crucial role in brain function as well as normal growth and development. They have also become popular because they may reduce the risk of heart disease. The American Heart Association recommends eating fish (particularly fatty fish such as mackerel, lake trout, herring, sardines, albacore tuna, and salmon) at least 2 times a week ...
Arthritis is a progressive disease in dog, as well as humans, and cannot be reversed.. However, actions can be taken to help reduce the pain of the condition and help your dog live a more comfortable life.. One of the supplements that has proven helpful is omega 3 fatty acids. These are the types of fatty acids found in salmon and halibut. Since its hard to get enough of these in diet, they are also sold in capsule form. You can give these to your dog by cutting the capsules in half and adding drops to your dogs food. Ask your vet about how much of the supplement to give your dog and how often.. Be sure your purchase omega 3 fatty acid supplements that are mercury free.. The fatty acid supplements helps to reduce the inflammation in the joints. This will lessen the pain.. Some commercial dog foods now contain omega 3 fatty acids as their fat source. A recent study was done by the Veterinarian Department of the University of Montreal. They gave one group of dogs food that contained omega 3 ...
In light of such knowledge, we have an even clearer idea of who should take omega 3 fatty acids.. Omega 3 Fatty Acids for Children, Infants and Fetuses. Children or kids, young adults, infants, breast-fed babies and even fetuses can benefit from omega 3 fats; in fact, they need these essential fatty acids, and should definitely be part of who should take omega 3s.. Omega 3 fatty acids are necessary for the proper development of a fetus, helping to prevent growth and developmental conditions. Indeed, pregnant and nursing mothers who consume sufficient amounts of omega 3s are helping to give their childrens health, intelligence, and even happiness a lift.. These fatty acids are important for the normal development of an infants eyes and vision, as well as brain and nervous system. Children who are suffering from conditions like ADD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may experience improvement in their condition with the consumption of omega 3 fatty acids. Aggressive behavior in ...
Fatty acids are found in all living organisms fulfilling fundamental physiological functions within the body. Based on this role within the body, no potential of fatty acids for genotoxicity is expected as it could be demonstrated in-vitro with fatty acids C6, C8, C10, C12, and C22, as well as with fatty acids mixtures C8-18 and C12-18. Two of the available studies on gene mutation in bacteria were conducted according to OECD guideline 471 and under GLP conditions with hexanoic acid and docosanoic acid, respectively (C6: Banduhn, 1991; C22: Nakajiama, 2002). In both studies bacteria strains S. typhimurium TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537 and TA 1538 were tested with the fatty acids at concentrations up to 5000 µg/plate with and without metabolic activation by rat liver S9-mix. C22 fatty acid was additionally tested with bacteria strain E. coli WP2 uvr A to detect DNA-cross linking. The test substances did not induce gene mutations in the S. typhimurium and E. coli strains. No toxicity was ...
Milk from 6 species of monkeys contained 2.2-8.5% total lipids, and 11.5-16.5% total solids. The fatty acid composition of the milks, as determined by an improved gas liquid chromatographic techniques, was generally similar among the six species. The predominant fatty acids (by wt) were capric (7.5-14.6%), palmitic (19.4-23.3%), oleic (22.4-30.3%), and linoleic (13.6-15.2%). Small amounts of butyric (0.1-1.2%) and caproic (0.5-0.8%) acids were present in all samples. The averaged data were compared with the fatty acid compositions of primate and cow milks. Milks of the nonhuman primates contained less myristic, but more caprylic and capric acids, than did human or cows milk ...
A fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) can be created by an alkali catalyzed reaction between fats or fatty acids and methanol. The molecules in biodiesel are primarily FAMEs, usually obtained from vegetable oils by transesterification. Since every microorganism has its specific FAME profile (microbial fingerprinting), it can be used as a tool for microbial source tracking (MST). ...
During the last years, it has been clearly established that long-chain fatty acids act as modulators of gene expression in various tissues, such as adipose tissue, intestine and liver. This transcriptional action of fatty acids explains in part adaptation mechanisms of tissues to nutritional changes and especially to high-fat diets by increasing expression of proteins involved in lipid catabolism in liver and fatty acid uptake and utilization in other tissues. It is now clearly demonstrated that some of these transcriptional effects of fatty acids are mediated by activation of specific nuclear hormone receptors, called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). These findings will be discussed with a special reference to control of gene expression in preadipocytes and adipose tissue development.
