A review of executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Francesco Craig,1 Francesco Margari,2 Anna R Legrottaglie,1 Roberto Palumbi,1 Concetta de Giambattista,1 Lucia Margari1 1Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, 2Psychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy Abstract: Executive dysfunction has been shown to be a promising endophenotype in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article reviewed 26 studies that examined executive function comparing ASD and/or ADHD children. In light of findings from this review, the ASD + ADHD group appears to share impairment in both flexibility and planning with the ASD group, while it shares the response inhibition deficit with the ADHD group. Conversely, deficit in attention, working memory, preparatory processes, fluency, and
Teens with executive function deficits often need an extra nudge to get going. Help them get on the right track without starting a fight.
Eating Disorder research has highlighted the role of neuropsychological functioning, informing the treatment of Anorexia Nervosa. There is ambiguity in the data relating to cognitive impairment in Bulimia Nervosa, with the latest review providing inconclusive results. Executive function impairments in the area of set shifting and inhibition reported in BN are proposed to relate to traits of compulsivity and impulsivity. Other psychological disorders have also demonstrated executive function impairments. Among anxiety disorders, only PTSD and OCD have strong evidence of executive function deficits while a number of studies point towards executive function deficits in depression. This thesis aims to investigate the specificity of cognitive impairments seen in a group of female outpatients with bulimia nervosa, using a clinical comparison group of anxious and/or depressed female outpatients. Methods A systematic review was conducted to address a gap in the anxiety disorder literature and assess the ...
Media multitasking is an ever more popular form of media consumption, in particular among youth. The increasing prevalence of media multitasking is concerning because frequent media multitasking may be negatively related to childrens cognitive control abilities (i.e. executive function). This study investigated the relationship between media multitasking and executive function in 118 early adolescents (aged 11 to 13; 50% girls). The three central components of executive functions (i.e., working memory, shifting, and inhibition) were measured using self-reports on daily-life functioning, as well as experimental tasks (Digit Span, the Dots-Triangles Task, and the Eriksen Flankers Task). Regression analyses revealed that media multitasking significantly predicted self-reported measures of executive function. Adolescents who media multitask more frequently reported having more problems in the three domains of executive function. Media multitasking was however not related to the performance on the ...
This study examined the longitudinal associations of maternal and paternal warmth and hostility with child executive function problems. Data were collected for two consecutive years from 333 kindergarten children who resided in Hong Kong, China, as well as their mothers, fathers, and class teachers. At Time 1, the average age of children was 57.73 months, and 56% of them were girls. At Time 1, mothers and fathers rated their own parenting practices with their children. At Times 1 and 2, class teachers rated childrens problems in three aspects of executive functions, including updating/working memory, inhibition, and shifting/cognitive flexibility. As control variables, at Time 1, parents provided information on child and family demographic factors, and children completed verbal ability tasks. Multilevel modeling revealed that controlling for child and family demographic factors, child verbal abilities, and paternal parenting practices, maternal hostility, but not maternal warmth, was linked to ...
BACKGROUND:Specific domains of adaptive behaviours and academic achievement may, in part, depend on executive function capacities. Executive function deficits have been found to be associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), not Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder (ODD/CD). METHOD:Using a sample of 110 adolescents, comprising four groups, ADHD only, co-morbid ADHD and ODD/CD, ODD/CD only, and a normal community control group, we assessed socialisation and communication skills with the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, along with reading ability, and executive functioning. RESULTS:Poorer adaptive communication skills were specifically associated with ADHD when compared with either ODD/CD or the control group, and the social competence of adolescents with ADHD was as low as the levels associated with ODD/CD. Presence of ADHD was associated with lower word recognition scores, while the reading levels of adolescents with ODD/CD were equivalent to those without ...
This study examined the reliability and validity of the Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT). The EFPT assesses executive function deficits in the performance of real-world tasks. It uses a structured cueing and scoring system to assess higher-level cognitive functions, specifically initiation, organization, sequencing safety and judgment, and task completion. Seventy-three participants with mild to moderate stroke and 22 age- and education-matched controls completed the 4 EFPT tasks (cooking, using the telephone, managing medications, and paying bills). Significant differences were found between participants with mild and moderate stroke and healthy control participants. The EFPT can help occupational therapists determine the level of support needed by people with cognitive impairments to perform complex instrumental tasks. Objective information derived from this assessment is an essential part of the process of determining whether the person can live independently and helping families ...
Currently, 25 states and Washington DC have enacted full medical marijuana (MMJ) programs while 18 states allow limited access to MMJ products. Limited access states permit low (or zero) tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and high cannabidiol (CBD) products to treat specified conditions such as uncontrolled epilepsy. Although MMJ products are derived from the same plant species as recreational MJ, they are often selected for their unique cannabinoid constituents and ratios, not typically sought by recreational users, which may impact neurocognitive outcomes. To date, few studies have investigated the potential impact of MMJ use on cognitive performance, despite a well-documented association between recreational marijuana (MJ) use and executive dysfunction. The current study assessed the impact of 3 months of MMJ treatment on executive function, exploring whether MMJ patients would experience improvement in cognitive functioning, perhaps related to primary symptom alleviation. As part of a larger longitudinal
The results from this approach are jaw-dropping: variance shared among each variety of executive function (inhibition, updating, and shifting) is nearly perfectly heritable: the contribution of the A component to those correlations is 99%. This heritable variance in the common executive function predicts nearly all of the genetic variance in the inhibition factor, consistent with the idea that those constructs are isomorphic from a heritability standpoint. Second, genetic influences on updating and shifting were roughly half due to the common executive function (43% and 44%, respectively) and half due to unique genetic influences (56% and 42%, respectively). Thus, the overall picture is that executive functions, in both their unity and diversity, are somewhere between 86 to 100% heritable ...
