TY - JOUR. T1 - Breast cancer cell cyclooxygenase-2 expression alters extracellular matrix structure and function and numbers of cancer associated fibroblasts. AU - Krishnamachary,Balaji. AU - Stasinopoulos,Ioannis. AU - Kakkad,Samata. AU - Penet,Marie France. AU - Jacob,Desmond. AU - Wildes,Flonne. AU - Mironchik,Yelena. AU - Pathak,Arvind P.. AU - Solaiyappan,Meiyappan. AU - Bhujwalla,Zaver M.. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a critically important mediator of inflammation that significantly influences tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. We investigated the role of COX-2 expressed by triple negative breast cancer cells in altering the structure and function of the extracellular matrix (ECM). COX-2 downregulation effects on ECM structure and function were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy of tumors derived from triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, and a derived clone stably expressing a ...
Here we describe extracellular matrix alterations in footpad lesions and draining lymph nodes caused by Leishmania (L.) amazonensis in mouse strains with distinct susceptibilities to this parasite: BALB/c (susceptible), C57BL/6 (intermediate), and DBA/2 (resistant). Changes in ECM were observed mainly in BALB/c mice that, in general, presented tissue damage associated with high parasite burden. Under polarized light, Sirius Red revealed type I collagen that was predominant in the primary lesion in all strains studied at the early phase of infection, but gradually decreased and was replaced by abundant type III collagen fibre in chronic phase lesions. the presence of type III collagen seemed to provide support to inflammatory cells, mainly vacuolated and parasitized macrophages. Laminin expression was not altered during infection by L. (L.) amazonensis in any of the mouse strains studied. Furthermore, the decreased fibronectin expression, in all strains, in areas where amastigotes have been ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in regulation of extracellular matrix organization pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
This chapter introduces the matrix-mechanics formulation of quantum mechanics, emphasizing both calculational techniques and conceptual understanding. Parallels between matrix mechanics and ordinary vectors and matrices are extensively utilized. Starting with the representation of ordinary vectors as rows or columns of numbers, the scalar product is discussed, followed by the transformation of vectors by matrices, as illustrated by rotations. The vector representation of quantumstates, the inner product of two such states, and the matrix representation of operators are then introduced. The simple forms assumed in matrix mechanics by a basis state, and by an operator, when either is written in its eigenbasis, are discussed, as are the specific forms of adjoint, Hermitian, and unitary operators. The chapter concludes with a brief exposition of eigenvalue equations in matrix mechanics.
Read how fascia and extra-cellular matrix (ECM) are crucial for stability and movement. Learn to define the fascial system and ECM.
View Notes - BIO 320 Lec18.2009.notes from BIO 50160 at University of Texas. Lecture 18 Extracellular Matrix: Interactions between Cells and Their Environment Figure 19-3 Molecular Biology of the
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I binds to the ECM protein vitronectin (VN) through IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) to enhance proliferation and migration of skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Although evidence exists for the role of individual components of the complex (IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and VN), the cellular functions stimulated by these proteins together as a complex remains un-investigated in melanoma cells. We report here that the IGF-I:IGFBP-3:VN trimeric complex stimulates a dose-dependent increase in the proliferation and migration of WM35 and Sk-MEL28 melanoma cells. In 3D Matrigel™ and hydrogel cultures, both cell lines formed primary tumor-like spheroids, which increased in size in a dose-dependent manner in response to the trimeric complex. Furthermore, we reveal IGFBP-3:VN protein complexes in malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma patient tissues, where the IGFBP-3:VN complex was seen to be predominantly tumor cell-associated. Peptide antagonists designed to target the ...
Post-Doctoral Fellow, *Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, *Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mt. Sinai Hospital, Toronto, *Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathobiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto ...
We recently showed that differential expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes delineates four subgroups of breast carcinomas (ECM1, -2, -3- and -4) with different clinical outcome. To further investigate the characteristics of ECM signature and its impact on tumor progression, we conducted unsupervised clustering analyses in 6 additional independent datasets of invasive breast tumors from different platforms for a total of 643 samples. Use of four different clustering algorithms identified ECM3 tumors as an independent group in all datasets tested. ECM3 showed a homogeneous gene pattern, consisting of 58 genes encoding 43 structural ECM proteins. From 26 to 41% of the cases were ECM3-enriched, and analysis of datasets relevant to gene expression in neoplastic or corresponding stromal cells showed that both stromal and breast carcinoma cells can coordinately express ECM3 genes. In in vitro experiments, β-estradiol induced ECM3 gene production in ER-positive breast carcinoma cell lines, ...
