We propose a novel and general framework called the multithreading cascade of Speeded Up Robust Features (McSURF), which is capable of processing multiple classifications simultaneously and accurately. The proposed framework adopts SURF features, but the framework is a multi-class and simultaneous cascade, i.e., a multithreading cascade. McSURF is implemented by configuring an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of the weak SURF classifier for each data category into a real-value lookup list. These non-interfering lists are built into thread channels to train the boosting cascade for each data category. This boosting cascade-based approach can be trained to fit complex distributions and can simultaneously and robustly process multi-class events. The proposed method takes facial expression recognition as a test case and validates its use on three popular and representative public databases: the Extended Cohn-Kanade, MMI Facial Expression Database, and Annotated Facial
As a highly social species, humans regularly exchange sophisticated social signals to support everyday life and the functioning of wider society. One of the most important aspects of social interaction is communicating negative (i.e., pain) and positive (i.e., pleasure) internal states. Although pain and pleasure are diametrically opposite concepts (Russell, 1980), several studies claim that facial expressions of pain and pleasure are too similar to support communication (Aviezer, Trope, & Todorov, 2012; Hughes & Nicholson, 2008) thereby questioning their function as social signals (Fernández-Dols, Carrera, & Crivelli, 2011). Here, we address this question by modelling the dynamic facial expressions that represent pain and pleasure (i.e. orgasm) in two cultures (40 Western, 40 East Asian observers) using a dynamic facial expression generator (Yu, Garrod, & Schyns, 2012) and reverse correlation (Ahumada & Lovell, 1971; see Fig S1, Panel A; see also Gill, Garrod, Jack, & Schyns, 2014; Jack, ...
Change in facial expression over a fixed time after a noxious stimulus is the key measure used to calculate pain scores in preterm and newborn infants. We hypothesised that the latency of facial motor responses would be longer in the youngest premature infants and that behavioural scoring methods of pain may need to take this into account. One hundred and seventy-two clinically required heel lances were performed in 95 infants from 25 to 44 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). Sixty-four percentage of the heel lances evoked a change in facial expression. Change in facial expression was observed in infants across the whole age range from 25 weeks PMA and the latency to the facial expression response ranged from 1 to 17s. Latency to facial expression change was dependent on the infants PMA at the time of the heel lance. Infants below 32 weeks PMA had a significantly longer latency to change in facial expression than older infants (54% increase in infants below 32 weeks; p | 0.001). Sleep state and presence of
A study out of the University of Arizona Psychology Department found that a rough nights sleep may impair your ability to read the room when it comes to facial expressions.. Published in Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms, the research reported that participants who were sleep deprived had a harder time recognizing happy and sad facial expressions than those who were well rested.. However, it is notable that sleep-deprived participants did not show any impairment in recognizing other emotional facial expressions like anger, surprise, fear, and disgust. That may be because those expressions and emotions are more primitive, and they are wired differently in our brains to help us survive dangers.. Research was led by the UA professor of psychology, psychiatry, and medical imaging, Dr. William D.S. Killgore.. Social emotions like sadness and happiness do not indicate threat like anger and fear do, so they are emotions that are not as necessary for immediate survival. When we are sleep ...
