Looking for online definition of chemical evolution in the Medical Dictionary? chemical evolution explanation free. What is chemical evolution? Meaning of chemical evolution medical term. What does chemical evolution mean?
Science Assignment Help, Chemical evolution of spontaneous generation, Chemical Evolution The question of how life came into being in the first place still remained unanswered. To find an answer to this question means looking back billions of years in time and trying to imagine what the conditions on the earth co
Chemical Evolution. Carbohydrates and Lipids. Biochemistry. Systematic study of the molecular nature of life processes: the chemicals that make up of living systems (biochemicals), their organization into cells, and their chemical interactions Biochemicals have no life in themselves...
4.2. The Halo The Galactic halo does not appear to suffer from a severe G-dwarf problem (Laird et al 1988, Pagel 1989, Beers et al 1992). The halo metallicity ranges from -4 dex to just below the solar value, with a mean of ~ -1.6 (Laird et al 1988, Hartwick 1976), Hartwick (1976) noted that this low metallicity suggested that either the halo yield was much lower than in the disk or that gas was removed from halo star formation (e.g. Ostriker & Thuan 1975). The favored model is that the halo lost its gas before chemical evolution could go to completion. Carney et al (1990), Wyse & Gilmore (1992) suggested that the missing spheroid mass fell to the center of the Galaxy and contributed most of the bulge mass, based on angular momentum considerations. Whether or not there is a minimum metallicity level, below which stars do not exist, has been debated for at least 20 years. Hartquist & Cameron (1977) predicted that there was an era of "pregalactic nucleosynthesis" by very massive zero metallicity ...
1] We use observations from two aircraft during the ICARTT campaign over the eastern United States and North Atlantic during summer 2004, interpreted with a global 3-D model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem) to test current understanding of regional sources, chemical evolution, and export of NOx. The boundary layer NOx data provide top-down verification of a 50% decrease in power plant and industry NOx emissions over the eastern United States between 1999 and 2004. Observed NOx concentrations at 8-12 km altitude were 0.55 ± 0.36 ppbv, much larger than in previous U.S. aircraft campaigns (ELCHEM, SUCCESS, SONEX) though consistent with data from the NOXAR program aboard commercial aircraft. We show that regional lightning is the dominant source of this upper tropospheric NOx and increases upper tropospheric ozone by 10 ppbv. Simulating ICARTT upper tropospheric NOx observations with GEOS-Chem requires a factor of 4 increase in modeled NOx yield per flash (to 500 mol/flash). Observed OH ...
... One of my favorite blues tunes is Born Under a Bad Sign, a song about someone who just cant catch a break. If there
The origin of life on Earth is widely believed to have required the reactions of organic compounds and their self- and/or environmental organization. What those compounds were remains open to debate, as do the environment in and process or processes by which they became organized. Prebiotic chemistry is the systematic organized study of these phenomena. It is difficult to study poorly defined phenomena, and research has focused on producing compounds and structures familiar to contemporary biochemistry, which may or may not have been crucial for the origin of life. Given our ignorance, it may be instructive to explore the extreme regions of known and future investigations of prebiotic chemistry, where reactions fail, that will relate them to or exclude them from plausible environments where they could occur. Come critical parameters which most deserve investigation are discussed.
Evolution and Biodiversity, Biological evolution, or evolution is the change in a populations genetic makeup through successive generations., While the Earth itself may be a billion years old, modern humans didnt exist until only 65 million years ago., After this chemical evolution had formed cells, biological evolution took place, creating single-celled prokayotic bacteria into single-celled eukayotic cells., Evidence indicates that Earths life is the result of around 1 billion years of chemical evolution to form the first cells., Origin of Earth, Natural Selection, occurs when some individuals of a population have genetically based traits that increase their chance of survival., If the trait helps the individual significantly, than chances are the rest of the population will develop these characteristics, Adaptive traits are any heritable trait that enables organisms to better survive., In all communities, species all have ecological niches. These are the species role in their environment/community
As the cellular physiology is the outcome of enzymatic activity, so the enzymes must have developed before the cells. Gradually the gene aggregates became surrounded by a complex system of enzymes which formed the cytoplasm. These enzymes could have combined the nitrogen bases, simple sugars and phosphates into the nucleotides. Nucleotides might have combined to form nucleic acid which appear to be the biomolecules fulfilling the condition of supply of replicators in the origin of life. Presently the molecular biology operates on the principle of central dogma which states that flow of genetic informations is unidirectional and is shown as below: DNA (Transcription) → RNA (Translation) → Protein (With genetic informations) (With genetic message) This mechanism probably evolved from much simpler mechanism. Nucleic acid and proteins (enzymes) are two interdependent biomolecules. Proteins are synthesized by a process that begins with the transcription of informations from DNA to mRNA followed ...
In the first paper we showed that you can create tension between a chemical and physical system to give rise to more complex systems. And in the second paper, we showed that these complex systems can have remarkable and unexpected functions," says David Lynn, a systems chemist in Emorys Department of Chemistry who led the research. "The work was inspired by our current understanding of Darwinian selection of protein misfolding in neurodegenerative diseases ...
In the first paper we showed that you can create tension between a chemical and physical system to give rise to more complex systems. And in the second paper, we showed that these complex systems can have remarkable and unexpected functions," says David Lynn, a systems chemist in Emorys Department of Chemistry who led the research. "The work was inspired by our current understanding of Darwinian selection of protein misfolding in neurodegenerative diseases ...
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Astronomy and Space Physics. Faculty of Science and Technology, Astronomical observatory. ...
Principal Investigator:OZAWA Kazuhito, Project Period (FY):2009 - 2011, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Petrology/Mineralogy/Science of ore deposit
Intelligent Design or Evolution? examines many unresolved issues associated with chemical evolution, the origin of life, and the evolution of molecular knowledge. With the help of information theory, this book develops statistical models to describe the evolution of the first genes and proteins. It also investigates the chemistry required for the prebiotic synthesis of biological molecules on the primitive earth. The evidence presented will show that naturalistic laws fail to explain the synthesis of RNA, DNA and proteins in the primordial soup. These same laws also fail to explain the origin of life and the evolution of the first genes and proteins. Taken together, these failures imply that life was created.
