Author Summary Vaccinia virus, the prototypic poxvirus, is closely related to variola virus, the etiological agent of smallpox. A full understanding of the poxviral life cycle is imperative for the development of novel antiviral therapies, the design of new vaccines, and the effective and safe use of these viruses as oncolytic agents. Metabolomic studies have shed light on the novel mechanisms used by viruses to replicate efficiently within their hosts. de novo fatty acid biosynthesis has been shown to be of relevance for numerous viral infections as well as for the development of cancer. Here we describe an important role for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis during vaccinia infection. Ongoing synthesis of palmitate is needed to fuel the production of energy within mitochondria. The biochemical events of viral DNA replication and protein synthesis are minimally affected by inhibition of this pathway, but viral assembly is disrupted more dramatically. Further exploration of this pathway will provide
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition and estimated desaturase activity in heart failure patients with metabolic syndrome. AU - Lee, Seungmin. AU - Do, Hyun Ju. AU - Kang, Seok Min. AU - Chung, Ji Hyung. AU - Park, Eunju. AU - Shin, Min Jeong. PY - 2012/9. Y1 - 2012/9. N2 - Metabolic syndrome is one of the major factors to increase the incidence of heart failure. In our study, we compared plasma fatty acid compositions among heart failure patients with and without Metabolic syndrome. Fatty acid (FA) composition of plasma phospholipids was analyzed and the activities of desaturase were estimated as the ratio of substrate and product fatty acids in 85 stable heart failure patients. Fatty acid and estimated desaturase activities were further examined for their associations with Metabolic syndrome components. Heart failure patients with Metabolic syndrome showed significant changes in fatty acid composition in comparison to those without Metabolic syndrome, which had a decreased ...
The fatty acid compositions of the neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions of rat lymph node lymphocytes were characterized. Stimulation of rat lymphocytes with the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A resulted in significant changes in the fatty acid composition of both neutral lipids and phospholipids (a decrease in the proportions of stearic, linoleic and arachidonic acids and an increase in the proportion of oleic acid). Membrane fluidity was measured using nitroxide spin-label e.s.r., and increased during culture with concanavalin A. Culturing the lymphocytes in the absence of mitogen did not affect fatty acid composition or membrane fluidity. The uptake and fate of palmitic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were studied in detail; there was a time-dependent incorporation of each fatty acid into all lipid classes but each fatty acid had a characteristic fate. Palmitic and arachidonic acids were incorporated principally into phospholipids whereas oleic and linoleic acids were incorporated in similar
Background Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been evaluated. Methods and findings We measured plasma phospholipid fatty acids by gas chromatography in 27,296 adults, including 12,132 incident cases of T2D, over the follow-up period between baseline (1991-1998) and 31 December 2007 in 8 European countries in EPIC-InterAct, a nested case-cohort study. The first principal component derived by principal component analysis of 27 individual fatty acids (mole percentage) was the main exposure (subsequently called the fatty acid pattern score [FA-pattern score]). The FA-pattern score was partly characterised by high concentrations of linoleic acid, stearic acid, odd-chain fatty acids, and very-long-chain saturated fatty acids and low concentrations of γ-linolenic acid, palmitic acid, and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids, and it explained ...
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The evidence regarding fatty acids and breast cancer risk is inconclusive. Adipose tissue fatty acids can be used as biomarkers of fatty acid intake and of endogenous fatty acid exposure. Fatty acids in adipose tissue are correlated owing to common dietary sources and shared metabolic pathways, which group fatty acids into naturally occurring patterns. We aimed to prospectively investigate associations between adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and long-term risk of total breast cancer and breast cancer subtypes characterised by oestrogen and progesterone receptor status (ER and PR). SUBJECTS/METHODS: This case-cohort study was based on data from the Danish cohort Diet, Cancer and Health. At baseline, a fat biopsy and information on lifestyle and reproductive factors were collected. From the 31 original fatty acids measured, patterns of fatty acids were identified using the treelet transform. During a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 474 breast cancer cases were identified. Hazard
Extracellular fatty acid incorporation into the phospholipids of Staphylococcus aureus occurs via fatty acid phosphorylation. We show that fatty acid kinase (Fak) is composed of two dissociable protein subunits encoded by separate genes. FakA provides the ATP binding domain and interacts with two distinct FakB proteins to produce acyl-phosphate. The FakBs are fatty acid binding proteins that exchange bound fatty acid/acyl-phosphate with fatty acid/acyl-phosphate presented in detergent micelles or liposomes. The ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 strains were unable to incorporate extracellular fatty acids into phospholipid. FakB1 selectively bound saturated fatty acids whereas FakB2 preferred unsaturated fatty acids. Affymetrix array showed a global perturbation in the expression of virulence genes in the ΔfakA strain. The severe deficiency in α-hemolysin protein secretion in ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 mutants coupled with quantitative mRNA measurements showed that fatty acid kinase activity was ...
Extracellular fatty acid incorporation into the phospholipids of Staphylococcus aureus occurs via fatty acid phosphorylation. We show that fatty acid kinase (Fak) is composed of two dissociable protein subunits encoded by separate genes. FakA provides the ATP binding domain and interacts with two distinct FakB proteins to produce acyl-phosphate. The FakBs are fatty acid binding proteins that exchange bound fatty acid/acyl-phosphate with fatty acid/acyl-phosphate presented in detergent micelles or liposomes. The ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 strains were unable to incorporate extracellular fatty acids into phospholipid. FakB1 selectively bound saturated fatty acids whereas FakB2 preferred unsaturated fatty acids. Affymetrix array showed a global perturbation in the expression of virulence genes in the ΔfakA strain. The severe deficiency in α-hemolysin protein secretion in ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 mutants coupled with quantitative mRNA measurements showed that fatty acid kinase activity was ...
This paper describes the fuel properties, combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of the methyl esters of saturated fatty acid with 6 to 10 carbons in the molecule chain. The fuels blend (50/50 mass%) of three saturated fatty acid methyl esters (methyl caproate, methyl caprylate, methyl caprate); with methyl laurate as a base fuel are tested using a DI diesel engine. From the experimental results, the blend of saturated fatty acid methyl ester with a lower carbon number has a lower kinematic viscosity, pour point and smoke emission, though having longer ignition delay, the same as long chain saturated fatty acid methyl ester ...
Nowadays the industrial chemistry reactions rely on green technologies. Enzymes as lipases are increasing its use in diverse chemical processes. Epoxidized fatty acid methyl esters obtained from transesterification of vegetable oils have recently found applications as polymer plasticizer, agrochemical, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food additives. In this research article, grapeseed, avocado and olive oils naturally containing high percents of mono and poly unsaturations were used as starting materials for the production of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters. The effect of lauric acid as an active oxygen carrier was studied on epoxidation reactions where unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters were converted to epoxy fatty acid methyl esters using immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase type B as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as oxygen donor at mild temperature and pressure conditions. After this study it was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and GC-MS that the addition of lauric acid to the enzymatic
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of n-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation on fatty acid composition of the single platelet phospholipids and on platelet functions. AU - Prisco, Domenico. AU - Filippini, Monica. AU - Francalanci, Isa. AU - Paniccia, Rita. AU - Gensini, Gian Franco. AU - Serneri, Gian Gastone Neri. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Twenty healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either four 1-g capsules of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ethyl esters or four 1-g capsules of olive oil (as placebo) for a period of 4 months, followed by a 3-month wash-out period. Fatty acids of platelet phospholipid fractions, platelet aggregation, and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) formation were analyzed at 0, 2, and 4 months of treatment and at 1, 2, and 3 months of wash-out. During n-3 PUFA supplementation, accumulations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids were markedly increased after 2 months, with slight differences in further accumulation up ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Imaging of myocardial fatty acid oxidation. AU - Mather, Kieren J.. AU - DeGrado, Timothy R. PY - 2016/1/21. Y1 - 2016/1/21. N2 - Myocardial fuel selection is a key feature of the health and function of the heart, with clear links between myocardial function and fuel selection and important impacts of fuel selection on ischemia tolerance. Radiopharmaceuticals provide uniquely valuable tools for in vivo, non-invasive assessment of these aspects of cardiac function and metabolism. Here we review the landscape of imaging probes developed to provide non-invasive assessment of myocardial fatty acid oxidation (MFAO). Also, we review the state of current knowledge that myocardial fatty acid imaging has helped establish of static and dynamic fuel selection that characterizes cardiac and cardiometabolic disease and the interplay between fuel selection and various aspects of cardiac function.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. ...