Simvastatin decreased serum total fatty acid concentration by 13.0% and the concentrations of several fatty acids, including alpha-linolenic, eicosatetraenoic (C20:4 n-3), and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 n-3) acid. It decreased the proportion of myristic acid (C14:0) from total fatty acids by 11.5%, and that of palmitic, linoleic (C18:2 n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid by 2.0%, 5.3%, and 6.8%, respectively. The proportions of gamma-linolenic (C18:3 n-6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic (C20:3 n-6), and arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) from total fatty acids in serum were increased by 11.1%, 4.2%, and 14.2%, respectively. The effects of dietary treatment and simvastatin on the proportions of serum fatty acids were independent and additive ...
The probes in this section bear some structural resemblance to natural lipids. Included in this section are our fluorescent fatty acid analogs, as well as phospholipids wherein one or both fatty acid esters are replaced by fluorescent fatty acid esters.
Citation: Jiang, G., Wang, X., Green, M., Scott, R.A., Hyten, D., Cregan, P.B. 2012. QTL analysis of saturated fatty acids in a population of recombinant inbred lines of soybean. Molecular Breeding. 30:1163-1179. Interpretive Summary: Palmitic and stearic acids are the two predominant saturated fatty acids in soybean oil. Different levels of saturated fatty acids are desired depending upon the uses of the soybean oil. Vegetable oil low in saturated fatty acids is preferred for human consumption; while for industrial applications, soybean oil with higher levels of saturated fatty acids is more suitable. The objectives of this study were to identify genetic factors in soybean that control the level of saturated fatty acids in soybean oil and to discuss the potential of using genetic markers as surrogates to identify soybean breeding lines that carry these genetic factors thereby either increasing or decreasing the levels of the saturated fatty acids via plant breeding. Seeds were harvested from ...
Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are esters formed from one glycerol and three fatty acids. TAGs are induced to accumulate in algal cells under environmental stress conditions including nutrient-limitation, hyperosmosis, and low temperature, for the storage of metabolic energy and carbon, and also for the consumption of excess energy (e.g., Hirai et al., 2016; Hayashi et al., 2017). Beside their physiological significance, the commercial utilization of algal TAG has been expected for the production of biodiesel, the methyl esters of fatty acids, from the aspect of carbon-neutral conception. The amounts of TAGs can be determined through quantitative measurement of their constituent fatty acids. This protocol consists of the following three parts: the first is the extraction of total lipids from algal cells with the use of organic solvents, chloroform and methanol, according to the method of Bligh and Dyer (1959), the second is the separation of TAG from the other lipid classes by thin-layer chromatography (TLC),
Disturbances of the fatty acids composition in plasma and red blood cells and eicosanoid synthesis play an important role in the metabolic syndrome (MS) formation. The observation group included 61 people with metabolic syndrome (30 patients with MS and normal levels of insulin, 31 people with MS and insulin resistance - IR). The parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in blood serum were examined. The composition of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), fatty acid (FA) of red blood cells lipids was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Eicosanoids level in MS patients blood serum was studied by enzyme immunoassay. In MS patients in the absence of glucose-insulin homeostasis disturbances and in patients with IR the accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:2 n6, 18:3 n3, 22:4 n6) and lower pool of saturated FA (12:0, 14:0, 16: 0, 17:0) in plasma were discovered. A deficit of polyunsaturated FA (18:3 n3, 20:4 n6) with a predominance of on-saturated FA (14:0, 18:0) in erythrocyte membranes was
Regional differences in free fatty acid (FFA) handling contribute to diseases associated with particular fat distributions. As cultured rat preadipocytes became differentiated, FFA transfer into preadipocytes increased and was more rapid in single pe
Many people really do not know what Omega Fatty Acids are or what they do in your body.. First off lets discuss what the differences are between Omega 3s, Omega 6s and Omega 9s are.. The Omega 3 and Omega 6 are called essential fatty acids (EFA) because they cannot be produced by the body and must be ingested by an outside source whereas Omega 9 can be created in the body especially when your balance of Omega 3 and Omega 6 Fatty Acids are at the proper balance.. Omega 3 fatty acids have been reported to have an effect on the cardio vascular system and brain function. Sources of the Omega 3s come usually from green leafy veggies, flax seed oil, walnuts and oily fish such as salmon, sardines and tuna. Udos Choice Oil is also a great source. I will elaborate more on the reason why I talk so much about Udos Oil.. Omega 6 Fatty Acids have been reported to have an effect on metabolism and hormone production.. Linoleic acid an Omega 6 is highly involved with cell membrane activity and metabolic ...