Intelligent Design or Evolution? examines many unresolved issues associated with chemical evolution, the origin of life, and the evolution of molecular knowledge. With the help of information theory, this book develops statistical models to describe the evolution of the first genes and proteins. It also investigates the chemistry required for the prebiotic synthesis of biological molecules on the primitive earth. The evidence presented will show that naturalistic laws fail to explain the synthesis of RNA, DNA and proteins in the primordial soup. These same laws also fail to explain the origin of life and the evolution of the first genes and proteins. Taken together, these failures imply that life was created.
Faculty Applied Sciences. Date 2011-11-08. Abstract Isothermal hydrogen desorption of spark discharge generated Mg/NbOx and Mg/Pd metal hydride nanocomposites is consistently described by a kinetic model based on multiple reaction rates, in contrast to the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov [M. Avrami, J. Phys. Chem. 9, 177 (1941); W. A. Johnson and R. F. Mehl, Trans. Am. Inst. Min., Metal. Eng. 135, 416 (1939); A. N. Kolmogorov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Mat. 3, 355 (1937); F. Liu, F. Sommer, C. Bos, and E. J. Mittemeijer, Int. Mat. Rev. 52, 193 (2007)] model which is commonly applied to explain the kinetics of metal hydride transformations. The broad range of reaction rates arises from the disperse character of the particle size and the dendritic morphology of the samples. The model is expected to be generally applicable for metal hydrides which show a significant variation in particle sizes, in configuration and/or chemical composition of local surroundings of the reacting ...
A new robotic system at Georgia Techs Center for Chemical Evolution could soon let scientists better simulate and analyze the chemical reactions of early Earth on the surface of real rocks to further test the theory that catalytic minerals on a meteorites surface could have jump-started lifes first chemical reactions.
Now, researchers working with that hypothesis have achieved a significant advancement toward understanding an evolutionary mystery - how components of RNA and DNA formed from chemicals present on early Earth before life existed.. In surprisingly simple laboratory reactions in water, under everyday conditions, they have produced what could be good candidates for missing links on the pathway to the code of life.. And when those components joined up, the result even looked like RNA.. As the researchers work progresses, it could reveal that much of the original chemistry that led to life arose not in fiery cataclysms and in scarce quantities, but abundantly and gradually on quiet, rain-swept dirt flats or lakeshore rocks lapped by waves.. In turn, their work could increase our understanding of the probability of lifes existence elsewhere in the universe.. The research from the NSF/NASA Center for Chemical Evolution, headquartered at the Georgia Institute of Technology, is generously funded through ...
The whole AronRa video is an excercise in pretending that something that doesnt provide evidence for the supposed "steps" in abiogenesis/chemical evolution, can be twisted and warped to make it sound like it does (and every detail left out of the story that would suggest otherwise, such as the ones mentioned in the video I shared above but many others as well concerning the meteorites for example, details that even the scientists who have forwarded this research have admitted to in their papers, allthough in a rather deceptive manner turning the world upside down and shifting the burden of proof for them to prove that what they are finding actually was already on or in the meteorite before it landed on earth). I cant quite call it an excercise in bait and switch but its very similar. And before anyone wants to bring up arguments that influence the way people think but dont have much logic to stand on but still forces a response when someone cares about other people not being deceived, ...
Earths origin and evolution, isotope and trace element geochemistry, the role of crust and lithospheric mantle recycling in the generation of mantle chemical heterogeneity, the origin and distribution of water and other volatile elements in the Earths interior, and the thermal and chemical evolution of the Earths core and core/mantle ...
Summary The gas and dust in the interstellar medium (ISM) drive the chemical evolution of galaxies, the formation of stars and planets, and the synthesis of complex prebiotic molecules. The prime birth places for this interstellar material are the winds of evolved (super)giant stars. These winds are unique chemical laboratories, in which a large variety of gas and dust species radially expand away from the star. Recent progress on the observations of these winds has been impressive thanks to Herschel and ALMA. The next challenge is to unravel the wealth of chemical information contained in these data. This is an ambitious task since (1) a plethora of physical and chemical processes interact in a complex way, (2) laboratory data to interpret these interactions are lacking, and (3) theoretical tools to analyse the data do not meet current needs. To boost the knowledge of the physics and chemistry characterizing these winds, I propose a world-leading multi-disciplinary project combining (1) ...
1. I have been involved in numerous space based projects that have investigated the emission from cold dust (about 20K) from galaxies. Dust plays an important role in the evolution of the interstellar medium and in the chemical evolution of galaxies as a whole. I led the Herschel Space Telescope survey of the nearby Virgo galaxy cluster in which we consider the dust emission properties of the numerous galaxies of various morphological types. I am the principal investigator of the DustPedia project. DustPedia is a collaboration of six research establishments from across Europe (UK, Belgium, France, Greece and Italy). The project is funded by a European research grant. The objective is to better understand the role dust plays in the interstellar medium via modelling of; dust grain physical properties, spectral energy distributions and a full Monte Carlo radiative transfer analysis. The models are compared with our own extensive database primarily obtained from the Herschel Space Telescope ...
A six-year study of a primordial element created just after the birth of the universe may force scientists to revise theories about how stars and galaxies formed.. Using a telescope sensitive to far ultraviolet light, astronomers have discovered that there is much more deuterium, a heavy form of hydrogen created minutes after the Big Bang, than expected.. "Our models of the chemical evolution of the Milky Way will have to be revised significantly," says astrophysicist Professor Jeffrey Linsky with the University of Colorado at Boulder.. All the deuterium that ever existed was believed to have been forged within a few minutes of the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago. Deuterium is a heavy version of regular hydrogen, the lightest and most abundant element. But its nucleus harbours a neutron in addition to the normal proton, so it is twice hydrogens mass.. Because stars consume deuterium and there is no known process to create more, the isotope serves as a tracer for star formation and galaxy ...
A mechanism for creating enantiomerism in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one chirality by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is described. The selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earths amino acids.