Purpose: : We previously found that IGF-I, TGF-β, and PDGF, but not FGF-2, stimulate collagen synthesis by keratocytes in culture. We also found that culturing insulin activated keratocytes under a thin layer of agarose increases the processing of procollagen to collagen and increases ECM formation (PMID: 18938157). We now evaluate the ECM formed by keratocytes cultured in these growth factors and under agarose. Methods: : Collagenase-isolated keratocytes from bovine corneas were plated at 40,000 cells/cm2 and then cultured with DMEM/F12 alone, or DMEM/F12 supplemented with either 10ng IGF-I, 2ng TGF-β, 10ng FGF-2, or 10ng PDGF/ml, all with ascorbate. Cultures were overlayed with ~1mm of 3% agarose on day 4 and harvested for analysis on day 12. Keratocytes cell number was determined by measuring DNA content (cyquant assay). Collagen was determined by pepsin digestion, SDS/PAGE, simply blue staining, and by western blots with antibodies to procollagen I and III. ECM morphology was evaluated by ...
Introduction: Changes in ventricular extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy determine clinical outcomes. The effects of MSC transplantation upon ventricular remodeling and determinants of ECM composition in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have not been studied.. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that MSC therapy has beneficial effects upon ventricular remodeling and ECM proteases and tissue inhibitors in a rat model of pressure overload cardiomyopathy.. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats underwent aortic banding and were followed by echocardiography for development of heart failure. After a decrease in fractional shortening of 25% from baseline, intra-coronary randomized injection of 1 x 106 MSC (n=28) or PBS (n=20) was performed. Serial echocardiography was performed to identify reverse remodeling. Left ventricular protein analysis including matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, 3, 6 and 9) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1, 2 and 3) was performed after sacrifice on ...
Limitations associated with demineralised bone matrix and other grafting materials have motivated the development of alternative strategies to enhance the repair of large bone defects. The growth plate (GP) of developing limbs contain a plethora of growth factors and matrix cues which contribute to long bone growth, suggesting that biomaterials derived from its extracellular matrix (ECM) may be uniquely suited to promoting bone regeneration. The goal of this study was to generate porous scaffolds from decellularised GP ECM and to evaluate their ability to enhance host mediated bone regeneration following their implantation into critically-sized rat cranial defects. The scaffolds were first assessed by culturing with primary human macrophages, which demonstrated that decellularisation resulted in reduced IL-1β and IL-8 production. In vitro, GP derived scaffolds were found capable of supporting osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells via either an intramembranous or an endochondral pathway, demonstrating
Cognitive impairment associated with MDD has been well characterized (33-35). This includes deficits in declarative and spatial memory (36, 37), supporting a role for hippocampus-mediated dysfunction and other related (endo)phenotypes, for example, decreased hippocampal volume, in MDD (38). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this association remain to be elucidated. Here, we used a preclinical rat model that induces several long-lasting depressive-like behaviors (11, 12) to investigate the connection between hippocampal pathology and cognitive deficits. Our data indicate a causal relationship between aberrant synaptic CSPG expression, alterations in the number of PNNs, and dysregulation of the hippocampal network that, together, mediate cognitive impairments in our rat model.. Collectively, our data highlight the dorsal hippocampus as a principal mediator of cognitive deficits in the SDPS paradigm. At the behavioral level, SDPS impaired short-term object location memory, as assessed by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential matrix rigidity response in breast cancer cell lines correlates with the tissue tropism. AU - Kostic, Ana. AU - Lynch, Christopher D.. AU - Sheetz, Michael. PY - 2009/7/23. Y1 - 2009/7/23. N2 - Metastasis to a variety of distant organs, such as lung, brain, bone, and liver, is a leading cause of mortality in the breast cancer patients. The tissue tropism of breast cancer metastasis has been recognized and studied extensively, but the cellular processes underlying this phenomenon, remain elusive. Modern technologies have enabled the discovery of a number of the genetic factors determining tissue tropism of malignant cells. However, the effect of these genetic differences on the cell motility and invasiveness is poorly understood. Here, we report that cellular responses to the mechanical rigidity of the extracellular matrix correlate with the rigidity of the target tissue. We tested a series of single cell populations isolated from MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line in ...