The heart relies predominantly on a balance between fatty acids and glucose to generate its energy supply. There is an important interaction between the metabolic pathways of these two substrates in the heart. When circulating levels of fatty acids are high, fatty acid oxidation can dominate over glucose oxidation as a source of energy through feedback inhibition of the glucose oxidation pathway. Following an ischaemic episode, fatty acid oxidation rates increase further, resulting in an uncoupling between glycolysis and glucose oxidation. This uncoupling results in an increased proton production, which worsens ischaemic damage. Since high rates of fatty acid oxidation can contribute to ischaemic damage by inhibiting glucose oxidation, it is important to maintain proper control of fatty acid oxidation both during and following ischaemia. An important molecule that controls myocardial fatty acid oxidation is malonyl-CoA, which inhibits uptake of fatty acids into the mitochondria. The levels of ...
This paper aims to report the authors study of the fatty acid methyl ester consisting of plant oil or animal fat in hope to improve the effectiveness and profitability of its practical application.As is known,the fatty acid methyl ester is a kind of bio-diesel that is likely to be used as fuel of diesel engine with the environment-friendly properties.The present paper has compared the properties of fatty acid methyl ester and diesel oil by conducting experiments on a four-cylinder turbo-charge direct injection diesel engine at a compression ratio of 18 and rated power of 76 kW at 3 800 r/min.When the engine is fueled with diesel oil,fatty acid methyl ester,the blended fuel consisting of fatty acid methyl ester and diesel at a ratio of 30% to 70% and 50% to 50% in weight under two working conditions.That is to say,let the engine work at its full load at the speed of 1 800 r/min and 2 200 r/min,and watch how about the engine performs its duty.While testing such behaviors as power,energy consumption
Resistance to the action of insulin affects fatty acid delivery to the liver, fatty acid synthesis and oxidation within the liver, and triglyceride export from the liver. To understand the metabolic consequences of hepatic fatty acid synthesis, partitioning, oxidation, and net liver fat content in the fasted and postprandial states, we used stable-isotope tracer methodologies to study healthy men and women with varying degrees of insulin resistance before and after consumption of a mixed meal. Subjects were classified as being normoinsulinemic (NI) (fasting plasma insulin |11.2 mU/L, n = 18) or hyperinsulinemic (HI) (fasting plasma insulin |11.2 mU/L, n = 19). Liver fat content was similar between HI and NI individuals, despite HI subjects having marginally more visceral fat. However, de novo lipogenesis was higher and fatty acid oxidation was lower in HI individuals compared with NI subjects. These data suggest that metabolic pathways promoting fat accumulation are enhanced in HI but, paradoxically,
PubMed journal article: The effect of dietary fatty acid composition on liver retinyl ester (vitamin A ester) composition in the rat. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is thought to convey many of the beneficial effects of exercise via its inhibitory effect on acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) and promotion of fatty acid oxidation. Hence, AMPK and ACC have become major drug targets for weight loss and improved insulin action. However, it remains unclear whether or how activation of the fatty acid oxidation pathway without a concomitant increase in energy expenditure could be beneficial. Here, we have used either pharmacological (administration of the AMPK agonist 5() aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside) or genetic means (mutation of the ACC2 gene in mice) to manipulate fatty acid oxidation to determine whether this is sufficient to promote leanness. Both of these strategies increased whole-body fatty acid oxidation without altering energy expenditure or adiposity. We conclude that negative energy balance is a prerequisite for weight reduction, and increased fatty acid oxidation per se has little, if any, effect to
The present study quantifies the relationships between diet fatty acid profile and fatty acid composition of rat skeletal muscle phospholipids. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed, for 8 weeks, on one of twelve moderate-fat diets (25% of total energy) differing only in fatty acid profile. SFA content ranged from 8-88% of total fatty acids, MUFA 6-65 %, total PUFA 4-81 %, n-6 PUFA 3-70% and n-3 PUFA 1-70 %. Diet PUFA included only essential fatty acids 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3. The balance between n-3 and n-6 PUFA (PUFA balance) in the diet ranged from 1 : 99 to 86 : 14% n-3 PUFA:n-6 PUFA. The slope of muscle phospholipid composition plotted against diet composition quantifies the response of muscle membrane composition to dietary fat (0, no response; 1, complete conformity with diet). The resulting slopes were 0·02 (SFA), 0·10 (PUFA), 0·11 (MUFA), 0·14 (n-3 PUFA) and 0·23 (n-6 PUFA). The response to PUFA balance was biphasic with a slope of 0·98 below 10% diet PUFA balance and ...
Fatty acids, more commonly called Omega 3 or Omega 6 fatty acids, are an essential part of your dogs diet. When these fatty acids are ingested, they actually become incorporated into the cell membranes throughout your dogs body. When certain types of damage occur to these membranes, the fatty acids are released in order to repair and reduce the damages. Both types of fatty acids are important for your dogs health, and each has their own particular range of benefits.. Omega 3 fatty acids benefit your dog by reducing allergies and allergic responses, preventing or softening auto-immune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, and reducing inflammation such as regular arthritis. Dogs that have these conditions need more Omega 3 fatty acids than other dogs to help combat these conditions.. Omega 6 fatty acids benefit your dog by helping to reduce symptoms in certain types of chronic illnesses, such as certain cancers and kidney disease. Omega 6 fatty acids also help fight against infections and can ...
Predicting fatty acid composition of beef cattle at slaughter using weaner data would enable an early selection decision thereby saving time and costs associated with progeny testing. The aim of this study was to examine genetic and phenotypic correlations between triacylglycerol fatty acid composition at weaning and slaughter. Subcutaneous fat between the 12th and 13th rib interface was biopsied from 324 weaner calves sired by Angus, Belgian Blue, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, South Devon and Wagyu. Fat from the same anatomical site was sampled from their carcasses at slaughter and analysed for fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography. Statistical analysis was by Mixed Model and Maximum Likelihood procedures of Harvey (1990) after adjusting for genotype, sire nested within genotype, sex and location. Results indicated strongly positive genetic correlations between biopsy and carcass stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1n-9), total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and delta-nine desaturase enzyme index ...
The general public has shown increasing interest in consuming oils that are beneficial to health. Thus, oil from corn (Zea mays L.), along with most major edible oils, has been the target of genetic alterations to improve the fatty acid composition. The fatty acid profile goals vary, depending upon the intended use for the oil. We have targeted the development of corn oil with 1) low total saturated fatty acids, 2) high total saturated fatty acids, and 3) mid-oleic acid, in each case via two different sources: exotic germplasm identified through an international program to broaden the corn germplasm base and introgression of a wild, grassy relative of corn, Tripsacum (Tripsacum dactaloides L). We have been successful at identifying corn lines with each of the noted traits.
Hundreds of fatty acids synthesized by thousands of plants and their phylogenetic relationships are documented in an internet data base, PlantFAdb (https://plantfadb.org/), which can be used to search fatty acid molecules or plants producing these fatty acids.. The most documented fatty acids data collection is that of the Institute for Chemistry and Physics of Lipids in Münster growing since 1970. This electronically searchable Database SOFA (Seed Oil Fatty Acids, http://sofa.mri.bund.de/) offers a variety of search routines to browse into about 110,000 individual data relating to more than 7,000 different plant species (Aitzetmüller K et al., Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 2003, 105, 92). About 500 different fatty acids are listed. The database allows to search for plant species, genera and families, for individual fatty acids (start by adding an asterisk after each entry) and combinations of fatty acids in their seed oils, and for their percentage contents. It contains literature references and ...
The aim of this thesis was to investigate how dietary fatty acids affect the risk for cardiometabolic disease, i.e. cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and obesity. The overall hypothesis was that unsaturated fatty acids and especially the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid (LA), 18:2n-6, would decrease cardiometabolic risk compared with saturated fatty acids (SFAs), in line with current recommendations to partly replace dietary SFA with PUFA.. Papers I and V were observational studies based on the community-based cohort Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM). Adipose tissue fatty acid composition was determined as biomarker for dietary fat intake. Studies II, III and IV were randomised short-term interventions on human volunteers, in which different dietary fats were provided to the participants.. In 71-year-old men, adipose tissue LA and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) were associated with insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic clamp), although this ...