Context. It is still debated whether or not the Galactic chemical evolution of sulphur in the halo follows the flat trend with [Fe/H] that is ascribed to the result of explosive nucleosynthesis in type II SNe. It has been suggested that the disagreement between different investigations of sulphur abundances in halo stars might be owing to problems with the diagnostics used, that a new production source of sulphur might be needed in the early Universe, like hypernovae, or that the deposition of supernova ejecta into the interstellar medium is time-delayed. Aims. The aim of this study is to try to clarify this situation by measuring the sulphur abundance in a sample of halo giants using two diagnostics: the S I triplet around 1045 nm and the [S I] line at 1082 nm. The latter of the two is not believed to be sensitive to non-LTE effects. We can thereby minimize the uncertainties in the diagnostic used and estimate the usefulness of the triplet for the sulphur determination in halo K giants. We will ...
Using the 8.2-meter Subaru Telescope High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS), a team of astronomers observed Nova Delphini 2013 and discovered that the outburst is producing a large amount of lithium.. A team of astronomers from National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), Osaka Kyoiku University, Nagoya University, and Kyoto Sangyo University observed Nova Delphini 2013 (Figure 1, 3) which occurred on August 14, 2013. Using the 8.2-meter Subaru Telescope High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) to observe this object, they discovered that the outburst is producing a large amount of lithium (Li; Note 1). Lithium is a key element in the study of the chemical evolution of the universe because it likely was and is produced in several ways: through Big Bang nucleosynthesis, in collisions between energetic cosmic rays and the interstellar medium, inside stellar interiors, and as a result of novae and supernova explosions. This new observation provides the first direct evidence for the supply of Li from ...
Transport Modeling Applications The reactive transport capabilities can be used to study contaminant migration of nutrients, metals, radionuclides, and organic compounds; natural and engineered aquifer remediation; diffusion in sediment pore water; the chemical evolution of natural systems; and laboratory column experiments. Description Reactive-transport modeling simulates advection, dispersion, and chemical reactions as water moves through a 1D column. The column is divided into a number of cells, and reactant compositions and nonequilibrium reactions can be defined for each cell. All of the reactants and reactions described for batch reactions can be applied to the cells for transport modeling. The TRANSPORT keyword data block is used to simulate advection and dispersion, or pure diffusion, in the column. The TRANSPORT data block also can be used to simulate a dual-porosity medium, where water flows through the column but simultaneously allows for diffusion into stagnant side pores. The ...
The central role that phosphates play in biological systems, suggests they also played an important role in the emergence of life on Earth. In recent years, numerous important advances have been made towards understanding the influence that phosphates may have had on prebiotic chemistry, and here, we highlight two important aspects of prebiotic phosphate chemistry. Firstly, we discuss prebiotic phosphorylation reactions; we specifically contrast aqueous electrophilic phosphorylation, and aqueous nucleophilic phosphorylation strategies, with dry-state phosphorylations that are mediated by dissociative phosphoryl-transfer. Secondly, we discuss the non-structural roles that phosphates can play in prebiotic chemistry. Here, we focus on the mechanisms by which phosphate has guided prebiotic reactivity through catalysis or buffering effects, to facilitating selective transformations in neutral water. Several prebiotic routes towards the synthesis of nucleotides, amino acids, and core metabolites, that have
I think the major obstacle to chemical evolution is to explain controlled cell growth. I do not know of a reason why, at the early stages of the Earths history, controlled cell growth should replace uncontrolled cell growth (or dominate before it even uncontrolled cell growth even came to be), because exploding and uncontrolled cell growth of a particular species could result be a Darwinian advantage rather a disadvantage. A controlled cell growth of a multicelluar organism would be disrupted after eating cancer cells for breakfast (unless if it had a cure for cancer built in), thus it is unlikely that a controlled cell growth organism could kill a uncontrolled cell growth organism by eating it, nor would it automatically do so. Cancer requires an energy source like any other life. It acquires growth through sugar and fat. Once you got those and some other essentials such as proteins, you can support the growth of cancer. Cancer is not inhibited by a cell clock, which in itself requires ...
Factors involved in the selection of the 20 protein L-α-amino acids during chemical evolution and the early stages of Darwinian evolution are discusse
Jacob, D., J. Crawford, M. Kleb, V. Conners, R. Bendura, J. Raper, G. Sachse, J. Gille, and L. Emmons, The transport and chemical evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) mission: Design, execution, and overview of first results, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D20), 8781, doi:10.1029/2002JD003276, in press, 2003 ...
Biomass burning (BB) is a large source of primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA and SOA). This study addresses the physical and chemical evolution of BB organic aerosols. Firstly, the evolution and lifetime of BB POA and SOA signatures observed with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer are investigated, focusing on measurements at high-latitudes acquired during the 2008 NASA ARCTAS mission, in comparison to data from other field studies and from laboratory aging experiments. The parameter f60 , the ratio of the integrated signal at m/z 60 to the total signal in the organic component mass spectrum, is used as a marker to study the rate of oxidation and fate of the BB POA. A background level of f60 ∼0.3 % ± 0.06 % for SOAdominated ambient OA is shown to be an appropriate background level for this tracer. Using also f44 as a tracer for SOA and aged POA and a surrogate of organic O:C, a novel graphical method is presented to characterise the aging of BB plumes. Similar trends of decreasing f60
The NASA DC-8 and P-3B aircraft flew within about a kilometer or less of each other on three occasions during the Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific (TRACE-P) campaign in order to intercompare similar measurements on the two aircraft. The first and last intercomparisons were in relatively remote marine environments during transits to and from Asia. The first began with a boundary layer measurement followed by an ascent to 3 km. The second set of intercomparisons was at a fixed altitude of about 5.2 km off the coast of Japan, also in relatively clean air. Finally, the third measurement began at 5.3 km and then descended into the boundary layer. A number of measurements were compared with the best agreement observed for the most abundant compounds such as CO2 and CH4 and with very good agreement for CO, O3, and j values. Other comparisons, including measurements of the same compounds on both aircraft and measurements of the same compound by two different instruments on the DC-8, varied over
Understanding the presuppositions and goals of the researchers to properly read the secular literature carefully, especially with chemical evolution (abiogenesis)
The discovery of numerous planetary systems still in the process of formation provides a unique opportunity to see how our own solar system may have formed 4.6 billion years ago. Our research group studies physical processes that determine thermal environments in and around young planetary systems in order to constrain the prebiotic chemistry which can occur there. In one study we have built a unique code which simulates the heating of dense molecular gas in chemically active outflows (CAOs) associated with protostars. Our code will be used to model the wealth of molecular observations of CAOs which will be obtained by SOFIA and other observatories. In another study we have discovered a new mechanism whereby asteroids in the solar nebula are heated by magnetohydrodynamical processes. The goal of the second study is to determine whether asteroids can be warm enough to support prebiotic chemistry in protoplanetary systems that were not innoculated by short-lived radionuclides such as ...
