Reconnaissance supports the MAGTF commanders intent and his CCIRs. While contributing to the commanders broad situational awareness and development, reconnaissance assets tailor their efforts to support the specific CCIRs indicated by the commanders intent and subsequent unit intelligence and operations planning. Simultaneously, reconnaissance forces must remain alert to any developments that may cause the commander to reassess that intent. MAGTF reconnaissance assets are best employed early to support the CCIRs and friendly course of action development and selection. When reconnaissance is initiated early in the planning cycle, planning and execution are driven by the flow of solid, timely information and intelligence. If reconnaissance is delayed, situation development will generally be more uncertain. In this case, planning and execution can either take place in an information vacuum or be driven by the search for such information. Reconnaissance assets are best employed in general ...
Sanitary epidemiological reconnaissance is a diagnostic method in epidemiology.[1] It has been used in the Soviet Japanese campaign in WWII immediately behind the first echelon of tanks and mechanized vehicles of advancing Soviet army should they encounter any particular contagious disease as withdrawing enemy forces had poisoned many wells and water sources.[2] The use of sanitary epidemiological reconnaissance or similar practices in the armed forces is mentioned elsewhere.[3] The Polish contingents serving under the UN auspices focused their tasks among others on … sanitary-epidemiological reconnaissance … [4] Sanitary epidemiological reconnaissance is a collection and transfer of all data available on sanitary and epidemiological situation of the area of possible deployment and action of armed forces, the same data for the neighbouring and enemy armed forces. The aim for the reconnaissance is to clear up the reasons of the specific disease origin- sources of the infection in extreme ...
The Mercury Planetary Orbiter is one step closer to its 2015 launch, completing a "bake-out" where the sides and top of the chamber were kept heated to around 50°C, while the underside remained cooled by liquid nitrogen.. The faint aroma of hot metal filled the surrounding cleanroom as the hatch to ESAs newest test facility was slid aside, concluding a 23-day bake-out of the largest segment of ESAs mission to Mercury.. Ending on the early hours of 14 February, this test ensured ESAs Mercury Planetary Orbiter - MPO, part of the multi-module BepiColombo mission - was cleaned of potential contaminants in advance of its 2015 mission to the inner Solar System.. The bake-out took place at ESAs technical heart, ESTEC in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, which includes a dedicated test center equipped to simulate all aspects of the space environment.. MPO will fly to the innermost planet with Japans Mercury Magnetosphere Orbiter, riding together on ESAs propulsion module. But not before getting ...
CiteSeerX - Scientific articles matching the query: Un système de reconnaissance automatique de documents techniques. Application aux plans de cadastre
Mentor: Jen Blank. Researched the microbial diversity in ophiolite-hosted coldsprings as an analog to martian environments. Microbe-bearing water samples were collected in Del Puerto Canyon, California. DNA was extracted from the samples followed by PCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and DNA sequencing. Rock and water samples were evaluated for mineral/chemical content.. ...
tetrahedrassface writes When I was very young, my dad took me on a trip to his parents farm. He wanted to show me The Crater. We walked a long way through second generation hardwoods and finally stood on the rim of a hole that has no equal in this area. As I grew up, I became more interested in ...
LUNAR MISSIONS: RESULTS FROM KAGUYA, CHANGE-1, AND CHANDRAYAAN-1. Arai T. Yamamoto Y. Okada T. Kato M. -- Lessons Learned in Onboard Software Processing of XRS-Kaguya [#2212] We introduce the functional control, data reduction and observation control by the software processing of X-ray spectrometers onboard Kaguya, and we discuss the lessons-learned from the lunar X-ray observation. Terazono J. Asada N. Demura H. Hirata N. Saiki K. Iwasaki A. Oka R. Hayashi T. Suzuki T. Miyamoto H. Haruyama J. Ohtake M. Matsunaga T. Sobue S. Okumura H. Fujita T. Yamamoto A. Integrated Lunar Web-GIS Environment Using Data Obtained by Lunar Exploration [#1232] The report of current implementation and development status about integrated GIS infrastructure using lunar exploration data including Kaguya, Japanese lunar explorer. Okumura H. Sobue S. Hoshino H. Yamamoto A. Fujita T. Data Archive and Visualization for Lunar Orbiter Kaguya (SELENE) [#1518] Kaguya Data Archive (L2DB) and Kaguya Web Map Server(WMS) are ...
Details in Liams words: RECONNAISSANCE. Currently the role of site reconnaissance is predominantly carried out by light tankers or QAVs (Quick Attack Vehicles), typically these are modified single cabin commercial utility vehicles such as the Toyota Landcruiser. While the off road performance and maneuverability of such a vehicle is sufficient, its ability to actively suppress a fire threat is severely limited by the considerably small water supply (500lt) and distinct lack of survival engineering, fundamentally making it inadequate for its role.. CREW LAYOUT. Typically medium and heavy tankers require 5-6 crew members to be operated effectively. AMATOYA requires only 2. More military in its approach, reducing crew numbers per appliance will allow for greater dispersion of resources during a fire response.. Principal concerns when developing a vehicle of any nature are driver position, ingress/egress and vision angles. These elements become even more crucial in a vehicle purpose built for ...
Importance: It was previously believed that no organism could live beyond 121 degrees Celsius. In fact, the highest temperature believed to be tolerable was 113 degrees Celsius which P. fumarii is capable of tolerating. The ability to grow at such extreme temperatures increases the variety of environments microbes could be found in. This could hint to when and where Archaea may have lived on primordial Earth as well as how far deep into the Earth microbes could live today. This discovery also leads to the potential for life in harsh extraterrestrial environments. ...
What is going on with the vehicle industry? Japans Nissan Motors joined the recall club Wednesday. They recalled 540,000 vehicles due to a brake pedal problem.. The brake pedals of certain models could have faulty components that can cause the pedals to wobble. The models affected are: The Titan, Armada and Infiniti QX56 built from 2005 to 2008, and the Frontier, Pathfinder and Xterra produced between January and March 2006 and between October 2007 and January 2008.. ...
A kilometre is the same thing as a kilometer ... its a distance. There are about twenty thousand kilometers from the north pole to the south pole. A mile is pretty close …to 1.609 kilometers. Going 60 miles per hour is about the same as going 100 kilometers per hour. There are 39.37 inches in a meter, and 1,000 meters in a kilometer. (MORE) ...
This on the web one-way conversion tool converts surface area units from ∅ 1-centimeter spheres ( ∅ 1 cm ) into ares ( a ) instantly online. 1 sphere 1-centimeter diam. ( ∅ 1 cm ) = 0.0000031 ares ( a ). How many ares ( a ) are in 1 sphere 1-centimeter diam. ( 1 ∅ 1 cm )? How much of surface area from ∅ 1-centimeter spheres to ares, ∅ 1 cm to a? Exchange values and measures from one surface area unit to another unit by quick calculation.