Fibrotic cardiac disease, a leading cause of death worldwide, manifests as substantial loss of function following maladaptive tissue remodeling. Fibrosis can affect both the heart valves and the myocardium and is characterized by the activation of fibroblasts and accumulation of extracellular matrix. Valvular interstitial cells and cardiac fibroblasts, the cell types responsible for maintenance of cardiac extracellular matrix, are sensitive to changing mechanical environments, and their ability to sense and respond to mechanical forces determines both normal development and the progression of disease. Recent studies have uncovered specific adhesion proteins and mechano-sensitive signaling pathways that contribute to the progression of fibrosis. Integrins form adhesions with the extracellular matrix, and respond to changes in substrate stiffness and extracellular matrix composition. Cadherins mechanically link neighboring cells and are likely to contribute to fibrotic disease propagation. ...
a cytonaute of molecular size traveling toward a cell, before reaching the plasma membrane, would first need to go through a jungle of stems, branches, rain forest vines, and lianas. In tissues, this messy tangle is the extracellular matrix. Extracellular matrix is a scaffold of proteins and carbohydrates located around the cells that is synthesized by the cells themselves. Some authors duggest that this definition only applies to the insoluble components of the extracellular matrix. Extracellular matrix was invented by multicellular organisms. It was needed to keep cells together by adhesion, and therefore tissues appeared. During evolution, extracellular matrix got many other functions, not just adhesion, such as being responsible for the mechanical properties of most tissues (both in plant and animals), keeping cell morphology, allowing cell communication, setting pathways for cell migration, modulating cell differentiation and physiology, keeping growth factors in some places, and many ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Samantha D Smith, Ruhul H Choudhury, Patricia Matos, James A Horn, Stephen J Lye, Caroline E Dunk, John D Aplin, Rebecca L Jones, Lynda K Harris].
1. Dickstein K, Cohen-Solal A, Filippatos G, McMurray JJ, Ponikowski P, Poole-Wilson PA. et al. ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2008: the Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2008 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association of the ESC (HFA) and endorsed by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM). Eur Heart J. 2008;29:2388-442 2. Graham HK, Horn M, Trafford AW. Extracellular matrix profiles in the progression to heart failure. European Young Physiologists Symposium Keynote Lecture-Bratislava 2007. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2008;194:3-21 3. Yamazaki T, Lee JD, Shimizu H, Uzui H, Ueda T. Circulating matrix metalloproteinase-2 is elevated in patients with congestive heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 2004;6:41-5 4. George J, Patal S, Wexler D, Roth A, Sheps D, Keren G. Circulating matrix metalloproteinase-2 but not matrix metalloproteinase-3, ...
Trappmann, B and Gautrot, JE and Connelly, JT and Strange, DG and Li, Y and Oyen, ML and Cohen Stuart, MA and Boehm, H and Li, B and Vogel, V and Spatz, JP and Watt, FM and Huck, WT (2012) Extracellular-matrix tethering regulates stem-cell fate. Nat Mater, 11. 742-. ISSN 1476-1122. Full text not available from this repository ...
Significant progress has been achieved toward elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie breast cancer progression; yet, much less is known about the associated cellular biophysical traits. To this end, we use time-lapsed confocal microscopy to investigate the interplay among cell motility, three-dimensional (3D) matrix stiffness, matrix architecture, and transforming potential in a mammary epithelial cell (MEC) cancer progression series. We use a well characterized breast cancer progression model where human-derived MCF10A MECs overexpress either ErbB2, 14-3-3ζ, or both ErbB2 and 14-3-3ζ, with empty vector as a control. Cell motility assays showed that MECs overexpressing ErbB2 alone exhibited notably high migration speeds when cultured atop two-dimensional (2D) matrices, while overexpression of 14-3-3ζ alone most suppressed migration atop 2D matrices (as compared to non-transformed MECs). Our results also suggest that co-overexpression of the 14-3-3ζ and ErbB2 proteins facilitates ...
Mathematical Institute, Leiden University, The Netherlands. Title: Stigmergy in blood vessel growth: how indirect mechanical and chemical signaling, via the extra-cellular matrix, can coordinate collective cell behavior. Abstract: Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels sprouting from existing vessel, occurs in several situations like wound healing, tissue remodeling, and near growing tumors. Under hypoxic conditions, tumor cells secrete growth factors, including VEGF. VEGF activates endothelial cells (ECs) in nearby vessels, leading to the migration of ECs out of the vessel and the formation of growing sprouts. A key process in angiogenesis is cellular self-organization, and previous modeling studies have identified mechanisms for producing networks and sprouts. Most theoretical studies of cellular self-organization during angiogenesis have ignored the interactions of ECs with the extra-cellular matrix (ECM), the jelly or hard materials that cells live in. Apart from providing ...