KinOmega Biopharm. Get Free Sample PDF (including full TOC, Tables and Figures) of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Market @ https://www.glamresearch.com/report/global-omega-3-fatty-acid-market-by-product-309184/#sample. In 2027, the Omega-3 Fatty Acid market is spectated to outperform ~US$ xx Mn/Bn with a CAGR of xx% over the estimate time frame. The Omega-3 Fatty Acid market clicked an estimation of ~US$ xx Mn/Bn in 2019. Region is required to represent a critical piece of the overall industry, where the Omega-3 Fatty Acid market size is anticipated to blow up with a CAGR of xx% during the estimate time frame.. The report inspects each Omega-3 Fatty Acid market player as per its piece of the pie, creation impression, and development rate. SWOT examination of the players (qualities, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) has been covered in this report. Further, the Omega-3 Fatty Acid market study portrays the ongoing dispatches, understandings, R&D undertakings, and business systems of the market players ...
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Catalyzes the esterification, concomitant with transport, of exogenous long-chain fatty acids into metabolically active CoA thioesters for subsequent degradation or incorporation into phospholipids. Activity is the highest with fatty acid substrates of > 10 carbon atoms (PubMed:15213221). Is involved in the aerobic beta-oxidative degradation of fatty acids, which allows aerobic growth of E.coli on fatty acids as a sole carbon and energy source (PubMed:12535077).
Define w-9 fatty acid. w-9 fatty acid synonyms, w-9 fatty acid pronunciation, w-9 fatty acid translation, English dictionary definition of w-9 fatty acid. n. 1. Chemistry a. Any of a class of substances whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the...
About half of all deaths in developed countries are caused by cardiovascular disease. It is well known that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk can be influenced by diet, but optimal dietary content of fatty acids continues to be debated. The effect of fatty acid composition of ground beef on selected cardiovascular disease risk indicators was evaluated with two primary goals. The first goal was to document effects of ground beef fatty acid composition on plasma lipoprotein concentrations, whereas the second goal was to determine the effects of ground beef fatty acid composition on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In both studies the results were compared between men and women. Twelve men and women over age of 45 out of initially 15 completed a two-way crossover design. Subjects consumed five, 114-g ground beef patties per week for 5-wk periods separated by a 3-wk washout period. Patties contained on average 20% fat and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA): saturated ...
Breastmilk contains all of the nutrients needed by the newborn baby during the first weeks of life. These include the metabolic fuels (fat, protein, carbohydrate), water, and the raw materials for tissue growth and development, such as fatty acids, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and trace elements.. More than 98% of the fat in breastmilk is in the form of triglycerides, constructed within the mammary epithelial cell from medium- and long-chain fatty acids derived either from the maternal circulation (carbon chain lengths ≤ 16) or manufactured locally (carbon chain lengths ≥ 16) [5]. Short-chain fatty acids (carbon chain length ≤ 8) are only present in trace amounts. Oleic acid (18:1) and palmitic acid (16:0) are the most abundant fatty acids in breastmilk triglycerides, with comparatively high proportions of the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (18: 2ω6) and linolenic acid (18: 3ω3). Comparatively high proportions of other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic ...
The concentration of six unsaturated fatty acids in key brain regions are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) cognitive symptoms and neuropathology, according to a study publishing in PLOS Medicine. Cristina Legido-Quigley of Kings College London, UK, Madhav Thambisetty of National Institute on Aging, USA, and colleagues performed a nontargeted metabolic profiling study comparing the concentration of 100 structurally distinct fatty acid metabolites in brain tissue samples from older individuals enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. The participants all had cognitive assessments in the year before death and detailed neuropathological assessments on autopsy. The participants fell into three groups: 14 people with healthy brains, 15 with the neuropathological proteins tau or amyloid in their brains but who didnt show memory problems, and 14 with AD. The metabolite levels were measured in samples from brain regions vulnerable to AD pathology (middle frontal and inferior ...
Saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and cis/trans configuration all refer to the structure of fatty acid moieties. Each group is believed to have the following effects on human health:
  • Saturated fatty acids (no double bonds) raise LDL cholesterol (increases risk of cardiovascular disease).
  • Mono- and poly-unsaturated cis fatty acids (≥1 cis double bond) lower LDL cholesterol (reduces risk of cardiovascular disease).
  • Mono- and poly-unsaturated trans fatty acids (≥1 trans double bond) raise LDL cholesterol (increases risk of cardiovascular disease) and also lower HDL (increases risk of type II diabetes).

Because of this, it is important for food manufacturers to measure and report their levels so consumers have the chance to establish healthy dietary strategies. Nutritionally, saturated fats are of particular concern, because an excess in the diet leads to their accumulation in the cardiovascular system, resulting in several health-related problems.
Eicosanoids must exist in precise balances for life to continue without the presence of disease. Since the various eicosanoids are produced from dietary fatty acids, modifying the diet can shift eicosanoid balances. Overconsumption of one kind of fatty acid may overproduce one kind of eicosanoid. Its effect will then become predominant and not be properly balanced by its antagonistic eicosanoid and thus disease may result. For example, the overconsumption of omega-6 fatty acids can create eicosanoids which promote inflammation. If these fatty acids are consumed in excess at the expense of a balancing amount of omega-3 fatty acids, inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and allergic conditions may result. Balance is the essence of life ...
Biology Assignment Help, Fatty acid metabolism, Fatty Acid Metabolism The body has a limited supply of glucose associative to the energy stored as fat. There are 3 sources of fatty acids for energy metabolism within animals; dietary triacylglycerols from meals, triacylglycerols synthesized wit
Give your dogs and cats natures blend of over 15 heart-healthy Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids. Essential fatty acids are critically important to your pets health, and must be supplied by their diet. Not all salmon oil is the same. The source of the fish, processing, and the proper ratio of Omega-3 to Omega-6 is important. Help your dogs and cats maintain optimum health and overall vitality with this delicious supplement. See and feel the difference! About Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids: pawTree Salmon Oil Drops is a magnificent source of Omega-3 fatty acids that is necessary for almost every function in your pets body. There are Omega-6 fatty acids and Omega-3 fatty acids - whats the difference? Omega-6 fatty acids are in vegetable oil, sunflower oil, and safflower oil - oils that are common in most dog food diets. Omega-3 fatty acids are in either fresh fish or in different types of seaweeds. Omega-3 fatty acids are anti-inflammatory and Omega-6 fatty acids are pro-inflammatory. In a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Targeted Metabolomic Analysis of Serum Fatty Acids for the Prediction of Autoimmune Diseases. AU - Tsoukalas, Dimitris. AU - Fragoulakis, Vassileios. AU - Sarandi, Evangelia. AU - Docea, Anca Oana. AU - Papakonstaninou, Evangelos. AU - Tsilimidos, Gerasimos. AU - Anamaterou, Chrysanthi. AU - Fragkiadaki, Persefoni. AU - Aschner, Michael. AU - Tsatsakis, Aristidis. AU - Drakoulis, Nikolaos. AU - Calina, Daniela. PY - 2019/11/1. Y1 - 2019/11/1. N2 - Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are rapidly increasing worldwide and accumulating data support a key role of disrupted metabolism in ADs. This study aimed to identify an improved combination of Total Fatty Acids (TFAs) biomarkers as a predictive factor for the presence of autoimmune diseases. A retrospective nested case-control study was conducted in 403 individuals. In the case group, 240 patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, multiple sclerosis, vitiligo, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and other AD were ...
