We have previously demonstrated that acute volume expansion increases gastroduodenal resistance to saline flow in rats and dogs, while hypovolemia due to hemorrhage decreases it (4,5). Since ECF volume retraction increases intestinal salt and water absorption (2) while expansion reduces or even abolishes intestinal absorption and increases secretion (3), we proposed a role for ECF volume in the modulation of liquid flow through the upper GI tract, i.e., coupled modulation of the GI tract contractile activity, salt and water transport and ultimately luminal liquid transit to cope with organic needs.. The present study, using the same experimental protocol (ileocolonic segment and separate ileal, ileocolonic sphincter and colonic portions were perfused under constant pressure and changes in flow were assumed to represent modifications in motor activity, tone and/or motility), extends this idea to the lower gut, showing that acute volume imbalances also modify the motor behavior of ileocolonic ...
Administrators can import a group space archive (.EAR) using WebCenter Spaces and WLST commands.. On import, all group spaces included in the archive are created or re-created on the target application. Existing group spaces are deleted then replaced, and new group spaces are created.. If you intend to import group spaces with names identical to those available on the target application, ensure that those group spaces are offline in the target application. It is not possible to overwrite a group space, on import, if it is online. For details, see "Taking a Group Space Offline" in Oracle Fusion Middleware Users Guide for Oracle WebCenter.. Groups spaces are locked during an import operation to prevent simultaneous imports/exports of the same group space. If someone else is importing a particular group space, all subsequent attempts to import (or export) the same group space are blocked.. All group spaces must have a security policy. When you import a brand new group space you must ensure that ...
Does this form exist, or, if you choose, can we represent to ourselves space of more than three dimensions? And first what does this question mean? In the true sense of the word, it is clear that we can not represent to ourselves space of four, nor space of three, dimensions; we can not first represent them to ourselves empty, and no more can we represent to ourselves an object either in space of four, or in space of three, dimensions: (1) Because these spaces are both infinite and we can not represent to ourselves a figure in space, that is, the part in the whole, without representing the whole, and that is impossible, because it is infinite; (2) because these spaces are both mathematical continua and we can represent to ourselves only the physical continuum; (3) because these spaces are both homogeneous, and the frames in which we enclose our sensations, being limited, can not be homogeneous. Thus the question put can only be understood in another manner; is it possible to imagine that, the ...
In the audiovisual installations by the European label AntiVJ, interstitial space is presented as a series of dynamic immaterial ruptures. Large-scale installations such as Murcof+AntiVJ (2009) and 3Destruct (2007) visually break the confines of built architecture and autonomous spatial folds, through the projection of light onto invisible semi-transparent screens arranged in space. In this way, instead of being limited to the perimeter of the built space, the space between the built surfaces of architecture is utilised. As spectators walk through 3Destruct, they become disoriented in such a "non-linear universe", the form of which, oscillates rapidly between weightless planar layerings and linear mazes of changing colour, opacity and density.. [10] In Murcof+AntiVJ, a rain of shattered and colliding geometries, rapidly contracted and expanded spatialities, emerges through the projection of digital visualisations onto a similar type of screens. In both audiovisual installations, space is ...
Introduction The majority of deaths from breast cancer are a total result of metastases; nevertheless, small is definitely recognized about the hereditary modifications root their starting point. had been scored by cell keeping track of, circulation cytometry, and scuff and … Continue reading →. ...
How many haiku can there possibly be? Due to their small, rigid form, we should be able to roughly determine the size of the haikuspace. Mathematical We...