The BRIEFA captures views of an adults executive function and self-regulation in everyday environments, through both a self-report and an informant report.. Academic Therapy Publications publishes materials for learning disabilities and special education, tests, assessments, parent and teacher resources, hi lo readers, and visual perceptual aids.
The BRIEF-2 is a set of questionnaires for parents, teachers, and now older students (ages 11-18) designed to evaluate executive function from multiple perspectives.. Academic Therapy Publications publishes materials for learning disabilities and special education, tests, assessments, parent and teacher resources, hi lo readers, and visual perceptual aids.
The relationship between cortical thickness and performance on executive function measures was characterized by a double dissociation between the thickness of cortical regions hypothesized to be involved in executive control and distinct executive processes. Results indicate that fundamentally diffe …
Clearly school is often very difficult for students with attention deficits. However, when executive function deficits are also present, the accompanying problems are often overwhelming to the student and family. Unfortunately, some parents and teachers have had little awareness or sympathy for the challenges presented by these combined deficits. Hopefully, teachers and parents now realize that attention deficit disorder is often a very complex condition….when deficits in executive function and related learning problems are present, students can try their very best and still not succeed in school.. Read more ...
Psychophysiology published research on the effects of acute exercise on executive function in 20 healthy, 8-10, year old children. This study compared the effect of an acute bout of continuous or intermittent, moderate-intensity treadmill exercise on executive function in young children. Participants in the continuous exercise group ran at 90% of gas exchange threshold whereas the participants in the intermittent exercise group performed six consecutive 2.5 min blocks of exercise. The intermittent exercise block was designed to reflect childrens typical activity patterns, comprising 45 s at a heavy intensity, 33 s at a moderate intensity, 10 s at a severe intensity, and 62 s at a low intensity.. Read the Rest of this Abstract on Your Therapy Source. ...
Executive functions (EFs) regulate human behavior and allow individuals to interact and act in the world. EFs are sensitive to sociodemographic variables such as age, which promotes their decline, and to others that can exert a neuroprotective effect. Objective: To assess the predictive role of education, occupation and family income on decline in executive functions among a sample with a wide age range. Methods: A total of 925 participants aged 18-89 years with 1-28 years education were submitted to assessment of executive functions using the Card Sorting Test (CST), Phonemic Verbal Fluency (FAS) Task and Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) Task ...
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Objective: Children with a mental disability show delays of development in several areas, including executive functions. A lack of, or underdeveloped executive functions, can lead to behavioral problems. This study investigates the fitness of a training on an iPad, to improve the executive functions of children with a mental disability. Executive functions are all the cognitive processes that combined lead to efficient, planned behavior. Three executive functions that will be taken into account in this study are: working memory, inhibition and cognitive flexibility. The training used, developed by researchers of the University of Utrecht, consists of several iPad games and an additional non-electronic game. Method: 11 children (4 girls and 7 boys, mean age 5,2) from a health care institution for mentally disabled people, de Twentse Zorgcentra, participated in this study. Before and after training, they were assessed by neuropsychological testing of their executive functions. In addition, an ...
Free, official coding info for 2021 ICD-10-CM I69.114 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM I69.014 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
The largest, but most mysterious, sub-region of prefrontal cortex is the rostral PFC (RPFC). As a proportion of whole-brain volume, some have estimated the human RPFC to be twice as large as the corresponding region in the chimpanzee brain. Yet curiously, patients with damage restricted to the RPFC often perform well on standard neuropsychological tests, including classical tests of executive function such as the Wisconsin card sorting test. Instead, patients with damage to this region seem to have particular difficulty in real-world multitasking situations, such as organising a shopping trip when there are few strict constraints - participants are relatively free to organise their behaviour however they like - but there are also multiple instructions to be remembered, rules to be followed, and potential distractions in the environment. Recent accounts have focused on the role of RPFC in the most high-level human abilities, such as combining two distinct cognitive operations in order to ...
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In a predominantly low-income population-based longitudinal sample of 1,292 children followed from birth, higher level of salivary cortisol assessed at ages 7, 15, and 24 months was uniquely associated with lower executive function ability and to a lesser extent IQ at age 3 years. Measures of positive and negative aspects of parenting and household risk were also uniquely
Change From Baseline in Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version Global Executive Composite T-score (BRIEF-A GEC T) at Week 9, Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF ...
In this longitudinal study, we examined the stability of the association between executive functions and externalizing behavior problems, and the developmental change of executive functions in a predominately clinically diagnosed preschool sample (N = 200). Inhibition and working memory performance were assessed three times in 18 months. Across time, poorer ... read more inhibition performance in young children was associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), and poorer working memory performance was associated with ADHD. Inhibition and working memory performance increased over time, especially in the early preschool period. The improvement of inhibition performance was more pronounced in the clinically diagnosed children compared to the TD children. show less ...