Experiments have been conducted to try to prove spontaneous generation. Most notably was the famous experiment conducted by Stanley L. Miller and Harold C. Urey in 1953 which attempted to show that given the proper amount of chemicals, heat and electricity, life could eventually arise on its own in a sealed environment. However, this is an example of "investigation interference." The chemicals they used to simulate the "primordial soup" didnt exist in the supplied concentrations, but they were intelligently chosen produce the desired reactions. They withheld oxygen from the experiment since no oxygen can be present for the experiment to work, yet many evolutionists believe some amount of oxygen must have been present in the early earths atmosphere for life to have evolved. They ignored that the very means of producing life (radiation) would also destroy it. They had a mechanism to collect only the amino acids that were produced. No wonder British mathematician, astronomer and astrobiologist ...
The free nucleobases and mononucleotides of RNA do not form Watson-Crick base pairs in water, a fact that presents several challenges for the prebiotic synthesis of RNA. 2,6-Diaminopurine and adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP) are shown to form supramolecular assemblies with cyanuric acid in water. These assem Prebiotic chemistry and the molecular origins of life
Our research objective is to understand and model the chemical processes on the primitive Earth that generated the first autocatalytic molecules and microstructures involved in the origin of life. Our approach involves (a) investigation of a model origin-of-life process named the Sugar Model that is based on the reaction of formaldehyde-derived sugars with ammonia and amines, and (b) elucidation of the constraints imposed on the chemistry of the origin of life by the fixed energies and rates of aliphatic organic reactions under mild aqueous conditions. The Sugar Model is a plausible "one-pot" prebiotic process that converts very simple substrates (formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide) to a variety of products: small catalytic molecules, "energy-rich" thioesters and phosphoanhydrides. More recently we showed (a) that homochiral amines (like amino acids and peptides) catalyze the stereoselective synthesis of tetrose sugars from glycolaldehyde, and (b) that sugar-amine (or ...
This research shows how some of the basic building blocks of life could have been naturally occuring in an early Earth like environment. ...
For the first time, a unified chemical pathway provides all four RNA building blocks needed to kick-start life under plausible prebiotic conditions.
If it takes up space and has mass then it matters - actually it is matter. There are numerous terms that relate to the basic or fundamental unit of matter - the atom. ELEMENTS are pure substances which means that they consist of only one type of atom. A COMPOUND consists of two or more different kind of atoms or ions in definite proportions ...
The word "evolution" is generally taken to mean biological evolution. However, biological evolution is simply the natural consequence of cosmic, stellar, geological, and chemical evolution. "From Chaos to Consciousness: A Brief History of the Universe" is the story of human evolution in this broader sense of the word. It is a textbook intended for a one-semester course in Astronomy and, after a few introductory chapters on the history of astronomy and the present universe, is narrowly focused on material directly and chronologically related to the eventual rise of conscious beings in the universe.. ...
The word "evolution" is generally taken to mean biological evolution. However, biological evolution is simply the natural consequence of cosmic, stellar, geological, and chemical evolution. "From Chaos to Consciousness: A Brief History of the Universe" is the story of human evolution in this broader sense of the word. It is a textbook intended for a one-semester course in Astronomy and, after a few introductory chapters on the history of astronomy and the present universe, is narrowly focused on material directly and chronologically related to the eventual rise of conscious beings in the universe.. ...
Ge/Ch 128. Cosmochemistry. 9 units (3-0-6); first term. Prerequisites: instructors permission. Examination of the chemistry of the interstellar medium, of protostellar nebulae, and of primitive solar-system objects with a view toward establishing the relationship of the chemical evolution of atoms in the interstellar radiation field to complex molecules and aggregates in the early solar system that may contribute to habitability. Emphasis will be placed on identifying the physical conditions in various objects, timescales for physical and chemical change, chemical processes leading to change, observational constraints, and various models that attempt to describe the chemical state and history of cosmological objects in general and the early solar system in particular. Given in alternate years; offered 2017-18. Instructor: Blake. ...
The above-mentioned three examples in-dicate the intricate structure and operation of the cell. No one has any experience of a machine that developed without a design-ers plan and specifications: therefore its reasonable to consider the possibility that such complex arrangements came about by a preconceived design. Unfortunately, such commonsense conclusions have no place in the currently dominant theories about the evolution of life. Rather, the pro-ponents of chemical evolution struggle to manufacture alternative explanations that refer only to blind chance and the imper-sonal laws of physics.. The most common scenario portrayed by chemical-evolution theorists begins more than four billion years ago, when clouds of gases and dust are believed to have con-densed on the earths ancient surface and gradually formed the primal atmosphere. Activated by ultraviolet light and electric bolts, this primitive atmosphere is sup-posed to have spontaneously given birth to organic chemical compounds, ...
Melvin Calvin (1911-1997) was awarded the 1961 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on how plants assimilate carbon dioxide. Using the carbon-14 isotope as a tracer, Calvin and colleagues discovered the path followed by carbon through a plant during photosynthesis, starting from its absorption from atmospheric carbon dioxide to its conversion into carbohydrates and other organic compounds. Later, they showed that sunlight helps plants make organic compounds by acting on chlorophyll rather than the absorbed carbon dioxide, as previously believed. This process is called the Calvin cycle. Calvin also studied plant oils as energy sources, the chemical evolution of life, and radiation chemistry ...