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Abstract: Many studies have shown that saturated fat diet increases the risk of AD. Recently saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) have been found be accumulated in AD patients. The variety of saturated fatty acids are found in the diets and human bodies. However, it is not clear which one or more fatty acids are involved in AD pathogenesis. This study investigated the effects of three saturated fatty acids with different carbon chain length (C16:0, C20:0, and C26:0) on amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and amyloid-ß peptide (Aß) generation. Here, SH-SY5Y cells were treated with vehicle, C16:0, C20:0, and C26:0 (10?µmol/L, 24?h). Compared to the vehicle, C16:0 did not cause any significantly change in APP processing and Aß generation. C20:0 and C26:0 increased Aß levels and the expressions of APP, ß- and ?-secretase and decreased the expression of a-secretase, and C26:0 had the strongest effects among three fatty acids. Moreover, C20:0 and C26:0 significantly increased ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophage fatty acid composition and phagocytosis. T2 - Effect of unsaturation on cellular phagocytic activity. AU - Schroit, A. J.. AU - Gallily, R.. PY - 1979/12/1. Y1 - 1979/12/1. N2 - In order to manipulate the physical properties of the macrophage membrane, methods were developed which potentiated the incorporation of exogenously supplied fatty acids into membrane lipids. Chromatograms of macrophages which were grown in the presence of a variety of fatty acids demonstrated that exogenously supplied unsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic, oleic, elaidic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acids) were readily incorporated into the cells and selectively altered the fatty acyl composition of macrophage phospholipids. Up to 38% of the total cellular phospholipids were found to be derived from the exogenously added fatty acid supplements. The incorporation of the different fatty acids into cellular phospholipids had striking effects on cellular phagocytic activity. These effects ...
In the category, there can be observed a trend for the toxicity of aquatic invertebrates. This is related to the toxicity mode of action (narcosis). Thus, a linear dependence on log Kow is expected. The highest toxicity was determined for methyl laurate (CAS 111-82-0, fatty acid chain length C12). In the GLP-study (Ministry of the Environment of Japan, 2006) according to OECD 202 the EC50 (48h) was determined as 0.255 mg/L for Daphnia magna. The toxicity decreases with shorter and longer chain length of the fatty acids. For methyl decanoate (CAS 110-42-9, fatty acid chain length C10), a lower toxicity for Daphnia magna was estimated. In one GLP-study (Bouwman, 2010) according to OECD 202 an EC50 of 1.1 mg/L was determined for methyl decanoate. Two QSAR-calculations for methyl octanoate (CAS 111-11-5, fatty acid chain length C8) yielded LC50 of 5.6 mg/L (ECOSAR, 2010) and LC50 = 11.6 mg/L (von der Ohe, 2005). The more conservative of the two values was accepted as the key value, what is ...
The intramuscular fat deposition and the fatty acid profiles of beef affect meat quality. High proportions of unsaturated fatty acids are related to beef flavor and are beneficial for the nutritional value of meat. Moreover, a variety of clinical and epidemiologic studies showed that particularly long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from animal sources have a positive impact on human health and disease. To screen for genetic factors affecting fatty acid profiles in beef, we initially performed a microsatellite-based genome scan in a F2 Charolais × German Holstein resource population and identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fatty acid composition in a region on bovine chromosome 27 where previously QTL affecting marbling score had been detected in beef cattle populations. The long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1) gene was identified as the most plausible functional and positional candidate gene in the QTL interval due to its direct impact on fatty acid metabolism and its position in the QTL
We investigated the potential of using multivariate factor analysis to extract metabolic information from data on the quantity and quality of milk produced under different management systems. We collected data from individual milk samples taken from 1,158 Brown Swiss cows farmed in 85 traditional or modern herds in Trento Province (Italy). Factor analysis was carried out on 47 individual fatty acids, milk yield, and 5 compositional milk traits (fat, protein, casein, and lactose contents, somatic cell score). According to a previous study on multivariate factor analysis, a variable was considered to be associated with a specific factor if the absolute value of its correlation with the factor was ≥0.60. The extracted factors were representative of the following 12 groups of fatty acids or functions: de novo fatty acids, branched fatty acid-milk yield, biohydrogenation, long-chain fatty acids, desaturation, short-chain fatty acids, milk protein and fat contents, odd fatty acids, conjugated ...
Abstract: Seasonal variations of fatty acids were studied in the lipid fractions of the bivalve mollusk, Saccostrea cucullata, at the intertidal zone of Chabahar bay in the northern part of Oman Sea (Iran). Samples were collected in rocky shores between two stations. The analysis were carried by GC/MS chromatography. Thirteen fatty acids were identified, of which, the most important saturated fatty acids (SFA) were 14:0, 4, 8, 12 tri Me- 13:0, 16:0 and 18:0, the mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) included 16:1n-9, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-11, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were linoleic acid 9,12 18:2 , eicosapentaenoic acid EPA 20:5n-3 and arachidonic acid 20:4n-6.Variability of the fatty acid components were studied in four seasons. Maximum percentage level in Saccostrea cucullata for 14:0, 4, 8, 12 tri Me 13:0, 16:0 and 15:0 as saturated fatty acids was observed in summer, while for 18:1n-9, 20:1n-11 and 20:5n-3 (as unsaturated fatty acids) maximum concentration was observed in winter. The ...
Providing Evidence That Seafood and Replacing Dietary Saturated Fatty Acids With More Complex Carbohydrates Protect Against Coronary Artery Disease: Spotlight: Erik Berg Schmidt, MD, DMSc, FESC ...
This paper describes a method for manipulating plant membrane fatty acid compositions without altering growth temperature or other conditions. Tween-fatty acid esters carrying specific fatty acids were synthesized and applied to various organs of plants growing axenically in glass jars. Treated plan …
Structural, energetic, biochemical, and ecological information suggests that germination temperature is an important selective agent causing seed oils of higher-latitude plants to have proportionately more unsaturated fatty acids than lower-latitude plants. Germination temperature is predicted to select relative proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in seed oils that optimize the total energy stores in a seed and the rate of energy production during germination. Saturated fatty acids store more energy per carbon than unsaturated fatty acids; however, unsaturated fatty acids have much lower melting points than saturated fatty acids. Thus, seeds with lower proportions of saturated fatty acids in their oils should be able to germinate earlier and grow more rapidly at low temperatures even though they store less total energy than seeds with a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids. Seeds that germinate earlier and grow more rapidly should have a competitive advantage. At higher ...
The objective of the present study was to investigate the mobilization of individual fatty acids from human white fat cells. Mammary adipose tissue from eight healthy non-obese women in their normal dietary state was collected, and isolated adipocytes were incubated with lipolytic agents. The mobilization of 34 individual fatty acids was measured by comparing the composition of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) with that of the triacylglycerols (TAG) from which they originated through lipolysis. Compared with TAG, NEFA were enriched in some polyunsaturated fatty acids with 18-20 carbon atoms. Conversely, the percentage of very-long-chain (20-22 carbon atoms) saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids was approx. 2 times lower in NEFA than in TAG. The relative mobilization (% in NEFA/% in TAG) of the most readily mobilized fatty acid (C20:5,n-3; 2.25) was more than 6-fold higher than that of the least readily mobilized (C22:1,n-11; 0.37). Relationships were found between the molecular structure of ...
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Background Palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), and oleic acid (18:1n-9) are major saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids that are synthesized via de novo lipogenesis (DNL) or obtained from the diet. Circulating levels of these fatty acids are linked to several diseases including diabetes and heart disease. Prior family and twin studies suggest high heritability of circulating levels, but potential genes involved are unknown.. Objective To carry out a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) to investigate genetic determinants of circulating levels of these fatty acids.. Methods GWAS in 5 population-based cohorts (n=8,961) of European ancestry. Each study conducted linear regression analysis using an additive genetic model. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, site of recruitment, and principal components to account for possible population genetic substructure where appropriate. Study-specific results were combined using inverse-variance weighted ...
Fatty acids are the building blocks of oil. They are a valuable energy source and are required for a balanced diet. Fatty acids promote healthy, youthful skin and hair. Certain essential fatty acids have a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. Essential fatty acids are fatty acids that cannot be constructed within our bodies and therefore must be obtained from the diet. The fatty acid composition of olive oil varies widely depending on the variety, maturity of the fruit, altitude, climate, and several other factors.. Olive oil contains more oleic acid and less linoleic acid than other vegetable oils, that is, more monounsaturated than polyunsaturated fatty acids. This renders olive oil more resistant to oxidation and is more stable and resistant compared to other vegetable oils. Monounsaturated fats, such as oleic acid, prevent from the risk of coronary heart disease.. Olive oil contains essential fatty acids such as Omega-3 and Omega-6 only when it is cold pressed and unrefined. ...