METHODS: Participants included 132 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who sustained a complicated mild to severe TBI within 1 to 6 months before study enrollment. Study design was a multisite, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Study sites included 3 tertiary pediatric hospitals and 2 tertiary general medical centers. The main outcome measure was primary caregiver Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function Global Executive Composite at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Generalized linear models that controlled for baseline scores were used to compare the CAPS and IRC scores. ...
In addition to its role in developing cardiovascular disease and stroke, hypertension is also a risk factor for cognitive impairment [1-5] Although blood pressure tends to decline around the time of onset of clinical cognitive impairment[3], hypertension leads to accelerated decline in those with cognitive impairment or dementia[6, 7] Of all the cognitive domains, executive function is more vulnerable to the effects of hypertension [8-10] Executive function is defined as the set of cognitive skills that are responsible for the planning, initiation, sequencing, and monitoring of complex goal-directed behavior[11] Seniors suffering from executive dysfunction have significant impairment in following medical advise [12] and are more likely to develop disability[13, 14] It is estimated that close to 30% of the elderly population have executive function abnormalities and are generally undetected[15, 16] No prior research has evaluated the effect of hypertension treatment on executive function or ...
Objective: The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NTCB) is a brief computerized method for evaluating neuropsychological functions in children, adolescents, and adults. We examined how performance on the 2 executive function measures of cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control was related to perform
Deficits in executive function correlate with the symptomatology of adult ADHD. Participate in this activity to understand the role of executive function in ADHD and learn which symptoms and characteristics can differentiate adult ADHD from other disorders.
This study used the attention network test (ANT) to evaluate the alerting, orienting, and executive network efficiencies of attention related to indigenous residents who were born and raised until early adulthood in different high-altitude areas (2900-m, 3700-m, and 4200-m) at the same location (3700-m) where these residents had been living for approximately 2 years in Tibet. We further applied the event-related potential (ERP) method to identify the underlying neurophysiological basis. Based on the ANT, we found that, in the 4200-m residents, executive function was increased but the orienting function was decreased, and the executive and orienting network scores were oppositely correlated ...
Choose D-REF Delis-Rating of Executive Function for a quick measure of an individuals behaviors related to executive function difficulties.
The BlueSteps Career Management Blog is written with a C-level audience in mind on career management topics ranging from executive compensation, executive resumes, and interview tips to networking, executive job search, and gaining visibility as a professional in ones industry.. The BlueSteps Executive Search Blog links senior executive candidates to actual retained search recruitment insights from AESC member executive recruiters, BlueSteps career advisors and other guest writers.. BlueSteps is an exclusive service of the Association of Executive Search and Leadership Consultants, the voice of excellence for executive search and leadership consultants worldwide. Confidentiality is a cornerstone of AESCs mission, and only AESC member firms and consultants have access to BlueSteps members resume info. Click here to learn more about the additional benefits of becoming a BlueSteps member. ...
A Comprehensive List Of Obamas Worst Executive Orders. JUNE 15, 2012 BY LAURIE ROTH. There have been over 900 Executive Orders put forth from Obama, and he is not even through his first term yet. He is creating a martial law Disney Land of control covering everything imaginable. Some of the executive orders he has signed recently have been exposed thanks to Friends of Conservative Action Alerts. They have compiled a choice list of Emergency Powers, Martial law executive orders: Get your headache medication out while you still can without a prescription.. [EET ]. * Executive Order 10990 allows the Government to take over all modes of transportation and control of highways and seaports.. * Executive Order 10995 allows the government to seize and control the communication media.. * Executive Order 10997 allows the government to take over all electrical power, gas, petroleum, fuels, and minerals.. * Executive Order 11000 allows the government to mobilize civilians into work brigades under ...
Executive processes, that is high-level cognitive functions involved in control and direction of action, including planning, monitoring, initiating, and switching, have been described by Lezak as being the heart of all socially useful, personally enhancing, constructive and creative activities[1]. Thus, impairments of executive function can have the most devastating impact on everyday life because of their super ordinate role in behavioural and cognitive processing[2]. Considerable attention has been directed at developing and testing interventions to manage these impairments; in the past six years, four systematic reviews and one meta-analysis related to treatment for executive dysfunction have been published[3]-[6].. The majority of studies in this area use some form of problem-solving or metacognitive strategy instruction. Meta-cognitive strategy instruction has roots in cognitive-, educational- and neuro-psychology[7]-[9]. Luria, in his seminal work, was perhaps the first to hypothesize ...
Two studies have tested the moderators between acute exercise and executive function gains. In study 1, 60 participants were assigned to 2 groups and performed a handgrip squeezing task at 30% of their maximal voluntary contraction or a stepping task to the cadence of a metronome. Rate of perceived exertions (RPE) and heart rate were measured at 30 s intervals. Trail-making test (TMT) was administered prior to task performance, following RPE = 6 and RPE = 9. In study 2, 83 participants were assigned to 1 of 5 groups. They performed either a handgrip squeezing task or a stepping task up to RPE = 6 or RPE = 9. Participants in the control group have not been engaged in any exercise tasks. Measures of executive function were administered at rest, immediately following exercise tasks, and after 15 min delay. Results from study 1 revealed that both the handgrip squeezing and stepping tasks improved TMT scores after RPE = 9 (p , .001). In study 2, executive function scores improved following the ...