Here researchers employ three-dimensional culture systems for conditional gene targeted primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts that better simulate the reciprocal and adaptive interactions between cells and surrounding matrix, to define the role of Cdc42 signaling pathways in extracellular matrix organization. [J Biol Chem] Abstract ...
Unitary surgical devices (10) are disclosed. One group of the illustrated devices has a pair of biocompatible, bioresorbable anchors (16,18) connected to fixed lengths suture. The anchors (16,18) and fixed length of suture are connected to each other prior to surgery. Another group of unitary surgical devices has a pair of fixating mechanisms (15,17) connected to a base (21) prior to surgery. The second group of illustrated devices generally includes extracellular matrix material either as part of the base (21) or supported on the base (21). The extracellular matrix material serves as tissue regenerating material. In the second group of unitary surgical devices, the fixating mechanisms illustrated generally comprise suture, anchors or pre-formed holes in the base. All of the illustrated unitary surgical devices are useful in repairing a damaged meniscus. The first group of unitary surgical devices can be used to approximate inner surfaces of a tear in the meniscus. The second group of devices can be
Synonyms for Extracellular matrix in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Extracellular matrix. 1 antonym for extracellular: intracellular. What are synonyms for Extracellular matrix?
When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
|h6>Highlights|/h6> |ul> |li>miRNA expression is altered in cancer, often through aberrant methylation |/li> |li>Altered expression of miRNAs that regulate extracellular matrix gene expression is associated with development of metastatic cancer |/li> |li>Novel approaches exploiting miRNA technology will aid in development of new treatments and diagnostic tools|/li> |/ul>
The present invention relates to an apparatus and a method for sealing a puncture in a tubular tissue structure or the wall of a body cavity. More specifically, the present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for sealing a puncture site in the wall of a tubular tissue structure, or in the wall of a body cavity with submucosal tissue or another extracellular or matrix-derived tissue capable of remodeling endogenous connective tissue in vivo. The submucosal tissue or another extracellular matrix-derived tissue is inserted into the puncture site as a sheet on an introducer element such as a needle, a cannula, a guide wire, an introducer element adapted for dialysis, an introducer element adapted for catheterization, a trocar, or any other introducer element used to access the lumen of a tubular tissue structure or used to access a body cavity.
Extracellular matrix provides the microenvironment for the cells and serves as a tissue scaffold, guiding cell migration during embryonic development and wound repair. Beyond that, it also functions as the repository and modulator of growth factors and cytokines, and therefore is responsible for transmitting environmental signals to the cells.. Among proteases, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) family are often associated with ECM degradation and remodeling. The inhibitors of MMPs are called tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), which are comprised of TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TIMP-3, and TIMP-4. The interactions between these proteases and their inhibitors play important roles in cell morphogenesis, angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, tissue repair, tumor metastasis, cirrhosis, and arthritis. The features of the ECM are determined both by the cells that produce the matrix and by the cells growing in it. QIAGENs ...
Aging is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although the impact of aging has been extensively studied, little is known regarding the aging processes in cells of the heart. Here we analyzed the transcriptomes of hearts of 12-week-old and 18-month-old mice by single-nucleus RNA-sequencing. Among all cell types, aged fibroblasts showed most significant differential gene expression, increased RNA dynamics, and network entropy. Aged fibroblasts exhibited significantly changed expression patterns of inflammatory, extracellular matrix organization angiogenesis, and osteogenic genes. Functional analyses indicated deterioration of paracrine signatures between fibroblasts and endothelial cells in old hearts. Aged heart-derived fibroblasts had impaired endothelial cell angiogenesis and autophagy and augmented proinflammatory response. In particular, expression of Serpine1 and Serpine2 were significantly increased and secreted by old fibroblasts to exert antiangiogenic effects on endothelial ...
