Reconnaissance supports the MAGTF commanders intent and his CCIRs. While contributing to the commanders broad situational awareness and development, reconnaissance assets tailor their efforts to support the specific CCIRs indicated by the commanders intent and subsequent unit intelligence and operations planning. Simultaneously, reconnaissance forces must remain alert to any developments that may cause the commander to reassess that intent. MAGTF reconnaissance assets are best employed early to support the CCIRs and friendly course of action development and selection. When reconnaissance is initiated early in the planning cycle, planning and execution are driven by the flow of solid, timely information and intelligence. If reconnaissance is delayed, situation development will generally be more uncertain. In this case, planning and execution can either take place in an information vacuum or be driven by the search for such information. Reconnaissance assets are best employed in general ...
Sanitary epidemiological reconnaissance is a diagnostic method in epidemiology.[1] It has been used in the Soviet Japanese campaign in WWII immediately behind the first echelon of tanks and mechanized vehicles of advancing Soviet army should they encounter any particular contagious disease as withdrawing enemy forces had poisoned many wells and water sources.[2] The use of sanitary epidemiological reconnaissance or similar practices in the armed forces is mentioned elsewhere.[3] The Polish contingents serving under the UN auspices focused their tasks among others on … sanitary-epidemiological reconnaissance … [4] Sanitary epidemiological reconnaissance is a collection and transfer of all data available on sanitary and epidemiological situation of the area of possible deployment and action of armed forces, the same data for the neighbouring and enemy armed forces. The aim for the reconnaissance is to clear up the reasons of the specific disease origin- sources of the infection in extreme ...
BRC is a 12 week course (65 training days) with an average training day of 15.5 hours and introduces the students to the amphibious reconnaissance environment. During this tenure, they gain working knowledge of the reconnaissance doctrines, concepts and techniques that emphasize ground and amphibious reconnaissance missions. They also learn the fundamentals of all types of weapons (air, sea, and land) that are employed in supporting arms such as calling and adjusting naval gunfire, artillery, and close air support. The BRC was relocated in 2007 from the Amphibious Reconnaissance Schools (ARS) on Fort Story at Little Creek, Virginia and Expeditionary Warfare Training Group at Coronado, California to the School of Infantry (West) on MCB Camp Pendleton. This facilitated the reconstruction of the courses training protocol and to meet the demands of 600 more recon Marines per year.[2] Candidates are issued a 12-foot (3.7 m) rope; at any time instructors will demand candidates tie knots of the ...
The Mercury Planetary Orbiter is one step closer to its 2015 launch, completing a bake-out where the sides and top of the chamber were kept heated to around 50°C, while the underside remained cooled by liquid nitrogen.. The faint aroma of hot metal filled the surrounding cleanroom as the hatch to ESAs newest test facility was slid aside, concluding a 23-day bake-out of the largest segment of ESAs mission to Mercury.. Ending on the early hours of 14 February, this test ensured ESAs Mercury Planetary Orbiter - MPO, part of the multi-module BepiColombo mission - was cleaned of potential contaminants in advance of its 2015 mission to the inner Solar System.. The bake-out took place at ESAs technical heart, ESTEC in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, which includes a dedicated test center equipped to simulate all aspects of the space environment.. MPO will fly to the innermost planet with Japans Mercury Magnetosphere Orbiter, riding together on ESAs propulsion module. But not before getting ...
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NIGHT OWL RECONNAISSANCE offers the opportunity to serve your community through Director of Recruitment & Onboarding. This is an ongoing virtual opportunity.
Army Guide - information about the main battle tanks, armoured vehicles and armament of the land forces and also the information concerning other army subjects - KM421, Nuclear/biological/chemical reconnaissance vehicle, Armoured Vehicles
CiteSeerX - Scientific articles matching the query: Un système de reconnaissance automatique de documents techniques. Application aux plans de cadastre
The Special Reconnaissance Squadron RAC existed briefly in the early 1960s to provide intelligence on enemy movements and strengths, for NATO missile systems and heavy artillery, in the event of war with the Warsaw Pact. This role was undertaken by 4 man patrols hidden in well concealed observation posts and covering likely main enemy axis of advance. A secondary role for the patrols was to undertake ambushes and demolition tasks. Although not part of airborne forces the squadron, which was formed in 1962 and based in Paderborn (Germany), had a stringent selection process and was organised in a similar manner to an SAS Squadron. It also had a close working relationship with 22 and 23 SAS. The squadron selection course was modelled as far as possible on the course run by 22 SAS at Hereford, with the first selection course for officers and senior NCOs incorporated into a 22 SAS all arms selection course at Hereford, which started on 24 April 1962. The unit was trained to use, and equipped with, high
Active reconnaissance is a necessary evil. It can sometimes alert defense teams and systems that youre snooping around, but it also helps you to see and document everything about each note on the network. Learn how to active recon the right way.