Bacteria colony counts in peripheral blood and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were also markedly decreased in PLD2−/− mice versus WT (Fig. 3 a). Bacteria released into the peritoneal cavity eventually make their way through the circulation and enter lung tissue, resulting in lung inflammation (Matute-Bello et al., 2001). Bacteria colony counts in lung tissues were also significantly decreased in PLD2−/− mice versus WT (Fig. 3 a). Live bacterial colony numbers were significantly increased in liver and spleen 24 h after CLP in WT mice compared with PLD2−/− mice (Fig. 3 a).. It was recently reported that neutrophils generate NETs to trap and kill invading bacteria (Brinkmann et al., 2004). To investigate the effect of PLD2 deficiency on NET formation, we stained neutrophils with SYTOX Green nucleic acid stain, a nonpermeable dye that stains nucleic acid, a primary component of NETs. Stimulation of neutrophils isolated from WT mice with ionomycin induced NET formation (Fig. 3 d). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitric oxide uptake by erythrocytes is primarily limited by extracellular diffusion not membrane resistance. AU - Liu, Xiaoping. AU - Samouilov, Alexandre. AU - Lancaster, Jack R.. AU - Zweier, Jay L.. PY - 2002/7/19. Y1 - 2002/7/19. N2 - The process of NO transfer into erythrocytes (RBCs) is of critical biological importance because it regulates the bioavailability and diffusional distance of endothelial-derived NO. It has been reported that the rate of NO reaction with oxyhemoglobin (Hb) within RBCs is nearly three orders of magnitude slower than that by equal amounts of free oxyhemoglobin. Consistent with early studies on oxygen uptake by RBCs, the process of extracellular diffusion was reported to explain this much lower NO uptake by RBC encapsulated Hb (Liu, X., Miller, M. J., Joshi, M. S., Sadowska-Krowicka, H., Clark, D. A., and Lancaster, J. R., Jr. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 18709-18713). However, it was subsequently proposed that the RBC membrane provides the main ...
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We introduce machine learning (ML) to perform classification and quantitation of images of nuclei from human blood neutrophils. Here we assessed the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) using free, open source software to accurately quantitate neutrophil NETosis, a recently discovered process involved in multiple human diseases. CNNs achieved ,94% in performance accuracy in differentiating NETotic from non-NETotic cells and vastly facilitated dose-response analysis and screening of the NETotic response in neutrophils from patients. Using only features learned from nuclear morphology, CNNs can distinguish between NETosis and necrosis and between distinct NETosis signaling pathways, making them a precise tool for NETosis detection. Furthermore, by using CNNs and tools to determine object dispersion, we uncovered differences in NETotic nuclei clustering between major NETosis pathways that is useful in understanding NETosis signaling events. Our study also shows that neutrophils from patients ...
However, simply changing the total amount of sodium in the ECF would be useless if it were not accompanied by a corresponding change in the volume of ECF water. As discussed above, to change the ECF volume both sodium and water must be coordinately added or subtracted from the ECF. The key concept to understand is that this Step 2 of volume regulation is essentially automatically preformed by the mechanisms of ECF Osmoregulation. When the total amount of ECF sodium is increased (Step 1), this boosts the ECF osmolarity, triggering the thirst sensation and renal generation of a concentrated urine. Together the thirst mechanism along with urine concentration yield rapid net addition of free water to the ECF, an amount perfectly osmotically matched to the amont of sodium added by Step 1. Together, Step 1 (sodium regulation) and Step 2 (osmoregulation) work together to coordinately add/subtract sodium and water to the ECF and thus control its volume ...
Website: http://depts.washington.edu/iscrm/research/faculty/vincenzo-cirulli. Netrin protein nanomaterials as regulators of stem cell differentiation toward pancreatic β-cells. Cell interactions with the extracellular microenvironment play critical roles in tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. In the pancreas, development of insulin-producing islet cells (b-cells) depends on a series of highly regulated processes that include branching morphogenesis, proliferation, migration and differentiation of progenitors into the surrounding mesenchyme where they organize into cell clusters (islets of Langerhans). Despite significant advances in our understanding of pathways regulating the specification, expansion and differentiation of the islet cell lineage, mechanisms governing the recruitment and delamination of pancreatic progenitors from the ductal tree remain largely unknown. Among components of the extracellular microenvironment that can significantly affect cellular development and function, ...
PhD Project - Biochemistry of cell-cell communication: revealing how signalling proteins move and interact in the extracellular space at University of Leeds, listed on FindAPhD.com
A study in The Journal of General Physiology examines the consequences of muscle activity with surprising results, indicating that the extracellular accumulation of potassium that occurs in working muscles is considerably ...
MPATH:458] normal [MPATH:1] cell and tissue damage [MPATH:2] cell death [MPATH:4] necrosis [MPATH:14] degenerative change [MPATH:25] tissue specific degenerative process [MPATH:33] intracellular and extracellular accumulation [MPATH:47] intracellular and extracellular depletion [MPATH:55] developmental and structural abnormality [MPATH:57] agenesis [MPATH:58] aplasia [MPATH:59] branching morphogenesis defect [MPATH:60] communication defect [MPATH:64] dysplasia [MPATH:72] growth acceleration [MPATH:73] growth arrest [MPATH:82] persistent embryonic structure [MPATH:86] organ specific developmental defect [MPATH:107] congestion [MPATH:119] hemorrhage and non-specified extravasation [MPATH:125] thrombosis [MPATH:126] growth and differentiation defect [MPATH:127] atrophy [MPATH:133] hypoplasia [MPATH:134] hyperplasia [MPATH:159] hypertrophy [MPATH:160] metaplasia [MPATH:175] healing and repair [MPATH:176] connective tissue replacement [MPATH:179] fibrin deposition [MPATH:180] fibroblast proliferation ...