Omega-3 fatty acids are quite beneficial for human health. These play a vital role in lowering blood cholesterol, blood triglycerides and, hence, blood pressure. Omega-3 fatty acids are helpful in preventing heart diseases, skin diseases and auto immune disorders. The daily intake of 0.5 to 1.0 gram omega-3 fatty acids is recommended for an individual for a healthy life. The food industry is taking steps to return these healthful fatty acids to the human diets. In this regards, poultry meat and eggs can serve the purpose if enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Laying hens have the ability to absorb and deposit dietary fatty acids without considerable modification in the composition. Thus, the lipid metabolism in the hens permits the fortification of eggs with omega-3 fatty acids by dietary supplementation to increase the provision of these fatty acids which are appropriate for human consumption. This book provides the necessary information about the enrichment of eggs with omega-3 fatty acids by ...
Venäläinen TM. Lankinen MA. Schwab US. (2017). Odd-chain fatty acids as dietary biomarkers for fiber and fish intake. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, 106 (3) , 954. 10.3945/ajcn.117.162347. ...
The major finding of the present study was that serum linoleic acid was inversely associated with the risk of total stroke, ischemic stroke, and more specifically lacunar infarction. These associations remained significant even after adjustment for known cardiovascular risk factors and the matching variables of age, sex, years of serum storage, and community. Further adjustment for other fatty acids such as saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids did not materially alter the relation with risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke. Serum saturated fatty acids were positively associated with the risk of total stroke, ischemic stroke, and lacunar infarction, but these associations disappeared when adjusted further for linoleic and monounsaturated fatty acids. The adjustment for these fatty acids may be unreliable because saturated fatty acids and linoleic acid were strongly correlated. However, the analysis is likely to be correct statistically because we verified that the relationship of ...
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of feeding alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of seminal plasma. Nine bulls (ALA bulls) were fed with 800 g rumen-resistant linseed oil with a content of 50% linolenic acid and eight bulls with 400 g palmitic acid (PA bulls). Sperm quality was evaluated for plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), the amount of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the percentage of sperm with a high DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Fatty acid content of sperm was determined using gas chromatography. Total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity were determined in seminal plasma. Feeding ALA increased (P , 0.05) the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in bulls whereas in PA bulls did not change. PMAI increased after cryopreservation in ALA bulls as well as in PA bulls during the experiment period (P , 0.005). LPO of sperm directly after ...
Novel findings of the current study include: 1) significant increase in fractional myocardial dietary fatty acid uptake in IGT+ individuals not explained by difference in age, body fat, central obesity markers, or sex; 2) an association between the latter myocardial metabolic abnormality and reduction in systolic and diastolic left ventricular functions and increased myocardial oxidative metabolism; and 3) no significant changes in liver and skeletal muscle dietary fatty acid uptake in IGT+ individuals. The present results extend the association between increased myocardial NEFA uptake and oxidation and IGT observed during fasting (16) to postprandial dietary fatty acids. In addition, we confirmed the findings of others of reduced subcutaneous abdominal and visceral adipose tissue fractional uptake of dietary fatty acids in abdominally obese individuals (17,18). We furthermore found a direct association between impaired relative dietary fatty acid uptake in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue ...
In this prospective study, we examined the fatty acid composition of phospholipids in serum of 394 subjects to determine the role of different types of fatty acids in the incidence of breast cancer.. Overall, we did not find an association between individual or total MUFA or PUFA and breast cancer risk. The only systematic finding was a significant positive association between serum SFA levels and breast cancer risk after menopause.. Our investigation was based on blood samples collected at baseline in a prospective cohort study. The major strength of this approach is that it is very unlikely that the fatty acid profile we measured could be influenced by the presence of undetected cancer. A study on reliability of fatty acid composition in human serum phospholipids in the NYUWHS cohort (38) showed that fatty acid levels in a single blood sample per subject have a good correlation with repeat measurements after a 2-3-year interval. The fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids can therefore ...
2015 Chen et al. Background: Identification of genetic variants that are associated with fatty acid composition in beef will enhance our understanding of host genetic influence on the trait and also allow for more effective improvement of beef fatty acid profiles through genomic selection and marker-assisted diet management. In this study, 81 and 83 fatty acid traits were measured in subcutaneous adipose (SQ) and longissimus lumborum muscle (LL), respectively, from 1366 purebred and crossbred beef steers and heifers that were genotyped on the Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip. The objective was to conduct genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for the fatty acid traits and to evaluate the accuracy of genomic prediction for fatty acid composition using genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and Bayesian methods. Results: In total, 302 and 360 significant SNPs spanning all autosomal chromosomes were identified to be associated with fatty acid composition in SQ and LL tissues, respectively. ...
Natural-abundance 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used for determining noninvasively the relative concentration of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids of adipose tissue in two groups of volunteers. The first consisted of subjects who had followed a fat-reduced diet for at least half a year before the 13C measurements. The second were control subjects who were on a usual high-fat diet. The ratio of unsaturated to total fatty acids in adipose tissue determined by 13C MRS correlated significantly with the same ratio in fat of the diet composition estimated by a dietician according to food records. The results indicate that 13C MRS is capable of assessing the degree of unsaturation of dietary fatty acids consumed during the preceding months ...
A new cyanobacterial strain was isolated and purified from salt Lake Balkhash, Kazakhstan. According to its morphological and ultrastructural characteristics, 16S rRNA sequence and the fatty acid profile, the strain has been classified as Cyanobacterium spp. and assigned as Cyanobacterium sp. IPPAS B-1200. The strain is characterized by a non-temperature inducible Δ9-desaturation system, and by high relative amounts of myristic (14:0-30%) and myristoleic (14:1Δ9-10%) acids. The total amount of C14 fatty acids reaches 40%, which is unusually high for cyanobacteria, and it has never been reported before. The remaining fatty acids are represented mainly by palmitic (16:0) and palmitoleic (16:1Δ9) acids (the sum reaches nearly 60%). Such a fatty acid composition, together with a relatively high speed of growth, makes this newly isolated strain a prospective candidate for biodiesel production.
The mitochondrial acyl-carrier protein (ACP) functions in the synthesis of fatty acids within the mitochondrial matrix. Fatty acids are elongated on the covalently bound 4-phosphopantetheine cofactor on ACP. ACP has a second essential function within the mitochondria in the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters. Cells depleted of ACP are impaired in FeS cluster formation throughout the cell. ACP is a stable subunit of the cysteine desulfurase (Nfs1) and Isd11 subcomplex that generates sulfide ions for FeS cluster formation. The FeS defect observed in cells depleted of ACP can be partially suppressed by overexpression of the mitochondrial iron transporter Mrs3. The stability of ACP is dependent of the iron status of mitochondria. Thus, the central role of Acp1 in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, lipoic acid formation and FeS cluster biogenesis suggests that these processes are tied to Fe availability within the mitochondria. ...
Abstract: Fatty Acid Effect on Carcass The Influence of Various Blends of Dietary Fats Added to Corn-Soybean Meal Based Diets on the Fatty Acid Composition of Broilers
Phospholipid fatty acid composition and vitamin E levels in the retina of obese (fa/fa) and lean (FA/FA) Zucker rats.: We have compared the fatty acid compositi
Definition of plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay? Meaning of plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay as a legal term. What does plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay mean in law?
This paper reports the retention data of fatty acid methyl esters on a novel ionic liquid column, SLB-IL111, which has higher polarity than commercially available columns for gas chromatography (GC). The fatty acids analyzed using GC include branched-chain saturated fatty acids, C16-C22 monounsaturated fatty acid cis/trans and positional isomers, and polyunsaturated fatty acids commonly found in natural products. Fatty acids of sardine oil were also analyzed using GC. GC was carried out on a 100-m column under isothermal conditions within the range 120-170°C, using helium as a carrier gas. The retention data of fatty acid methyl esters were represented by equivalent chain length (ECL) values calculated from the retention times of each fatty acid related to those of saturated fatty acids with an even carbon number. This is novel information, obtained on an SLBIL111 column being operated at various temperatures with a single GC system. The results show that the column temperature greatly affected ...