This work represents an integrated analysis of weathering landforms, including minor landform morphologies and soil profiles developed on granitoid terrains of
Mentor: Jen Blank. Researched the microbial diversity in ophiolite-hosted coldsprings as an analog to martian environments. Microbe-bearing water samples were collected in Del Puerto Canyon, California. DNA was extracted from the samples followed by PCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and DNA sequencing. Rock and water samples were evaluated for mineral/chemical content.. ...
tetrahedrassface writes When I was very young, my dad took me on a trip to his parents farm. He wanted to show me The Crater. We walked a long way through second generation hardwoods and finally stood on the rim of a hole that has no equal in this area. As I grew up, I became more interested in ...
LUNAR MISSIONS: RESULTS FROM KAGUYA, CHANGE-1, AND CHANDRAYAAN-1. Arai T. Yamamoto Y. Okada T. Kato M. -- Lessons Learned in Onboard Software Processing of XRS-Kaguya [#2212] We introduce the functional control, data reduction and observation control by the software processing of X-ray spectrometers onboard Kaguya, and we discuss the lessons-learned from the lunar X-ray observation. Terazono J. Asada N. Demura H. Hirata N. Saiki K. Iwasaki A. Oka R. Hayashi T. Suzuki T. Miyamoto H. Haruyama J. Ohtake M. Matsunaga T. Sobue S. Okumura H. Fujita T. Yamamoto A. Integrated Lunar Web-GIS Environment Using Data Obtained by Lunar Exploration [#1232] The report of current implementation and development status about integrated GIS infrastructure using lunar exploration data including Kaguya, Japanese lunar explorer. Okumura H. Sobue S. Hoshino H. Yamamoto A. Fujita T. Data Archive and Visualization for Lunar Orbiter Kaguya (SELENE) [#1518] Kaguya Data Archive (L2DB) and Kaguya Web Map Server(WMS) are ...
According to somebody who worked on it, the system consisted of an electronics black box mounted to the Agena upper stage rocket that placed CORONA reconnaissance satellites in orbit and provided power and stabilization to them during their short period of operation. By the early 1960s the Agena had evolved into a versatile space truck that carried many payloads. Occasionally it simply carried them into orbit, but often it supported them during their short lifetime orbiting the Earth-a few weeks at most. BIT was only installed on the CIAs CORONA spacecraft, because the CIA owned them; it was not installed on other classified satellites like the GAMBIT, which was owned by the National Reconnaissance Office. According to a source, the CIA was desperate to get into the satellite signals intelligence business, and BIT was its first modest effort.. One of the advantages of the Agena was that in addition to payloads on its nose, the aft rack could mount various secondary payloads, including ...
Details in Liams words: RECONNAISSANCE. Currently the role of site reconnaissance is predominantly carried out by light tankers or QAVs (Quick Attack Vehicles), typically these are modified single cabin commercial utility vehicles such as the Toyota Landcruiser. While the off road performance and maneuverability of such a vehicle is sufficient, its ability to actively suppress a fire threat is severely limited by the considerably small water supply (500lt) and distinct lack of survival engineering, fundamentally making it inadequate for its role.. CREW LAYOUT. Typically medium and heavy tankers require 5-6 crew members to be operated effectively. AMATOYA requires only 2. More military in its approach, reducing crew numbers per appliance will allow for greater dispersion of resources during a fire response.. Principal concerns when developing a vehicle of any nature are driver position, ingress/egress and vision angles. These elements become even more crucial in a vehicle purpose built for ...
The result of a simulated attack on a system, correlated to the vulnerabilities in that system, can produce a much more complete picture of cyber risk. Weaknesses discovered by automated recon can be tested to determine if the weakness is exploitable and what is at risk if its exploited.
Importance: It was previously believed that no organism could live beyond 121 degrees Celsius. In fact, the highest temperature believed to be tolerable was 113 degrees Celsius which P. fumarii is capable of tolerating. The ability to grow at such extreme temperatures increases the variety of environments microbes could be found in. This could hint to when and where Archaea may have lived on primordial Earth as well as how far deep into the Earth microbes could live today. This discovery also leads to the potential for life in harsh extraterrestrial environments. ...
Morning overflight view of Kapoho Crater looking toward the south-southeast. A portion of the lava channel became blocked just upstream of Kapoho Crater yesterday. Flows were diverted to the west and then south around the crater (center right), while lava occupied the channel pathway after exiting a crusted over area (lower center to left ...
What is going on with the vehicle industry? Japans Nissan Motors joined the recall club Wednesday. They recalled 540,000 vehicles due to a brake pedal problem.. The brake pedals of certain models could have faulty components that can cause the pedals to wobble. The models affected are: The Titan, Armada and Infiniti QX56 built from 2005 to 2008, and the Frontier, Pathfinder and Xterra produced between January and March 2006 and between October 2007 and January 2008.. ...
A kilometre is the same thing as a kilometer ... its a distance. There are about twenty thousand kilometers from the north pole to the south pole. A mile is pretty close …to 1.609 kilometers. Going 60 miles per hour is about the same as going 100 kilometers per hour. There are 39.37 inches in a meter, and 1,000 meters in a kilometer. (MORE) ...
