An engaging Q & A format is used to discuss how auditory evoked-related potentials can help understand the cognitive factors involved in word recognition. 12731 AudiologyOnline Article
TY - JOUR. T1 - Beamformer reconstruction of correlated sources using a modified source model. AU - Brookes, Matthew J. AU - Stevenson, Claire M. AU - Barnes, Gareth R. AU - Hillebrand, Arjan. AU - Simpson, Michael I G. AU - Francis, Susan T. AU - Morris, Peter G. PY - 2007/2/15. Y1 - 2007/2/15. N2 - This paper introduces a lead field formulation for use in beamformer analysis of MEG data. This dual source beamformer is a technique to image two temporally correlated sources using beamformer methodology. We show that while the standard, single source beamformer suppresses the reconstructed power of two spatially separate but temporally correlated sources, the dual source beamformer allows for their accurate reconstruction. The technique is proven to be accurate using simulations. We also show that it can be used to image accurately the auditory steady state response, which is correlated between the left and right auditory cortices. We suggest that this technique represents a useful way of ...
Cognitive disorders involve disturbances in information processing and integration associated with cognitive impairment and/or progressive cognitive decline. These disorders can be studied using translational EEG biomarkers that represent powerful assets to assess procognitive or anti-psychotic treatments efficacy. Our programs feature expertise in developping models of cognitive impairment, validating appropriate methods that seamlessly translate into the clinic (Auditory-evoked potentials, pharmaco-induced models) and skills in analysing complex data sets.. ...
Working together to unlock your potential index Introduction Equine Studies pote ntial Page Why choose Oaklands College?...1 New and improved facilities... Come and join the Oaklands Community...5
TY - JOUR. T1 - The use of middle latency response in the diagnosis of cortical deafness. AU - Vedder, J. S.. AU - Barrs, D. M.. AU - Fifer, Robert. PY - 1988/1/1. Y1 - 1988/1/1. N2 - Bilateral cortical lesions resulting in true deafness were first reported approximately 100 years ago. A detailed map of the auditory cortex, however, was derived only within the past 50 years, primarily from investigation in the cat and subhuman primate. The few human studies have shown the primary auditory cortex to be located around the posterior two-thirds of the sylvian fissure, especially in the anterior and posterior transverse temporal gyri -or Heschls gyri- on the superior portion of the temporal lobe. Each organ of Corti has extensive bilateral projections to the primary auditory cortex, although experiments by Celesia have shown larger contralateral than ipsilateral response to auditory stimulation. This bilateral distribution of ascending auditory pathways makes deafness secondary to a single cortical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Negative correlation of reaction times and the auditory P50 in a Go, No- Go paradigm. AU - Ninomiya, Hideaki. AU - Onitsuka, Toshiaki. AU - Chen, Chung H.O.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - We investigated the relationship between reaction times in a Go, No-Go paradigm and various components of the auditory event-related potentials. The P50 latencies in the Go trials were significantly earlier than those in the No-Go trials. The N200 and P300 were positively associated with the reaction times. However, the P50 latencies showed negative correlation with the reaction times, and the negative correlation at F3 was the largest. Referring to source studies on P50, it is suggested that the activation of either the ascending activating system or the left premotor area through that system might affect the speed of reaction.. AB - We investigated the relationship between reaction times in a Go, No-Go paradigm and various components of the auditory event-related potentials. The P50 ...
The human P1 middle latency evoked potential is postulated to be generat- ed in the thalamus by a cholinergic component of the ascending reticular activating system. To test the midbrain function of dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), recording of middle latency response to click stimuli were carried out in a DRPLA family which was detected with the aid of molecular diagnosis. Comparisons between the DRPLA members and the normal members indicated normal Pa responses but P1 component is abnormal in DRPLA. This P1 abnormality suggests that the midbrain cholinergic cells in DRPLA may be dysfunctional ...
13. Joint committee on infant hearing of the american academy of pediatrics, Muse C, Harrison J, Yoshinaga-Itano C, Grimes A, Brookhouser PE, et al. Supplement to the JCIH 2007 position statement: principles and guidelines for early intervention after confirmation that a child is deaf or hard of hearing. Pediatrics. 2013;131(4):e1324-49. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013- ...