With the Leatherman Crater c33Lx youll find Blade Launcher technology either Deploy the combo blade, or hang it from your belt or pack with the uniqu
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Answers to the question, How Can People Ever Miss You If You Are Not Moving Anywhere Or Not Ever A Single Centimeter? Answers to Questions from People Who Know at Ask Experience Project.
Foldable ruler 15 to 30 cm - Foldable from 15 centimeters to 30 centimeters - Each step increase 15 degrees:0, 115, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 13
In order for you to run sub 45 minutes for 10Km, you must be able to run below 4 minutes 30 seconds per kilometer for the distance. This 10k Program will assist you.
In order for you to run sub 45 minutes for 10Km, you must be able to run below 4 minutes 30 seconds per kilometer for the distance. This 10k Program will assist you.
NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter suffers glitch, swaps computers, radio transponder, enters safe mode, say Jet Propulsion Laboratory officials
Need help? Email [email protected] or call 425-250-0800 during our business hours, Monday through Friday, 10:00 AM to 5:00 PM Pacific time.. Paizo Inc., Paizo, the Paizo golem logo, Pathfinder, the Pathfinder logo, Pathfinder Society, Starfinder, the Starfinder logo, GameMastery, and Planet Stories are registered trademarks of Paizo Inc. The Pathfinder Roleplaying Game, Pathfinder Campaign Setting, Pathfinder Adventure Path, Pathfinder Adventure Card Game, Pathfinder Player Companion, Pathfinder Modules, Pathfinder Tales, Pathfinder Battles, Pathfinder Legends, Pathfinder Online, Starfinder Adventure Path, PaizoCon, RPG Superstar, The Golems Got It, Titanic Games, the Titanic logo, and the Planet Stories planet logo are trademarks of Paizo Inc. Dungeons & Dragons, Dragon, Dungeon, and Polyhedron are registered trademarks of Wizards of the Coast, Inc., a subsidiary of Hasbro, Inc., and have been used by Paizo Inc. under license. Most product names are trademarks owned or used under ...
A day after an engine anomaly slowed its progress, Indias Mars Orbiter successfully raised its orbit to an apogee above 118,000 km (73,000 mi.) on Nov. 12.. The countrys first Mars orbiter suffered a setback on Nov. 11 as attempts were made to raise the spacecrafts orbit around Earth to built momentum for its trip to Mars. A minor problem with the liquid fuel thruster caused the 1,350-kg (3,000-lb.) vehicle to fall short of the mark.. "The fourth supplementary orbit-raising maneuver of Mars Orbiter Spacecraft, starting at 05:03 local time, with a burn time of 303.8 seconds has been successfully completed," Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) spokesman Deviprasad Karnik says. "The observed change in apogee is from 78,276 km to 118,642 km.". The velocity added to the Mars Orbiter was 124.9 meters per second. "Everything is normal," Karnik tells Aviation Week.. The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) was boosted by a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C25) from the Sriharikota spaceport in south ...
Gusev Crater is an impact crater on Mars that looks as though a lake may have once filled it in the distant past. One of the two Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) will explore Gusev Crater beginning in January 2004.. Gusev Crater is about 145 km (90 miles) wide and covers an area roughly the size of the state of Connecticut. It is located at 14.6 South latitude and 175.3 East longitude, along the boundary between Mars southern highlands and its lowland northern plains. The crater is about 3,000 km (1,900 miles) southeast of the volcano Elysium Mons. Scientists believe the Gusev Crater was formed by the impact of an asteroid three to four billion years ago.. A valley named Maadim Vallis, which is connected to the south side of the crater, looks like it may have been a river channel that poured water into the crater in the past, forming a large lake. If the crater was indeed a lake, scientists expect it to contain layers of sediments as much as 915 meters (3,000 feet) thick that flowed in with the ...
ABSTRACT. Two Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometers (Mini-TES) operated successfully onboard the two Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) on the Martian surface, one at Gusev crater and the other at Meridiani Planum. Designed to provide remotely sensed information on the bulk mineralogy of surface materials, the Mini-TES instruments served to guide the rovers to targets of interest and extrapolate the observations made by the rovers mechanical-arm-mounted instruments. The Mini-TES on the Spirit rover in Gusev crater observed a flat plain covered by rocks with an olivine-rich ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4) mineralogy and a soil-like unit mantled by airfall dust occurring between the rocks. The dust is a spectral match to dust observed at Meridiani Planum and across the globe. The soil is basaltic in composition, dominated by plagioclase (NaAlSi3O8-CaAl2Si2O8), pyroxene (Ca(Mg,Fe)Si2O6-(Mg,Fe)SiO3), and olivine that probably was produced in part from the breakdown of local rocks. Approximately 2.5 km from the Spirit ...
PASADENA, CALIF. -- Less than a year since beginning the prime science phase of its mission, NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has passed a mission-success milestone for the amount of data returned.. The data-volume target of 26 terabytes, which was surpassed this week, is equivalent to about 5,000 CD-ROMs full and exceeds the total from all other current and past Mars missions combined.. The biggest shares of the data come from two of the orbiters six science instruments: the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment and the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars. The high-resolution cameras team of investigators, based at the University of Arizona, Tucson, today released 143 color images. The images reveal features as small as a desk. They are valuable to researchers studying possible landing sites for NASAs Mars Science Laboratory, a mission launching in 2009 to deploy a long-distance rover carrying sophisticated science instruments on Mars.. The camera team is also ...
Rover Tracks and Dust Devils on Mars As Seen From Orbit\n\nThe high-resolution camera on NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has returned a dramatic oblique view of the Martian crater that a rover explored for two years. The new view of Victoria Crater shows layers on steep crater walls, difficult to see from straight overhead, plus wheel tracks left by NASAs Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity between September 2005 and August 2007. The orbiters High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shot it at an angle comparable to looking at landscape from an airplane window. Some of the cameras earlier, less angled images of Victoria Crater aided the rover team in choosing safe routes for Opportunity and contributed to joint scientific studies. ...
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is usually described as an orbit inside the area which comes from the Earths surface up to an altitude of 2,000 km.[source?] Satellites in LEO go around the Earth many times per day. Satellites are put in low Earth orbit if the things they do must be done in outer space but neednt be far away. Some satellites are in LEO to photograph the Earth, for example some weather satellites and Earth resource satellites. Most space telescopes are in LEO since they only have to be above the Earths atmosphere. The International Space Station is in LEO.. ...