This on the web one-way conversion tool converts surface area units from ∅ 1-centimeter spheres ( ∅ 1 cm ) into ares ( a ) instantly online. 1 sphere 1-centimeter diam. ( ∅ 1 cm ) = 0.0000031 ares ( a ). How many ares ( a ) are in 1 sphere 1-centimeter diam. ( 1 ∅ 1 cm )? How much of surface area from ∅ 1-centimeter spheres to ares, ∅ 1 cm to a? Exchange values and measures from one surface area unit to another unit by quick calculation.
The radiation emitted by a heated body is generally quoted as a typical example of incoherent radiation, in distinction to laser radiation. One is nearly isotropic, the other highly directional; one is spectrally broad, the other quasi-monochromatic. It may come as a surprise that the thermal radiation of a large number of substances is coherent, both in space and time, when it is observed at a distance from the body that is shorter than the wavelength. This behaviour can be understood within an electromagnetic approach to thermal emission. Several recent experiments have confirmed these unexpected properties.
This quick and easy calculator will convert Kilometres (km) to Centimeters (cm) and show formula, brief history on the units and quick maths for the conversion.
Intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) sensor technologies have evolved as mission requirements become much more rigorous. As this...
Craig,. I think the remarkable part of the Pantaenius requirements is the fact, in my opinion, it would be impossible to meet the requirements anywhere in the Carib. When I first read these changes as a part of our policy, I inquired as to where in the Carib they felt I could meet the requirements and wondered if they had specific boat yards in mind when they wrote the specs. I never heard back from them regarding this. It would seem logical to me if they are to have such specific regulations in terms of meeting the policy requirements they would have at least a couple of places in mind where they had done some reconnaissance to help their members comply. But, I guess not.. We have heard good things about Geico, however they coverage geography is limited. Look into Novamar. Novamar uses Geico as an underwriter, along with other big names. They are A-rated. They have an easy to read policy, reasonable rates and none of the stupidity of Pantaenius. Here is a broker who can help with a quote (or ...
Scenario Overview: Player will be given a Windows environment that is accessible through SSH or VNC terminals provided within the scenario. They will conduct trials in reconnaissance, information gathering, and analysis using Open Source Intelligence Tools (OSINT) How to be Successful: The learner must demonstrate the
Groupe Collegia, Centre des Îles-de-la-Madeleine : Consortium de formation continue offrant formation continue, services aux entreprises et reconnaissances des acquis et des compétences * formation en présence, à distance ou en formule hybride Service ...
Zinc Man flashes between two cars, moving melodically in opposite ways. There he is again. Im in a numb parade of bones as I take a morningpassagiata with my inept vocabulary and listening of birds. Just the cock-a-hoop morning and my whirling derby mind absorbing a controlled chaos of external influx. I thought he was gone. I know hes homeless and crazy, and even a pervert, and I know hes a local-legend cyclist, emerging like some nudnik superhero, but I dont want to ride with him! Luckily this time Im sans bike, just doing a morning reconnaissance for an espresso and a chocolate chip
RC Tanks - An Italian Duet in 1/16 RC: tank M13/40 and recce car Autoblinda AB41 - Because Italian WW II weapons are very rare in 1/16 scene, Lukas (Fertigungswerk 16) and me wanted to change this a little and designed/manufactured the medium tank M13/40 and the reconnaissance car Autoblinda AB 41. And here they are:
Keep in mind that as a competitor you are not allowed to get to know the competition area through intentional reconnaissance, unless it is clearly permitted by the organiser. For details, see the rules.. Show map. ...
I could not create a proper WWII Normandy scenario for What a Tanker© games without the German forces having both some proper reconnaissance vehicles and some of their legendary monster behemoth tanks. I acquired four kits to remedy this deficiency - all from The Plastic Soldier Company. One was a PSC kit of 5 SdKfz…
With the Leatherman Crater c33Lx youll find Blade Launcher technology either Deploy the combo blade, or hang it from your belt or pack with the uniqu
Moniteur de qualité de lair à 8 canaux - (). YESAIR offers more features, flexibility and functionality than any other IAQ instrument on the market today with multi-channel operation, more than 30 different plug and play sensors to select from, includin
Answers to the question, How Can People Ever Miss You If You Are Not Moving Anywhere Or Not Ever A Single Centimeter? Answers to Questions from People Who Know at Ask Experience Project.
There are Eco, Standard and Sport modes and the H6 will default to Standard when its turned off then on again. Despite making a conscious effort to flick it into Eco mode each time, over mostly urban kilometres we were seeing fuel consumption figures of around 16-litres per 100km. After resetting the trip metre and doing 160km on the highway it was around 9L/100km. The combined claimed fuel consumption is 9.8-litres per 100 kilometres - wed suggest youd likely see a real world combined figure in the vicinity of 12L/100km. Haval also offers a decent five-year/100,000 kilometre warranty, five years roadside assist and capped price servicing.. ...
Foldable ruler 15 to 30 cm - Foldable from 15 centimeters to 30 centimeters - Each step increase 15 degrees:0, 115, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 13
In order for you to run sub 45 minutes for 10Km, you must be able to run below 4 minutes 30 seconds per kilometer for the distance. This 10k Program will assist you.
In order for you to run sub 45 minutes for 10Km, you must be able to run below 4 minutes 30 seconds per kilometer for the distance. This 10k Program will assist you.