The purpose of this study was to test the transient hypofrontality theory (Dietrich, 2003) by examining the influence of exercise intensity on executive control processes during and following submaximal exercise. Thirty participants (13 female) exercised for 30 min at ventilatory threshold (VT) or at 75% of VT. The Contingent Continuous Performance Task (CPT) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were used as measures of executive control. They were administered before, during, immediately following, and 20 min after exercise. An increase in false alarms and unique errors (p ≤ .05) occurred during both conditions. False alarms for the CPT and total and perseverative errors for the WCST remained elevated immediately following exercise at VT, but not at exercise below VT (p ≤ .01). The decreased executive control function during exercise can be explained by the transient hypofrontality theory. Following VT, executive control performance remained poor possibly owing to an additional amount of ...
Parents or legal guardians complete the PedsQL-MFS, the Conners Parent Reported Scale (CPR-3), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) at baseline and after completion of study therapy.. Clinical and/or research staff administer the Systematic Assessment for Treatment Emergency Events (SAFTEE), a semi-structured interview designed to elicit adverse events, at baseline and periodically during study.. After completion of study therapy, participants are followed up for 30 days. ...
Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function... PDF On Aug 21, 2015, Nolwenn Poquet and others published The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship between baseline brain metabolism measured using [18F]FDG PET and memory and executive function in prodromal and early Alzheimers disease. AU - Habeck, Christian. AU - Risacher, Shannon. AU - Lee, Grace J.. AU - Glymour, M. Maria. AU - Mormino, Elizabeth. AU - Mukherjee, Shubhabrata. AU - Kim, Sungeun. AU - Nho, Kwangsik. AU - DeCarli, Charles. AU - Saykin, Andrew J.. AU - Crane, Paul K.. PY - 2012/11/26. Y1 - 2012/11/26. N2 - Differences in brain metabolism as measured by FDG-PET in prodromal and early Alzheimers disease (AD) have been consistently observed, with a characteristic parietotemporal hypometabolic pattern. However, exploration of brain metabolic correlates of more nuanced measures of cognitive function has been rare, particularly in larger samples. We analyzed the relationship between resting brain metabolism and memory and executive functioning within diagnostic group on a voxel-wise basis in 86 people with AD, 185 people with mild cognitive ...
Few people have heard of executive dysfunction. but is part of many mental illnesses. Learn about executive dysfunction and its impact on relationships.
José Luis Ivorra, Olga Rivero, Javier Costas, Raquel Iniesta, Manuel Arrojo, Ramón Ramos-Ríos, Ángel Carracedo, Tomas Palomo, Roberto Rodriguez-Jimenez, Jorge Cervilla, Blanca Gutiérrez, Esther Molina, Celso Arango, Mar Álvarez, Juan C. Pascual, Víctor Pérez, Pilar Alejandra Saiz, María Paz García-Portilla, Julio Bobes, Ana González-Pinto, Iñaki Zorrilla, Josep María Haro, Miguel Bernardo, Enrique Baca-García, José Carlos González, Janet Hoenicka, María Dolores Moltó, Julio Sanjuán, Replication of previous genome-wide association studies of psychiatric diseases in a large schizophrenia case-control sample from Spain, Schizophrenia Research, 2014, 159, 1, ...
its going to be a line, its not going be a report on the GCS, its going to say GCS 9. And you got to look for it. So if you dont know to look for it, youll never ask for it. So when it comes in ...
Objective: Using a population-based sample of 9-year-old children, this study examined whether the relation between symptoms of ADHD and executive functions (EFs) depended on socioeconomic status (SES; indexed by parental education). Method: Parents and teachers rated the childrens ADHD symptoms, and parents also indicated their educational level in a questionnaire. The children performed a comprehensive set of EF tasks. Results: Whereas working memory was similarly related to ADHD symptoms in the lower and higher parental education group, the relations of inhibition and mental set-shifting with ADHD symptoms were generally stronger in the higher educational group, a pattern that was supported by several significant group differences in correlations. Conclusion: This suggests that the EF pathway in contemporary multiple pathway models of ADHD etiology may be particularly relevant in higher SES parts of the population.. ...
Facility Executive is your one-stop source for information on quality operation, design and maintenance of facilities. Facility Executive offers a shared community of facility management experts who explore and analyze issues that affect your facility and its environment.. Facility Executive is a specialized trade publication written and edited for corporate facility executives in all industry and service sectors whose responsibilities include purchasing, planning and approving products, services and materials for facility operations.. This Web site is brought to you by Group C Media, Inc., publishers of Business Facilities and Facility Executive; and producers of both the Facility Executive Live! Conference & Business Facilities LiveXchange - The Premier Event for Corporate Site Selectors. ...