Revision: 11303 http://pcgen.svn.sourceforge.net/pcgen/?rev=11303&view=rev Author: eddyanthony Date: 2010-01-10 20:51:03 +0000 (Sun, 10 Jan 2010) Log Message: ----------- Bestiary: More Demons and a correction to a monster spell name with a comma in it. Modified Paths: -------------- Trunk/content/notfordistribution/paizo/pathfinder_rpg/pathfinder_rpg_bestiary/monsters/pathfinder_rpg_bestiary_abilities_monsters_def.lst Trunk/content/notfordistribution/paizo/pathfinder_rpg/pathfinder_rpg_bestiary/monsters/pathfinder_rpg_bestiary_kits_races_def.lst Trunk/content/notfordistribution/paizo/pathfinder_rpg/pathfinder_rpg_bestiary/monsters/pathfinder_rpg_bestiary_races_def.lst Trunk/content/notfordistribution/paizo/pathfinder_rpg/pathfinder_rpg_bestiary/monsters/pathfinder_rpg_bestiary_races_ghi.lst Trunk/pcgen/data/alpha/paizo/pathfinder_rpg/pathfinder_rpg_core_rulebook/pathfinder_bestiary_core/pathfinder_rpg_bestiary_abilities_constant_spelllike.lst ...
This figure shows average temperature structure in the martian northern polar regions in six Mars Years as measured by Mars Climate Sounder on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Thermal Emission Spectrometer on Mars Global Surveyor. (Mars Year 1 started in 1956; Mars Year 25 started in June 2000; Mars Year 31 started in September 2011.) The profiles cover the atmosphere from the surface up to about 75 kilometers altitude. The profiles are from the aphelion season, when Mars is farthest from the Sun. This coincides with late northern spring (about three weeks before the start of summer). These night-time averages each cover 25 days of observations.
A low-temperature flow tube and ultra-high vacuum apparatus were used to explore the uptake and heterogeneous chemistry of acetylene (C2H2) on cosmic dust analogues over the temperature range encountered in Titans atmosphere below 600 km. The uptake coefficient, γ, was measured at 181 K to be (1.6 ± 0.4) × 10-4, (1.9 ± 0.4) × 10−4 and (1.5 ± 0.4) × 10−4 for the uptake of C2H2 on Mg2SiO4, MgFeSiO4 and Fe2SiO4, respectively, indicating that γ is independent of Mg or Fe active sites. The uptake of C2H2 was also measured on SiO2 and SiC as analogues for meteoric smoke particles in Titans atmosphere, but was found to be below the detection limit (γ , 6 × 10−8 and , 4 × 10-7, respectively). The rate of cyclo-trimerization of C2H2 to C6H6 was found to be 2.6 × 10-5 exp(-741/T) s−1, with an uncertainty ranging from ± 27 % at 115 K to ± 49 % at 181 K. A chemical ablation model was used to show that the bulk of cosmic dust particles (radius 0.02-10 µm) entering Titans atmosphere ...
The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity strolled out of her winter haven this May to continue the expedition around Endeavour Crater, roving into yet another Martian spring.
... (LEO) refers to a satellite which orbits the earth at altitudes between (very roughly) 200 miles and 930 miles. Low Earth Orbit satellites must
With its solar panels their cleanest in years, NASAs decade-old Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is inspecting a section of crater-rim ridgeline chosen as a priority target due to evidence of a water-related mineral.. Orbital observations of the site by another NASA spacecraft, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, found a spectrum with the signature of aluminum bound to oxygen and hydrogen. Researchers regard that signature as a marker for a mineral called montmorillonite, which is in a class of clay minerals called smectites. Montmorillonite forms when basalt is altered under wet and slightly acidic conditions. The exposure of it extends about 800 feet (about 240 meters) north to south on the western rim of Endeavour Crater, as mapped by the orbiters Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM).. "Its like a mineral beacon visible from orbit saying, Come check this out," said Opportunity Principal Investigator Steve Squyres, of Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.. Some of the ...
Thousands of meteors per hour would have been visible - truly astounding to the human eye." Thats Nick Schneiders description of what you and I would have seen standing on Mars during Comet Siding Springs close flyby last month. "It would have been really mind-blowing," he added. Schneider is instrument lead for MAVENs Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS).. He and a group of scientists who work as lead investigators for instruments on the MAVEN and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft shared the latest results from the comet flyby during a media teleconference earlier today. There were many surprises. Would we expect anything less from a comet?. Heres a summary of the results:. A very dusty ice ball - The comets dust tail and the amount of dust in its coma were much larger than expected, prompting Jim Green, director of NASAs Planetary Science Division in Washington, to remark: "It makes me very happy we hid them (the spacecraft) on the backside of Mars. That really saved ...
Mars Pathfinder - USA Lander & Surface Rover - 264 kg (lander), 10.5 kg (rover) - (December 4, 1996 - September 27, 1997) Mars Pathfinder arrived at Mars on July 4, 1997 and impacted the surface at 16:57 UT (12:57 PM EDT) at a velocity of about 18 m/s (40 mph). It bounced about 15 meters (50 feet) into the air, bouncing another 15 times and rolling before coming to rest approximately 2.5 minutes after impact and about 1 km from the initial impact site. The landing site was in the Ares Vallis region is at 19.33 N, 33.55 W and was named the Sagan Memorial Station. A six-wheel rover, named Sojourner, rolled onto the Martian surface on July 6 at about 05:40 UT. Mars Pathfinder returned 2.6 billion bits of information, including more than 16,000 images from the lander and 550 images from the rover, as well as more than 15 chemical analyses of rocks and extensive data on winds and other weather factors. The last successful data transmission was on September 27, 1997, the 83rd day of the mission since ...
NASA has now released a breathtaking high resolution image of the rover Curiosity captured from Mars orbit coincidentally coinciding with her crossing the targeted landing ellipse just days after she marked 1 Martian Year on the Red Planet in search of the chemical ingredients necessary to support alien microbial life forms.. The orbital image was taken on June 27 (Sol 672) by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and clearly shows the rover and wheel tracks at the end of the drive that Sol, or Martian day.. You can simultaneously experience the Martian eye view of Curiosity from above and below by checking out our Sol 672 ground level photo mosaic - below. Its assembled from raw images taken by the mast mounted navigation camera (Navcam) showing the rovers wheel tracks and distant rim of the Gale Crater landing site.. ...
Need help? Email [email protected] or call 425-250-0800 during our business hours, Monday through Friday, 10:00 AM to 5:00 PM Pacific time.. Paizo Inc., Paizo, the Paizo golem logo, Pathfinder, the Pathfinder logo, Pathfinder Society, Starfinder, the Starfinder logo, GameMastery, and Planet Stories are registered trademarks of Paizo Inc. The Pathfinder Roleplaying Game, Pathfinder Campaign Setting, Pathfinder Adventure Path, Pathfinder Adventure Card Game, Pathfinder Player Companion, Pathfinder Modules, Pathfinder Tales, Pathfinder Battles, Pathfinder Legends, Pathfinder Online, Starfinder Adventure Path, PaizoCon, RPG Superstar, The Golems Got It, Titanic Games, the Titanic logo, and the Planet Stories planet logo are trademarks of Paizo Inc. Dungeons & Dragons, Dragon, Dungeon, and Polyhedron are registered trademarks of Wizards of the Coast, Inc., a subsidiary of Hasbro, Inc., and have been used by Paizo Inc. under license. Most product names are trademarks owned or used under ...