BACKGROUND: Depression is associated with neural abnormalities in emotional processing. AIMS: This study explored whether these abnormalities underlie risk for depression. METHOD: We compared the neural responses of volunteers who were at high and low-risk for the development of depression (by virtue of high and low neuroticism scores; high-N group and low-N group respectively) during the presentation of fearful and happy faces using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). RESULTS: The high-N group demonstrated linear increases in response in the right fusiform gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus to expressions of increasing fear, whereas the low-N group demonstrated the opposite effect. The high-N group also displayed greater responses in the right amygdala, cerebellum, left middle frontal and bilateral parietal gyri to medium levels of fearful v. happy expressions. CONCLUSIONS: Risk for depression is associated with enhanced neural responses to fearful facial expressions similar to those
The impact of limbic system morphology on facial emotion recognition in bipolar I disorder and healthy controls Danielle Soares Bio,1 Márcio Gerhardt Soeiro-de-Souza,1 Maria Concepción Garcia Otaduy,2 Rodrigo Machado-Vieira,3 Ricardo Alberto Moreno11Mood Disorders Unit, 2Institute of Radiology, Department and Institute of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch (ETPB), National Institute of Mental Health, NIMH NIH, Bethesda, MD, USAIntroduction: Impairments in facial emotion recognition (FER) have been reported in bipolar disorder (BD) subjects during all mood states. This study aims to investigate the impact of limbic system morphology on FER scores in BD subjects and healthy controls.Material and methods: Thirty-nine euthymic BD I (type I) subjects and 40 healthy controls were subjected to a battery of FER tests and examined with 3D structural imaging of the amygdala and hippocampus
Machine learning approaches have produced some of the highest reported performances for facial expression recognition. However, to date, nearly all automatic facial expression recognition research has focused on optimizing performance on a few databases that were collected under controlled lighting conditions on a relatively small number of subjects. This paper explores whether current machine learning methods can be used to develop an expression recognition system that operates reliably in more realistic conditions. We explore the necessary characteristics of the training data set, image registration, feature representation, and machine learning algorithms. A new database, GENKI, is presented which contains pictures, photographed by the subjects themselves, from thousands of different people in many different real-world imaging conditions. Results suggest that human-level expression recognition accuracy in real-life illumination conditions is achievable with machine learning technology. ...
Every day our face produces thousands of expressions. Some of them reflect what we actually feel, and some of them are meant to make a desired impression on other individuals.. These two types of facial expressions are controlled from two distinctly different areas of the brain: the emotional center (limbic system) and the volitional center (motor cortex).. Limbic system is the "factory of emotions". It works the same way in all animals, humans included. Once we experience an emotion, it is immediately reflected either by our facial expression, or by the body language, or (most of the time) by both. It is an evolutionally much older formation that works the same way in all human beings. We can unmistakably recognize joy or surprise, curiosity or anxiety, anger or disgust by just looking at someones face, and it does not matter to which race or sex that person belongs.. Motor cortex exerts a volitional control over our facial expressions. This ability had only developed in humans at the later ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence of concurrent and prospective associations between facial affect recognition accuracy and childrens involvement in antisocial behaviour. AU - Bowen, Erica. AU - Dixon, L.. PY - 2010/9. Y1 - 2010/9. N2 - This study examined the concurrent and prospective associations between childrens ability to accurately recognize facial affect at age 8.5 and antisocial behavior at age 8.5 and 10.5 years in a sub sample of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort (5,396 children; 2,644, 49% males). All observed effects were small. It was found that at age 8.5 years, in contrast to nonantisocial children; antisocial children were less accurate at decoding happy and sad expressions when presented at low intensity. In addition, concurrent antisocial behavior was associated with misidentifying expressions of fear as expressions of sadness. In longitudinal analyses, children who misidentified fear as anger exhibited a decreased risk of antisocial behavior 2 years later. ...
Our understanding of facial emotion perception has been dominated by two seemingly opposing theories: the categorical and dimensional theories. However, we have recently demonstrated that hybrid processing involving both categorical and dimensional perception can be induced in an implicit manner (Fujimura et al., 2012). The underlying neural mechanisms of this hybrid processing remain unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that separate neural loci might intrinsically encode categorical and dimensional processing functions that serve as a basis for hybrid processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure neural correlates while subjects passively viewed emotional faces and performed tasks that were unrelated to facial emotion processing. Activity in the right fusiform face area (FFA) increased in response to psychologically obvious emotions and decreased in response to ambiguous expressions, demonstrating the role of the FFA in categorical processing. The amygdala,
Muscles Of Facial Expression Diagram - Chart - diagrams and charts with labels. This diagram depicts Muscles Of Facial Expression and explains the details of Muscles Of Facial Expression. ...
The muscles of the head include the tongue, muscles of facial expression, extra-ocular muscles and muscles of mastication. The tongue comprises of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. It receives motor innervation from the hypoglossal nerve. Sensation of the tongue can be divided into taste, and general sensation. The muscles of facial expression are located in the subcutaneous tissue. The attach into the skin, and contract to exert their effects. The muscles of facial expression can be divided in to three groups: orbital, nasal and oral. The orbital muscles of facial expression exert control over movement of the eyelids. They are Orbicularis oculus and corrugator supercilia. Innervated by the facial nerve, these muscles protect the cornea from damage. The nasal muscles of facial expression exert control over movements of the nose, and the skin around it. Innervated by the facial nerve, the three muscles in this group are: nasalis, procerus, and depressor septi nasi. The oral muscles of facial ...