Executive defense provides executives with the tools to avoid and survive a kidnap attempt using brutally simple and easy effective techniques. The aim of executive defense is usually to escape, not to fight the kidnappers. The ideal strategy to executive defense is to learn how kidnap situations develop as well as to avoid them. If, however, the kidnap situation is unavoidable, then using simple physical techniques will provide you with the advantage required to escape. Proficiency during these techniques enables increased safety by disabling a kidnapper for a couple seconds to make an escape with an established safe haven. If this becomes necessary, why wait? An improved chance for escape may never come; a strategy quickly executed now is better than the perfect plan next week.. If prevention fails, the normal logic is that if attacked, escape. Of course, if trapped, stay alive. Use only executive defense for self-defense. Attack the eyes, nose groin or throat. Make an effort to memorize ...
Facility Executive is your one-stop source for information on quality operation, design and maintenance of facilities. Facility Executive offers a shared community of facility management experts who explore and analyze issues that affect your facility and its environment.. Facility Executive is a specialized trade publication written and edited for corporate facility executives in all industry and service sectors whose responsibilities include purchasing, planning and approving products, services and materials for facility operations.. This Web site is brought to you by Group C Media, Inc., publishers of Business Facilities and Facility Executive; and producers of both the Facility Executive Live! Conference & Business Facilities LiveXchange - The Premier Event for Corporate Site Selectors. ...
Looking for online definition of executive function in the Medical Dictionary? executive function explanation free. What is executive function? Meaning of executive function medical term. What does executive function mean?
We report on the case of middle-aged right-handed woman with central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) revealed by high resolution structural T2-weighted FLAIR MRI imaging. There was a general flattening of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition subtest scores which were 1 standard deviation below expected values. In contrast Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition visual and auditory memory scores remained within the normal range. Verbal working memory appeared mildly impaired while nonverbal working memory was not. Scores on the Advanced Clinical Solutions Social Perception battery were all in the normal range as were academic skills measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test-Fourth Edition. Performance was impaired on the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function Systems counterpart of the Trail-Making Test: Part B. Similarly, on the Draw-A-Person Test there was a discrepancy in that our patients standard score was 76 compared to her estimated premorbid FSIQ in the average range. She also displayed
Executive function declines with age, but engaging in aerobic exercise may attenuate decline. One mechanism by which aerobic exercise may preserve executive function is through the up-regulation of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), which also declines with age. The present study examined BDNF as a mediator of the effects of a 1-year walking intervention on executive function in 90 older adults (mean age = 66.82). Participants were randomized to a stretching and toning control group or a moderate intensity walking intervention group. BDNF serum levels and performance on a task-switching paradigm were collected at baseline and follow-up. We found that age moderated the effect of intervention group on changes in BDNF levels, with those in the highest age quartile showing the greatest increase in BDNF after 1-year of moderate intensity walking exercise (p = .036). The mediation analyses revealed that BDNF mediated the effect of the intervention on task-switch accuracy, but did so as a function of
Authors declare no conflict of interest.. References. Anderson, V. A., Anderson, P., Northam, E., Jacobs, R., & Catroppa, C. (2001). Development of executive functions through late childhood and adolescence in an Australian sample. Developmental neuropsychology, 20(1), 385-406.. Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological bulletin, 121(1), 65-94.. Blakemore, S.-J., & Mills, K. L. (2014). Is adolescence a sensitive period for sociocultural processing? Annual review of psychology, 65, 187-207.. Blakemore, S. J., & Choudhury, S. (2006). Development of the adolescent brain: implications for executive function and social cognition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(3‐4), 296-312.. Boyer, B. E., Geurts, H. M., Prins, P. J., & Van der Oord, S. (2015). Two novel CBTs for adolescents with ADHD: the value of planning skills. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(9), 1075-1090.. Bruhn, ...
Background/Aim: Developmental neurotoxicity of fluoride has been demonstrated in animal studies. Additionally, fluoride exposure during prenatal development, infancy, middle-to-late childhood and adolescence has been associated with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes among children in Mexico and/or Canada. However, potential impacts of chronic low-level fluoride exposure in early childhood on brain structure and neurodevelopment remain relatively unexamined. We conducted the first United States (US) study to examine associations of early childhood urinary fluoride levels with measures of attention and executive function, as well as changes in white matter (WM) microstructure in the brain.. Methods: This community-based sample included 31 children ages 4-6-years recruited from New York City. Executive function was assessed with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and attention and behavior were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We assessed whole brain WM ...
The present study assessed absolute (e.g., CoV) and relative (e.g., ICC) between-day variability of executive function (i.e., Eriksen-Flanker-test, Stroop-Color-test, Digit-Span and Five-Point-test) before and after a single bout of moderately intense aerobic cycling exercise (30 min at 70% of the heart rate reserve). The study was applied to healthy and active seniors using a three-day (habituation day, first day, second day) repeated measures design.. First, we found notable between-day habituation (from 1st to 2nd day) mainly for some time-dependent measures obtained from the Eriksen-Flanker-, Stroop-Color as well as completed figures in the Five-Point test at both pre and post testing. This is not surprising from a general viewpoint of between-day-learning. However, our testing and training session were interspersed by 7 days. Thus, also longer during between-trial breaks of up to 7 days should account for habituation effects. As these habituation effects became smaller from day 2 to day 3, ...