MPATH:458] normal [MPATH:1] cell and tissue damage [MPATH:2] cell death [MPATH:4] necrosis [MPATH:14] degenerative change [MPATH:25] tissue specific degenerative process [MPATH:33] intracellular and extracellular accumulation [MPATH:47] intracellular and extracellular depletion [MPATH:55] developmental and structural abnormality [MPATH:57] agenesis [MPATH:58] aplasia [MPATH:59] branching morphogenesis defect [MPATH:60] communication defect [MPATH:64] dysplasia [MPATH:72] growth acceleration [MPATH:73] growth arrest [MPATH:82] persistent embryonic structure [MPATH:86] organ specific developmental defect [MPATH:107] congestion [MPATH:119] hemorrhage and non-specified extravasation [MPATH:125] thrombosis [MPATH:126] growth and differentiation defect [MPATH:127] atrophy [MPATH:133] hypoplasia [MPATH:134] hyperplasia [MPATH:159] hypertrophy [MPATH:160] metaplasia [MPATH:175] healing and repair [MPATH:176] connective tissue replacement [MPATH:179] fibrin deposition [MPATH:180] fibroblast proliferation ...
An electrodiffusive formalism was developed for computing the dynamics of the membrane potential and ion concentrations in the intra- and extracellular space in a one-dimensional geometry (cable). This (general) formalism was implemented in a model of astrocytes exchanging K+, Na+ and Cl- ions with the extracellular space (ECS). A limited region (0, x,l/10 where l is the astrocyte length) of the ECS was exposed to an increase in the local K+ concentration. The model is used to explore how astrocytes contribute in transporting K+ out from high-concentration regions via a mechanism known as spatial buffering, which involves local uptake from high concentration regions, intracellular transport, and release of K+ in regions with lower ECS concentrations ...
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell". This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid (see extracellular matrix). The term is used in contrast to intracellular (inside the cell). According to the Gene Ontology, the extracellular space is a cellular component defined as: "That part of a multicellular organism outside the cells proper, usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid. For multicellular organisms, the extracellular space refers to everything outside a cell, but still within the organism (excluding the extracellular matrix). Gene products from a multi-cellular organism that are secreted from a cell into the interstitial fluid or blood can therefore be annotated to this term".[1]. The composition of the extracellular space includes metabolites, ions, various proteins and non-protein substances (e.g. DNA, RNA, lipids, ...
Edema is a clinical condition characterized by an increase in interstitial fluid volume and tissue swelling that can be either localized or generalized. Severe generalized edema is known as anasarca. More localized interstitial fluid collections incl
What is edema? clinically apparent increase in the interstitial fluid volume weight gain of several kilograms usually precedes overt manifestations of edema
Our efforts are directed primarily at understanding the interplay of physical and biochemical cues in the regulation of tumor formation, growth and migration. Sharon Gerecht studies the synergistic roles of hypoxia and the extracellular microenvironment in the formation of blood vessels during differentiation, regeneration and tumor growth and metastasis. Denis Wirtz identifies the physical underpinnings of cell and tissue functions in health and disease. Konstantinos Konstantopoulos studies how cells sense and respond to physical cues, such as confinement and fluid shear, pertinent to cancer metastasis. Rong Li studies how cells divide, move, age and evolve. Honggang Cui is building mimetic peptide platforms to simulate the tumor microenvironment and the extracellular matrix. Michael Betenbaugh is developing analytical tools to characterize the changes in metabolic pathways that occur during cancer transformations as a way of identifying novel treatments for the disease.. Click the tabs to read ...
Cross Audience entertainment campaigns performed nearly three times above the industry average CTR of .55%, achieving an overall average CTR of 1.34% . CTRS on interstitials peaked at 5% - nearly TEN TIMES the industry average!. ...
Hi, I am new to the forum. I am working on building a mechanism which implements Na depletion/accumulation in Intracellular/Extracellular space and is also able to implement diffusion of Na from extracellular space to a fixed volume sink. I went through the nacum.mod file provided in the nrn71\examp ...