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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are now acknowledged as key players in the regulation of both cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. They are involved in modifying matrix structure, growth factor availability and the function of cell surface signalling systems, with consequent effects on cellular differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. They play central roles in morphogenesis, wound healing, tissue repair and remodelling in response to injury and in the progression of diseases such as arthritis, cancer and cardiovascular disease. Because of their wide spectrum of activities and expression sites, the elucidation of their potential as drug targets in disease or as important features of the repair process will be dependent upon careful analysis of their role in different cellular locations and at different disease stages. Novel approaches to the specific regulation of individual MMPs in different contexts are also being developed.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are now acknowledged as key players in the regulation of both cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. They are involved in modifying matrix structure, growth factor availability and the function of cell surface signalling systems, with consequent effects on cellular differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. They play central roles in morphogenesis, wound healing, tissue repair and remodelling in response to injury and in the progression of diseases such as arthritis, cancer and cardiovascular disease. Because of their wide spectrum of activities and expression sites, the elucidation of their potential as drug targets in disease or as important features of the repair process will be dependent upon careful analysis of their role in different cellular locations and at different disease stages. Novel approaches to the specific regulation of individual MMPs in different contexts are also being developed.
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease in which endothelial cell (EC) activation leads to leukocyte recruitment into artery walls, followed by formation of plaques containing lipid-laden macrophages and smooth muscle cells.1 Plaques can occlude vessels and cause ischemia, or rupture to cause stroke or myocardial infarction. Whereas systemic risk factors such as hypertension, smoking, and obesity play important roles in atherogenesis, plaques show a predilection for vessel branch points and regions of high curvature, where flow is low and shows a variety of complex patterns that are grouped together under the term disturbed flow.2 These areas show increased EC turnover, altered redox regulation, and upregulation of proinflammatory genes that contribute to atherosclerotic progression.3,4 By contrast, areas of high laminar shear show downregulation of proatherogenic genes and upregulation of atheroprotective genes and are resistant to atherosclerosis.5. In vitro, acute application of laminar ...
NPL scientists have created a functional model of the native extracellular matrix which provides structural support to cells to aid growth and proliferation and could lead to advances in regenerative medicine.
All vascular implants, including stents, heart valves and graft materials exhibit suboptimal biocompatibility that significantly reduces their clinical efficacy. A range of biomolecules in the subendothelial space have been shown to play critical roles in local regulation of thrombosis, endothelial growth and smooth muscle cell proliferation, making these attractive candidates for modulation of vascular device biointegration. However, classically used biomaterial coatings, such as fibronectin and laminin, modulate only one of these components; enhancing endothelial cell attachment, but also activating platelets and triggering thrombosis. This review examines a subset of extracellular matrix molecules that have demonstrated multi-faceted vascular compatibility and accordingly are promising candidates to improve the biointegration of vascular biomaterials.
Understanding biological structures toward nature-inspired design is an important field of research (1-5). Over the past several decades, numerous studies had been carried out to identify the scientific basis for the naturally adaptive growth of biological structures through environmental exposure of biomaterials and continuous optimization of the response of these biomaterials at various geometric length scales to satisfy specific environmental conditions (2, 6-11). A significant advancement has been made in recent years in this field of science, and it has led to important applications in defense and safety, automotive, and architecture (9-11). Several groups of researchers have reported detailed reviews summarizing these advancements (2, 6-12). Most biological materials consist of fascinating structure at micron and submicron scales (2, 6-17). Examples are the organization of nanoscale collagen fibrils in extracellular matrix structures, the two-level hierarchy of open cell structure in ...
In our organism, cells are embedded in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices (ECM) with highly inhomogeneous material properties. To migrate through the ECM, cells deform the ECM in all spatial directions by applying 3D traction forces. Additionally, many cell types can dynamically reinforce the ECM by secreting matrix proteins, or degrade it by secreting proteolytic enzymes. Despite the complexity of these cell-ECM interactions, most in vitro studies performed in the last two decades have measured two-dimensional (2D) traction forces on substrata of constant mechanical properties. Thus, there is a demand for novel assays and analyses that can probe cell-ECM mechanical stress interactions in more realistic cellular environments.. This talk will summarize our recent advances in the development of traction force microscopy (TFM) techniques for 3D ECMs with either constant or spatially varying mechanical properties. We will also illustrate the practical application of these methods to ...
The powder keeps the wound from healing and as a result the body focuses on creating new cells. Its main mechanism has to do with the fact that the body doesnt have to regenerate so much extracellular matrix on its own. Because the wound is covered in extracellular matrix theres an increase of regenerative cells which are able to regrow the tissue. Id like to compare it with a collapsed brick house of which the presence of the steel framework determines whether or not it can be rebuild the way it was.. ...