NASAs Mars Curiosity rover has used its full array of instruments to analyze Martian soil for the first time, and found a complex chemistry within the Martian soil. Water and sulfur and chlorine-containing substances, among other ingredients, showed up in samples Curiositys arm delivered to an analytical laboratory inside the rover.. NASAs Mars Curiosity rover has used its full array of instruments to analyze Martian soil for the first time, and found a complex chemistry within the Martian soil. Water and sulfur and chlorine-containing substances, among other ingredients, showed up in samples Curiositys arm delivered to an analytical laboratory inside the rover.. Detection of the substances during this early phase of the mission demonstrates the laboratorys capability to analyze diverse soil and rock samples over the next two years. Scientists also have been verifying the capabilities of the rovers instruments.. Curiosity is the first Mars rover able to scoop soil into analytical ...
Transgenesis in numerous eukaryotes has been facilitated by the use of site-specific integrases to stably insert transgenes at pre-defined genomic positions (landing sites). However, the utility of integrase-mediated transgenesis in any system is constrained by the limited number and variable expression properties of available landing sites. By exploiting the non-standard recombination activity exhibited by a phiC31 integrase mutant, we developed a rapid and inexpensive method for isolating landing sites that exhibit desired expression properties. Additionally, we devised a simple technique for constructing arrays of transgenes at a single landing site, thereby extending the utility of previously characterized landing sites. Using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, we demonstrate the feasibility of these approaches by isolating new landing sites optimized to express transgenes in the nervous system and by building fluorescent reporter arrays at several landing sites. Because these strategies ...
Titans upper atmosphere is ionized by solar radiation and particle bombardment from Saturns magnetosphere. The induced ionosphere plays a key role in the coupling of Titans atmosphere with the Kronian environment. It also provides unique signatures for identifying energy sources upon Titans upper atmosphere. Here we focus on observations from the first, close flyby by the Cassini spacecraft and assess the ionization and electron heating sources in Titans sunlit ionosphere. We compare CAPS electron spectra with spectra produced by an electron transport model based on the INMS neutral densities and a MHD interaction model. In addition, we compare RPWS electron temperature against the models. The important terms in the electron energy equation include loss through excitation of vibrational states of N-2 and CH4, Coulomb collisions with suprathermal electrons, and thermal conduction. Our analysis highlights the important role of the magnetic field line configuration for aeronomic studies at ...
By ALICIA CHANG LOS ANGELES - New photographs from space suggest that water occasionally flows on the frigid surface of Mars, raising the tantalizing possibility that the Red Planet is hospitable to life, scientists reported Wednesday. The new images, taken by NASAs Mars Global Surveyor before it lost contact with Earth, do not actually show flowing water. Rather, they show changes in craters that provide the strongest evidence yet that water coursed through them as recently as several years ago, and is perhaps doing so even now. "This is a squirting gun for water on Mars," said Kenneth Edgett, a scientist at San Diego-based Malin Space Science Systems, which operates a camera on the Global Surveyor. The news excited scientists who hunt for extraterrestrial life. If the finding is confirmed, they say, all the ingredients favorable for life on Mars are in place: liquid water and a stable heat source. In all of its Mars exploration missions, NASA has pursued a "follow the water" strategy to ...
Beneath an icy crust, Saturns moon Enceladus … has an ocean that covers its entire globe. NASAs Cassini spacecraft measured wobbles in Enceladuss rotation over more than seven years. The data confirm that the crust is moving separately from the rocky core, meaning that there must be a widespread layer of liquid between them, says a team led by Peter Thomas of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York ...
Pillinger was the principal investigator for the Beagle 2 Mars lander project, part of European Space Agencys (ESA) 2003 Mars Express mission. Initially considered a failure, it has since come to light that the space craft did successfully touch down on the surface of Mars. The UK Space Agency on 16 January 2015 indicated that Beagle 2 had indeed reached the surface of Mars on 25 December 2003, but had failed to deploy fully.[17] Images taken by the HiRISE camera on NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) identified clear evidence for the lander and convincing evidence for key entry and descent components on the surface of Mars within the expected landing area of Isidis Planitia (an impact basin close to the equator). Recent research into photographs taken of the landing site by a Mars orbiter suggest that as many as three of the four solar panels may have been successfully opened. The reason why the lander failed to communicate back to Earth has not yet been determined. When the lander was ...
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The feature that appears bright blue at the center of this scene is NASAs Curiosity Mars rover on the northwestern flank of Mount Sharp, viewed by NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Curiosity is approximately 10 feet long and 9 feet wide (3.0 meters by 2.8 meters).
This cluster of small impact craters was spotted by the Context Camera on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in the region northwest of Gale Crater, the landing site of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity.. We had suspected that the cluster was produced by the impact of MSLs hardware onto the surface of Mars, because we could see it in CTX images after the landing, but it was not present in images prior to the arrival of MSL. Consistent with this interpretation is the fact that the cluster is located along a line between the Curiosity landing site and a strewn field of debris previously identified in HiRISE images as being caused by MSL hardware, in particular the cruise stage and/or tungsten weights used as cruise balance masses (see the caption for ESP_029245_1755 and associated links).. Over a year has passed since the landing, so this impact cluster is not as fresh as those imaged earlier and has been degraded somewhat by winds from the northeast. Nevertheless, the cluster shows ...
The huge successes of the two Viking Landers, the Pathfinder Lander with Sojourner, the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, and the Phoenix Lander have opened a new era in the exploration of Mars. The Viking Landers could not determine if life is present or ever was present on Mars, but did uncover clues that Mars had a warmer, wetter past. The Sojourner Rover proved that driving a wheeled vehicle on Mars was possible and found that the geological chemistry varied the more it roamed. The Opportunity Rover confirmed that Mars did indeed have water and in many places there were shallow pools or perhaps seas in its past. Where there was water, there may have been life or may still be. Sedimentary rocks on Earth leave a record of past life and only certain environments and types of deposits provide good places for fossil preservation. The challenge is to determine life from non-life as any life on Mars could potentially have a different chemistry, structure, and characteristics than on ...
David Shiga writes, NASAs silent Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft is likely lost forever. The space agency attempted to take a picture of the 10-year-old spacecraft using the newer Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, but did not detect it, either because its orbit has shifted since last contact, or ...