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Babies in the womb develop a range of facial movements in such a way that it is possible to identify facial expressions such as laughter and crying. For the first time a group of researchers were able to show that recognisable facial expressions develop before birth and that, as the pregnancy progresses from 24 to 36 weeks gestation, fetal facial movements become more complex.
Earlier, Yin collaborated with Peter Gerhardstein, also from Binghamton University, to create a 3D facial expression library. That database, made from 2500 facial expressions of 100 different people, is available for free to nonprofit research groups. Since then, Yin has been attempting to teach computers to read those same emotional cues. The challenge is to translate tiny changes around a subjects eyes or mouth into a language that computers can interpret.. As Yin says:. ...
Previous research into face processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has revealed atypical biases toward particular facial information during identity recognition. Specifically, a focus on features (or high spatial frequencies [HSFs]) has been reported for both face and nonface processing in ASD. The current study investigated the development of spatial frequency biases in face recognition in children and adolescents with and without ASD, using nonverbal mental age to assess changes in biases over developmental time. Using this measure, the control group showed a gradual specialization over time toward middle spatial frequencies (MSFs), which are thought to provide the optimal information for face recognition in adults. By contrast, individuals with ASD did not show a bias to one spatial frequency band at any stage of development. These data suggest that the "midband bias" emerges through increasing face-specific experience and that atypical face recognition performance may be related to ...
Law enforcement isnt the only group thats done an about-face on Ekman, who can tick off the Latin names for all 43 facial muscles one moment and identify the precise muscles used by Bill Clinton when he lied about Monica Lewinsky the next. CNN recently asked Ekman to analyze a dozen video tapes of Osama bin Laden. Since the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, he has taught FBI and CIA agents how to detect lies during questioning or observation. More than 30 years ago, when Ekman first set out to determine whether facial expressions are innate or learned, he was derided by esteemed social scientists, including the famous anthropologist Margaret Mead. Seven years and dozens of needles later, Ekman and Friesan put together the Facial Action Coding System, a massive compendium of photos and text describing muscles, combinations of muscles and resulting expressions. The coding system is used primarily by law enforcement officials and health care providers. The study of faces has many applications and is at
List of 15 disease causes of Gradual onset of abnormal facial expression, patient stories, diagnostic guides. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Gradual onset of abnormal facial expression.
Facial expression and gaze direction play an important role in social communication. Previous research has demonstrated the perception of anger is enhanced by direct gaze, whereas it is unclear whether perception of fear is enhanced by averted gaze. In addition, previous research has shown the anxiety affects the processing of facial expression and gaze direction, but hasnt measured or controlled for depression. As a result, firm conclusions cannot be made regarding the impact of individual differences in anxiety and depression on perceptions of face expressions and gaze direction. The current study attempted to reexamine the effect of the anxiety level on the processing of facial expressions and gaze direction by matching participants on depression scores. A reliable psychophysical index of the range of eye gaze angles judged as being directed at oneself (the Cone of Direct Gaze: CoDG) was used as the dependent variable in this study. Participants were stratified into high/low trait anxiety groups and
This study investigated the role of the eye region of emotional facial expressions in modulating gaze orienting effects. Eye widening is characteristic of fearful and surprised expressions and may significantly increase the salience of perceived gaze direction. This perceptual bias rather than the emotional valence of certain expressions may drive enhanced gaze orienting effects. In a series of three experiments involving low anxiety participants, different emotional expressions were tested using a gaze-cueing paradigm. Fearful and surprised expressions enhanced the gaze orienting effect compared with happy or angry expressions. Presenting only the eye regions as cueing stimuli eliminated this effect whereas inversion globally reduced it. Both inversion and the use of eyes only attenuated the emotional valence of stimuli without affecting the perceptual salience of the eyes. The findings thus suggest that low-level stimulus features alone are not sufficient to drive gaze orienting modulations by emotion
Animal welfare is a key issue for industries that use or impact upon animals. The accurate identification of welfare states is particularly relevant to the field of bioscience, where the 3Rs framework encourages refinement of experimental procedures involving animal models. The assessment and improvement of welfare states in animals is reliant on reliable and valid measurement tools. Behavioural measures (activity, attention, posture and vocalisation) are frequently used because they are immediate and non-invasive, however no single indicator can yield a complete picture of the internal state of an animal. Facial expressions are extensively studied in humans as a measure of psychological and emotional experiences but are infrequently used in animal studies, with the exception of emerging research on pain behaviour. In this review, we discuss current evidence for facial representations of underlying affective states, and how communicative or functional expressions can be useful within welfare ...