Sorry, I do not understand your explanations regarding the measures to be used. I need to use 400 mg of Natpro daily, but I do not know how much centimeters
NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter suffers glitch, swaps computers, radio transponder, enters safe mode, say Jet Propulsion Laboratory officials
Need help? Email [email protected] or call 425-250-0800 during our business hours, Monday through Friday, 10:00 AM to 5:00 PM Pacific time.. Paizo Inc., Paizo, the Paizo golem logo, Pathfinder, the Pathfinder logo, Pathfinder Society, Starfinder, the Starfinder logo, GameMastery, and Planet Stories are registered trademarks of Paizo Inc. The Pathfinder Roleplaying Game, Pathfinder Campaign Setting, Pathfinder Adventure Path, Pathfinder Adventure Card Game, Pathfinder Player Companion, Pathfinder Modules, Pathfinder Tales, Pathfinder Battles, Pathfinder Legends, Pathfinder Online, Starfinder Adventure Path, PaizoCon, RPG Superstar, The Golems Got It, Titanic Games, the Titanic logo, and the Planet Stories planet logo are trademarks of Paizo Inc. Dungeons & Dragons, Dragon, Dungeon, and Polyhedron are registered trademarks of Wizards of the Coast, Inc., a subsidiary of Hasbro, Inc., and have been used by Paizo Inc. under license. Most product names are trademarks owned or used under ...
Russia and the United States have been sending spacecraft to Mars since 1960! Some of the coolest missions were Mariner 4, 6, 7, & 9, Mars 2, 3, 4, 5, & 6, the Viking missions, and the Mars Global Surveyor mission. You may remember the Mars Pathfinder lander and rover that landed on Mars in 1997. The rover bumped into rocks named Scooby Doo, Shark, Pooh Bear and Chimp!. In April 2001, the 2001 Mars Odyssey was launched. It got to Mars in October 2001. The European Space Agency sent the Mars Express mission to the Red Planet. It reached Mars on Christmas day in 2003. Mars Express also had a small lander called the Beagle 2. NASA launched two Mars Exploration Rovers in June and July of 2003. They have been driving around on Mars since January 2004. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is another satellite that is mapping Mars from orbit. It was launched in August 2005 and made it to Mars in March 2006.. The Phoenix Mars Lander was launched in August 2007. It will land near the North Pole of Mars in May ...
A day after an engine anomaly slowed its progress, Indias Mars Orbiter successfully raised its orbit to an apogee above 118,000 km (73,000 mi.) on Nov. 12.. The countrys first Mars orbiter suffered a setback on Nov. 11 as attempts were made to raise the spacecrafts orbit around Earth to built momentum for its trip to Mars. A minor problem with the liquid fuel thruster caused the 1,350-kg (3,000-lb.) vehicle to fall short of the mark.. The fourth supplementary orbit-raising maneuver of Mars Orbiter Spacecraft, starting at 05:03 local time, with a burn time of 303.8 seconds has been successfully completed, Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) spokesman Deviprasad Karnik says. The observed change in apogee is from 78,276 km to 118,642 km.. The velocity added to the Mars Orbiter was 124.9 meters per second. Everything is normal, Karnik tells Aviation Week.. The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) was boosted by a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C25) from the Sriharikota spaceport in south ...
Gusev Crater is an impact crater on Mars that looks as though a lake may have once filled it in the distant past. One of the two Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) will explore Gusev Crater beginning in January 2004.. Gusev Crater is about 145 km (90 miles) wide and covers an area roughly the size of the state of Connecticut. It is located at 14.6 South latitude and 175.3 East longitude, along the boundary between Mars southern highlands and its lowland northern plains. The crater is about 3,000 km (1,900 miles) southeast of the volcano Elysium Mons. Scientists believe the Gusev Crater was formed by the impact of an asteroid three to four billion years ago.. A valley named Maadim Vallis, which is connected to the south side of the crater, looks like it may have been a river channel that poured water into the crater in the past, forming a large lake. If the crater was indeed a lake, scientists expect it to contain layers of sediments as much as 915 meters (3,000 feet) thick that flowed in with the ...
COVER Morning shadows darken Gusev crater, landing site of the Spirit rover, in this computer-assisted rendering of the ancient martian surface, based on topographic data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter onboard the Mars Global Surveyor. Discoveries by Spirit, its companion rover Opportunity, and the Surveyor spacecraft confirmed that some areas of Mars were once covered by shallow water and thus could have supported life. See the 2010 and the accompanying 2001. [Image: Kees Veenenboss] ...
ABSTRACT. Two Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometers (Mini-TES) operated successfully onboard the two Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) on the Martian surface, one at Gusev crater and the other at Meridiani Planum. Designed to provide remotely sensed information on the bulk mineralogy of surface materials, the Mini-TES instruments served to guide the rovers to targets of interest and extrapolate the observations made by the rovers mechanical-arm-mounted instruments. The Mini-TES on the Spirit rover in Gusev crater observed a flat plain covered by rocks with an olivine-rich ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4) mineralogy and a soil-like unit mantled by airfall dust occurring between the rocks. The dust is a spectral match to dust observed at Meridiani Planum and across the globe. The soil is basaltic in composition, dominated by plagioclase (NaAlSi3O8-CaAl2Si2O8), pyroxene (Ca(Mg,Fe)Si2O6-(Mg,Fe)SiO3), and olivine that probably was produced in part from the breakdown of local rocks. Approximately 2.5 km from the Spirit ...