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have strong effects on hibernation and daily torpor. Increased dietary uptake of PUFA of the n-6 class, particularly of Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6) lengthens torpor bout duration and enables animals to reach lower body temperatures (Tb) and metabolic rates. As previously hypothesized, this well-known influence of PUFA may be mediated via effects of the membrane fatty acid composition on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+−ATPase 2a (SERCA) in the heart of hibernators. We tested the hypotheses that high proportions of n-6 PUFA in general, or specifically high proportions of LA (C18:2 n-6) in SR phospholipids (PL) should be associated with increased cardiac SERCA activity, and should allow animals to reach lower minimum Tb in torpor. We measured activity of SERCA from hearts of hibernating and non-hibernating Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in vitro at 35°C. Further, we determined the PL fatty acid composition of the SR membrane of these hearts. We found that
The effect of gamma radiation processing on the lipid content, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) profile in frozen lamb meat was investigated. Samples of longissimus thoracis muscle from lambs fed lucerne basal diets either un
ylation is one of the main regulators of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase complex and stearoyl-ACP-desaturase in increasing the oleic acid level between oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. var. Tenera) low and high oleic acid varieties. This study utilised advanced proteomic techniques to isolate, detect and identify chromoplast-based phosphorylated proteins associated with the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. Sub-organelle isolation using differential centrifugation enriched the chromoplast fraction that contained the fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes before their protein extraction. Gel-based and non-gel based mass spectrometry techniques were then employed to separate and improve the identification of key fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes. Protein expression was analysed using isobaric labelling strategy. Five key enzymes, namely the β-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100), β-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydrogenase (EC 4.2.1.58 and 4.2.1.59), 3-enoyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.3.19), β-ketoacyl-ACP ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pimozide, a novel fatty acid binding protein 4 inhibitor, promotes adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells by activating PPARγ. AU - Wang, Yan. AU - Lin, Huang Quan. AU - Law, Wai Kit. AU - Liang, Wei Cheng. AU - Zhang, Jin Fang. AU - Hu, Jian Shu. AU - Ip, Tsz Ming. AU - Waye, Mary Miu Yee. AU - Wan, David Chi Cheong. PY - 2015/2/18. Y1 - 2015/2/18. N2 - Pimozide is a conventional antipsychotic of the diphenylbutylpiperidine class that has been clinically used for over 30 years. The obvious side effect of this drug is weight gain. However, the mechanism of pimozide-induced weight gain is still unknown. In the present study, we identified pimozide as a novel fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) inhibitor using molecular docking simulation as well as biochemical characterizations. BMS309403, a well-known FABP4 inhibitor, elevated the basal protein levels of PPARγ, therefore stimulating adipogenesis in adipocytes. The present study showed that the inhibitory effect of pimozide on FABP4 ...
Background: Intakes of specific fatty acids have been postulated to impact breast cancer risk but epidemiological data based on dietary questionnaires remain conflicting. Materials and methods: We assessed the association between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Sixty fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography in pre-diagnostic plasma phospholipids from 2982 incident breast cancer cases matched to 2982 controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risk of breast cancer by fatty acid level. The false discovery rate (q values) was computed to control for multiple comparisons. Subgroup analyses were carried out by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor expression in the tumours. Results: A high level of palmitoleic acid [odds ratio (OR) for the highest quartile compared with the lowest OR (Q4-Q1) 1.37; 95% confidence interval
Abstract The quality of oil determined by the constituents and proportion of fatty acid components, and the understanding of heredity of fatty acid components are of importance to breeding good quality soybean varieties. Embryo, cytoplasmic and maternal effects and genotype × environment interaction effects for quality traits of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill.] seeds were analyzed using a general genetic model for quantitative traits of seeds with parents, F1 and F2, of 20 crosses from a diallel mating design of five parents planted in the field in 2003 and 2004 in Harbin, China. The interaction effects of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid contents were larger than the genetic main effects, while the genetic main effects were equal to interaction effects for linolenic and oleic acid content. Among all kinds of genetic main effects, the embryo effects were the largest for palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids, while the cytoplasm effects were the largest for oleic and linolenic acids. ...
In veal and dairy beef production systems, Holstein bull calves experience many stressors and excessive pathogen exposure, necessitating the use of antimicrobials for welfare and production reasons. The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to explore the effects of esterified fatty acids used as feed supplement on health, production and immune variables in veal calves. Different glycerol-esters of fatty acids were used: short chain fatty acid (SCFA)-based glycerol-mono- (C4) and tributyrate (C4), and medium chain fatty acid (MCFA)-based glycerol-monocaprylate/monocaprinate (C8/C10) and glycerol-monolaurate (C12) in two different doses. One hundred sixty eight calves (2-to 4-week-old) were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups; tributyrate (0.5 g/animal/day); monobutyrate (1 g/animal/day); low C8/C10 (7 g/animal/day) and high C8/C10 (10 g/animal/day); low C12 (4 g/animal/day) and high C12 (6 g/animal/day) and a control group (CON). Duration of in-feed supplementation was 14 weeks. Average ...
Fatty acid-derived biofuels can be a better solution than bioethanol to replace petroleum fuel, since they have similar energy content and combustion properties as current transportation fuels. The environmentally friendly microbial fermentation process has been used to synthesize advanced biofuels from renewable feedstock. Due to their robustness as well as the high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors and phage contamination, yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica have attracted tremendous attention in recent studies regarding the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, including fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty alkanes. However, the native yeast strains cannot produce fatty acids and fatty acid-derived biofuels in large quantities. To this end, we have summarized recent publications in this review on metabolic engineering of yeast strains to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, identified the bottlenecks that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Normal fatty acid concentrations in young children with phenylketonuria. AU - LaVoie, Stacey M.. AU - Harding, Cary. AU - Gillingham, Melanie. PY - 2009/10. Y1 - 2009/10. N2 - The objective of this study was to determine whether children with phenylketonuria (PKU) have lower fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid due to the phenylalanine-restricted diet therapy compared to healthy control subjects. Dietary intake and fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid were measured in 21 subjects (≤6 years of age) with PKU and 23 control children. Subjects with PKU had significantly lower protein and significantly higher polyunsaturated fat intake than controls. Subjects with PKU had significantly lower concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid of the sum of the ω-3, ω-6, saturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Concentrations of fatty acids among subjects with PKU were lower than those among control subjects, but no subject with PKU exhibited any signs or ...
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major surface molecule of Gram-negative bacteria consisting of O-antigen polysaccharides, the core and the hydrophobic lipid A anchored in the outer membrane. Ca. Liberibacter spp. are uncultured, phloem-limited bacterial plant pathogens associated with plant diseases such as citrus greening (Huanglongbing) and potato zebra chip. L. crescens (Lcr) is a nonpathogenic, but cultured surrogate for functional genomic studies of pathogenic Ca. Liberibacters. The lipid A from Lcr has a traditional penta-acylated chitobiose backbone with two ester-linked C16:0 (3-OH) and two amide-linked C14:0 (3-OH) fatty acid residues. Lcr lipid A also contains a very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) C28:0 (26-OH), a unique feature of bacteria such as Sinorhizobium meliloti and Brucella abortus that form chronic intracellular infections within eukaryotic hosts. Absence of VLCFA-LPS in S. meliloti increases sensitivity to salt, detergents and pH etc. S. meliloti genes lpxXL (SMc04268) and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Incorporation and washout of orally administered n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters in different plasma lipid fractions. AU - van Zuijdgeest Leeuwen, S.D.. AU - Dagnelie, P.C.. AU - Rietveld, T.. AU - van den Berg, J.W.O.. AU - Wilson, J.H.P.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - The aim of the present study was to quantify the incorporation of eicosapentaenoic acid (epa) and docosahexaenoic acid (dha) into plasma lipids after oral administration of n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters, since little is known about the rate and pattern of incorporation into plasma lipid fractions. In addition, we aimed to obtain preliminary information regarding epa half-life, which is needed to establish an optimal dosing schedule. Five healthy volunteers ingested two 8·5 g doses of n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters daily for 7 d, supplying 6·0 g epa/d and 5·3 g dha/d. The fatty acid compositions of plasma phospholipids (pl), cholesteryl esters (ce) and triacylglycerols (tag) were determined during supplementation and during ...