BACKGROUND: The amygdala is believed to play a key role in processing emotionally salient, threat-relevant, events that require further online processing by cortical regions. Emotional disorders such as depression and anxiety have been associated with hyperactivity of the amygdala, but it is unknown whether antidepressant treatment directly affects amygdala responses to emotionally significant information. METHODS: The current study assessed the effects of 7 days administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), citalopram, on amygdala responses to masked presentations of fearful and happy facial expressions in never-depressed volunteers using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging. A double-blind, between-groups design was used with volunteers randomized to 20 mg/day citalopram versus placebo. RESULTS: Volunteers receiving citalopram showed decreased amygdala responses to masked presentations of threat compared with those receiving placebo.
Neuroimaging experiments show that we activate common circuits when observing sensations or emotions felt by others, and when experiencing these sensations and emotions ourselves. This clearly suggests that seeing someone else experiencing touch, disgust or pain triggers much more in us than a purely theoretical, disembodied interpretation of other peoples mental states. Witnessing someone experiencing an emotion or a sensation is associated with a pattern of activity in our brain embodying their actions, sensations and affective states. What could be the role of this automatic cortical simulation?. The motor component of simulating other peoples facial expressions can have two purposes. One is directly social and arises when the observer of a facial expression not only simulates the facial expressions of others, but allows this simulation to show on his/her face. Such facial mimicry facilitates social contacts and could increase the survival of individuals by increasing their social success ...
While the extant literature has focused on major depressive disorder (MDD) as being characterized by abnormalities in processing affective stimuli (e.g., facial expressions), little is known regarding which specific aspects of cognition influence the evaluation of affective stimuli, and what are the underlying neural correlates. To investigate these issues, we assessed 26 adolescents diagnosed with MDD and 37 well-matched healthy controls (HCL) who completed an emotion identification task of dynamically morphing faces during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We analyzed the behavioral data using a sequential sampling model of response time (RT) commonly used to elucidate aspects of cognition in binary perceptual decision making tasks: the Linear Ballistic Accumulator (LBA) model. Using a hierarchical Bayesian estimation method, we obtained group-level and individual-level estimates of LBA parameters on the facial emotion identification task. While the MDD and HCL groups did not ...
Acute stress is associated with a sensitized amygdala. Corticosteroids, released in response to stress, are suggested to restore homeostasis by normalizing/desensitizing brain processing in the aftermath of stress. Here, we investigated the effects of corticosteroids on amygdala processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Since corticosteroids exert rapid nongenomic and slow genomic effects, we administered hydrocortisone either 75 min (rapid effects) or 285 min (slow effects) before scanning in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Seventy-two healthy males were scanned while viewing faces morphing from a neutral facial expression into fearful or happy expressions. Imaging results revealed that hydrocortisone desensitizes amygdala responsivity rapidly, while it selectively normalizes responses to negative stimuli slowly. Psychophysiological interaction analyses suggested that this slow normalization is related to an altered coupling of the amygdala with the medial ...
Szadee is a 3 year old female Staffy who was seen at our clinic after her owners noticed her activity levels had decreased and she had put on weight. Despite a strict calorie-controlled diet Szadee had not lost weight, in fact she had gained over a kilo! Szadee had also developed hairloss and dandruff along her flanks and a tragic facial expression. Canine hypothyroidism was strongly suspected and a blood test confirmed the diagnosis.. Szadee was started on twice daily thyroid hormone supplementation and her owners noticed a dramatic improvement. She became more active, her haircoat improved and she now has a happy facial expression rather than a tragic one! She also ...