PASADENA, CALIF. -- Less than a year since beginning the prime science phase of its mission, NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has passed a mission-success milestone for the amount of data returned.. The data-volume target of 26 terabytes, which was surpassed this week, is equivalent to about 5,000 CD-ROMs full and exceeds the total from all other current and past Mars missions combined.. The biggest shares of the data come from two of the orbiters six science instruments: the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment and the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars. The high-resolution cameras team of investigators, based at the University of Arizona, Tucson, today released 143 color images. The images reveal features as small as a desk. They are valuable to researchers studying possible landing sites for NASAs Mars Science Laboratory, a mission launching in 2009 to deploy a long-distance rover carrying sophisticated science instruments on Mars.. The camera team is also ...
The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter caught this view of NASAs Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on Feb. 14, 2014.
Rover Tracks and Dust Devils on Mars As Seen From Orbit\n\n\The high-resolution camera on NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has returned a dramatic oblique view of the Martian crater that a rover explored for two years. The new view of Victoria Crater shows layers on steep crater walls, difficult to see from straight overhead, plus wheel tracks left by NASAs Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity between September 2005 and August 2007. The orbiters High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shot it at an angle comparable to looking at landscape from an airplane window. Some of the cameras earlier, less angled images of Victoria Crater aided the rover team in choosing safe routes for Opportunity and contributed to joint scientific studies.\ ...
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is usually described as an orbit inside the area which comes from the Earths surface up to an altitude of 2,000 km.[source?] Satellites in LEO go around the Earth many times per day. Satellites are put in low Earth orbit if the things they do must be done in outer space but neednt be far away. Some satellites are in LEO to photograph the Earth, for example some weather satellites and Earth resource satellites. Most space telescopes are in LEO since they only have to be above the Earths atmosphere. The International Space Station is in LEO.. ...
Revision: 11303 http://pcgen.svn.sourceforge.net/pcgen/?rev=11303&view=rev Author: eddyanthony Date: 2010-01-10 20:51:03 +0000 (Sun, 10 Jan 2010) Log Message: ----------- Bestiary: More Demons and a correction to a monster spell name with a comma in it. Modified Paths: -------------- Trunk/content/notfordistribution/paizo/pathfinder_rpg/pathfinder_rpg_bestiary/monsters/pathfinder_rpg_bestiary_abilities_monsters_def.lst Trunk/content/notfordistribution/paizo/pathfinder_rpg/pathfinder_rpg_bestiary/monsters/pathfinder_rpg_bestiary_kits_races_def.lst Trunk/content/notfordistribution/paizo/pathfinder_rpg/pathfinder_rpg_bestiary/monsters/pathfinder_rpg_bestiary_races_def.lst Trunk/content/notfordistribution/paizo/pathfinder_rpg/pathfinder_rpg_bestiary/monsters/pathfinder_rpg_bestiary_races_ghi.lst Trunk/pcgen/data/alpha/paizo/pathfinder_rpg/pathfinder_rpg_core_rulebook/pathfinder_bestiary_core/pathfinder_rpg_bestiary_abilities_constant_spelllike.lst ...
This figure shows average temperature structure in the martian northern polar regions in six Mars Years as measured by Mars Climate Sounder on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Thermal Emission Spectrometer on Mars Global Surveyor. (Mars Year 1 started in 1956; Mars Year 25 started in June 2000; Mars Year 31 started in September 2011.) The profiles cover the atmosphere from the surface up to about 75 kilometers altitude. The profiles are from the aphelion season, when Mars is farthest from the Sun. This coincides with late northern spring (about three weeks before the start of summer). These night-time averages each cover 25 days of observations.
A low-temperature flow tube and ultra-high vacuum apparatus were used to explore the uptake and heterogeneous chemistry of acetylene (C2H2) on cosmic dust analogues over the temperature range encountered in Titans atmosphere below 600 km. The uptake coefficient, γ, was measured at 181 K to be (1.6 ± 0.4) × 10-4, (1.9 ± 0.4) × 10−4 and (1.5 ± 0.4) × 10−4 for the uptake of C2H2 on Mg2SiO4, MgFeSiO4 and Fe2SiO4, respectively, indicating that γ is independent of Mg or Fe active sites. The uptake of C2H2 was also measured on SiO2 and SiC as analogues for meteoric smoke particles in Titans atmosphere, but was found to be below the detection limit (γ , 6 × 10−8 and , 4 × 10-7, respectively). The rate of cyclo-trimerization of C2H2 to C6H6 was found to be 2.6 × 10-5 exp(-741/T) s−1, with an uncertainty ranging from ± 27 % at 115 K to ± 49 % at 181 K. A chemical ablation model was used to show that the bulk of cosmic dust particles (radius 0.02-10 µm) entering Titans atmosphere ...