BACKGROUND: The chemical composition of Amazonian fish is extremely variable, being influenced by the season and the type and amount of food. A special interest in the fish oil composition has been developed owing to the presence of essential fatty acids, since this is directly related to human health. This study aimed to investigate the fatty acid composition (FAC) of the total lipid (TL), neutral lipid (NL) and phospholipid (PL) fractions of the dorsal muscle and orbital cavity of farmed and wild matrinxã in the Amazon area captured in different seasons. RESULTS: Fatty acids (FA) were analysed by high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sixty-five FA were detected in the TL, 66 in the NL and 55 in the PL. The main FA found in farmed and wild fish were oleic, palmitic, stearic and linoleic acids. No distinctions in the quality or quantity of these fractions between dorsal muscle and orbital cavity were found. CONCLUSION: The season had a significant influence on the TL and FAC. ...
When it comes to determining shelf life of grapeseed oil - cause that was the question that started all of this - consider the fatty acids. Grape seed oil is a light oil containing 7% palmitic acid (C16), 4% stearic acid (C18), 16% oleic acid (C18:1), and 72% linoleic acid (C18:2). It contains very low levels of Vitamin E (265 ppm). It has about 11% saturated fatty acids and 89% unsaturated fatty acids. One of the fatty acids - oleic acid - has one double bond that can be broken, but the majority of this oil contains linoleic acid, which has two double bonds that can be broken. We can predict that this will have a shorter shelf life than an oil that is mainly oleic acid (like olive oil). We can add anti-oxidants to the mix to increase the shelf life and retard rancidity ...
[127 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Fatty Acid Derivatives Sales Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Fatty Acid Derivatives...
p,Long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are important metabolic substrates for mammalian cells. They are utilized as energy sources, through β-oxidation, and as substrates for the synthesis of lipids, including phospholipids and triglycerides, as well as lipids involved in cellular signalling. LCFAs, themselves can also participate in a variety of crucial cell signalling cascades. Adipocytes, through the storage of LCFAs as triglycerides and the mobilization of stored LCFAs are important regulators of energy balance in mammals. A variety of pathogenic conditions involve impaired storage or utilization of LCFAs.,/p, ,p,The involvement of LCFAs in these events involves their initial interaction with, uptake by and trafficking within cells. These processes were studied in murine 3T3-L1 cells, which differentiate from preadipocytes to adipocytes. Upon differentiation, they acquired increased levels of LCFA uptake, which was saturable, exhibiting high affinities both for oleate, a natural LCFA, and for ...
Although it has been known for many years that excess lipid leads to insulin resistance, the precise molecular mechanisms linking lipid oversupply to defective insulin action are not fully elucidated. It has been suggested that enhancing fatty acid flux through the mitochondria in the absence of a concomitant "metabolic remodeling" of mitochondrial machinery may lead to deleterious effects on insulin action (38), whereas other studies report that increasing fatty acid oxidation can ameliorate insulin resistance by reducing intracellular lipid levels (22,39). Here, we report that a physiologically relevant increase in skeletal muscle CPT1 protein expression was sufficient to increase fatty acid oxidation and to prevent high-fat diet-induced fatty acid esterification into intracellular lipids, subsequently leading to enhanced muscle insulin sensitivity in high-fat-fed rats in the absence of major changes in markers of downstream capacity of the TCA cycle and ET/OxPhos pathways. The ...
In the present study "Determining the change in fatty acid profile of unsaturated cooking oils after repeated heating" an approach is made to determine fatty acid profile of the selected cooking oils for change in the same after repeated heating. A total number of 6 samples were selected for the study, including mustard, soybean and olive oil. Out of these 3 different oils were heated for one time and remaining 3 of the same type for five times each, the prepared samples were sent for laboratory testing which was done using the spectrophotometer method. Further the comparison was done to note the difference between one times heated and five times heated edible oils. The results revealed that among all the oils tested, mustard oil when heated five times, showed increase in total fat and MUFA by 0.10gm and 4.95gm respectively as compared to one time heated. Similarly, each cooking oil showed variation in fatty acid profile after reheating.. ...
