The extra-placental gestational membranes secrete cytokines in response to bacteria and other infectious agents, with potentially adverse consequences for pregnancy. The present study used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a prototype endotoxin to investigate the pattern of stimulated cytokine release from the amniotic and choriodecidual sides of full-thickness human gestational membranes in a two-compartment tissue culture system. Gestational membranes were collected from healthy non-laboring caesarean deliveries at term. Full-thickness membranes from each placenta were cut into pieces, mounted on Transwell frames, and placed in culture wells to create a two-compartment culture with the gestational membranes serving as the barrier between compartments. The LPS (100 ng/ml) was added to the amniotic, choriodecidual or both chambers of the culture, and cytokines were assayed in the medium of the amniotic and choriodecidual chambers after 8 h of LPS exposure. Cytokine concentrations were analyzed by two-way
A new review looks at the potential of fetal membranes, which make up the amniotic sac surrounding the fetus during pregnancy, for regenerative medicine.
Phillip Messersmiths mussel-inspired sealant is effective at sealing tiny holes in the human fetal membrane that can result from endoscopic fetal surgeries used in the treatment of some birth defects.
Using explant cultures of human extraplacental membranes (the tissue that forms the gestational compartment), Project 2 investigators found that exposure to S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), a bioactive metabolite of trichloroethylene (TCE), inhibits pathogen-stimulated cytokine responses that are important for tissue defense against infection.. Figure 1 shows that live Group B Streptococcus, added to the maternal side of the extraplacental membranes in transwell cultures, strongly stimulates innate immune defense responses with release of the cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in the absence of DCVC but not in the presence of DCVC (Figs. 1a and 1b, respectively; Boldenow et al., 2015). This study shows toxicant-microbial interactions with potential implications for pregnancy.. ...
Read story Abnormalities of Fetal Membranes and Amniotic Fluid by cgbeamd with 2,934 reads.ABNORMALITIES OF FETAL MEMBRANES AND AMNIOTIC FLUID Abnormalities o...
Similar to pigs, the conceptuses of sheep remain free-floating within the uterine lumen as they elongate from spherical blastocysts to conceptuses with a filamentous morphology (Reviewed in[88]). Sheep embryos enter the uterus on Day 3, develop to spherical blastocysts and then, after hatching from the zona pellucida, transform from spherical to tubular and filamentous conceptuses between Days 12 and 15 of pregnancy, with extra-embryonic membranes extending into the contralateral uterine horn between Days 16 and 20. During this period of rapid elongation, the mononuclear trophoblast cells of ovine conceptuses secrete interferon tau between Days 10 and 21 of pregnancy, and implantation begins on Day 16 as trophectoderm attaches to the uterine LE[70, 88]. The ovine placenta eventually organizes into discrete regions called placentomes that are composed of highly branched placental chorioallantoic villi termed cotyledons which grow rapidly and interdigitate with maternal aglandular endometrial ...
This stock medical exhibit features normal fetal membrane anatomy during pregnancy. It reveals a sagittal cut-away view of a full term pregnant abdomen with fetus shown in-utero. A blue colored membranous capsule is shown surrounding the fetus. Additionally, a detailed section through the membrane identifies and labels the amnion, chorion, uterus and decidua.
This stock medical exhibit features normal fetal membrane anatomy during pregnancy. It reveals a sagittal cut-away view of a full term pregnant abdomen with fetus shown in-utero. A blue colored membranous capsule is shown surrounding the fetus. Additionally, a detailed section through the membrane identifies and labels the amnion, chorion, uterus and decidua.
Abstract Objective: Elafin is a low molecular weight protein with antileukoproteinase, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and immunomodulating properties. The profile of Elafin in fetal membranes is not well characterized. This study determined the changes in Elafin expression and concentration in human fetal membrane from patients with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and in vitro in response to intra-amniotic polymicrobial pathogens. Method: Elafin messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions were studied in fetal membranes from PPROM, normal term as well as in normal term not in labor membranes in an organ explant system treated (24 h) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measured Elafin concentrations in culture supernatants from tissues treated with LPS and polybacterial combinations of heat-inactivated Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Gardnerella vaginalis (GV).