Research indicates that executive functioning is a multidimensional construct in school-age children (Korkman, Kemp, & Kirk, 2001; Welsh & Pennington, 1988). Executive dysfunction is primarily associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; Barkley, 2003). This association is because of a `core deficit in inhibitory control found in ADHD-Combined Type (ADHD-C; Barkley, 1997); however, inhibitory control is only one component of executive functioning. Children with dyslexia are thought to demonstrate a `core deficit in phonological awareness (Wagner & Torgesen, 1987). However, little consideration is given to the potential executive deficits that may exist in children with dyslexia. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to test for convergent and divergent executive functioning deficits in 8-to 12-year-old children with ADHD or dyslexia using a comprehensive battery of executive measures. On neuropsychological measures when intelligence (IQ) was used as a covariate, the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hot and cool executive function and body mass index in young children. AU - Beck, Danielle M.. AU - Eales, Lauren. AU - Carlson, Stephanie M.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the U.S. National Institutes of Health [ RO1HD051495 ] to SMC. Publisher Copyright: © 2020 Elsevier Inc. Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2020/4/1. Y1 - 2020/4/1. N2 - There is a need in the literature to investigate the cognitive components that play a role in obesity, particularly in early childhood. The current study investigated executive function (EF) in healthy-weight (n = 63) and overweight/obese (n = 20) 4- to 5-year-old children. No significant correlations were found between childrens body mass index (BMI) and cool (non-reward based) EF. However, a significant interaction demonstrated that children who were overweight/obese made more delayed/larger food choices for themselves than healthy-weight children but made similar choices for others ...
To determine if patients with extracranial carotid stenosis have improved blood flow and cognitive function following carotid revascularization.
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent conditions among school children. Executive function deficits representing difficulties in maintaining an appropriate problem set for the attainment of future goals are reported to be the major deficit in ADHD populations. There is a high rate of co-morbidity of learning disabilities and ADHD, with empirical evidence indicating an association with math and reading difficulties, but there is little research on the written expression of this population. There is a body of emergent research indicating that written expression is mediated by executive function. Written expression is a complex task that is affected by motivation, working memory, cognitive processes and long term memory, factors which are reported to be compromised in ADHD populations. This study evaluated the working memory and fluid reasoning in children with (combined and predominantly inattentive types) and without ADHD. Second, it explored the ...
The Luria Neuroscience Institute is pleased to introduce the webinar Executive Functions and Frontal Lobes in Health and Disease. Executive functions represent the highest level of cognitive control and involve goal formation, planning, mental flexibility, impulse control, working memory. Executive functions are mediated by the prefrontal cortex and related structures. In this webinar we will examine their cognitive composition, neural mechanisms, changes throughout the lifespan, and gender differences. We will also examine how executive functions become impaired in a wide range of neurological, neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental, and neurogeriatric disorders ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A topography of executive functions and their interactions revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. AU - Fassbender, Catherine. AU - Murphy, K.. AU - Foxe, J. J.. AU - Wylie, G. R.. AU - Javitt, D. C.. AU - Robertson, I. H.. AU - Garavan, H.. PY - 2004/7/1. Y1 - 2004/7/1. N2 - We used fMRI to study the brain processes involved in the executive control of behavior. The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART), which allows unpredictable and predictable NOGO events to be contrasted, was imaged using a mixed (block and event-related) fMRI design to examine tonic and phasic processes involved in response inhibition, error detection, conflict monitoring and sustained attention. A network of regions, including right ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC), left dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) and right inferior parietal cortex, was activated for successful unpredictable inhibitions, while rostral anterior cingulate was implicated in error processing and the pre-SMA in conflict ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Childhood Executive Functioning Predicts Young Adult Outcomes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome. AU - Albert, Avery B.. AU - Abu-Ramadan, Tamara. AU - Kates, Wendy R.. AU - Fremont, Wanda. AU - Antshel, Kevin M.. PY - 2018/10/1. Y1 - 2018/10/1. N2 - Objective: While individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at increased risk for a variety of functional impairments and psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, not all individuals with 22q11DS experience negative outcomes. Efforts to further understand which childhood variables best predict adult functional outcomes are needed, especially those that investigate childhood executive functioning abilities. Methods: This longitudinal study followed 63 individuals with 22q11DS and 43 control participants over 9 years. Childhood executive functioning ability was assessed using both rater-based and performance-based measures and tested as predictors of young adult outcomes. Results: Childhood global executive functioning ...
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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder is one of the most prevalent developmental disorders in childhood and adolescents. Individuals with ADHD is found to be at risk for social and academic impairments. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between Executive Functions (EF) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in preschool-aged children. Deficits in EFs are currently considered to represent an important weakness in this clinical group. To extend our knowledge about the relative contribution such functions have for the development of ADHD, it is essential to investigate whether this association is detectable during the preschool-years. More knowledge about the early signs and symptoms of ADHD can contribute to early detection of children at risk for developing the disorder and intervention procedures can be implemented to limit the associated negative life outcomes ...
Our latest paper entitled Investigating the impact of a musical intervention on preschool childrens executive function is now available in the open-access journal Frontiers in Psychology - you can read the paper here.. We conducted the research with the UCL Institute of Education and arts charity Creative Futures to investigate the effect of weekly musicianship training on the executive function abilities of 3-to-4-year-old children at a London preschool. The findings from the study contribute to current debates about the potential cognitive benefit of musical interventions, including important issues regarding intervention duration, experimental design, target age groups, executive function testing, and task novelty - all of which we discuss in the paper. You can read more about the study on our Projects page!. ...