A photo of what looks like a squirrel or rat on Mars first released in September 2012 suddenly became a hot topic after Fox News covered the story on May 29. Fox was quickly followed by Discovery News, International Business Times and other major news outlets. It appears that the mainstream news is interested in raising the possibility that the Curiosity Rover is capturing images of life on Mars, even though the coverage is slanted towards dismissing such a possibility. In the meantime NASA has remained silent on photographic evidence of animals on Mars from its own Mars rover instruments. According to NASA, Mars atmosphere is 95% carbon dioxide with only a trace amount of oxygen 0.13% - not enough to sustain animal life on Mars. If Mars atmosphere is inhospitable to life what is the Curiosity Rover photographing on Mars - rocks that look like animals, animal life that has somehow adapted to live in the Martian atmosphere, or Earth animals released in secret NASA experiments on Mars?. The ...
The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity strolled out of her winter haven this May to continue the expedition around Endeavour Crater, roving into yet another Martian spring.
Low Earth Orbit (LEO) refers to a satellite which orbits the earth at altitudes between (very roughly) 200 miles and 930 miles. Low Earth Orbit satellites must
With its solar panels their cleanest in years, NASAs decade-old Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is inspecting a section of crater-rim ridgeline chosen as a priority target due to evidence of a water-related mineral.. Orbital observations of the site by another NASA spacecraft, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, found a spectrum with the signature of aluminum bound to oxygen and hydrogen. Researchers regard that signature as a marker for a mineral called montmorillonite, which is in a class of clay minerals called smectites. Montmorillonite forms when basalt is altered under wet and slightly acidic conditions. The exposure of it extends about 800 feet (about 240 meters) north to south on the western rim of Endeavour Crater, as mapped by the orbiters Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM).. Its like a mineral beacon visible from orbit saying, Come check this out, said Opportunity Principal Investigator Steve Squyres, of Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.. Some of the ...
An impact crater on Mars has a floor filled with huge blocks of chaotic terrain. THEMIS found the crater contains a thick stack of sediments deposited underwater.. Aram Chaos is an ancient impact crater near the martian equator, close to Ares Vallis. About 280 kilometers (175 miles) across, Aram lies in a region called Margaritifer Terra, where many water-carved channels show that floods poured out of the highlands onto the northern lowlands ages ago.. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on the Mars Odyssey orbiter mapped the distribution of sediments in Aram Chaos. These sediments include gray crystalline hematite, first found in Aram by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft.. Hematite is an iron-oxide mineral that can precipitate when ground water circulates through iron-rich rocks, whether at normal temperatures or in hot springs.. The floor of Aram contains huge blocks of collapsed, or chaotic, terrain that formed when water or ice was ...
The discovery of an ~20‐km‐wide area of bright subsurface radar reflections, interpreted as liquid water, beneath the Martian south polar layered deposits (SPLD) in data from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) instrument, and the discovery of two geologically recent potential eskers (landforms produced by subglacial melt) associated with viscous flow features in Martian midlatitudes, has suggested recent basal melting of Martian ice deposits may be feasible, possibly due to locally elevated geothermal heating. Locations of terrestrial subglacial lakes and major drainage axes have been successfully predicted from subglacial hydraulic potential surfaces calculated from surface topography and ice thickness. Here, we use surface topography from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter and SPLD bed elevations derived from MARSIS data to calculate the subglacial hydraulic potential surface beneath the SPLD and determine whether the observed high reflectance area ...
Thousands of meteors per hour would have been visible - truly astounding to the human eye. Thats Nick Schneiders description of what you and I would have seen standing on Mars during Comet Siding Springs close flyby last month. It would have been really mind-blowing, he added. Schneider is instrument lead for MAVENs Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS).. He and a group of scientists who work as lead investigators for instruments on the MAVEN and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft shared the latest results from the comet flyby during a media teleconference earlier today. There were many surprises. Would we expect anything less from a comet?. Heres a summary of the results:. A very dusty ice ball - The comets dust tail and the amount of dust in its coma were much larger than expected, prompting Jim Green, director of NASAs Planetary Science Division in Washington, to remark: It makes me very happy we hid them (the spacecraft) on the backside of Mars. That really saved ...
Mars Pathfinder - USA Lander & Surface Rover - 264 kg (lander), 10.5 kg (rover) - (December 4, 1996 - September 27, 1997) Mars Pathfinder arrived at Mars on July 4, 1997 and impacted the surface at 16:57 UT (12:57 PM EDT) at a velocity of about 18 m/s (40 mph). It bounced about 15 meters (50 feet) into the air, bouncing another 15 times and rolling before coming to rest approximately 2.5 minutes after impact and about 1 km from the initial impact site. The landing site was in the Ares Vallis region is at 19.33 N, 33.55 W and was named the Sagan Memorial Station. A six-wheel rover, named Sojourner, rolled onto the Martian surface on July 6 at about 05:40 UT. Mars Pathfinder returned 2.6 billion bits of information, including more than 16,000 images from the lander and 550 images from the rover, as well as more than 15 chemical analyses of rocks and extensive data on winds and other weather factors. The last successful data transmission was on September 27, 1997, the 83rd day of the mission since ...