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to investigate the evolution of surface chemistry of YBa2Cu3O7-delta (Y123) films prepared by the metalorganic deposition (MOD) process using trifluoroacetate (TFA) precursors. Detailed XPS core-level spectra obtained from the samples quenched from various points during the calcining and firing stages have been reported for the first time and are used to identify surface species. The XPS data show evidence of formation of intermediate phases such as Y-O-F, BaF2, and CuO during the calcining process, which are the decomposition products of yttrium, barium, and copper trifluoroacetates, respectively. The TFA precursors are completely decomposed at the end of calcination. The change of binding energies for Y 3d(5/2), Ba 3d(5/2), and O ls during the firing process indicates that Y123 starts to form at 800 degrees C after 0.5 h firing. Based on the experimental results, an alternative mechanism of the chemical evolution from precursor to final film in the
The delivery of organic matter to the primitive Earth via comets and meteorites has long been hypothesized to be an important source for prebiotic compounds such as amino acids or their chemical precursors that contributed to the development of prebiotic chemistry leading, on Earth, to the emergence of life. Photochemistry of inter/circumstellar ices around protostellar objects is a potential process leading to complex organic species, although difficult to establish from limited infrared observations only. Here we report the first abiotic cosmic ice simulation experiments that produce species with enantiomeric excesses (e.e.s). Circularly polarized ultraviolet light (UV-CPL) from a synchrotron source induces asymmetric photochemistry on initially achiral inter/circumstellar ice analogs. Enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography measurements show significant e.e.s of up to 1.34% for (13C)-alanine, for which the signs and absolute values are related to the helicity and number of CPL ...
The delivery of organic matter to the primitive Earth via comets and meteorites has long been hypothesized to be an important source for prebiotic compounds such as amino acids or their chemical precursors that contributed to the development of prebiotic chemistry leading, on Earth, to the emergence of life. Photochemistry of inter/circumstellar ices around protostellar objects is a potential process leading to complex organic species, although difficult to establish from limited infrared observations only. Here we report the first abiotic cosmic ice simulation experiments that produce species with enantiomeric excesses (e.e.s). Circularly polarized ultraviolet light (UV-CPL) from a synchrotron source induces asymmetric photochemistry on initially achiral inter/circumstellar ice analogs. Enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography measurements show significant e.e.s of up to 1.34% for (13C)-alanine, for which the signs and absolute values are related to the helicity and number of CPL ...
1] Here I am giving only one possible scenario, others include protein hypercycles first, then RNA/DNA and protein/RNA co-development.. [2] I am aware that this example required a pre-existing polymerase and that as well as the RNA , a polymerase would have to be around. However, in the prebiotic world this polymerase would not have to be anything like modern polymerases, even clay might do nicely, and so polymerase availability is not as limiting as in a modern example.. [3]Ferris JP, Hill AR Jr, Liu R, and Orgel LE. (1996 May 2). Synthesis of long prebiotic oligomers on mineral surfaces [see comments] Nature, 381, 59-61.. [4]Ekland EH, Szostak JW, and Bartel DP. (1995 Jul 21). Structurally complex and highly active RNA ligases derived from random RNA sequences. Science , 269, 364-70.. [5] See:. Miller SL. (1997 Mar). Peptide nucleic acids and prebiotic chemistry Nat Struct Biol , 4, 167-9.. Hager AJ, and Szostak JW. (1997 Aug). Isolation of novel ribozymes that ligate AMP-activated RNA ...
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format. By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items. To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export. The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export. After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. ...
The nucleotides of RNA appear to be products of evolution. Experimental studies are showing that plausible proto-nucleotides can be formed in simulated early Earth environments. In turn, these results help to clarify the prebiotic processes that give rise to nucleotides.. ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. In depth analysis of Prebiotic Ingredients Sales Market is a crucial thing for various stakeholders like investors, CEOs, traders, suppliers and others. The Prebiotic Ingredients Sales Market research report is a resource, which provides technical and financial details of the industry.. Browse more detail information about Prebiotic Ingredients Sales Market at: http://www.absolutereports.com/global-prebiotic-ingredients-sales-market-report-2016-10419257. To begin with, the report elaborates the Prebiotic Ingredients Sales Market overview. Various definitions and classification of the industry, applications of the industry and chain structure are given. Present day status of the Prebiotic Ingredients Sales Market in key regions is stated and industry policies and news are analysed.. Next part of the Prebiotic Ingredients Sales Market Industry analysis report speaks about the manufacturing process. The process is ...
Although controversial, the idea that hydrothermal systems may have been the site for prebiotic synthesis of organic molecules and origin of life is widely supported. For the nascent life to survive, it must have had some sort of metabolic mechanism for generating energy. However, little is known of the specific metabolic pathways utilized by the early life forms or the effect of high temperatures on their activity. Recent research on natural high temperature aquatic environments, though limited because of difficult field logistics and experimental problems, is revolutionizing our understanding of possible energy-generating redox pathways, such as sulphate reduction. An abridged review of research on thermophilic sulphate reduction is presented here. Because of a complex interplay between microbiological and geochemical entities involved, and the uncertainties that modern hydrothermal systems are proxy for biogeochemical conditions on early Earth, great caution is required for interpretation and ...
In conclusion, much elegant work has been done starting from activated mono-nucleotides. However, the prebiotic synthesis of a specific macromolecular sequence does not seem to be at hand, giving us the same problem we have with polypeptide sequences. Since there is no ascertained prebiotic pathway to their synthesis, it may be useful to try to conceive some working hypothesis. In order to do that, I would first like to consider a preliminary question about the proteins we have on our Earth: "Why these proteins … and not other ones?". Discussing this question can in fact give us some clue as to how orderly sequences might have originated. […] A grain of sand in the Sahara - This is indeed a central question in our world of proteins. How have they been selected out? There is a well-known arithmetic at the basis of this question, (see for example De Duve, 2002) which says that for a polypeptide chain with 100 residues, 20^100 different chains are in principle possible: a number so large that ...