From a recent article: Is It Executive Function Disorder (EFD) or ADHD? Children and adults with executive function disorder (EFD) have problems with organizing and schedules. They may also have ADHD and/or learning disabilities, but not always - its a common misdiagnosis for those who are actually living with EFD. This is new hot topic.…
From a recent article: Is It Executive Function Disorder (EFD) or ADHD? Children and adults with executive function disorder (EFD) have problems with organizing and schedules. They may also have ADHD and/or learning disabilities, but not always - its a common misdiagnosis for those who are actually living with EFD. This is new hot topic.…
Despite executives important positions in organizations, their attitute have not received much research attention. In an attempt to remedy this deficiency, the present study tested a hypothesized model of executive attitudes involving job satisfaction, life satisfaction, job stress, and work-family conflict. Using data gathered from a large, representative sample of male executives (due to the small number of female executives in the study, the analyses were confined to males only), LISREL results indicated support for the overall model and the specific relationships within the model. These results are the first to simultaneously consider job and life satisfaction, job stress, and work-family conflict, and also constitute the most comprehensive evidence to date on executive attitudes. The meaning and contributions of the findings are discussed ...
Mounting evidence indicates that regular engagement in aerobic exercise improves executive functioning and cerebrovascular health in older adulthood. Recent evidence also points toward some similar benefits in young adults, despite presumed optimal brain health in that population. The present study sought to clarify which specific cognitive functions are linked to regular exercise in young adults (18-30 years), and to gain insight into the possible mechanisms underlying such links. To this end, the current study examined performance on a wide variety of executive function tasks in relation to aerobic fitness, self-reported habitual physical activity, and cerebrovascular health (as measured by resting cerebral blood flow, which was indexed by blood flow velocity through the middle cerebral artery; and cerebrovascular reactivity to carbon dioxide - the most potent regulatory stimulus of the cerebrovasculature). Multiple regression analyses revealed that more frequent physical activity, but not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The measurement of executive function in early childhood. AU - Blair, Clancy. AU - Zelazo, Philip David. AU - Greenberg, Mark T.. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=25444503227&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=25444503227&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1207/s15326942dn2802_1. DO - 10.1207/s15326942dn2802_1. M3 - Article. C2 - 16144427. AN - SCOPUS:25444503227. VL - 28. SP - 561. EP - 571. JO - Developmental Neuropsychology. JF - Developmental Neuropsychology. SN - 8756-5641. IS - 2. ER - ...
Simple classroom strategies can assist students with deficits in executive function skills like time management and active listening.
As long as governmental institutions have existed, efforts have been undertaken to reform them. This research examines a particular strategy, coercive controls, exercised through a particular instrument, executive orders, by a singular reformer, the president of the United States. The presidents studied- Johnson, Nixon, Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton-are those whose campaigns for office were characterized to varying degrees as against Washington bureaucracy and for executive reform. Executive order issuance is assessed through an examination of key factors for each president including political party affiliation, levels of political capital, and legislative experience. A classification typology is used to identify the topical dimensions and levels of coerciveness. The portrayal of the federal government is analyzed through examination of public, media, and presidential attention. The results show that executive orders are significant management tools for the president. Executive orders also
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Vladimir Putin signed Executive Order On Amendments to Executive Order of the President of the Russian Federation No. 21 of January 21, 2020 On the Structure of Federal Executive Bodies and to the structure of federal executive bodies approved by that Executive Order.
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Nominate a Loaned Executive. An immersive leadership program, United Ways Loaned Executive Program is designed to be a rewarding opportunity for your organization, employees, United Way and, most importantly, our community. United Way calls on you, our corporate parters, to lend your best and brightest employees this year to help in all aspects of community engagement while they gain experience in project management, communication, public speaking, professional networking, relationship building and corporate social responsibility impact. Loaned Executives (LEs) assist United Way in fundraising, engaging volunteers and event planning. In return, United Way provides ongoing professional development that focuses directly on executive skill building.. ...
Over the last couple of decades, several studies have found a link between bilingualism and improved performance on tasks measuring the core executive functions inhibition, shifting, and updating. However, results are inconsistent, and the existence of this proposed bilingual advantage is highly debated. This thesis investigates the hypothesis that bilingualism could be one of the contributors to the enhancement of executive functions (EF). The primary focus is the exploration of bilingualism as a continuum over two axes: use and proficiency, and further, to test whether L2 use is a better predictor of EF abilities than L2 proficiency. The data for this study comes from 82 Norwegian academics of similar age and socio-economic status, but who are differing in degree of bilingualism. Correlation and linear regression models were used to compare their performance on tasks measuring shifting (the trail-making task and the plus-minus task) and inhibition (two Stroop tasks and a Flanker task), as well ...
Study Purpose: The study was designed to elucidate underlying neuropsychological and emotional regulatory mechanisms in variable responses to a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program among prison inmates. The purpose of this project was to assess (1) the role of neuropsychological and emotional deficits in behavioral problems and misconduct among inmates, (2) the usefulness of neuropsychological and emotional regulatory measures in characterizing recalcitrant and unresponsive inmates, and (3) the ability of these measures to predict treatment response in prison. Study Design: This study tested the hypotheses that performance deficits in executive cognitive function (ECF) tasks and emotional responses will characterize aggressive and disruptive inmates and predict treatment response. All subjects were examined using noninvasive behavioral, psychological, ECF, and hormone tests. Adjustments were made for age in all analyses.. The data contain a total of 232 cases. Inmates volunteering to ...