Images produced by Switzerland from Space are in the public domain and may be used in any manner without permission, restriction, attribution, or compensation. Back links to Switzerland from Space are welcome. ...
Confluence spaces are great for sharing content and news with your team. This is your home page. Right now it shows recent space activity, but you can customize this page in anyway you like. ...
The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps induced by antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies has been implicated in the pathogenesis of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis. Kraaij et al. now provide evidence that excessive neutrophil extracellular trap formation in vitro induced by sera from patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis is associated with active disease but is not dependent on the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies. ...
The changes of intracutaneous pressure in the limbs of mice and human beings have been followed during and after periods of venous obstruction with almost unhindered arterial flow. During the first 30 minutes of obstruction the interstitial pressure in the tense skin of the lower legs of mice, a pressure which is slightly higher than that in the loose skin of the ears, backs, and thighs (21), rose from 2.6 to 4.6 cm. of water to about 32 cm., thereafter remaining constant. It would appear that the escape of fluid from the capillaries is checked at this pressure. In the skin of the arm and leg of man the interstitial pressure rose from 2.5-3.7 cm. of water to 15.0-23.0, within 15 to 27 minutes after venous obstruction had been produced, mounting no higher during the period of observation. When venous obstruction had existed for about 20 minutes or more the subjects sometimes experienced sensations of relief from congestion as if some tissue adjustment or the opening of some venous by-pass in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protective effect of extracellular superoxide dismutase on endothelial function during aging. AU - Lund, Donald D.. AU - Chu, Yi. AU - Miller, Jordan D. AU - Heistad, Donald D.. PY - 2009/6. Y1 - 2009/6. N2 - Endothelial vasomotor function decreases with increasing age. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) protects against vascular dysfunction in several disease states. The purpose of this study was to determine whether endogenous ecSOD protects against endothelial dysfunction in old mice. Vasomotor function of the aorta was studied ex vivo in wild-type (ecSOD +/+) and ecSOD-deficient (ecSOD -/-) mice at 11 (adult) and 29 (old) mo of age. Maximal relaxation to acetylcholine (10 -4 M) was impaired in vessels from adult ecSOD -/- mice [75 ± 3% (mean ± SE)] compared with wild-type mice (89 ± 2%, P , 0.05). Maximal relaxation to acetylcholine (10 -4 M) was profoundly impaired in aorta from old ecSOD -/- mice (45 ± 5%) compared with wild-type mice (75 ± 4%, P , 0.05). There ...
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are a category of carefully associated enzymes that catalyze the breakdown with the superoxide anion into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.[138][139] SOD enzymes are existing in almost all aerobic cells As well as in extracellular fluids.[140] Superoxide dismutase enzymes incorporate metallic ion cofactors that, depending upon the isozyme, may be copper, zinc, manganese or iron. In human beings, the copper/zinc SOD is present during the cytosol, whilst manganese SOD is present while in the mitochondrion.[139] There also exists a third type of SOD in extracellular fluids, which has copper and zinc in its Lively web pages ...
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have recently been implicated in a number of autoimmune conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined the underlying signaling pathways triggering enhanced NETosis in RA and ascertained whether the products of NETosis had diagnostic implications or usefulness. Neutrophils were isolated from RA patients with active disease and from controls. Spontaneous NET formation from RA and control neutrophils was assessed in vitro with microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for NETosis-derived products. The analysis of the signal-transduction cascade included reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil elastase (NE), peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4), and citrullinated histone 3 (citH3). NET formation was studied in response to serum and synovial fluid and immunoglobulin G (IgG) depleted and reconstituted serum. Serum was analyzed for NETosis-derived products, for which receiver operator characteristic (ROC)
In this study, we demonstrated that a modest reduction of neutrophil counts in patients with T1D at onset is accompanied by a marked elevation of protein levels and enzymatic activities of NE and PR3, the two major neutrophil serine proteases. Furthermore, these changes in T1D patients are closely associated with increased neutrophil NETosis, as determined by quantification of MPO-DNA complexes in the circulation. These findings suggest that the reduction of neutrophil counts in T1D patients is partly attributed to augmented NETosis, which in turn leads to increased NET formation and the release of NE and PR3 into the blood stream.. We showed that the amplitude of elevation in circulating NE/PR3 enzymatic activities and NET formation in patients with disease duration of ,1 year is substantially higher than those with disease duration of ,1 year. A significant reduction in neutrophil counts is observed only in T1D patients with a disease duration of ,1 year. Consistent with our findings, a ...