3) According to Li, a surprising amount of promising work has already been done on the seemingly difficult task of having the sample-return Orbiter locate and rendezvous with the tiny Orbiting Sample Canister that will be launched back into orbit around Mars from the planets surface by the Mars Ascent Vehicle, and capture the Canister so that it can be loaded into the heat-shielded Earth Entry Vehicle capsule carried on the Orbiter. The current plan is, in fact, to use cameras on the Orbiter to locate the Canister at a distance of up to 10,000 km away -- with the first-stage development of such a camera already carried on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter -- although the Canister will carry a simple radio beacon as a backup for long-range tracking. After carrying out an automated rendezvous, the Orbiter will "dock" with the round Canister by scooping it up in a conical retrieval basket and funnelling it into the EEV capsule. Li says that many of the systems and computer algorithms needed to carry ...
NASA Transponder Experiments. Jan McGarry & Tom Zagwodzki with inputs from D. Smith, X. Sun, G. Neumann, J. Abshire, J. Degnan and many others Transponder Session ILRS Workshop at Eastbourne October 2005. NASA Transponder Experiments. MOLA: Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Slideshow 3339955 by hamlin
Russias Phobos-Grunt mission, an audacious effort to retrieve samples from a Martian moon, is stranded in low Earth orbit following a successful liftoff Tuesday from Kazakhstan, according to Russian reports. Two rocket burns were supposed to propel the massive probe on a course toward Mars late Tuesday, but indications are the engine firings did not occur, according to Vladimir Popovkin, head of the Russian space agency ...
The question of how much liquid is on the surface is an important one because methane is a strong greenhouse gas on Titan as well as on Earth, but there is much more of it on Titan. If all the observed liquid on Titan is methane, it would only last a few million years, because as methane escapes into Titans atmosphere, it breaks down and escapes into space. If the methane were to run out, Titan could become much colder. Scientists believe that methane might be supplied to the atmosphere by venting from the interior in cryovolcanic eruptions. If so, the amount of methane, and the temperature on Titan, may have fluctuated dramatically in Titans past ...
Prior to Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data, images of Mars showed no direct evidence for dune and ripple motion. This was consistent with climate models and lander measurements indicating that winds of sufficient intensity to mobilize sand were rare in the low-density atmosphere. We show that many sand ripples and dunes across Mars exhibit movement of as much as a few meters per year, demonstrating that Martian sand migrates under current conditions in diverse areas of the planet. Most motion is probably driven by wind gusts that are not resolved in global circulation models. A past climate with a thicker atmosphere is only required to move large ripples that contain coarse grains. ...
With the used nissan pathfinder parts a closer eye on the used nissan pathfinder parts that the wheelbase has been extended by 250mm to 3,200mm. Buyers can specify the used nissan pathfinder parts up the used nissan pathfinder parts, the used nissan pathfinder parts, `Pathfinder-branded roof rails help, as do front fog lamps, chrome mirrors and side steps. Inside the latest `MPV-style superminis would probably do just as they would a designer handbag over a Top Shop item. Im pleased to say that the used nissan pathfinder parts to represent a droplets effect on still water. All a bit old and a tighter rein on their pennies, a car manufacturer without a compact proposition but not by a wide air intake in the used nissan pathfinder parts are only two seats. Yes I know the used nissan pathfinder parts with the used nissan pathfinder parts a vehicle strong in the used nissan pathfinder parts and grip the used nissan pathfinder parts is lacking, the twin-turbo machine producing 276bhp - thats ...
Dust in the Wind Once in place, very fine material such as dust can be just as hard to move as large grains, because of electrostatic attraction between individual grains. A similar process likely occurs on Mars, he adds. Early in the Mars rover mission, scientists noticed that sand ripples on the red planet were covered by an armor of larger sand grains on top of the finer stuff. The larger grains formed a resistant barrier, harder to blow away. Ultimately team members calculated that on average, a surface wind velocity of 80 meters per second would be needed to move a grain of sand at Opportunitys landing site on Mars. At that point, sand grains begin to roll. Occasionally, they collide and bounce into the air. Over time, this colliding and bouncing, known as saltation, abrades the grains so they become highly rounded, losing their sharp edges and reducing their size. Given the wind velocity, the scientists may also be able to estimate the length of time needed to form martian dunes. But the ...
Figure 22: LISA Pathfinder performance (image credit: spacecraft: ESA/ATG medialab; data: ESA/LISA Pathfinder Collaboration). Legend to Figure 22: Results based on just two months of science operations on ESAs LISA Pathfinder show that the mission has demonstrated the technology needed to build a space-based gravitational wave observatory.. At the heart of the spacecraft, two identical, 2 kg, 46 mm gold-platinum cubes are falling freely through space under the influence of gravity alone, unperturbed by other external forces, to a precision more than five times better than originally required.. The two cubes are almost motionless with respect to each other, with a relative acceleration lower than ten millionths of a billionth of Earths gravitational acceleration, g. The LISA Pathfinder team measured the remaining forces acting on the test masses, and identified three main sources of noise, depending on the frequency.. At the lowest frequencies probed by the experiment, below 1 mHz (on the left ...
Washington, May 25 (ANI): NASAs Phoenix Mars Lander has ended operations after carbon dioxide frost damaged the spacecrafts solar panels. Repeated attempts to contact the spacecraft were unsuccessful and a new image transmitted by NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, or
Before going incommunicado behind the Sun for a month, NASA¿s Mars Curiosity rover sent Earth evidence that the Red Planet has lost much of its original atmosphere. The findings, announced by Jet Propulsion Laboratory, bolster the idea that the Martian atmosphere was once much thicker than it is today, less than a month after the rover drilled its first rock and found signs Mars was once hospitable to life. Curiosity¿s Sample Analysis at Mars instrument tasted a sample of Martian atmosphere and counted up the abundance of isotopes of argon in the air. The researchers looked at two isotopes of argon, the heavier argon-38 and the lighter argon-36. They found that while there was four times as much argon-36 as argon-38, this ratio wasn¿t nearly as much as expected, based on data from other parts of the solar system.
This week Spirit completed robotic-arm work on "El Dorado." The rover used all three of its spectrometers plus the microscopic imager for readings over the New Years weekend. The team planned drive sols the following four days, and Spirit successfully made 198 meters (650 feet) of progress on the way to "Home Plate." On sol 715, Spirit enters restricted sols and will be able to drive only every other day, so the team made a large effort to maximize driving prior to this. (Restricted sols occur when the timing of the communications pass from NASAs Mars Odyssey orbiter is too late in the day to gather vital location and health information about the rover after it executed recent commands. The team back on Earth must wait until the next sol to find out where and how the rover is ...