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Presented in Symposium I (Joseph Holson, L.B. Pearce, co-chairs) at the Forty-Third Annual Meeting of the Teratology Society, Philadelphia, June 26, 2003.
Bachem offers H-6784 Relaxin H2 (human) for your research. Find all specific details here. Find product specific information including available pack sizes, CAS, detailed description and references here.
Nutrients in uterine secretions are essential for development and survival of conceptuses (embryo and associated extraembryonic membranes) during pregnancy; however, little is known about changes in the amounts of specific nutrients in the uterine fl
Need an overview of the following topics: - Extraembryonic membranes and placentation - Digestive system - Development of nervous.
The fetal fibronectin (fFN) test can help predict if a woman will go into labor early. fFN is a protein found in the amniotic sac and fetal membranes during the first 22 weeks of pregnancy. If a doctor believes a woman is going into premature labor, he or she can test the womans cervical-vaginal secretions; if fFN is present after 22 weeks, it indicates increased risk for preterm delivery. If it is absent, the risk is low and the woman probably wont deliver in the next 2 weeks ...
According to the disclosure there is provided a continuously sharp erasing knife by a thin, hardened steel strip honed along at least one edge being given a special form with the aid of a dispenser, allowing the honed edge to be applied to a substructure for erasure in an effective cutting or scraping attitude. The strip is provided with weak zones and can be successively advanced from the dispenser so that end pieces which have become blunt can be broken off. At the same time, the dispenser forms a storage container for these broken-off pieces.
A first-of-a-kind surgery in the womb saved the life of an unborn baby after premature rupture of the fetal membranes ( water breaks ), German doctors report. W
Synonyms for amnions in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for amnions. 2 synonyms for amnion: amnios, amniotic sac. What are synonyms for amnions?
Retained Placenta in Cattle Most cows will pass the afterbirth (placenta, cleansing or calf bed) within 6 hours of calving. Some cows take up to 24 hours. If the placenta is retained longer than this, the condition is classified as retained placenta or retained foetal membranes (RFM).
Looking for online definition of fetal membrane retention in the Medical Dictionary? fetal membrane retention explanation free. What is fetal membrane retention? Meaning of fetal membrane retention medical term. What does fetal membrane retention mean?
Recent evidence has linked preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes (PPROM) to placental abruption. Because neutrophils are a rich source of proteases that can degrade extracellular matrix in abruption-associated PPROM,we examined whether decidual neutrophil infiltration complicates abruption-associated PPROM. Accordingly, immunostaining for the neutrophil marker CD15 was performed in placentas obtained after overt abruption (decidual hemorrhage) with or without PPROM and in control placentas. Abruptions were associated with a marked decidual neutrophil infiltration that peaked after PPROM, whereas decidua from gestational age-matched controls were virtually devoid of neutrophils. Neutrophil infiltrates co-localized with fibrin deposition. Because abruptions elicit intense decidua- enhanced thrombin production, we examined the regulation of abruption-induced neutrophil infiltration. Expression of the primary neutrophil chemoattractant interleukin-8 (IL-8) was evaluated in leukocyte-free ...
Spontaneous preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity globally. Activation of the maternal immune system leads to a downstream cascade of proinflammatory events that culminate in the activation of spontaneous uterine contractions and the rupture of the foetal membranes. Anti-inflammatory agents may be a novel therapeutic approach to prevent inflammation-induced myometrial contractions and premature rupture of foetal membranes. The polyphenol gallic acid has been previously shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of gallic acid on proinflammatory and pro-labour mediators in cytokine-stimulated gestational tissues in vitro. In primary human cells isolated from myometrium and foetal membranes (decidua, and amnion mesenchymal and epithelial cells), gallic acid treatment suppressed inflammation-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and extracellular matrix-degrading and matrix-remodelling ...