Studies of dietary ω-3 fatty acid intake and prostate cancer risk are inconsistent; however, recent large prospective studies have found increased risk of prostate cancer among men with high blood concentrations of long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ([LCω-3PUFA] 20:5ω3; 22:5ω3; 22:6ω3]. This case-cohort study examines associations between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and prostate cancer risk among participants in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial.. ...
Expression of the gene encoding medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD), a nuclearly encoded mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation enzyme, is regulated in parallel with fatty acid oxidation rates among tissues and during development. We have shown previously that the human MCAD gene promoter contains a pleiotropic element (nuclear receptor response element [NRRE-1]) that confers transcriptional activation or repression by members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Mice transgenic for human MCAD gene promoter fragments fused to a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene reporter were produced and characterized to evaluate the role of NRRE-1 and other promoter elements in the transcriptional control of the MCAD gene in vivo. Expression of the full-length MCAD promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase transgene (MCADCAT.371) paralleled the known tissue-specific differences in mitochondrial beta-oxidation rates and MCAD expression. MCADCAT.371 transcripts were abundant in heart tissue ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of reaction parameters for enzymatic glyceride synthesis from fish oil: Ethyl esters versus free fatty acids. AU - Ravn, Helle Christine. AU - Damstrup, Marianne L.. AU - Meyer, Anne S.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Enzymatic conversion of fish oil free fatty acids (FFA) or fatty acid ethyl esters (FAE) into glycerides via esterification or transesterification was examined. The reactions catalyzed by Lipozyme™ 435, a Candida antarctica lipase, were optimized. Influence on conversion yields of fatty acid chain length, saturation degree, temperature, enzyme dosage, molar ratio glycerol:fatty acids, acyl source composition (w/w ratio FFA:FAE), and reaction time was evaluated collectively by multiple linear regression. All reaction variables influenced the conversion into glycerides. Transesterification of FAE produced the highest yields of 94-95% (w/w) conversion yield at 1:3 glycerol:FAE, 25h, 66°C, enzyme dosage 3.1%w/w.. AB - Enzymatic conversion of fish oil free ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - WHO draft guidelines on dietary saturated and trans fatty acids: Time for a new approach?. AU - Astrup, Arne. AU - Bertram, Hanne C.S.. AU - Bonjour, Jean Philippe. AU - De Groot, Lisette C.P.. AU - De Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.. AU - Feeney, Emma L.. AU - Garg, Manohar L.. AU - Givens, Ian. AU - Kok, Frans J.. AU - Krauss, Ronald M.. AU - Lamarche, Benoît. AU - Lecerf, Jean Michel. AU - Legrand, Philippe. AU - McKinley, Michelle. AU - Micha, Renata. AU - Michalski, Marie Caroline. AU - Mozaffarian, Dariush. AU - Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.. PY - 2019/7/3. Y1 - 2019/7/3. N2 - The 2018 WHO draft guidelines on dietary saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids recommend reducing total intake of saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The recommendations fail to take into account considerable evidence that the health effects of saturated fat varies depending on the specific fatty acid and on the specific food source. Maintaining general ...
Methane utilization by methanotrophic bacteria is an attractive application for biotechnological conversion of natural or biogas into high-added-value products. Haloalcaliphilic methanotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus Methylomicrobium are among the most promising strains for methane based biotechnology, providing easy and inexpensive cultivation, rapid growth, and the availability of established genetic tools. A number of methane bioconversions using these microbial cultures have been discussed, including the derivation of biodiesel, alkanes, and OMEGA-3 supplements. These compounds are derived from bacterial fatty acid pools. Here, we investigate fatty acid biosynthesis in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1). Most of the genes homologous to typical Type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathways could be annotated by bioinformatics analyses, with the exception of fatty acid transport and regulatory elements. Different approaches for improving fatty acid accumulation were investigated. These ...
The phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition of microorganisms in podzolic soils of pine forests was studied in Central Siberia. The live microbial biomass in the 1-m mineral soil layer was found to gradually decrease with depth. Although the biomass decreased by half in the lower horizons, its content remained sufficiently high (12-14 nmol FAs/g soil). The coefficient of similarity in the fatty acid composition between the soils of forest and open (unforested) sites was 0.85. The coefficient of fatty acid richness in the mineral soil layer decreased with depth, while differences in fatty acid profiles increased.. ...
Fatty acid biomarkers were used to examine the diet of deep-sea holothurians. We collected 3 species from the Porcupine Seabight and Porcupine Abyssal Plain, NE Atlantic, between 800 and 4850 m in August 2001 (summer), March 2002 (pre-spring bloom), and October 2002 (autumn). Of these, 2 species, the abyssal Amperima rosea and the bathyal Bathyplotes natans, showed significant variations in fatty acid compositions. These are likely to be seasonal. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were dominant within muscle tissue of both species during August 2001 and October 2002, in particular 20:4 (n-6), 20:5 (n-3) and 22:6 (n-3). During March 2002, prior to the spring bloom, there were substantially lower proportions of PUFAs in both species, and increased amounts of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (monoenes), particularly the bacterially-derived biomarkers 18:1 (n-7) and non-methyl uninterrupted dienes (NMIDs). In contrast, the fatty acid composition of the third species, the abyssal Deima validum, ...
The FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene of Arabidopsis is required for the synthesis of very long chain fatty acids in the seed. The product of the FAE1 gene is presumed to be a condensing enzyme that extends the chain length of fatty acids from C18 to C20 and C22. We report here the cloning of FAE1 by directed transposon tagging with the maize element Activator (Ac). An unstable fae1 mutant was isolated in a line carrying Ac linked to the FAE1 locus on chromosome 4. Cosegregation and reversion analyses established that the new mutant was tagged by Ac. A DNA fragment flanking Ac was cloned by inverse polymerase chain reaction and used to isolate FAE1 genomic clones and a cDNA clone from a library made from immature siliques. The predicted amino acid sequence of the FAE1 protein shares homology with those of other condensing enzymes (chalcone synthase, stilbene synthases, and beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III), supporting the notion that FAE1 is the structural gene for a synthase or ...
Overall, the results of the present study demonstrate encouraging trends, but offer evidence that current dietary recommendations for fatty acid intake are not being met in this population. In both men and women, mean intake of total fat as a percent of energy was within recommended intake levels, as of the 2007-2009 survey. However, mean intakes of trans and SFA are higher than recommended levels, and mean intakes of DHA and EPA are lower than recommended levels.. Trans fatty acid intake, as a percent of energy, decreased by ,30% in men and women. This represents a greater decline than was observed in total fat, SFAs, and monounsaturated fatty acids. Similar results have been reported previously, with downward trends in intake of trans fatty acids and plasma trans fatty acid concentrations observed over time in US population groups.12-13,19 This is, however, the longest population-based survey reporting trends in trans fatty acid intake, spanning nearly 30 years. Levels of trans fatty acid ...
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS (EFA, vitamin F) Two fatty acids that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be provided by the diet. The essential fatty acids LINOLEIC ACID and ALPHA LINOLENIC ACID are polyunsaturated FATTY ACIDS, that is, they possess two or more double bonds and lack several hydrogen atoms found in saturated fatty acids. They differ in their location of double bonds, that is, bonds between carbon atoms that are deficient in hydrogen atoms. This small chemical difference has a huge nutritional impact. Linoleic acid contains 18 carbon atoms and belongs to the omega-6 family of fatty acids, in which the first double bond occurs at the sixth carbon atom of the molecular chain. Linoleic acid serves as the parent of a large polyunsaturated fatty acid, called ARACHIDONIC ACID. Arachidonic acid in turn forms PROSTAGLANDINS (PGE2) and thromboxanes (TXA,), hormone-like lipids that tend to promote blood clotting, induce pain and inflammation and cause smooth muscle contraction. Another ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to plasma free fatty acids. AU - Miles, J. M.. AU - Nelson, R. H.. PY - 2007/10. Y1 - 2007/10. N2 - Free fatty acids are the major lipid fuel of the body. Dysregulation of adipose tissue lipolysis results in increased plasma free fatty acid concentrations, and via that mechanism contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adipose tissue hormone sensitive lipase is thought to be responsible for the production of the majority of free fatty acids. However, a separate contribution comes from the action of endothelial lipases, especially lipoprotein lipase, on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins via a process known as spillover. The primary substrate for spillover appears to be chylomicrons derived from dietary fat. The spillover of fatty acids into the free fatty acid pool varies from one tissue to another. For example, spillover is low (∼14%) in the forearm of healthy volunteers, suggesting that triglyceride ...