Video created by The University of Edinburgh for the course Astrobiology and the Search for Extraterrestrial Life. What was the environment of early Earth like when life first emerged and what do we know about life on the earliest Earth? How ...
Using polymers, scientists at Penn State created primitive cell-like structures that they infused with RNA, demonstrating how the molecules would react chemically under conditions that may have been present on Earth four-billion years ago.. Researchers at Penn State University have developed a chemical model that mimics a possible step in the formation of cellular life on Earth four-billion years ago. Using large "macromolecules" called polymers, the scientists created primitive cell-like structures that they infused with RNA - the genetic coding material that is thought to precede the appearance of DNA on Earth - and demonstrated how the molecules would react chemically under conditions that might have been present on the early Earth. The journal Nature Chemistry will post the research as an Advance Online Publication on 14 October 2012.. In modern biology, all life, with the exception of some viruses, uses DNA as its genetic storage mechanism. According to the "RNA-world" hypothesis, RNA ...
A chemical model that mimics a possible step in the formation of cellular life on Earth four-billion years ago has been developed at Penn State University. The chemists created primitive cell-like structures that they infused with RNA -- the genetic coding material that is thought to precede the appearance of DNA on Earth -- and demonstrated how the molecules would react chemically under conditions that might have been present on the early Earth.
Define prebiotic: of, relating to, or being chemical or environmental precursors of the origin of life; also : existing or … - prebiotic in a sentence
In 1963, Dr. Cyril Ponnamperuma managed to synthesize adenine (one of the two most important nucleic acid purine bases) under simulated primitive Earth conditions. The NASA scientist and his three colleagues used a Miller-type apparatus, and began their synthesis with nothing more than methane, ammonia and water in the system. The mixture was bombarded with energetic electrons, and about 0.01% of the carbon in the methane was converted into adenine.304 This is highly significant because adenine is useful, not only for making DNA, but also RNA, ATP, ADP, FAD, and a host of other critical life-molecules.. In a related experiment two years later, Dr. John Oró of the University of Houston and A. P. Kimball produced adenine is a closed reaction system which included ammonia, water, and hydrogen cyanide. Heat was supplied as the energy source, and this time the production of the purine base rose to 0.5% of the available carbon.303 This value was observed over a wide range of chemical conditions, ...
Definition of Prebiotic: A prebiotic is a nondigestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth, activity or
From the prebiotic recruitment of the basic building blocks to create life to the transition of their synthesis in living cells, a major problem without invokin
The invention relates to medicine, hepatology and pharmacology and can be used for producing and using a pharmaceutical composition based on a hepatoprotector and a prebiotic for treating and preventi
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When I got sick, the doctors sent samples to the Federal health authorities for testing. I saw a copy of the report. It said, What the hell is this? written off on one side of the report. Viruses have to go dormant and then mutate in order to flourish. They are the nearest life form on earth to the classic go to infinity, fast model that I talk about all the time. This is rather funny because viruses are one of the oldest life forms if not the oldest. They prefer non-oxygen environments and when mutations in the early earth waters created photosynthesis organisms, these multiplied very rapidly, pushing hard on the viral community ...
Building on earlier experiments showing how lifes chemical building blocks could form from nonliving material on early Earth, this module explores theories on the next steps needed for life. These include the formation of long polymers, which then fold into complex macromolecules. The module describes experiments in an environment like that of primordial Earth, resulting in the spontaneous emergence of phospholipids, which could form into membranes, paving the way for RNA duplication and the eventual emergence of living cells.
Many experiments have indicated that the conditions of the early earth were ideal for the spontaneous formation of biological compounds and perhaps even the first life forms, but as you said that really has little or nothing to do with evolution itself. Evoution is very well-supported by evidence and there are no serious scientific theories that contradict it, so the answer to your question is that its pretty solid ...
London, UK (SPX) May 26, 2017 - A single process for how a group of molecules called nucleotides were made on the early Earth, before life began, has been suggested by a UCL-led team of researchers. Nucleotides are essential
Provided a minimum of 15 personal qualifying points is achieved in the current month: Sales Assosiates and Sales Managers will qualify for a further discount of 5% of the B.V. value. Sales Executives will qualify for a further discount of 10% of the B.V. value. Directors will qualify for a further discount of 15% of the B.V. value. Director has the potential to earn a further 5% discount of the B.V. value on personal orders, which will be rebated at month end, provided the Director places orders during the month with a combined Customer Retail value of AU$1,000.00 or more.. ...
Living systems (humans) are complex. Changing just one thing is not possible. There are always unintended consequences, some perhaps good and other perhaps not so good.
The pioneering and world-leading research conducted at the University of Exeters state-of-the-art Living Systems Institute (LSI) will form the basis of the latest high-profile Global Conversation event.. Read story ...
A sub-discipline of biology, its focus is in how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and biomolecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system.
A theoretical study of the interaction between supernovae and their surroundings is presented.. Supernovae are the endpoint of the life of massive stars, and are the dominant contributors to the chemical evolution of the Universe. During its life a massive star greatly modifies its environment. During and after the explosion of the star it interacts with its surroundings in a number of ways. A study of this interaction yields invaluable information about the late stages of stellar evolution and the physics of supernova explosions. Recent advances in observational facilities have given a wealth of observational data on interacting supernovae, and it is therefore essential to have good theoretical models for interpreting the data.. This thesis presents an overview of the physics of supernovae and of their interaction with a circumstellar medium. In particular the reverse shock created by the interaction is investigated. In most Type IIL and Type IIn supernovae this shock is radiative, and due to ...
Life in Earths oceans may have had a slow start because phosphorus - a key nutrient of life - was not recycled through the biosphere fast enough. The finding, by scientists at the University of Washington and the University of St Andrews, UK, could explain why it took so long for Earths atmosphere to become oxygenated.. By modeling Earths oceans over billions of years, Washingtons Michael Kipp and Eva Stüeken of St Andrews, found that during the Archean (the geological era of between four and 2.5 billion years ago) phosphorus was recycled ten times slower than in the oceans today, resulting in biological productivity slowing down.. This has implications for the presence of oxygen in Earths atmosphere. During the Archean, the atmosphere was dominated by carbon dioxide. Around two-and-a-half billion years ago, oxygen suddenly filled the atmosphere during what is known as the Great Oxygenation Event. It is believed that photosynthesizing life contributed to this oxygen influx, but the first ...