Treatment of medical patients with the inflammatory cytokine, interferon-α (IFN-α), is frequently associated with the development of clinical depressive symptomatology. Several important biological correlates of the effect of IFN-α on mood have been described, but the neuropsychological changes associated with IFN-α treatment are largely unexplored. The aim of the present preliminary study was to assess the effect of IFN-α on measures of emotional processing.We measured changes in emotional processing over 6-8 weeks in 17 patients receiving IFN-α as part of their treatment for hepatitis C virus infection. Emotional processing tasks included those which have previously been shown to be sensitive to the effects of depression and antidepressant treatment, namely facial expression recognition, emotional categorisation and the dot probe attentional task.Following IFN-α, patients were more accurate at detecting facial expressions of disgust; they also showed diminished attentional vigilance to happy
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The experience of pain appears to be associated, from early infancy and across pain stimuli, with a consistent facial expression in humans. A social function is proposed for this: the communication ...
This week scientists discovered 15 more facial expressions human beings use to convey emotion than they previously believed existed. So now we can add
Objective:To evaluate the reproducibility of three nonverbal facial expressions using a three-dimensional motion capture system.Design:Prospective, cross-sectional, controlled study.Setting:Glasgow Dental Hospital and School, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom.Patients and Participants:Thirty-two
Weinstein, N., Vansteenkiste, M. and Paulmann, S., (2019). Listen to Your Mother: Motivating Tones of Voice Predict Adolescents Reactions to Mothers. Developmental Psychology. 55 (12), 2534-2546 Weinstein, N., Zougkou, K. and Paulmann, S., (2018). You Have to Hear This: Using Tone of Voice to Motivate Others.. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 44 (6), 898-913 Garrido-Vásquez, P., Pell, MD., Paulmann, S. and Kotz, SA., (2018). Dynamic Facial Expressions Prime the Processing of Emotional Prosody. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 12, 244- Clahsen, H., Paulmann, S., Budd, MJ. and Barry, C., (2018). Morphological encoding beyond slots and fillers: An ERP study of comparative formation in English. PLoS ONE. 13 (7), e0199897-e0199897 Harmsworth, C. and Paulmann, S., (2018). Emotional Communication in Long-Term Abstained Alcoholics.. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 42 (9), 1715-1724 Paulmann, S. and Uskul, AK., (2017). Early and late brain ...
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Facial expression of pain seems to make you feel worse, according to a study published in the May issue of The Journal of Pain. Healthy volunteers were asked to make a painful expression before the pain started and without anyone appearing to be watching (to avoid social feedback). The pain was perceived more unpleasant when…
Animals cant tell us when theyre experiencing pain, so we have to rely on other cues to help treat their discomfort. But it is often difficult to tell how much an animal is suffering. The sheep, for instance, is the most inscrutable of animals. However, scientists have figured out a way to understand sheep facial expressions using artificial intelligence.. On this weeks episode, Dr. Marwa Mahmoud from the University of Cambridge joins us to discuss her recent study, "Estimating Sheep Pain Level Using Facial Action Unit Detection." Marwa and her colleagues at Cambridges Computer Laboratory developed an automated system using machine learning algorithms to detect and assess when a sheep is in pain. We discuss some details of her work, how she became interested in studying sheep facial expression to measure pain, and her future goals for this project.. If youre able to be in Minneapolis, MN on August 23rd or 24th, consider attending Farcon. Get your tickets today via ...
Funny baby face expression Stock Photo. csp4617122 - Face of cute surprised baby infant girl with ponytails, making funny mouth expression, isolated. Affordable Royalty Free Stock Photography. Downloads for just $2.50, with thousands of images added daily. Subscriptions available for just $39.00. Our stock photo image search engine contains royalty free photos, vector clip art images, clipart illustrations.
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I read a book just over a year ago with a discussion about an expert who could read faces with great accuracy. (I think it was Blink, but I cant find my copy.) The man was shown pictures from two different tribes, I think from Indonesia. Just from looking at the pictures the man was able to give great details about the natures of the two tribes. One was friendly, the other was cannibalistic. The expert picked up on this, and much more, from the pictures ...
Author: Adamaszek, Michael et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2019-04; Keywords: Cerebellar lesion; Parkinsons disease; Emotional facial expressions; Emotional; Prosody|br/|; Title: Comparison of visual and auditory emotion recognition in patients with cerebellar and Parkinson's disease
In rare instances, a person with a highly selective deficit can really make you change the way you think about something. I already mentioned the seminal influences of Marshall and Newcombes (1966) and Warrington and Shallices (1969) studies. Their patients problems were clearly inconsistent with contemporary psychological models of reading and memory. In my own research, the patterns of impairment of face perception following brain injury have led me and colleagues to radically revise our ideas about how facial expressions are recognised (Calder et al., 2001; Calder & Young, 2005). We are not finding the evidence we had expected of a dedicated visual pathway for interpreting all facial expressions. Instead, we are having to take seriously the possibility that current models underestimate the extent to which emotion recognition is an intrinsically multimodal process that involves constantly monitoring the environment for specific types of signal ...