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are the cells of the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage embryo.[12] Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4-5 days post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50-150 cells. ESCs are pluripotent and give rise during development to all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm. In other words, they can develop into each of the more than 200 cell types of the adult body when given sufficient and necessary stimulation for a specific cell type. They do not contribute to the extra-embryonic membranes or the placenta. During embryonic development these inner cell mass cells continuously divide and become more specialized. For example, a portion of the ectoderm in the dorsal part of the embryo specializes as neurectoderm, which will become the future central nervous system.[13] Later in development, neurulation causes the neurectoderm to form the neural tube. At the neural tube stage, the anterior portion undergoes ...
Bilaminar blastocyst or Bilaminar disc refers to the epiblast and the hypoblast, evolved from the embryoblast. These two layers are sandwiched between two balloons: the primitive yolk sac and the amniotic cavity. The inner cell mass, the embryoblast, begins to transform into two distinct epithelial layers just before implantation occurs. The epiblast is the outer layer that consists of columnar cells.The inner layer is called the hypoblast, or primitive endoderm, which is composed of cuboidal cells. As the two layers become evident, a basement membrane presents itself between the layers. The final two layers of the embryoblast are known collectively as the bilaminar embryonic disc as well as the bilaminar blastocyst or bilaminar blastoderm. This bilaminar blastocyst also defines the primitive dorsal ventral axis. Blastocyst implantation will occur during the second week of fetal development in the endometrium of the uterus; the epiblast is dorsal and the hypoblast is ventral. The zygote ...
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With the exception of birds, most non-mammalian vertebrates depend on the production of a relatively large number of eggs with only a small proportion surviving. Mammals have evolved a system wherein relatively few eggs are produced, but the survival rate is relatively high. This is accomplished by a combination (in all except the prototheres) of prenatal care and, in most, post-natal care.. In the generalized early development in eutherian mammals, the early cleavages produce the blastocyst, a hollow ball of cells. A cluster of cells intrude into the cavity of the blastocyst: the inner cell mass. This eventually will produce the embryo and some extraembryonic membranes. The outer layer of the blastocyst is the trophoblast. The trophoblast eventually develops into the chorion of the placenta and associated structures.. The placenta forms the connection between mother and child, allowing for nutrition, gases, and excretionary materials to move by diffusion between embryonic and maternal ...
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Results In the 80 women investigated, IL-6 was able to predict PTB, latency to gestation and maternal infection with some efficacy. It was a poor predictor of neonatal infection. Women with visible fetal membranes had significantly higher IL-6 concentrations than those with closed cervices (p=0.002). All of those with visible membranes and a high IL-6 (,50 pg/ml) had a PTB (n=12) compared to half of those with a low IL-6 (,50 pg/ml, n=1). No women with a low IL-6 delivered at ,24 weeks compared to 83% (n=10) of those with high IL-6. In women with prelabour premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), high IL-6 was associated with more extreme PTBs (57% vs 0%, p=0.19) and delivery within 7 days (71% vs 50%, p=0.09).. ...
Supportive Structures Certain structures develop to support, maintain, new life throughout pregnancy - Embryonic or fetal membrane (chorion and amnion) - Placenta - Umbilical cord
Define allantois: a vascular fetal membrane of reptiles, birds, and mammals that is formed as a pouch from the hindgut and that in placental mammals …
Hi, Im 24+2 days preganant, placenta is at the front so havent felt much activity yet from baby but starting to worry as dont feel pregnant.. anyone else in this situation? Any advise / support would be great. Thanks
The yolk sac is an early extra-embryonic membrane which is endoderm origin and covered with extra-embryonic mesoderm. Yolk sac lies outside the embryo connected by a yolk stalk (vitelline duct, omphalomesenteric duct) to the midgut with which it forms a continuous connection. The endodermal lining is continuous with the endoderm of the gastrointestinal tract. The extra-embryonic mesoderm differentiates to form both blood and blood vessels of the vitelline system. In reptiles and birds, the yolk sac has a function associated with nutrition. In mammals the yolk sac acts as a source of primordial germ cells and blood cells. Note that in early human development (week 2) a transient structure called the "primitive yolk sac" forms from the hypoblast layer, this is an entirely different structure. The yolk stalk normally degenerates around the time the midgut herniation return to the peritoneal cavity and the anterior body wall closes (week 8). Failure of complete degeneration of this structure can ...