SHARAD is a subsurface sounding radar aboard NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, capable of detecting dielectric discontinuities in the subsurface caused by compositional and/or structural changes. Echoes coming from the surface contain information on geometric properties at metre scale and on the permittivity of the upper layers of the Martian crust. A model has been developed to estimate the effect of surface roughness on echo power, depending on statistical parameters such as RMS height and topothesy. Such model is based on the assumption that topography can be characterized as a self-affine fractal, and its use allows the estimation of the dielectric properties of the first few metres of the Martian soil. A permittivity map of the surface of Mars is obtained, covering several large regions across the planet surface. The most significant correspondence with geology is observed at the dichotomy boundary, with high dielectric constant on the highlands side (7 to over 10) and lower on the lowlands side
NASA has now released a breathtaking high resolution image of the rover Curiosity captured from Mars orbit coincidentally coinciding with her crossing the targeted landing ellipse just days after she marked 1 Martian Year on the Red Planet in search of the chemical ingredients necessary to support alien microbial life forms.. The orbital image was taken on June 27 (Sol 672) by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and clearly shows the rover and wheel tracks at the end of the drive that Sol, or Martian day.. You can simultaneously experience the Martian eye view of Curiosity from above and below by checking out our Sol 672 ground level photo mosaic - below. Its assembled from raw images taken by the mast mounted navigation camera (Navcam) showing the rovers wheel tracks and distant rim of the Gale Crater landing site.. ...
Follow along on a tour of the landing scene of NASAs Curiosity rover in this video made up of images from two NASA orbiters. The movie begins with a global image from NASAs Mars Global Surveyor, then switches to views from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. As we zoom closer and closer into Gale Crater, the components of Curiositys landing system come into view: The heat shield was the first piece to hit the ground, followed by the back shell attached to the parachute, then the rover itself touched down, and finally, after cables were cut, the sky crane flew away to the northwest and crashed. (No audio)Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona
Need help? Email [email protected] or call 425-250-0800 during our business hours, Monday through Friday, 10:00 AM to 5:00 PM Pacific time.. Paizo Inc., Paizo, the Paizo golem logo, Pathfinder, the Pathfinder logo, Pathfinder Society, Starfinder, the Starfinder logo, GameMastery, and Planet Stories are registered trademarks of Paizo Inc. The Pathfinder Roleplaying Game, Pathfinder Campaign Setting, Pathfinder Adventure Path, Pathfinder Adventure Card Game, Pathfinder Player Companion, Pathfinder Modules, Pathfinder Tales, Pathfinder Battles, Pathfinder Legends, Pathfinder Online, Starfinder Adventure Path, PaizoCon, RPG Superstar, The Golems Got It, Titanic Games, the Titanic logo, and the Planet Stories planet logo are trademarks of Paizo Inc. Dungeons & Dragons, Dragon, Dungeon, and Polyhedron are registered trademarks of Wizards of the Coast, Inc., a subsidiary of Hasbro, Inc., and have been used by Paizo Inc. under license. Most product names are trademarks owned or used under ...
NASAs Mars Curiosity rover has used its full array of instruments to analyze Martian soil for the first time, and found a complex chemistry within the Martian soil. Water and sulfur and chlorine-containing substances, among other ingredients, showed up in samples Curiositys arm delivered to an analytical laboratory inside the rover.. NASAs Mars Curiosity rover has used its full array of instruments to analyze Martian soil for the first time, and found a complex chemistry within the Martian soil. Water and sulfur and chlorine-containing substances, among other ingredients, showed up in samples Curiositys arm delivered to an analytical laboratory inside the rover.. Detection of the substances during this early phase of the mission demonstrates the laboratorys capability to analyze diverse soil and rock samples over the next two years. Scientists also have been verifying the capabilities of the rovers instruments.. Curiosity is the first Mars rover able to scoop soil into analytical ...
Find helpful learner reviews, feedback, and ratings for Astrobiology and the Search for Extraterrestrial Life from The University of Edinburgh. Read stories and highlights from Coursera learners who completed Astrobiology and the Search for Extraterrestrial Life and wanted to share their experience. A great opportunity to learn a lot of things especially in terms of seeking the origin of life here ...
Transgenesis in numerous eukaryotes has been facilitated by the use of site-specific integrases to stably insert transgenes at pre-defined genomic positions (landing sites). However, the utility of integrase-mediated transgenesis in any system is constrained by the limited number and variable expression properties of available landing sites. By exploiting the non-standard recombination activity exhibited by a phiC31 integrase mutant, we developed a rapid and inexpensive method for isolating landing sites that exhibit desired expression properties. Additionally, we devised a simple technique for constructing arrays of transgenes at a single landing site, thereby extending the utility of previously characterized landing sites. Using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, we demonstrate the feasibility of these approaches by isolating new landing sites optimized to express transgenes in the nervous system and by building fluorescent reporter arrays at several landing sites. Because these strategies ...