Increasing the extracellular pH over the range pH 7.4-8.9 stimulated protein synthesis by about 60% in the rat heart preparation anterogradely perfused in vitro. Protein degradation was inhibited by this pH increase. The magnitudes of the effects at pH 8.9 on protein synthesis and degradation were similar to those of high concentrations of insulin. Cardiac outputs were increased, as were cardiac phosphocreatine contents, indicating that the alterations in extracellular pH did not adversely affect the physiological viability of the preparation. ATP contents were unaltered. The creatine kinase equilibrium was used to assess the magnitude of the change in intracellular pH induced by these treatments. The increase in intracellular pH was about 0.2 for a 1-unit increase in extracellular pH. Thus small changes in intracellular pH have dramatic effects on cardiac protein turnover. ...
Mucosal surfaces cover a vast area in humans of ∼400 m2, where external influences, like commensal bacteria, food, or inhaled Ags, come into close contact with internal tissues (25). Whereas effective immunological responses against pathogenic micro-organisms must be initiated, disproportionate responses against innocuous Ags must be avoided. As such, a delicate equilibrium is required to maintain mucosal homeostasis. IgA plays an important role in this balance. Whereas SIgA prevents invasion of micro-organisms without inducing prominent inflammatory responses, dIgA can bind to FcαRI and trigger activation of PMNs (3, 9, 10). This is due to the presence of SC in SIgA, which (partly) blocks the binding site for FcαRI. As dIgA lacks SC, it can act as potent opsonin, and previous studies showed that dIgA is equally active in inducing phagocytosis or PMN migration, compared with serum IgA (9, 10). It has been demonstrated that opsonization of E. coli, Streptococcus pneumonia, S. aureus, ...
The resting membrane potential (Vrest) of uterine smooth muscle has been recorded to be between -35 and -80 mV.[1] As with the resting membrane potential of other cell types, it is maintained by a Na+/K+ pump that causes a higher concentration of Na+ ions in the extracellular space than in the intracellular space, and a higher concentration of K+ ions in the intracellular space than in the extracellular space. Subsequently, having K+ channels open to a higher degree than Na+ channels results in an overall efflux of positive ions, resulting in a negative potential.. This resting potential undergoes rhythmic oscillations, which have been termed slow waves, and reflect intrinsic activity of slow wave potentials.[1] These slow waves are caused by changes in the distribution of Ca2+, Na+, K+ and Cl− ions between the intracellular and extracellular spaces, which, in turn, reflects the permeability of the plasma membrane to each of those ions.[1] K+ is the major ion responsible for such changes in ...
Looking for interstitial space? Find out information about interstitial space. A crystal defect in which an atom occupies a position between the regular lattice positions of a crystal. Of, pertaining to, or situated in a space between... Explanation of interstitial space
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Large exopenicillinase, initial extracellular form detected in cultures of Bacillus licheniformis. by K. Izui et al.
Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is an age-related systemic disease that mainly affects the anterior structures of the eye. Despite a worldwide distribution, reported incidence and prevalence of this syndrome vary widely between ethnicities and geographical areas. The exfoliative material is composed mainly of abnormal cross-linked fibrils that accumulate progressively in some organs such as the heart, blood vessels, lungs or meninges, and particularly in the anterior structures of the eye. The exact pathophysiological process still remains unclear but the association of genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role in the development and progressive extracellular accumulation of exfoliative material ...
Intracellular and extracellular accumulation of aggregated protein are linked to many diseases, including ageing-related neurodegeneration and systemic amyloidosis. Cells avoid accumulating potentially toxic aggregates by mechanisms including the suppression of aggregate formation by molecular chape …
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Method of Action. Potassium is principally found within cellular fluids and its counterpart, sodium, is mostly found within the extracellular fluids. The segregation of these two ions occurs by means of an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) driven "pump." The pump consists of two proteins within the cellular membrane which, upon energy release from ATP, transport three sodium molecules to the outside of the cell membrane, while simultaneously bringing in two potassium molecules.. A similar pumping mechanism is used in the transport of glucose from the intestine into the bloodstream. High sodium concentrations in the intestinal fluids tend to promote the movement of sodium across the mucosal cells of the intestine. As sodium is moved across the cells, glucose is concomitantly moved into the cells. The concentration of glucose within the cells builds up until it begins to diffuse into the bloodstream. The "pump" mechanism pumps the sodium into the blood in exchange for potassium, thereby eliminating ...