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is used to measure the auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF), which reflects language-related performance. In young children, however, the simultaneous quantification of the bilateral auditory-evoked response during binaural hearing is difficult using conventional adult-sized MEG systems. Recently, a child-customised MEG device has facilitated the acquisition of bi-hemispheric recordings, even in young children. Using the child-customised MEG device, we previously reported that language-related performance was reflected in the strength of the early component (P50m) of the auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF) in typically developing (TD) young children (2 to 5 years old) [Eur J Neurosci 2012, 35:644-650]. The aim of this study was to investigate how this neurophysiological index in each hemisphere is correlated with language performance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and TD children. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure the auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF),
A major challenge for sensory processing in the brain is considering stimulus context, such as stimulus probability, which may be relevant for survival. Excitatory neurons in auditory cortex, for example, adapt to repetitive tones in a stimulus-specific manner without fully generalizing to a low-probability deviant tone ("oddball") that breaks the preceding regularity. Whether such stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) also prevails in inhibitory neurons and how it might relate to deviance detection remains elusive. We obtained whole-cell recordings from excitatory neurons and somatostatin- and parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons in layer 2/3 of mouse auditory cortex and measured tone-evoked membrane potential responses. All cell types displayed SSA of fast ("early") subthreshold and suprathreshold responses with oddball tones of a deviant frequency eliciting enlarged responses compared with adapted standards. SSA was especially strong when oddball frequency matched neuronal preference. In ...
en] The identification of the brain structures and neurotransmitters responsible for the generation and/or modulation of the mismatch negativity (MMN) may contribute to a clearer understanding of its functional significance, and may have clinical implications. In this context, some findings suggest that the scalp-recorded MMN reflects activity from multiple neuronal ensembles within or in the immediate vicinity of the primary auditory cortex and with possible contribution from the frontal cortex. However, few data are available concerning the influence of neurotransmitter systems on the MMN. In this study, the relationship between both noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems and the MMN were investigated in 34 healthy volunteers. Noradrenergic and dopaminergic activities were assessed with the apomorphine and clonidine challenge tests. The results showed no significant relationship between either growth hormone (GH) responses to apomorphine or clonidine and the MMN amplitude or latency. ...
misc{7456066, abstract = {In the pursuit of a system capable of measuring pain signals in humans we propose a method to differentiate those signals related to pain from those which are not. We performed a time-frequency analysis using the Gabor transform to have complete information about the spectrum and its behaviour through the time to study the main differences over the evoked potentials provoked by both nociceptive and somatosensory (non-nociceptive) stimulation. The setup of the experiment also allowed us to study the mismatch negativity and the differences between the potentials evoked by a deviant stimulus and the ones evoked by a standard stimulus according to the roving paradigm. The results show that nociceptive evoked potentials read over the scalp have more energy than the somatosensory evoked potentials, they also differ in the frequencies that are activated as well as the latencies where such frequencies are activated. These results were obtained after pre-processing the EEG ...
We quantified the oddball effect by comparing the amplitude of early and late Vm responses for pre-oddball and oddball stimuli as well as for the first standard stimulus in trial blocks. Early Vm peak amplitudes were significantly enhanced for oddball compared with pre-oddball stimuli for all cell types (Fig. 3E; by a factor of 3.7, 3.1, and 3.7 for Exc, SST, and PV neurons, respectively; p , 0.01; n = 20, 20, 12). For the late component a significant fourfold to fivefold enhancement of the mean Vm amplitude was observed for Exc and PV neurons (p , 0.05, paired t test). Despite this enhancement, oddball Vm responses were, however, generally ∼20-35% smaller than the responses to the first stimulus. Our finding is consistent with a synaptic mechanism underlying SSA, with deviant tones recovering neuronal activity by recruiting distinct, largely nonadapted afferent pathways together with afferents partially overlapping with those adapted by the standard tone.. We also analyzed the selectivity of ...
All CAEP clinical practice guidelines and endorsements follow a standardized path to ensure quality and acceptance. Please submit your thoughts/ideas for new CAEP guidelines to to Shanna Scarrow at [email protected] who will guide you through the process. Please submit your endorsements to Sara Alfazema at [email protected] ...