Study Purpose: The study was designed to elucidate underlying neuropsychological and emotional regulatory mechanisms in variable responses to a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program among prison inmates. The purpose of this project was to assess (1) the role of neuropsychological and emotional deficits in behavioral problems and misconduct among inmates, (2) the usefulness of neuropsychological and emotional regulatory measures in characterizing recalcitrant and unresponsive inmates, and (3) the ability of these measures to predict treatment response in prison. Study Design: This study tested the hypotheses that performance deficits in executive cognitive function (ECF) tasks and emotional responses will characterize aggressive and disruptive inmates and predict treatment response. All subjects were examined using noninvasive behavioral, psychological, ECF, and hormone tests. Adjustments were made for age in all analyses.. The data contain a total of 232 cases. Inmates volunteering to ...
Persons with intellectual disability have been found to perform more poorly on tasks, demanding the use of executive functions like planning, than their peers. This study investigated difficulties with planning, and how problems with planning ability can be supported by using cognitive artifacts to help performance on activities in everyday life, for adolescents with intellectual disability. The approach taken is one of situated cognition, where the natural environment plays a big role, to see if the same difficulties arise as results from traditional research has shown. The traditional view focuses a lot on executive functions, and experimental studies in controlled settings and often suggests interventions and practice of certain functions to get better abilities. Another way is to focus on the use of cognitive artifact, to support problematic abilities, and to get a well-rounded understanding of how the problems actually appear in everyday life, the alternative view of situated cognition is a ...
BECKERT, Michele; IRIGARAY, Tatiana Quarti and TRENTINI, Clarissa Marceli. Quality of life, cognition and performance of executive functions in the elderly. Estud. psicol. (Campinas) [online]. 2012, vol.29, n.2, pp.155-162. ISSN 1982-0275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-166X2012000200001.. The relationship between quality of life and cognitive function in the elderly has been neglected by research. The aim of this study was to examine the association between quality of life, cognition and the performance of executive functions in elderly people. Eighty eight elderly people participated in the study and the convenience sampling method was used. All the participants answered questions on socio-demographic conditions, quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Group-Bref), cognitive function (MiniMental State Examination and Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Instrument) and executive functions (Wisconsin Card Sort Test). The data retrieved showed an important association between ...
By offering a direct comparison between the three major EF, these results showed that alcohol-related executive deficits extend beyond the classically described inhibition impairment. This impairment encompasses each EF subcomponent, as ALC actually presented stronger deficits for updating and shift …
Executive functioning is made up of a broad range of capabilities including the ability to pay attention, the ability to transfer ones attention from one thing to another, the ability to hold information in ones working memory, and planning. People who suffer from anxiety and depression often have problems with their ability to concentrate and inhibit their impulses making some scientists think that they have problems with their executive functioning. However, it is not known whether these problems with executive functioning come before or after the onset of anxiety or depression i.e. whether they are a cause or a symptom of mental-health problems. Researchers from the Massachusetts General Hospital studied 147 children. Some of their parents had depression, others had anxiety and the rest formed an unaffected control group. The idea was that any genetic tendency towards poorer executive functioning in people at risk from depression and anxiety would be reflected in children whose parents ...
Brain Injury Services, a community-based nonprofit headquartered in Springfield, VA, has selected Denise Hyater-Lindenmuth as the new Executive Director to replace outgoing Executive Director Karen Brown. Ms. Brown has served as Executive Director since 1999 having previously served as the Director of Programs since 1996. This will be the third Executive Director selected to serve in the last 28 years since the organizations inception. The Chair of Brain Injury Services Board of Directors Rick Ferraro stated, The warm and effective working relationship that I have watched quickly blossom between Denise and Karen and the whole BIS team shows that this will be a smooth transition of leadership.. ...
Case Study: Executive in a Fortune 100 Company. After selling his business to a tech giant and joining their team as a senior executive,. the client wanted to make his presence felt immediately. Goals: To help the client become a dominant force in his company. He transitioned from being the chief decision maker in his business to being just one of hundreds of senior executives in the new firm.. Actions: Rewrote the executives profile to clearly communicate his achievements and value, posted timely content to position him at the cutting edge of his specialty, expanded his network of influential contacts, engaged directly with his V.I.P. connections, and initiated insightful professional discussions.. Results: A 15% spike in connections in his already massive professional network, a substantial increase in recognition within his company and industry, and a smooth transition to his new leadership role. Combining LinkedIn with an integrated Twitter program, we achieved the clients goal of being a ...
Macquarie Universitys Executive is the principal decision-making body for all significant matters of University strategy, management, administration and related policy. The Executive are bound by the Executive Group Charter. Individual Executive members are responsible for specific portfolios, as described in the Macquarie University organisation chart.
Statement by National School Boards Association Executive Director & CEO on Presidents Executive Order Alexandria, Va., (April 26, 2017) - NSBA Executive Director & CEO Thomas J. Gentzel today released the following statement in response to President Donald Trumps executive order
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