Body fluids Extracellular fluids (ECF) Interstitial fluid - fills the spaces between most cells of the body Intravascular fluid - plasma (WBC, RBC and platelets in this fluid) Interstitial fluid is 15% of body weight Intravascular fluid is 5% of body weight
3 Answers - Posted in: cellcept, disease, lungs, lung - Answer: I have the same question but no answer. This must be something new that ...
Intracellular and extracellular spaces and the direct quantification of molar intracellular concentrations of phosphorus metabolites in the isolated rat heart using 31P NMR spectroscopy and phosphonate markers
The interstitial space (ISS) can be thought of as an organ of translocation. Defined in this way the concentration of any substance in the ISS is equal to the ratio of an input to a clearance function. When substances accumulate, there is a disturbance of one or both functions. The three phase anatomy of the ISS give it unique properties including a high resistance to bulk flow, normal or even augmented diffusion of small ions, marked restriction to macromolecular transport, and some specificity for binding certain substances. Depositional disease in the interstitium can be approached in terms of minimizing the input function or maximizing the clearance function of the deposited substance. In the near future the clinician will have access to importance physical parameters of the ISS.
combinemattomat_fixeddt.m % A MATLAB script for combining the files saved by running calcsumcurr_manyareagsynmediumtau_parts_fixeddt.py 20 0.025 0.000042 10000 10000 2 myseed 200 % Expects that the variable myseed has been initialized % Tuomo Maki-Marttunen, 2014-2016 synloctype = 2; nsegs = 20; dt = 0.025; tstop = 10000; Nsynlocs = 10000; singleSimT = 200; syngmaxes = [nan 0.000042 nan]; syngmax = syngmaxes(synloctype); Nsims = floor(1.0*tstop/singleSimT+0.9999); Nparts = 13; ina = []; ik = []; ica = []; ih = []; il = []; VtimesA = []; imemb = []; Vsoma = []; icap = []; times = []; dt_int = 0.1; tic for isim=1:Nsims disp([isim= num2str(isim)]); disp([Loading isim= num2str(isim) , myseed= num2str(myseed) , toc= num2str(toc)]); A = load([currsums_parts_ num2str(Nsynlocs) areagsynsmediumtau_fixeddt_type num2str(synloctype) _amp num2str(syngmax) _tstop num2str(tstop) .0_nseg num2str(nsegs) _dt num2str(dt) _seed num2str(myseed) _sim num2str(isim-1) x200.0.mat]); times = ...
An expandable multifunctional instrument for creating a space at an obstructed site in the body includes an elongate member having a distal end for being introduced in the body, a proximal end for being disposed externally of the body and an expandable member for being positioned at the obstructed site. The expandable member is movable at the obstructed site from a non-expanded position to an expanded position to displace anatomical tissue to create a space at the obstructed site for performing various operative procedures. A method of creating a space at an obstructed site includes expanding an expandable member at the obstructed site and/or introducing fluid under pressure at the obstructed site to create a space where normally no space exists.
Post 37 -by Gautam Shah (Blog 7 in lecture series Space and Human Behaviour) . Size and Shape of a space are two independent qualitative factors. A space can have many different shapes irrespective of the size, and so it is an absolute function. The size can manifest in many different forms but remains relative…
Chemists from the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Hawaii, Manoa, showed that conditions in space are capable of creating complex dipeptides - linked pairs of amino acids - that are essential building blocks shared by all living things. The discovery opens the door to the possibility that these molecules were brought to…
QuantumG writes Greg Zsidisin appeared on The Space Show today to ask Where Are The Space Advocates?. For the first time in decades Space is once again a political issue with all four major presidential candidates having something to say about space policy and yet nothing is being heard from space...
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) play an important role in innate immunity to microbial infections. NETs have been described in several species, but the molecular details of NET formation and their role in infection has not been addressed, partly because we lack optimal experimental models. Here we describe tools to investigate NET formation in neutrophils isolated from mice. Upon in vitro stimulation of wild-type mouse neutrophils with PMA, we analyzed 3 important steps in the process of NET formation: reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, NET cell death and NET release. As expected, neutrophils from NADPH oxidase-deficient mice failed to produce ROS and did not die nor release NETs upon stimulation. We found that neutrophils from several mouse strains produced NETs with different efficiency and that NET formation correlated with the amount of ROS produced. Activation with Candida albicans also resulted in ROS production and NET cell death. The hyphal form of this fungus induced NETs ...