Titans upper atmosphere is ionized by solar radiation and particle bombardment from Saturns magnetosphere. The induced ionosphere plays a key role in the coupling of Titans atmosphere with the Kronian environment. It also provides unique signatures for identifying energy sources upon Titans upper atmosphere. Here we focus on observations from the first, close flyby by the Cassini spacecraft and assess the ionization and electron heating sources in Titans sunlit ionosphere. We compare CAPS electron spectra with spectra produced by an electron transport model based on the INMS neutral densities and a MHD interaction model. In addition, we compare RPWS electron temperature against the models. The important terms in the electron energy equation include loss through excitation of vibrational states of N-2 and CH4, Coulomb collisions with suprathermal electrons, and thermal conduction. Our analysis highlights the important role of the magnetic field line configuration for aeronomic studies at ...
By ALICIA CHANG LOS ANGELES - New photographs from space suggest that water occasionally flows on the frigid surface of Mars, raising the tantalizing possibility that the Red Planet is hospitable to life, scientists reported Wednesday. The new images, taken by NASAs Mars Global Surveyor before it lost contact with Earth, do not actually show flowing water. Rather, they show changes in craters that provide the strongest evidence yet that water coursed through them as recently as several years ago, and is perhaps doing so even now. This is a squirting gun for water on Mars, said Kenneth Edgett, a scientist at San Diego-based Malin Space Science Systems, which operates a camera on the Global Surveyor. The news excited scientists who hunt for extraterrestrial life. If the finding is confirmed, they say, all the ingredients favorable for life on Mars are in place: liquid water and a stable heat source. In all of its Mars exploration missions, NASA has pursued a follow the water strategy to ...
Europa is the closest and probably the most promising target to search for extant life in the Solar System, based on complementary evidence that it may fulfil the key criteria for habitability: the Galileo discovery of a sub-surface ocean; the many indications that the ice shell is active and may be partly permeable to transfer of chemical species, biomolecules and elementary forms of life; the identification of candidate thermal and chemical energy sources necessary to drive a metabolic activity near the ocean floor. In this article we are proposing that ESA collaborates with NASA to design and fly jointly an ambitious and exciting planetary mission, which we call the Joint Europa Mission (JEM), to reach two objectives: perform a full characterization of Europas habitability with the capabilities of a Europa orbiter, and search for bio-signatures in the environment of Europa (surface, subsurface and exosphere) by the combination of an orbiter and a lander. JEM can build on the advanced
Beneath an icy crust, Saturns moon Enceladus … has an ocean that covers its entire globe. NASAs Cassini spacecraft measured wobbles in Enceladuss rotation over more than seven years. The data confirm that the crust is moving separately from the rocky core, meaning that there must be a widespread layer of liquid between them, says a team led by Peter Thomas of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York ...
New data from THEMIS is helping scientists choose a landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), NASAs next-generation rover spacecraft, due for launch in fall 2011.. MSLs mission is to assess whether Mars ever was, or is still today, an environment able to support microbial life. To put it another way, the rovers mission is to determine the planets habitability. MSL will study Martian soil and rock samples and analyze them for organic compounds, the chemical building blocks for life.. At a workshop in fall 2009, scientists chose 4 sites (PDF) as possible landing site locations. Since then, several additional sites have been proposed and after further study, one or more may be added to the four already identified. Scientists are collecting data on these sites to evaluate both their scientific merit and engineering feasibility. NASA will chose the final landing site in spring 2011.. The site-support work at Arizona State Universitys Mars Space Flight Facility seeks to improve our ...
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This cluster of small impact craters was spotted by the Context Camera on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in the region northwest of Gale Crater, the landing site of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity.. We had suspected that the cluster was produced by the impact of MSLs hardware onto the surface of Mars, because we could see it in CTX images after the landing, but it was not present in images prior to the arrival of MSL. Consistent with this interpretation is the fact that the cluster is located along a line between the Curiosity landing site and a strewn field of debris previously identified in HiRISE images as being caused by MSL hardware, in particular the cruise stage and/or tungsten weights used as cruise balance masses (see the caption for ESP_029245_1755 and associated links).. Over a year has passed since the landing, so this impact cluster is not as fresh as those imaged earlier and has been degraded somewhat by winds from the northeast. Nevertheless, the cluster shows ...
The huge successes of the two Viking Landers, the Pathfinder Lander with Sojourner, the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, and the Phoenix Lander have opened a new era in the exploration of Mars. The Viking Landers could not determine if life is present or ever was present on Mars, but did uncover clues that Mars had a warmer, wetter past. The Sojourner Rover proved that driving a wheeled vehicle on Mars was possible and found that the geological chemistry varied the more it roamed. The Opportunity Rover confirmed that Mars did indeed have water and in many places there were shallow pools or perhaps seas in its past. Where there was water, there may have been life or may still be. Sedimentary rocks on Earth leave a record of past life and only certain environments and types of deposits provide good places for fossil preservation. The challenge is to determine life from non-life as any life on Mars could potentially have a different chemistry, structure, and characteristics than on ...
David Shiga writes, NASAs silent Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft is likely lost forever. The space agency attempted to take a picture of the 10-year-old spacecraft using the newer Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, but did not detect it, either because its orbit has shifted since last contact, or ...