Two facial expressions are typical for this mental state:. Anterior Skull Bones , plays. Face model is a simplified version of the actual face - it has fewer details face features , but it contains all face features involved in making universal facial expressions. Sadness - Usually a response to unfortunate events, rarely used in adverts, unless is followed by the happy ending. Experimental Brain Research , 1 , 1- ...
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Researchers from Korea University, Clova AI Research (NAVER), The College of New Jersey, and Hong Kong University of Science & Technology developed a Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN)-based approach that transforms the facial expressions of still images.. Using an NVIDIA Tesla GPU and the cuDNN-accelerated PyTorch deep learning framework, the team trained their models on the CelebFaces Attributes (CelebA) dataset and the Radboud Faces Database (RaFD) that includes of a variety facial expressions. Their framework named StarGAN is able to perform multi-domain image-to-image translation results on the CelebA dataset via transferring the knowledge it learned from the RaFD dataset - this means they can take an input image of a neutral celebrity face and synthesize the facial expressions (angry, happy, and fearful).. The researchers claim this work is the first to successfully perform multi-domain image translation across different datasets.. ...
James A. Russell, Department of Psychology, Boston College August 2015 - People frown, smile, laugh, grimace, wince, scowl, pout, sneer, and so o...
I taught my baby (almost 21 years old) to sign. No one else had heard of doing it back then. I had taken sign language when in college. I was frustrated when doing research for a hospital that a program was not encouraging signing with language delayed pre-schoolers. They thought if they taught them to sign, they wouldnt learn to talk! That is like saying if you carry your child in a sling they will never learn to crawl or walk! Anyways, I taught her and my 6 other children (my twins signed each other), my day-care children & my foster children. It made frustration so much lower! Communication isnt necessarily verbal! I can still communicate without speaking to my kids. It comes in very handy when we are on opposite sides of a large room, that is noisy! Also I find since facial expressions are an important part of signing that they are also more aware of peoples facial expressions! My grandson learned signing as well. One of the little day-care lads actually taught his other little friend ( a ...
http://sudharsan-ns.blogspot.com/ In this demo without using the fiducial marker in face and training image, the facial expression is obtained by tracking th...
Zoom is exhausting: We often hear about being "Zoomed out." That may be for a good reason because our brain has to work overtime seeking authentic communication, according to Murphy. Part of this communication is called facial mimicry, the tendency to imitate the emotional facial expressions of others, considered essential for empathy. Visual and auditory distortions that often occur with video conferencing make it difficult to read reactions of people and in turn, make it difficult to respond in the most authentic way.. The comeback of the telephone: After a long period of decline, telephone usage has increased. Verizon and AT&T report a 78 percent increase in voice-only calls compared to the pre-pandemic time. Not only has usage increased, but also the length of calls, up 33 percent from before the outbreak. Verizon reports it handles an average of 800 million wireless calls during one single day during the week, which is more than double the calls for Mothers Day, considered the busiest ...
We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the influence of manipulating facial expression on error monitoring in individuals. The participants were 11 undergraduate students who had been diagnosed with minor depression (MinD). We recorded error-related negativity (ERN) as the participants performed a modified flanker task in 3 conditions: Duchenne smile, standard smile, and no smile. Behavioral data results showed that, in both the Duchenne smile and standard smile conditions, error rates were significantly lower than in the no-smile condition. The ERP analysis results indicated that, compared to the no-smile condition, both Duchenne and standard smiling facial expressions decreased ERN amplitude, and ERN amplitudes were smallest for those in the Duchenne smile condition. Our findings suggested that even brief smile manipulation may improve long-term negative mood states of people with MinD ...
One can impossibly think of the diagnosis and treatment of headaches and facial pain with its interactive characteristics without including an interdisciplinary approach. Despite all efforts practitioners still find themselves left alone in the treatment of the patients complaints.The CRAFTA education program is patient centred and will satisfy the demands of critically questioning medical doctors and therapists as well as the more practically thinking colleagues