Life in Earths oceans may have had a slow start because phosphorus - a key nutrient of life - was not recycled through the biosphere fast enough. The finding, by scientists at the University of Washington and the University of St Andrews, UK, could explain why it took so long for Earths atmosphere to become oxygenated.. By modeling Earths oceans over billions of years, Washingtons Michael Kipp and Eva Stüeken of St Andrews, found that during the Archean (the geological era of between four and 2.5 billion years ago) phosphorus was recycled ten times slower than in the oceans today, resulting in biological productivity slowing down.. This has implications for the presence of oxygen in Earths atmosphere. During the Archean, the atmosphere was dominated by carbon dioxide. Around two-and-a-half billion years ago, oxygen suddenly filled the atmosphere during what is known as the Great Oxygenation Event. It is believed that photosynthesizing life contributed to this oxygen influx, but the first ...
Life in Earths oceans may have had a slow start because phosphorus - a key nutrient of life - was not recycled through the biosphere fast enough. The finding, by scientists at the University of Washington and the University of St Andrews, UK, could explain why it took so long for Earths atmosphere to become oxygenated.. By modeling Earths oceans over billions of years, Washingtons Michael Kipp and Eva Stüeken of St Andrews, found that during the Archean (the geological era of between four and 2.5 billion years ago) phosphorus was recycled ten times slower than in the oceans today, resulting in biological productivity slowing down.. This has implications for the presence of oxygen in Earths atmosphere. During the Archean, the atmosphere was dominated by carbon dioxide. Around two-and-a-half billion years ago, oxygen suddenly filled the atmosphere during what is known as the Great Oxygenation Event. It is believed that photosynthesizing life contributed to this oxygen influx, but the first ...
Progress in Physical Organic Chemistry is dedicated to reviewing the latest investigations into organic chemistry that use quantitative and mathematical methods. These reviews help readers understand the importance of individual discoveries and what they mean to the field as a whole. Moreover, the authors, leading experts in their fields, offer unique and thought-provoking perspectives on the current state of the science and its future directions. With so many new findings published in a broad range of journals, Progress in Physical Organic Chemistry fills the need for a central resource that presents, analyzes, and contextualizes the major advances in the field.. The articles published in Progress in Physical Organic Chemistry are not only of interest to scientists working in physical organic chemistry, but also scientists working in the many subdisciplines of chemistry in which physical organic chemistry approaches are now applied, such as biochemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, and materials ...
Let this demonstration slide set guide you as you teach the activity, Modeling Earths Atmosphere, where students create a model of Earths atmosphere.
Let this demonstration slide set guide you as you teach the activity, Modeling Earths Atmosphere, where students create a model of Earths atmosphere.
Brett Smith for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online. [ Watch the Video: Stanley Millers Forgotten Experiments, Analyzed ]. In a tribute to his old mentor and colleague, a marine chemistry professor at the University of California, San Diego was able to successfully replicate a mysterious and groundbreaking experiment by the "Father of Pre-biotic Chemistry.". In 1953, chemist Stanley Miller published a report on a landmark experiment that showed how peptides, basic building blocks of life, could have formed in the oceans of the early Earth. The experiment was unusual in that Miller made the head-scratching decision to use the chemical cyanamide, which may or may not have been available on the early Earth.. According to a newly published report in the journal Angewandte Chemie, Millers old student and colleague Jeffrey Bada, along with a team of American researchers, were able to replicate the old experiment using modern technology. The team was also able to show that the reaction could have ...
Satellites that orbit Earth help us study Earths atmosphere, weather, and climate. Here are a few of the many spacecraft that study our atmosphere.. Aura was launched in July 2004. It is studying pollution, gases that may be related to climate change, and ozone. IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) has been in space studying Earths plasmasphere since March 2000. Polar, which was launched in 1996, observes aurora and the polar magnetosphere. UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) was launched from the space shuttle in 1991. UARS studies many aspects of the atmosphere, especially chemistry in the middle and upper stratosphere. UARS is old, and only half of its instruments are still working; but it has gathered lots of valuable data over the years.. More satellites will be launched in the future to study the atmosphere. COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere & Climate) is a group of satellites that will be launched in the spring of 2005. ...
One can see from Table 1 that in the Earths atmosphere molecular nitrogen has the greatest relative concentration near the Earths surface. The effective molecular weight of air is thus rather close to that of this constituent (the two values are 28.973 and 28.022, respectively). However, the composition of the air and consequently its molecular weight are constant only in the lower 80-100 km layer of the atmosphere which is termed the hoinosphere. Above this layer the so-called heterosphere.... ...
Cow flatulence has long been blamed for excessive methane levels damaging the earths atmosphere. Methane, we know now, is a major problem for the planet in that it is a greenhouse gas...
This study presents an evaluation of the predicted and experimentally observed flow behavior, i.e., flow pattern and critical outlet diameter, in a tablet press hopper. Three grades of a commonly used pharmaceutical additive, microcrystalline cellulose, were used for this purpose. The prediction of the flow behavior was made by first extrapolating shear and wall friction data and, subsequently, applying these extrapolation-based data as input variables to Jenikes hopper design method. Predictions were then compared with empirical discharge experiments from a tablet press hopper and a funnel with varying outlet diameters. By application of a mixed-effect 2nd order polynomial model for the extrapolation of the wall yield locus, accurate flow pattern predictions for the tablet press hopper was made. However, the observed flow patterns were very sensitive to the powders moisture content. The comparison of the observed and predicted critical outlet diameters showed good agreement for the powder ...