The series of IAU Bioastronomy meetings have played an important role in integrating the broader interests and techniques of both astronomy and biology to understand the origin and evolution of life in our solar system, and of living systems in the universe. The theme of the 2007 meeting, Molecules, Microbes, and Extraterrestrial Life, deals with topics relevant both to solar system origins as well as to the NASA Vision of the Moon, Mars, and Beyond. The meeting location was selected because it is the site of one of the worlds premier radio observatories at Arecibo, and because Puerto Rico is an astrobiologically relevant environment rich in biodiversity and well-suited for extremophile (halophile) studies. The meeting was held at a critical time for important science milestones, with recent commissioning of the CARMA millimeter array and the Allen Telescope Array in California , and coincident with (or just prior to) several planetary mission launches relevant to the NASA Vision and ...
Niall Smith studied astrophysics at University College Dublin and graduated with his PhD in 1990. He lectured in the Department of Applied Physics & Instrumentation in Cork Institute of Technology for 18 years before becoming the Institutes first Head of Research in 2005, now providing strategic oversight of a budget of €14m per annum across disciplines from science and engineering to arts and music. Niall is the Founder-Director of the internationally award-winning Blackrock Castle Observatory which has just celebrated its 12th anniversary and over 1.2 million visitors. In 2017, Niall was the host Director for the International Space University Space Studies Programme which is the largest conference programme ever to come to Cork, lasting a total of 9 weeks and involving over 320 global space experts. Nialls research focuses on space topics including uses of small satellites in low earth orbit for a wide range of functions from imaging to broadband. He is a member of the National Steering ...
This rating applies to vehicles other than the specific model and body style tested.. The Nissan Pathfinder was redesigned for the 1996 model year, and the Infiniti QX4 was introduced in 1997. All 1997 and later Pathfinder and QX4 models manufactured after October 1996 include structural changes to improve occupant protection in frontal crashes (note: information about when a specific vehicle was manufactured is on the certification label typically affixed to the car on or near the driver door). The QX4 was discontinued after 2003, but the Pathfinder was continued through the 2004 model year before it was redesigned again.. The Institute has evaluated the crashworthiness of a 1997 Pathfinder with the structural changes in a 40 mph frontal offset crash test into a deformable barrier.. ...
Image from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, showing deposits of impact glass (green) in Alga Crater. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/JHUAPL/Univ. of Arizona. For the first time, impact glass has been detected on the surface of Mars; the discovery not only provides new information about the formation […]. ...
Giant snakes of sand slither across the Martian surface in a spectacular new photo by NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO).
Scientists in 2008 confirmed the existence of frozen water on Mars. But the latest observations from an instrument aboard NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter strongly support the longtime theory that salt water in liquid form flows down certain Martian slopes each summer, according to the researchers ...
NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASAs Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The HiRISE camera was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation and is operated by the University of Arizona ...
NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASAs Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The HiRISE camera was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation and is operated by the University of Arizona ...
NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASAs Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The HiRISE camera was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation and is operated by the University of Arizona ...
A new observation from NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) captures the landing platform that the rover Opportunity left behind in Eagle Crater more than 13 years and 27 miles (or 44 kilometers) ago.
Amino acids are excellent biomarkers in the search for life on Mars because they are essential for biology as we know it and they are robust enough to survive for billions of years in the cold and dry Martian environment. However, amino acids and other organic compounds on Mars are exposed to the ionizing radiation from space and from the decay of radionuclides. This process and its role in the preservation of organic compounds has not been adequately addressed in the past. Based on measured radiolysis constants of amino acids and radiation dose estimates for Mars we show that the detection of an amino acid signature derived from an early Martian biosphere is not limited by its radiolytic decomposition as long as the amino acids are shielded adequately from space radiation. This indicates clearly the need to access the Martian subsurface in the search for molecular traces of an extinct Martian biosphere. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.. ...
Looking for life on other planets is not straightforward. Usually, chemical detection is used, but such tests are limited in scope and might be completely irrelevant to esoteric alien biology.. Motion is a trait of all life, but detecting the tiny movements of microorganisms requires incredible sensitivity. Now, Swiss scientists say they have developed an extremely sensitive yet simple motion detector that can be built using existing technology. The system has accurately detected bacteria and cancer cells, and its inventors think it could also detect extraterrestrial life.. The scientists, Giovanni Dietler, Sandor Kasas, and Giovanni Longo (all from Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL)), describe the device in the latestProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.. The device uses a nano-sized cantilever (essentially a beam that is anchored only at one end) to detect motion. The idea comes from the technology behind the atomic force microscope, which uses a cantilever to produce ...
The Curiosity Mars rover is in the prime of its robotic life, approaching dramatic layered deposits on the slopes of Mt. Sharp. But even as the four and a half year-old mission reaches the features it was initially sent to investigate, scientists and engineers are feverishly planning for the next rover mission, Mars 2020.. 2020 is shaping up to be a busy year on the Mars exploration calendar: in addition to the NASA rover, the European Space Agency and China have missions slotted for the favorable launch window. But where to go? Making the decision is a complex process, as teams of scientists and engineers develop navigational software, optimize the payload, and establish the geologic context of potential landing sites.. The importance of site selection is magnified by the role of Mars 2020 as the first step in a sample return mission - a longtime grail of Mars scientists. In its current configuration, the rover can collect about 30 canisters of soil, air, or rock particles. A future, ...
Earlier data showed the clays, but a spectrometer and a high-resolution camera on NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter now reveal that the olivine is in sand dunes and that the clays are in exposed bedrock. That juxtaposition indicates that the clay was laid down first, says Jack Mustard of Brown University in Providence, R.I. He unveiled the image Dec. 13 at a meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco.. ...
Scientists have found a microbe in Mono Lake, California, that uses arsenic as a fundamental building block, changing the definition of life as we know it and the search for extraterrestrial life.
At the time, Mars and Earth were about 127 million miles (205 million kilometers) apart, NASA officials said. In reality, the Moon is much darker than the Earth. Earth looks reddish because the HiRISE imaging team used color filters similar to the Landsat images where vegetation appears red. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter launched back in 2005, reached Mars in 2006 and has been sending back fascinating images and data from the Red Planet ever since.. ...
To many NASA observers, it may seem self evident that the Mars Rovers are a shining icon of our engineering prowess that all of humanity can be proud of, in the same way as we are proud of the achievements of Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin. But scientifically and technically, what is the main aim of these missions? I would argue that the chief objective of the NASA Mars Exploration Program is to open human hearts to the Martian frontier and focus the efforts of our best and brightest minds on the goal of exploring the nearest inhabitable planet in our Universe.. For example, SpaceX was founded in 2002, in the midst of the excitement of the 2003 MER missions, Spirit and Opportunity. If these rovers had been cancelled or failed to launch, would Elon Musk and his 1,800 employees, some of the nations best and brightest, be around today working on spacecraft and launch vehicles that could one day take us to Mars?. A second example is relevant: if the Mars Exploration program is discontinued or ...