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Short chain fatty acids C6, C8 and C10 are used as a raw material for the production of surfactants, acid chlorides, flavor and fragrances, lubricants, biocides, coating resins and solvents. Radiacid® and Nouracid® fractionated long chain fatty acids contain a high percentage of C22 fatty acids. The Radiacid® long chain fatty acid product range contain high levels of behenic (C22) acid in the range of 85%. Main applications are detergents and surfactants, wax emulsifiers and foam control additives, high melting esters and soaps. The Nouracid® long chain fatty acid product range contain high levels of erucic (C22:1) acid in the range of 90%. Main applications are lubricants, erucamide, surfactants, oil & gas field chemicals and long chain alcohols (see also section long chain fatty acids ...
Ethynyl-estradiol was shown to decrease the rate of biosynthesis of saturated, mono-, di-, tri- and tetraenic fatty acids in liver tissue and to increase the esterification of the newly synthesized fatty acids into triglycerides and phospholipids. The most distinct activation of esterification was found, if newly synthesized saturated fatty acids changed to triglycerides and tetraenic acids--into phospholipids. Ethynyl-estradiol stimulated also in liver tissue the esterification of exogenous saturated and unsaturated fatty acids into triglycerides and phospholipids, while relative esterification of unsaturated fatty acids into phospholipids tended to increase. The data obtained suggest that stimulation of endo- and exogenous fatty acids esterification into triglycerides and phospholipids of liver tissue may be important in pathogenesis of estrogen-induced hypertriglyceridemia ...
Sunflower is an important oilseed crop domesticated in North America approximately 4000 years ago. During the last century, oil content in sunflower was under strong selection. Further improvement of oil properties achieved by modulating its fatty acid composition is one of the main directions in modern oilseed crop breeding. We searched for the genetic basis of fatty acid content variation by genotyping 601 inbred sunflower lines and assessing their lipid and fatty acid composition. Our genome-wide association analysis based on the genotypes for 15,483 SNPs and the concentrations of 23 fatty acids, including minor fatty acids, revealed significant genetic associations for eleven of them. Identified genomic regions included the loci involved in rare fatty acids variation on chromosomes 3 and 14, explaining up to 34.5% of the total variation of docosanoic acid (22:0) in sunflower oil. This is the first large scale implementation of high-throughput lipidomic profiling to sunflower germplasm
Essential fatty acids are necessary to make cell membranes and for many of the important hormones and other chemical messengers that tell your body what to do. There are twenty different needed fatty acids in your body These are all made from two linoleic acid linolenic acid. Another name for linoleic fatty acid family is omega-6 fatty acids The linolenic fatty acids are often called omega-3 fatty acids. USE : Omega-3 and Omega-6 essential fatty acids are especially important for making prostaglandins in your body. Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances that regulate many activities in your body including inflammation, pain, and swelling (some cause swelling and others relieve it). They also play a role in controlling your blood pressure, your heart, your kidneys, your digestive system, and body temperature. They are important for allergic reactions, blood clotting and making other hormones. Reference: http://www.mcvitamins.com/essential%20fatty%20acids.htm With Regards Amol Dhiman ...
We investigated the fatty acid composition of the phospholipid fraction of the shoulder muscle (triceps brachii) from Jersey and Limousin yearling steers, yearling heifers, and non-lactating cows. The aim was to study breed, sex, and age differences. Significant breed differences in some individual fatty acids were apparent between Jersey and Limousin cows. Limousin cows had more palmitate, vaccenate, arachidonate, and less gamma-linolenate and eicosapentanoate than Jersey cows. Age differences were significant: proportions of palmitate, stearate, and oleate decreased and linoleate, arachidonate, and total polyunsaturates increased with age. Most of the breed x age interactions were not significant. Also, phospholipids of Jersey and Limousin cows did not differ in total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Yearling data revealed significant sex differences in most of the fatty acids, including total monounsaturates and polyunsaturates. Yearling steers had more myristate, ...
Fatty Acids meaning in Roman Urdu. Fatty Acids Roman Urdu meaning along with definition. Roman Urdu meaning of word Fatty Acids. Roman Urdu translation of Fatty Acids. Fatty Acids in Roman Urdu. Fatty Acids Synonyms. Fatty Acids nearby words. Fatty Acids meaning in other languages. English to Roman Urdu Dictionary gives you the best and accurate Roman Urdu meanings of Fatty Acids
Radiacid® and Nouracid® long chain fatty acids contain a high percentage of C20 and C22 fatty acids. The Radiacid® long chain fatty acid product range contains high levels of behenic (C22) acid ranging from 50 to 90%. Main applications are detergents and surfactants, wax emulsifiers and foam control additives, high melting esters and soaps. The Nouracid® long chain fatty acid product range contains high levels of gadoleic (C20:1) and erucic (C22:1) acid ranging from 10 to 90%. Main applications are lubricants, erucamide, surfactants, oil & gas field chemicals and long chain alcohols ...
The absorption of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) depends on the solubility of these components in the gastric fluid. Parameters such as the total MCFA concentration, carboxyl ionization level, and carbon chain length affect the solubility of these molecules. Moreover, the enzymatic lipolysis of solubilized triacylglycerol (TAG) molecules may depend on the carbon chain length of the fatty acids (FAs) components and their positions on the glycerol backbone. This present study aimed at investigating the effect of electrolyte usually formed during the gastric digestion phase on the solubility of MCFA, and evaluating the influence of the FA carbon chain length on the lipolysis rate during the in vitro digestion simulation. The results obtained here showed that the increasing of electrolyte concentrations tend to decrease the mutual solubility of systems composed by the caproic and caprylic fatty acids + sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride solutions. We also observed that a
Fatty acids are a widely studied group of lipids of sufficient taxonomic diversity to be useful in defining microbial community structure. The extraordinary resolution of glass capillary gas-liquid chromatography can be utilized to separate and tentatively identify large numbers of fatty acid methyl esters derived from the lipids of estuarine detritus and marine benthic microbiota without the bias of selective methods requiring culture or recovery of the microbes. The gas-liquid chromatographic analyses are both reproducible and highly sensitive, and the recovery of fatty acids is quantitative. The analyses can be automated, and the diagnostic technique of mass spectral fragmentation analysis can be readily applied. Splitless injection on glass capillary gas chromatographic columns detected by mass spectral selective ion monitoring provides an ultrasensitive and definitive monitoring system. Reciprocal mixtures of bacteria and fungi, when extracted and analyzed, showed progressive changes of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Free fatty acid effects on the atrial myocardium. T2 - Membrane ionic currents are remodeled by the disruption of T-tubular architecture. AU - OConnell, Ryan P.. AU - Musa, Hassan. AU - Gomez, Mario San Martin. AU - Avula, Uma Mahesh. AU - Herron, Todd J.. AU - Kalifa, Jerome. AU - Anumonwo, Justus M.B.. AU - Talkachova, Alena. PY - 2015/8/14. Y1 - 2015/8/14. N2 - Background: Epicardial adiposity and plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) are elevated in atrial fibrillation, heart failure and obesity, with potentially detrimental effects on myocardial function. As major components of epicardial fat, FFAs may be abnormally regulated, with a potential to detrimentally modulate electro-mechanical function. The cellular mechanisms underlying such effects of FFAs are unknown. Objective: To determine the mechanisms underlying electrophysiological effects of palmitic (PA), stearic (SA) and oleic (OA) FFAs on sheep atrial myocytes. Methods: We used electrophysiological techniques, ...
Agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have emerged as important pharmacological agents for improving insulin action. A major mechanism of action of PPAR agonists is thought to involve the alteration of the tissue distribution of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) uptake and utilization. To test this hypothesis directly, we examined the effect of the novel PPARalpha/gamma agonist tesaglitazar on whole-body insulin sensitivity and NEFA clearance into epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT), red gastrocnemius muscle, and liver in rats with dietary-induced insulin resistance. Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet (59% of calories as fat) for 3 wk with or without treatment with tesaglitazar (1 micromol.kg(-1).d(-1), 7 d). NEFA clearance was measured using the partially metabolizable NEFA tracer, (3)H-R-bromopalmitate, administered under conditions of basal or elevated NEFA availability. Tesaglitazar improved the insulin sensitivity of high-fat-fed rats, indicated by an increase in the
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of dietary n-3 and antioxidant supplementation on erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition and fluidity in exercising horses. AU - PORTIER, K.. AU - DE MOFFARTS, B.. AU - FELLMAN, N.. AU - Kirschvink, Nathalie. AU - MOTTA, C.. AU - LETELLIER, C.. AU - RUELLAND, A.. AU - VAN ERCK, E.. AU - LEKEUX, P.. AU - COUDERT, J.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Article. VL - Suppl. 36. SP - 279. EP - 284. JO - Equine Veterinary Journal. JF - Equine Veterinary Journal. SN - 0425-1644. ER - ...