Among the ~150-200 imprinted genes identified in mouse and human, only 20 marsupial orthologs have been examined to date, and eight of these were found to be imprinted. Here we ask, what is the marsupial imprinting status for the remaining 130 eutherian imprinted genes, and are there any marsupial-specific imprinted genes? We profiled genome-wide allele-specific expression (RNA-seq), histone modifications (ChIP-seq) and DNA methylation (PyroMark) in fetal brain and extra-embryonic membranes from reciprocal crosses of two opossum lines, providing an unbiased survey of parent-of-origin effects. Among 68 genes known to be imprinted in eutherians (and having an opossum ortholog), 52 were covered with sufficient informative SNPs to score allelic expression. Only three (,6%) were found to be imprinted in opossum, and 48 display biallelic expression, reflecting a striking lack of conservation of imprinting status. We also discovered and validated eight marsupial-specific imprinted genes that are not ...
Birth Injury - Spread of Fetal Membrane Infection To Mother,Medical Illustration database of the best portfolios and stock images now features General and Commercial Illustration and illustrators. 8,000+ image database includes all types of subjects and features the largest directory of medical, science, and nature illustrators and illustration on the web.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of thrombin and cytokines upon the biomechanics and remodeling of isolated amnion membrane, in vitro. AU - Kumar, D.. AU - Schatz, F.. AU - Moore, R. M.. AU - Mercer, B. M.. AU - Rangaswamy, N.. AU - Mansour, J. M.. AU - Lockwood, C. J.. AU - Moore, J. J.. PY - 2011/3. Y1 - 2011/3. N2 - Abruption-induced thrombin generation and inflammation/infection induced cytokine production have both been associated with fetal membrane (FM) weakening and preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes (PPROM). Using our in vitro model system we have demonstrated that thrombin, and separately the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β), remodel and weaken full thickness FM. Additionally, we have reported that the anti-oxidant and NFκB inhibitor, alpha-lipoic acid (LA), blocks these thrombin and cytokine induced effects. The purpose of these studies was to determine whether thrombin and cytokines directly weaken the amnion membrane (AM), the ...
Méhats C, Marcellin L, Schmitz T. [Immune cell activation at the maternal-fetal interface precedes human parturition]. Med Sci (Paris). 2018 Mar;34(3):208-210.. Dravet-Gounot P, Morin C, Jacques S, Dumont F, Ely-Marius F, Vaiman D, Jarreau PH, Méhats C, Zana-Taïeb E. Lung microRNA deregulation associated with impaired alveolarization in rats after intrauterine growth restriction. PLoS One 2017 29;12(12):e0190445.. Marcellin L, Schmitz T, Messaoudene M, Chader D, Parizot C, Jacques S, Delaire J, Gogusev J, Schmitt A, Lesaffre C, Breuiller-Fouché M, Caignard A, Vaiman D, Goffinet F, Cabrol D, Gorochov G, Méhats C. Immune Modifications in Fetal Membranes Overlying the Cervix Precede Parturition in Humans. J Immunol. 2017 Feb 1;198(3):1345-1356. Marcellin L, Santulli P, Gogusev J, Lesaffre C, Jacques S, Chapron C, Goffinet F, Vaiman D, Méhats C. Endometriosis also affects the decidua in contact with the fetal membranes during pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 2015 Feb;30(2):392-405.. Santulli P, ...