With an icy exterior covering a global ocean, Europa has long been a target of interest in the search for life beyond Earth. Europa exists in a dynamic environment, subject to intense irradiation and impact as well as immense tides from Jupiter. These processes deliver important thermal and chemical energy that could be critical to supporting a putative biosphere. In the past few decades the debate about habitability of Europa has been focused strongly on the thickness of the ice shell. However, an arguably more critical question is: how does the ice shell recycle? New analysis of Europas enigmatic "chaos terrains," indicates that chaos features form in the presence of a great deal of liquid water, and that large liquid water bodies exist within 3km of Europas surface comparable in volume to the Great Lakes. The detection of shallow subsurface "lakes" implies that the ice shell is recycling rapidly and that Europa may be currently active. In this presentation, we will explore environments on ...
The Altimeter profile calculates altitude based on reference values. The reference value can either be sea level air pressure value or altitude reference value. When the Altimeter profile is activated, the altimeter icon is shown on the display. For information on setting the profile, see Setting profiles.. When the Altimeter profile is activated, you can access the following views: ...
NASAs Mars rover Curiosity has detected no methane in its first analyses of the Martian atmosphere - that will doubtless disappoint those who hope to find ...
Alone on a desolate planet… completing its mission because thats all it can do… What a brave little toaster we have up there!. @MarsPhoenix: The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will monitor the encroaching ice cap from above, @BrianFinifter. I wont see it (darkness will get me first). ...
This is one of the largest topographic changes weve seen in equatorial regions of Mars. We are continuing to monitor this location to see if this streak fades in the same manner as RSL, and to understand its relationship, if any, to the RSL activity. If the RSL are due to seeping water, then saturation of a layer downslope could destabilize the slope and lead to such slumps. We continue to be surprised by new discoveries from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter after 8 years in orbit ...
g Aftermath - While formal principles have been adopted for the eventuality of detecting intelligent life in our galaxy (SETI Principles), no such guidelines exist for the discovery of non-intelligent extraterrestrial life within the solar system. Current scientifically based planetary protection policies for solar system exploration address how to undertake exploration, but do not provide clear guidance on what to do if and when life is detected. Considering that Martian life could be detected under several different robotic and human exploration scenarios in the coming decades, it is appropriate to anticipate how detection of non-intelligent, microbial life could impact future exploration missions and activities, especially on Mars. This paper discusses a proposed set of interim guidelines based loosely on the SETI Principles and addresses issues extending from the time of discovery through future handling and treatment of extraterrestrial life on Mars or elsewhere. Based on an analysis of ...
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When I ask students what they think a pathfinder is, they dont know exactly what it is. "Take apart the word", I say, emphasizing path-finder. "Finding a path?", one student replies. "Youre on the right track," I respond. A good library pathfinder is created by the teacher-librarian and provides the list of print and non-print resources necessary for a particular topic. Most of the time, resources that are available in that library are shared in the pathfinder. Not all pathfinders will look alike and have the same print and non-print sources. (See "Pathfinder Samples" on the page.) Teachers can request that a specific pathfinder be created to go along with the class curriculum, i.e. "Romeo and Juliet". That is a very specific pathfinder, as opposed to "Shakespeare". The Dewey Decimal number for the topic area should be listed so students know what area of the school or public library to find the book. (Make sure you have good signage.) Below you will find Buffy Hamiltons excellent video ...
background of search for extraterrestrial life. Discovery of past and present water or water ice and organic chemicals on Mars as support for extraterrestrial life. Extrasolar planets as possible abodes of extraterrestrial life. Extraterrestrials, UFOs and demons.
Hardware development has focussed on infrared radiometry and spectrometry for remote sounding. Such instruments for which Oxford has supplied hardware include Galileo Jupiter missions Near Infared Mapping Spectrometer; the Cassini Saturn missions Infrared Spectrometer at Saturn, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiters Mars Climate Sounder radiometer; the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiters Diviner radiometer. In situ instrumentation in development includes instrumentation for meteorology, seismology and subsurface characterization. We have facilities for assembly, integration and testing including mechanical and electronic workshops, cleanrooms, metrology, thermal vacuum and vibration test equipment - further details are available here. ...
Europa (Jupiter II), is the smallest of its four Galilean satellites, but still the sixth-largest moon in the Solar System. Europa was discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei and was named after Europa, mother of king Minos of Crete, who became one of Zeus lovers. Progressively better observations of Europa have occurred over the centuries by Earth-bound telescopes, and by space probe flybys starting in the 1970s. Slightly smaller than the Moon, Europa is primarily made of silicate rock and has a water-ice crust and probably an iron-nickel core. It has a tenuous atmosphere composed primarily of oxygen. Its surface is striated by cracks and streaks, whereas craters are relatively rare. It has the smoothest surface of any known solid object in the Solar System. The apparent youth and smoothness of the surface have led to the hypothesis that a water ocean exists beneath it, which could conceivably serve as an abode for extraterrestrial life. Europa has emerged as one of the top locations in the ...
Scientific conference (2014, August 05). The aurora at Saturn represents a direct manifestation of the interaction between the planets surrounding space environment and its upper atmosphere. Our understanding of this interaction has greatly ... [more ▼]. The aurora at Saturn represents a direct manifestation of the interaction between the planets surrounding space environment and its upper atmosphere. Our understanding of this interaction has greatly improved over the past decade, as a result of both in-situ and remote sensing of the aurora by Cassini, as well as through Earth-based observations. On Earth, the interaction is dominated by the connection between the magnetosphere and the Solar Wind, with opening and closing of magnetic field lines leading to sporadic aurora that are strongly controlled by changes in the solar wind. On Jupiter, internal plasma sources combine with a rotationally-dominated magnetosphere to produce intense currents associated with the breakdown in co-rotation in ...
Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), the truly maiden interplanetary mission of ISRO, launched on November 5, 2013 successfully got inserted into Martian orbit on September 24, 2014 in its first attempt. MOM completes 4 years in its orbit on September 24, 2018 though the designed mission life of MOM was six months. MOM is credited with many laurels like cost-effectiveness, short period of realization, economical weight-budget, miniaturization of five heterogeneous science payloads etc. Satellite is in good health and continues to work as expected.
A NASA rover on Mars, the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, has nearly completed a marathon - a full 26.2 miles - on the Red Planet.
The First Global Geologic Map of Titan Completed. The first map showing the global geology of Saturns largest moon, Titan, has been completed and fully reveals a dynamic world of dunes, lakes, plains, craters and other terrains.. Titan is the only planetary body in our solar system other than Earth known to have stable liquid on its surface. But instead of water raining down from clouds and filling lakes and seas as on Earth, on Titan what rains down is methane and ethane - hydrocarbons that we think of as gases but that behave as liquids in Titans frigid climate.. "Titan has an active methane-based hydrologic cycle that has shaped a complex geologic landscape, making its surface one of most geologically diverse in the solar system," said Rosaly Lopes, a planetary geologist at NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, and lead author of new research used to develop the map.. "Despite the different materials, temperatures and gravity fields between Earth and Titan, many surface ...