The study was published in Journal of the American Heart Association. In the Cardiovascular Health Study in the USA, 3,660 people aged 65 and older underwent brain scans to detect so called silent brain infarcts, or small lesions in the brain that can cause loss of thinking skills, dementia and stroke. Scans were performed again five years later on 2,313 of the participants. Research shows that silent brain infarcts, which are only detected by brain scans, are found in about 20% of otherwise healthy elderly people. The study found that those who had high long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in blood had about 40% lower risk of having small brain infarcts compared to those with low content of these fatty acids in blood. The study also found that people who had high long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in blood also had fewer changes in the white matter in their brains. Previously in this same study population, similar findings were observed when comparing those ...
Six long chain fatty acid esters of quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) acylated enzymatically were used for determining their antiproliferative action in comparison to precursor compounds (quercetin, Q3G and six fatty acids namely, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexanoic acids) using HepG2 cells. Long chain fatty acid esters of Q3G showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation (approximately 85% to 90%) compared to the precursor compounds and two prescribed anticancer-drugs (Sorafenib and Cisplatin) after 6 hrs and 24 hrs by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA topoisomerase II inhibition. Among the six fatty acid esters of Q3G, oleic acid ester (OA-Q3G) displayed the greatest anti-proliferation action and upon further investigation showed significant regulation of expression of genes involved in cell cycle, growth, survival and apoptosis at gene and protein level. Overall, results of the study suggest strong potential of these ...
0040]In further detail, when adding the water-soluble dietary fatty acid gel formulation to water, the formulation should be added at a rate not to exceed 5 mL per second to a volume of water of 100 mL, or not more than 5 vol % of the water per second of the volume of water it is being added to. The rate of addition depends on the volume of water. Further, the water can be stirred continuously while the addition of the dietary fatty acid gel is being slowly added. The solution may be heated to increase solubility, if desired or necessary. That being said, the heating temperature is typically selected to avoid chemical breakdown of the dietary fatty acid and/or non-ionic surfactant. The temperature of the dietary fatty acid gel (dietary fatty acid/non-ionic surfactant) should not typically exceed 200° F., and the water temperature should also not typically exceed 200° F. Ideally, the temperature of both should be maintained at from 100 to 150° F., and in one embodiment, the water can ...
Medium-chain triglyceride[ Medium-chain triglyceride, MCT ] Triglycerides in which 2 or 3 of its fatty acids are medium-chain fatty acids (i.e., ranging in length from 6 to 12 carbon atoms). More, MCT[ Medium-chain triglyceride, MCT ] Triglycerides in which 2 or 3 of its fatty acids are medium-chain fatty acids (i.e., ranging in length from 6 to 12 carbon atoms). More ]. Triglycerides[ Triglyceride ] An ester comprising of a glycerol backbone and three fatty acid molecules. Triglycerides are the main constituents of natural fats and oils and act as transports for fatty acids in the blood. More in which 2 or 3 of its fatty acids[ Fatty_Acid ] A carboxylic acid with a hydrocarbon chain, usually derived from triglycerides or phospholipids. Fats, oils and esters are comprised of fatty acids. In the body, fatty acids function as the building blocks of cell membranes and signalling molecules. As fuel, they have a high-energy yield (9 kcal/gram) and are the primary means of energy storage in the More ...
Study on biotransformation of �-fatty acid from fish oil was carried out. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been chosen to be the biocatalyst for biotransformation of w fatty acids extracted from Malaysian catfish, Clarias gariepinus. The lipid from freeze-dried catfish flesh was extracted using a modified Folch method and the mixture of chloroform and methanol was used as a solvent. The crude lipid substrate was added to the bacterial culture and incubated for 4 days. After conversion, the products were analyzed by using gas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The analytical result showed that several fatty acids and cholesterol were found in the product. However, the fatty acids and cholesterol contents before and after biotransformation were different. The cholesterol content increased while �-fatty acid contents decreased after biotransformation process. It can be concluded that the bacterial cells had oxidized the �-fatty acids to yield precursors which can be utilized as starting ...
In order to define the substrate requirements, regiochemistry and cryptoregiochemistry of the ω-3 fatty acid desaturases involved in polyunsaturated fatty acid formation, the genes Fad3 and fat-1 from Brassica napus and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans respectively were expressed in bakers yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Various fatty acids, including deuterium-labelled thia-fatty acids, were supplied to growing cultures of transformed yeast. The results from GC-MS analysis of the desaturated products indicate that both the plant and animal desaturases act on unsaturated substrates of 16-20 carbons with a preference for ω-6-unsaturated fatty acids. The regioselectivities of both enzymes were confirmed to be that of ω-3 desaturases. The primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects at C-15 and C-16 of a C18 fatty acid analogue were measured via competitive incubation experiments. Whereas kH/kD at the ω-3 position was shown to be large, essentially no kinetic isotope effect at the ω-2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibitory effect of saturated fatty acids on the mutagenicity of N-nitrosodimethylamine. AU - Negishi, Tomoe. AU - Hayatsu, Hikoya. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. N2 - Saturated fatty acids, C5C12, inhibited the mutagenic activity of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in E. coli WP2 uvrA/pKM101. The inhibition by laurate (C12) was due to the suppression of the enzymatic demethylation of NDMA, whereas that by caprate (C10) was simply due to the bactericidal effect of the fatty acid. Caproate (C6) did not affect the NDMA-demethylase, and evidence is presented to show that the inhibition of mutagenesis by caproate was a result of its interference with the uptake of NDMA metabolites into bacterial cells. Possible biological significance of the inhibition is discussed.. AB - Saturated fatty acids, C5C12, inhibited the mutagenic activity of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in E. coli WP2 uvrA/pKM101. The inhibition by laurate (C12) was due to the suppression of the enzymatic demethylation of NDMA, ...
Physical symptoms of fatty acid deficiency unreliable in ADHD, Sinn N, Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2007 Aug;77(2):109-15. Details. Two studies were conducted to determine whether physical signs of fatty acid deficiencies such as dry hair and skin, frequent thirst and urination were a good indicator of whether fatty acid supplementation could potentially improve ADHD symptoms in children both with ADHD and those without the disorder. It was found that the physical symptoms of deficiency did not reliably predict which children would have behavioural benefits from supplementation.. Sinn N. Physical fatty acid deficiency signs in children with ADHD symptoms. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2007 Aug;77(2):109-15. Click here for the abstract. ...
The fatty acid (FA) composition of Phyllidia varicosa and Phyllidiella pustulosa (notum and viscera) was investigated. Samples were collected from coastal water of Balok - Pahang - Malaysia. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that nudibranchs species host symbiotic bacteria by using fatty acids as biological markers. A high level of fatty acids group specific to the bacteria were detected in the selected species that called odd- branched chain fatty acids. Among them, high levels of iso- anteiso-C15:0, C15:0, iso-C16:0, C17:0, iso-C17:0, iso C17:1(n-5), iso C18:0, 14-methyl-C18:0 and iso-C18:0) were found and their percentages in the notum are significantly different compared to viscera. The total odd- branched chain fatty acids were 29.64% in P. varicosa and 30.66% in P. pustulosa compared to another group of fatty acids such as saturated FA, monounsaturated FA and polyunsaturated FA. The present study deals with the identification of cyclopropane FA in the nudibranch tissue for ...
Involved in translocation of long-chain fatty acids (LFCA) across the plasma membrane. Appears to be the principal fatty acid transporter in small intestinal enterocytes. Plays a role in the formation of the epidermal barrier. Required for fat absorption in early embryogenesis. Has acyl-CoA ligase activity for long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Indirectly inhibits RPE65 via substrate competition and via production of VLCFA derivatives like lignoceroyl-CoA. Prevents light-induced degeneration of rods and cones.