The below is a study from Science Daily News. My goal as a nutrition educator is to educate the general public of the importance of our omega 3 fatty acid intake. You may feel like Im repeating this information in most posts. I am, and for good reason. The human frame requires equal quantities of omega 3 to omega 6 fatty acids. A 1:1 ratio, though currently most Americans are consuming a 1:50 ratio. This imbalance creates inflammation in the body leading to disease. Omega 6 fatty acids found in grain fed animal proteins and vegetable oils are inflammatory while omega 3 fatty acids found in Wild Caught fatty fish such as salmon, grass fed beef, flax, eggs and walnuts are anti-inflammatory. More and more evidence is pointing to disease caused by a diet heavy in omega 6 fatty acids. ...
Changes in desaturase activity are associated with insulin sensitivity and may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have been associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and serum fatty acid composition.. It is therefore important to study T2DM risk factors. The degree of obesity, the presence of the metabolic syndrome, family history of diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, a low physical activity level, high blood levels of triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels under 0.91 mmol/L as well as certain ethnic groups are well-known T2DM risk factors [2]. Fish oil and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are of particular interest because of their roles in improving the plasma lipid profile, especially by reducing plasma TG [3]. N-3 PUFAs represent a reasonable therapeutic strategy to improve the dyslipidemic profile in individuals ...
The synthesis of fatty acids take place in the cytoplasm instead of the mitochondrial matrix where degradation occurs. CoA Carboxylase partakes in the carboxylation of acetyl CoA to malonyl CoA,the first step of fatty acid synthesis. ...
Nonetheless, efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in any of such problems has not been proven and success of potential controlled trials are already largely negative or at most conflicting. Nevertheless, omega-three fatty acids are well known nutritional nutritional supplements and countless items are available less than a lot of industrial names which include "GNC Krill Oil", "Nordic Pure DHA", "Carlson Fish Oil Q", "iHealth Overga-three", "Jarrow Formulation Flaxseed Oil", "ProThera Eicosamax Fish", and "Swanson EFAs", amongst Other people. These products are often in the form of capsules and differ commonly in concentration of the person omega-3 fatty acids, click here but are usually while in the array of 250 mg to 1,000 mg of total omega-three fatty acids and suggested as being taken after each day. Unwanted effects of omega-3 fatty acid and fish oil nutritional supplements in these doses are minimal, but check here may include things like delicate gastrointestinal pain, nausea, ...
Amino acids are building blocks of proteins, while Fatty acids are key components of cell membranes. Both are essential to life," Elizabeth Landau wrote. The Chemical Laptop searches for the correct balance of Amino and Fatty acids. Amino and Fatty acids can also be found in nonliving sources; but the JPL hopes that the Chemical Laptop can tell the difference. Amino acids come in two types: Scientist call them Left-handed and right-handed. Left and right-handed Amino acids are mirror images of each other and both contain the same components. They are equal in size and electric charge. While searching for the correct balance of Amino and Fatty acids, the Chemical Laptop also searches for the correct balance of right and left-hand Amino acids. For a human to live, we need to have at least 9 Amino acids and 3 fatty acids in our body. ...
Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein, may also reduce CVD risk. While dairy fat (milk, cheese) is associated with a slightly lower CVD risk compared to meat, dairy fat results in a significantly greater CVD risk relative to unsaturated fatty acids. As research continues, we will refine our understanding of dietary patterns associated with lower CVD risk.
We have an international reputation in the measurements of fatty acids and their metabolites. For simple diagnostics, you might wish to only measure the range of fatty acids in tissues such as foods, breast milk or whole blood. On the other hand, you may wish a more exhaustive analysis including measuring the fatty acids in lipid fractions of your samples such as phospholipids, triglycerides, cholesterol esters or free fatty acids.. We can also measure the newest bioactive compounds derived from fatty acids collectively called Oxylipins. The current range of compounds that we can detect include the bioactive metabolites of PUFA, such as 9,10-EpHOME, 9,10-DiHOME, 9-OXOODE, 13-HODE, 13-OXOODE, 9sHOTre, 5-HETE, 8-HETE, 9-HETE, 11-HETE, 12-HETE, 15-HETE, 4-HDHA, and 16,17-EpDPA. We are regularly adding more compounds so watch our website for news ...
Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Here Fishy, Fishy! - Omega-3 fatty acids give brain cells the nourishment they need. Learn why polyunsaturated fatty acids such as omega-3 fatty acids are so good for you.