In the ten-year interval since the first edition of this volume went to press, our knowledge of extracellular matrix (ECM) function and structure has enor- mously increased. Extracellular matrix and c
|p|New generations of devices for tissue engineering (TE) should rationalize better the physical and biochemical cues operating in tandem during native regeneration, in particular at the scale/organizational-level of the stem cell niche. The understanding and the deconstruction of these factors (e.g. multiple cell types exchanging both paracrine and direct signals, structural and chemical arrangement of the extra-cellular matrix, mechanical signals…) should be then incorporated into the design of truly biomimetic biomaterials. ATLAS proposes rather unique toolboxes combining smart biomaterials and cells for the ground-breaking advances of engineering fully time-self-regulated complex 2D and 3D devices, able to adjust the cascade of processes leading to faster high-quality new tissue formation with minimum pre-processing of cells. Versatile biomaterials based on marine-origin macromolecules will be used, namely in the supramolecular assembly of instructive multilayers as nanostratified building
Recent research published in the journal Microsystems & Nanoengineering could eventually change the way people living with prosthetics and spinal cord injury lead their lives. Instead of using neural prosthetic devices -- which suffer from immune-system rejection and are believed to fail due to a material and mechanical mismatch -- a multi-institutional team, including Lohitash Karumbaiah of the University of Georgia, has developed a brain-friendly extracellular matrix environment of neuronal cells that contain very little foreign material.
Macromolecules and the organic matrix - a general model Two-component model Nucleating Functional surface acidic macromolecules Hydrophobic Structural framework cross-linked macromolecules CaCO 3 Ca phosphate soluble/insoluble macromolecules silica HCl/EDTA HNO 3 /HF AspGlu  -Glu SerPSer Acidic macromolecules
For the HN cells additional steps were used, because these cells, which readily adhere to tissue culture plastic and grow processes, apparently secrete large quantities of extracellular matrix material. The fraction containing this material had to be first isolated (because of charge similarities to the peptide of interest) and then separated. This was accomplished with additional chromatography steps and stronger HCl. The H2O2-treated CM (1000-1200 ml) was lyophilized and redissolved in ∼20 ml of Milli-Q water. (For one of the purifications, 500 ml of CM was from cells treated with H2O2, and the other 500 ml was untreated to test for the effect of the peroxide on recovery of the gel bands of interest; see Fig. 1 B and Results.) The samples were dialyzed for 48 hr against three changes of 16 l of 25 mm Tris, pH 7.5, using membranes with a 1 kDa cutoff. Initial separations were via 7-15 runs with a high-load Sepharose-Q column (Pharmacia), at 2 ml/min in the Tris buffer (A) with a 20 min ...
Seul, Judith (2009) Analyse Testican-defizienter Mäuse. [Thesis Abstract]. Thiebach, Lars (2009) Funktionelle Charakterisierung von Transglutaminase 3 und 6 anhand von in vivo und in vitro Modellen. [Thesis Abstract]. Zhao, Yuan (2009) Rho GTPases and extracellular matrix assembly at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface. [Thesis Abstract]. ...
With extracellular matrix (ECM) being part of all our bodys tissues, it is crucial to mimic its properties when developing 3D tissue models in vitro. For this purpose, a variety of 3D matrices are available. Here we describe their use in 3D organ-on-a-chip models.
Matrilins (MATNs) are a family of non-collagenous extra-cellular matrix (ECM) proteins consisting of four known members that have been proposed to…
Domains are the most important functional units in proteins and a significant proportion of PPIs occur through domain-domain interactions (DDI). Evidence accumulated in the last 35 years has shown that domains can spread among proteins in a process called domain shuffling 9, 10. It is generally accepted, at least for eukaryotes, that the recombinations that lead to domain shuffling are mediated by intronic sequences 11-13 through exon shuffling events 14.. Domain shuffling has been identified as one of the major mechanisms leading to the formation of new proteins throughout evolution 11, 12, 15. Bursts of domain shuffling events are clearly associated with the emergence of biological novelty, such as multi-cellularity. Most of the proteins that compose the extra-cellular matrix were built by domain shuffling 15-17. The same is true for cell surface receptors, whose expansion in multi-cellular animals with a more developed nervous system is clearly associated with domain shuffling 18.. A feature ...
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is secreted by cells and surrounds them in tissues. It has long been understood to be the structural support for cells since its characteristics set the characteristics of the tissue (i.e. bone compared to cartilage compared to brain).
Direct measurement of finely patterned mechanical properties in a native basement membrane demonstrate how force asymmetries arising from this extracellular matrix, rather than from cells, can precisely sculpt a tissue.
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