Recent ground-motion observations suggest that surface-rupturing earthquakes generate weaker near-fault ground motion than buried earthquakes. This difference is significant in the period range of 0.3-3 sec. Contributing factors to this phenomenon may include the effect of fault zone weakness at shallow depth on rupture dynamics and rupture directivity during earthquakes.. We present results from numerical experiments of spontaneous dynamic rupture and near-source ground-motion simulations of surface rupturing and buried earthquakes and discuss mechanisms for the observed ground-motion differences. The surface-rupturing earthquake is modeled with a shallow zone of 5 km thickness containing areas of negative stress drop (within the framework of the slip-weakening friction model) and lower rigidity. Surface-rupturing models with this weak zone generate lower amplitude ground velocity than do models without this modification.. Observed ground-motion differences between surface and buried events are ...
Amnion: Amnion,, in reptiles, birds, and mammals, a membrane forming a fluid-filled cavity (the amniotic sac) that encloses the embryo. The amniotic sac and the fluid it contains are
Define amnion: a thin membrane forming a closed sac about the embryos or fetuses of reptiles, birds, and mammals and containing the amniotic fluid
TY - JOUR. T1 - Angiogenic activity of multiple myeloma endothelial cells in vivo in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay is associated to a down-regulation in the expression of endogenous endostatin. AU - Mangieri, Domenica. AU - Nico, Beatrice. AU - Benagiano, Vincenzo. AU - De Giorgis, Michela. AU - Vacca, Angelo. AU - Ribatti, Domenico. PY - 2008/6. Y1 - 2008/6. N2 - We have attempted a fine characterization of the angiogenic response induced by multiple myeloma endothelial cells (MMEC) by using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed that in the CAM assay MMEC induced an angiogenic response comparable to that of a well-known angiogenic cytokine, namely fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), while RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of endostatin mRNA detected in MM treated CAM was significantly lower respect to control CAM. These data suggest that angiogenic switch in MM may involve ...
The majority of ovarian cancer patients present with advanced disease and despite aggressive treatment, prognosis remains poor. Significant improvement in ovarian cancer survival will require the development of more effective molecularly targeted therapeutics. Commonly, mouse models are used for the in vivo assessment of potential new therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer. However, animal models are costly and time consuming. Other models, such as the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, are therefore an attractive alternative. CAM assays have been widely used to study angiogenesis and tumor invasion of colorectal, prostate and brain cancers. However, there have been limited studies that have used CAM assays to assess ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis. We have therefore developed a CAM assay protocol to monitor the metastatic properties of ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and OV-90) and to study the effect of potential therapeutic molecules in vivo. The results from the CAM assay
Book_-_The_Early_Embryology_of_the_Chick,The Early Embryology of the Chick]]: [[Book_-_The_Early_Embryology_of_the_Chick_1,Introduction]] , [[Book_-_The_Early_Embryology_of_the_Chick_2,Gametes and Fertilization]] , [[Book_-_The_Early_Embryology_of_the_Chick_3,Segmentation]] , [[Book_-_The_Early_Embryology_of_the_Chick_4,Entoderm]] , [[Book_-_The_Early_Embryology_of_the_Chick_5,Primitive Streak and Mesoderm]] , [[Book_-_The_Early_Embryology_of_the_Chick_6,Primitive Streak to Somites]] , [[Book_-_The_Early_Embryology_of_the_Chick_7,24 Hours]] , [[Book_-_The_Early_Embryology_of_the_Chick_8,24 to 33 Hours]] , [[Book_-_The_Early_Embryology_of_the_Chick_9,33 to 39 Hours]] , [[Book_-_The_Early_Embryology_of_the_Chick_10,40 to 50 Hours]] , [[Book_-_The_Early_Embryology_of_the_Chick_11,Extra-embryonic Membranes]] , [[Book_-_The_Early_Embryology_of_the_Chick_12,50 to 55 Hours]] , [[Book_-_The_Early_Embryology_of_the_Chick_13, Day 3 to 4]] , [[Book - The Early Embryology of the Chick - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nrf2 activation inhibits effects of thrombin in human amnion cells and thrombin-induced preterm birth in mice. AU - Chigusa, Yoshitsugu. AU - Kishore, Annavarapu Hari. AU - Mogami, Haruta. AU - Word, Ruth Ann. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - Context: Nrf2 is a key transcription factor that modulates cell defense mechanisms against endogenous and exogenous stress. Previously, we reported that thrombin increased matrix metalloproteinases and prostaglandin synthesis in human amnion mesenchymal cells. Objective: We sought to determine whether activation of Nrf2 alters the effect of thrombin on prostaglandin synthesis, protease activation, and cytokine release in human amnion. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of Nrf2 activation on thrombin-induced preterm labor in mice. Design: Primary human amnion mesenchymal cells and pregnant mice were employed to investigate the effect of Nrf2 on thrombin-induced inflammation and preterm birth. Setting: This was a laboratory-based study ...