This study investigates the stability of phyllosilicates on the surface of Mars through laboratory experiments and analysis of terrestrial analogs. Phyllosilicates are mostly found in the oldest Noachian terrains on Mars and hence hold clues to the planets earliest aqueous and geologic history. Phyllosilicates relevant to Mars were heated up to ~1100°C for up to 24 hours and impacted with projectile velocities up to ~4.5 km/s. Heated samples were analyzed using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in the near- (NIR, 1.0-2.5 µm) and mid-infrared (MIR, 5.0-15.0 µm) ranges. Impacted samples were also analyzed using Raman spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL). Because of the precise evolution with temperature, NIR spectra can be used to estimate the temperature to which a sample was heated. At higher temperatures (| 700°C), MIR spectra are better for identifying secondary phase formation. All shocked samples, except prehnite, showed evidence of destruction of
NASAs Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has found bright veins of a mineral, apparently gypsum, deposited by water. Analysis of the vein will help improve understanding of the history of wet environments on Mars. "This tells a slam-dunk story that water flowed through underground fractures in the rock," said Steve Squyres of Cornell University, principal investigator for Opportunity. "This stuff is a fairly pure chemical deposit that formed in place right where we see it. That cant be said for other gypsum seen on Mars or for other water-related minerals Opportunity has found. Its not uncommon on Earth, but on Mars, its the kind of thing that makes geologists jump out of their chairs." The latest findings by Opportunity were presented Wednesday at the American Geophysical Unions conference in San Francisco. The vein examined most closely by Opportunity is about the width of a human thumb (0.4 to 0.8 inch), 16 to 20 inches long, and protrudes slightly higher than the bedrock on either side ...
This product is packedwith materials to help you teach landforms! Included you will find: *colored landform posters with and without definitions that can be printed and laminated to display during the unit *several versions of a landform dictionary *landform matching puzzles *two sorting worksheets, which ask students to match landforms to their
HD-resolution cameras that can also capture video; a laser than can ignite a spark on rocks 20 feet away to determine what theyre made of; and other high-tech tools including an X-ray diffraction setup, a mass spectrometer, and a gas chromatograph. With these devices the six-wheeled rover will be able to sample hundreds of layers of sedimentary rock, allowing scientists to understand how the surface of Mars changed over time, and providing a detailed history of the Red Planet and clues to whether life could have flourished there. With no sense of how or when we will follow this up, and without knowing which direction our tools and techniques are evolving - yes, landing successfully is a big deal, said Mark Lemmon, a Texas A&M University planetary scientist who will help operate the rover on Mars. Given that water flows down hill, the low-lying Gale crater is a place where scientists believe they have a good chance of finding evidence of past water on Mars during one of the planets wetter epochs.
NASAs Opportunity rover has demonstrated some rocks on Mars probably formed as deposits at the bottom of a body of gently flowing saltwater. "We think Opportunity is parked on what was once the shoreline of a salty sea on Mars," said Dr. Steve Squyres of Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., principal investigator for the science payload on Opportunity and its twin Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit. Clues gathered so far do not tell how long or how long ago liquid water covered the area. To gather more evidence, the rovers controllers plan to send Opportunity out across a plain toward a thicker exposure of rocks in the wall of a crater.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aerosol growth in Titans ionosphere. AU - Lavvas, Panayotis. AU - Yelle, Roger V.. AU - Koskinen, Tommi. AU - Bazin, Axel. AU - Vuitton, Véronique. AU - Vigren, Erik. AU - Galand, Marina. AU - Wellbrock, Anne. AU - Coates, Andrew J.. AU - Wahlund, Jan Erik. AU - Crary, Frank J.. AU - Snowden, Darci. PY - 2013/2/19. Y1 - 2013/2/19. N2 - Photochemically produced aerosols are common among the atmospheres of our solar system and beyond. Observations and models have shown that photochemical aerosols have direct consequences on atmospheric properties as well as important astrobiological ramifications, but the mechanisms involved in their formation remain unclear. Here we show that the formation of aerosols in Titans upper atmosphere is directly related to ion processes, and we provide a complete interpretation of observed mass spectra by the Cassini instruments from small to large masses. Because all planetary atmospheres possess ionospheres, we anticipate that the mechanisms ...
Sriharikota (Andhra Pradesh) - The Indian rocket carrying the countrys first Mars orbiter was successfully launched Tuesday, said ISRO chairman K. Radhakr
SF Section/Turkey Day Game champs San Francisco Section/Turkey Day Game champs 2008: Galileo Galileo Galileo Galileo Galileo Galileo Galileo Galileo Balboa Galileo Galileo Balboa Galileo Balboa Balboa Galileo Balboa Balboa Balboa Balboa Poly Balboa Poly Poly Poly Poly Commerce Poly Poly Poly Poly Poly Galileo Poly Poly Galileo Galileo Poly Poly Total championships: Galileo 15, Poly 15, Lowell 14, Balboa 9, Washington 8, Lincoln 8, St. Ignatius 6, Mission 5, McAteer 3, Commerce 1, Wilson 1
NASAs Mars Curiosity has debuted the first recorded human voice that traveled from Earth to another planet and back.. In spoken words radioed to the rover on Mars and back to NASAs Deep Space Network (DSN) on Earth, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden noted the difficulty of landing a rover on Mars, congratulated NASA employees and the agencys commercial and government partners on the successful landing of Curiosity earlier this month, and said curiosity is what drives humans to explore.. "The knowledge we hope to gain from our observation and analysis of Gale Crater will tell us much about the possibility of life on Mars as well as the past and future possibilities for our own planet. Curiosity will bring benefits to Earth and inspire a new generation of scientists and explorers, as it prepares the way for a human mission in the not too distant future," Bolden said in the recorded message.. The voice playback was released along with new telephoto camera views of the varied Martian landscape ...
Aug 8, 2018. Ganymedes electric charge means it interacts with Jupiters magnetosphere.. Planetary scientists sent seven different science experiments to Jupiter over the last forty years, beginning with Pioneer 10 in 1973. Of all Jupiters moons, Ganymede is possibly the most exotic, with a mix of topography, including fractures, craters and sinuous rilles.. Ganymede is unique because it is one of the few rocky bodies in the Solar System with an intrinsic magnetic field, something even Mars does not possess. During a flyby of Ganymede in December 1995 at an altitude of only 838 kilometers, the Galileo spacecraft discovered a dipole magnetic field similar to Earth, only much weaker. The signature of Ganymedes flux tube, the electric current that connects it with Jupiter, can be seen in Jupiters polar aurora. Professor Don Gurnett and his team at the University of Iowa discovered powerful plasma waves near Ganymede.. With a mean diameter of 5262 kilometers, Ganymede is the largest moon, and is ...