For last minute revision reading the whole. problems in organic chemistry -PDF.I am studying this under my chemistry teacher and they are good notes.IB Chemistry HL outlines created by brilliant United States grads.Some Arrow-Pushing Guidelines (Section 1.14) 1. Arrows follow electron movement. 2. Notes 1. Both carbocations.JOC The Journal of Organic Chemistry Guidelines for Authors.GCSE revision: organic chemistry See More. This PDF covers dozens of important reactions in.... Mechanistic Organic Photochemistry. by applying the paradigms of organic photochemistry to the study of organic photochemical. organic chemistry is the.For last minute revision reading the whole chapter. and notes booklet for IIT JEE (PDF).. ...
Renowned for his student-friendly writing style, John McMurry introduces a new way to teach organic chemistry: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: A BIOLOGICAL APPROACH. Traditional foundations of organic chemistry are enhanced by a consistent integration of biological examples and discussion of the organic chemistry of biological pathways. This innovative text is coupled with media integration through Organic ChemistryNow and Organic OWL, providing instructors and students the tools they need to succeed.McMurry, John is the author of Organic Chemistry + 1pass for Organic ChemistryNOW A Biological Approach, published 2006 under ISBN 9780495015253 and ISBN 0495015253. [read more] ...
Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) is a method of instruction where each student takes an active role in the classroom. The activities contained in this collection are specially designed guided inquiry activities intended for the student to complete during class while working with a small group of peers. Each activity introduces essential organic chemistry content in a model that contains examples, experimental data, reactions, or other important information. Each activity is followed by a series of questions designed to lead the student through the thought processes that will result in the comprehension of critical organic chemistry concepts. At the end of each activity are additional questions, which will generally be completed outside of class time and are more similar to questions that might appear on exams. Before each class, students should ensure that they are familiar with the prior knowledge that is listed at the beginning of every activity.These POGIL Organic Chemistry activities
Many peoples conception of Organic Chemistry, involves the phrase "It takes a lot of memorizing." On one hand that is true. On the other hand, there is another method that can be used to achieve the same goal of conquering Organic Chemistry. After having taken Organic Chemistry 1 and 2 at the University, I found that Organic Chemistry really is the knowledge of what atoms or atomic structures will do when encountering another set of atoms or atomic structures. Basically, it is just like knowing people and knowing how they deal with other people. Once this level has been reached, the monster commonly called "Orgo" can be conquered. ...
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Get a Sample of United States Prebiotic Foods market research report from- http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/10397706. No. of Report Pages: 99. Price (Single User Licence): $3800. Have any Query Regarding this Report? Contact us at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/10397706. This United States Prebiotic Foods Industry report also takes into account the past price of 2011-2015 and future price of 2016-2021 as per the supply-demand relation along with perspectives and United States Prebiotic Foods market forecasts. Additionally, the United States Prebiotic Foods Market report also discusses the data on deals (distributors) and buyers, providing a holistic insight into the supply chain and sales details of United States Prebiotic Foods Market.. Several important topics included in the United States Prebiotic Foods market research report are as follows:. • Overview of United States Prebiotic Foods Market. • Market Size (Value and Volume) analysis of ...
The Russian Journal of Organic Chemistry (Zhurnal Organicheskoi Khimii) was founded in 1965. It covers all aspects of modern organic chemistry including organic synthesis, theoretical organic chemistry, structure and mechanism, and the application of organometallic compounds in organic synthesis. The journal is of interest to researchers in both scientific and industrial institutes, as well as for university libraries.. ...
Find and save ideas about Organic reactions on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Organic chemistry, Organic chemistry reactions and Chemistry.
Organic chemistry is a discipline impacting every aspect of society. Examples are prevalent in the pharmaceutical and food industries, fossil and synthetic fuels, plastics, paints and textiles - to name a few. Furthermore, organic chemistry is required coursework for numerous undergraduate programs. Through this blog, ideas focused on education, industry and general organic chemistry will be discussed.
Dear Reader, Like a graceful multicoloured song bird our organic chemistry continues to soar into the air, I sincerely hope as well as helping you to pass your exams my organic chemistry lessons bring you an inner joy which comes from transforming your self into a person who understands the world around them in a new…
Organic chemistry is a discipline impacting every aspect of society. Examples are prevalent in the pharmaceutical and food industries, fossil and synthetic fuels, plastics, paints and textiles - to name a few. Furthermore, organic chemistry is required coursework for numerous undergraduate programs. Through this blog, ideas focused on education, industry and general organic chemistry will be discussed.
Such high-energy particles can pose a threat to space-based technology, so understanding them is important. Cluster has explored this process multiple times during the past decade and a half - finding it to affect heavier ions such as oxygen more than lighter ones, and detecting strong, high-speed beams of ions rocketing back to Earth from the magneto-tail nearly 100 times over the course of three years.. More recently, scientists have explored the process of magnetic reconnection, one of the most efficient physical processes by which the solar wind enters Earths magnetosphere and accelerates plasma. In this process, plasma interacts and exchanges energy with magnetic field lines; different lines reconfigure themselves, breaking, shifting around and forging new connections by merging with other lines, releasing huge amounts of energy in the process.. Here, the cold ions are thought to be important. We know that cold ions affect the magnetic reconnection process, for example slowing down the ...
Earths Atmospheric Layers There are several ways to classify the atmospheric layers of the Earth. Very broadly, homosphere - surface to approx 80~100km...
Intro to organic chemistry ( orgo ). SCH4U - Unit B. Organic Compounds. Organic chemistry: chemistry of carbon compounds Exceptions are oxides of carbon (CO 2 and CO), carbonates, bicarbonates, and cyanides Carbon atoms are generally bonded to: Each other Hydrogen atoms Slideshow...
REVIEW of Computational Organic Chemistry (2-nd Edition): The second edition of Bachrachs book (for comments about the 1-st edition see my older review) is a nice addition to the collection of computational quantum chemistry books which comes with extended and updated chapters along with two brand-new chapters. The new chapters are one about "Computed Spectral Properties and Structure Identification" and another about "Computational Approaches to Understanding Enzymes". The former is especially important for the identification of natural organic compounds which are extracted from plants or living organisms and do require an identification of their molecular structure using spectroscopic/crystallographic methods - computed spectroscopic properties represent a powerful tool for the identification process because upon comparing them against the experimental data it is possible to assign the correct 3D structure to the novel compound. The latter chapter is useful for those intending to study ...