Angiogenic potential of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with high-grade gliomas measured with the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) ...
The authors studied the specific tumor antigen in Crockers sarcoma of mice and M-1 sarcoma of rats as well as in heterotransplants of these tumors on the chorioallantoic membrane of the developing...
Although intracerebral transplantation of various fibroblast (-like) cell populations has been shown feasible, little is known about the actual in vivo remodelling of these cellular grafts and their environment. In this study, we aimed to compare the in vitro and in vivo behaviour of two phenotypically similar ‐ but developmentally distinct ‐ fibroblast‐like cell populations, namely mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mEF) and mouse foetal membrane‐derived stromal cells (mFMSC). While both mEF and mFMSC are readily able to reduce TNFα secretion by LPS/IFNγ‐activated BV2 microglia, mFMSC and mEF display a strikingly opposite behaviour with regard to VEGF production under normal and inflammatory conditions. Whereas mFMSC downregulate VEGF production upon co‐culture with LPS/IFNγ‐activated BV2 microglia, mEF upregulate VEGF production in the presence of LPS/IFNγ‐activated BV2 microglia. Subsequently, in vivo grafting of mFMSC and mEF revealed no difference in microglial and astroglial ...
The new report applied phylogenomics to look for genes that might have been significant in the transition from water to land. A number of developmental genes present in the coelocanth were lost in tetrapods. However, Hox genes, which determine overall body plan, were well conserved. An interesting exception was Hoxa14 and hereby hangs a tale. A conserved non-coding element associated with Hoxa14 in the coelacanth (HA14E1) was retained in tetrapods. It is speculated that it might have been recruited to coordinate nearby genes (Hoxa13, Hoxa11 and Hoxa10) that are critical in formation of mammalian fetal membranes. ...
One of the two nodules, cracked open. Pathologie Nordhessen. Alongside the traces of the womans own DNA was that of the Y chromosome, which the researchers suspect was derived from a male fetus that she was likely carrying at the time of her death. This information, coupled with the genomes decoded from the bacteria, allow them to speculate as to what caused the untimely demise of this mother some 800 years previous.. They think that she may have died of a bacterial infection of the placenta, amniotic fluid, and fetal membrane, known as chorioaminonitis. If correct, this would make it the first ever known case of sepsis in a mother from the fossil record. "There are no records for this anywhere," said Poinar. "We have almost no evidence from the archeological record of what maternal health and death was like until now.". In all likelihood, maternal and child health 800 years ago was not great. Death in childbirth was commonplace, and infant mortality high. Those children that were lucky enough ...
How does an embryo form? -- How do the placenta and fetal membranes form? -- The body cavities and the diaphragm -- The integumentary, skeletal, and muscular systems -- The respiratory system -- The cardiovascular system -- The digestive system -- The urinary system -- The reproductive system -- The nervous system -- Development of the head and neck, the eye, and the ear ...