It has been proposed that specific language impairment (SLI) is the consequence of low-level abnormalities in auditory perception. However, studies of long-latency auditory ERPs in children with SLI have generated inconsistent findings. A possible reason for this inconsistency is the heterogeneity of SLI. The intraclass correlation (ICC) has been proposed as a useful statistic for evaluating heterogeneity because it allows one to compare an individuals auditory ERP with the grand average waveform from a typically developing reference group. We used this method to reanalyse auditory ERPs from a sample previously described by Uwer, Albrecht and von Suchodoletz (2002). In a subset of children with receptive SLI, there was less correspondence (i.e. lower ICC) with the normative waveform (based on the control grand average) than for typically developing children. This poorer correspondence was seen in responses to both tone and speech stimuli for the period 100-228 ms post stimulus onset. The effect was
This work was supported, in part, by Institute of Educational Sciences Grant R324A110266 to Vanderbilt University (Nashville, TN; awarded to Fred H. Bess) and National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Grants P30 HD15052 and U54 HD083211 to Vanderbilt Kennedy Center. This research was also supported by the Dan and Margaret Maddox Charitable Fund. The content expressed is that of the authors and do not necessarily represent official views of the Institute of Educational Sciences, the U.S. Department of Education, or the National Institutes of Health. Data management was supported, in part, by the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research (UL1 TR000445 from National Center for Advancing Translational Services and National Institutes of Health). We thank Dorita Jones for assistance with event-related potential data processing, as well as students and study staff who assisted in participant recruitment and data collection, including Nick Bennett, Hilary Davis, Andy ...
The P3 wave is one cognitive component of event-related potentials (ERP) used to investigate various types of dementia. The aim of this study was to use the odd-ball paradigm to evaluate the P3 in Huntingtons Disease (HD) gene carriers who showed no symptoms of chorea, compared to a group of mildly affected HD patients. We selected 14 HD patients and six individuals who, despite testing positive for the HD gene, did not show any clinical evidence of the disease. Thirty-six normal subjects were also selected as controls. Statistical evaluation of N1, P2, N2 and P3 latencies and amplitudes was performed in each group. Both the N2 latency and the P3 latency corrected for age (cP3) were significantly correlated with the duration of illness in pooled symptomatic and presymptomatic gene carriers. However, these latencies did not correlate with any clinical scale or psychometric test, including WAIS subtests. As the individual P3 latency of the majority of HD patients and all presymptomatic gene ...
A mathematical model of cochlear processing is developed to account for the nonlinear dependence of frequency selectivity on intensity in inner hair cell and auditory nerve fiber responses. The model describes the transformation from acoustic stimulus to intracellular hair cell potentials in the cochlea. It incorporates a linear formulation of basilar membrane mechanics and subtectorial fluid-cilia displacement coupling, and simplified description of the inner hair cell nonlinear transduction process. The analysis at this stage is restricted to low-frequency single tones. The computed responses to single tone inputs exhibit the experimentally observed nonlinear effects of increasing intensity such as the increase in the bandwidth of frequency selectivity and the downward shift of the best frequency. In the model, the first effect is primarily due to the saturating effect of the hair cell nonlinearity. The second results from the combined effects of both the nonlinearity and the inner hair cell ...
Honing, H., Merchant, H., Háden, G.P., Prado, L. & Bartolo, R. (2012). Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat. PLoS ONE, 7(12): e51369. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051369 It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN) to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in ...
O'Donoghue T, Morris DW, Fahey C, Da Costa A, Moore S, Cummings E, Leicht G, Karch S, Hoerold D, Tropea D, Foxe JJ, Gill M, Corvin A, Donohoe G, Effects of ZNF804A on auditory P300 response in schizophrenia., Translational psychiatry, 4, 2014, e345 ...
The response of a simply supported semi-infinite Timoshenko beam on an elastic foundation to a moving step load is determined. The response is found from summing the solutions to two mutually complementary sets of governing equations. The first solution is a particular solution to the forced equations of motion. The second solution is a solution to a set of homogeneous equations of motion and nonhomogeneous boundary conditions so formulated as to satisfy the initial and boundary conditions of the actual problem when the two solutions are summed. As a particular solution, the steady-state solution is used which is the motion that would appear stationary to an observer traveling with the load. Steady-state solutions are developed in Part 1 of this article for all load speeds greater than zero. It is shown that a steady-state solution which is identically zero ahead of the load front exists at every load speed, in the sense of generalized functions, including the critical speeds when the load ...
Human brain hemispheres are asymmetric. Individual anatomical differences involve widespread cortical and subcortical areas and are more prominent among males [1,2]. The interhemispheric asymmetry is...
The theory and application of control engineering will be discussed. System Modelling: Linear, nonlinear, time invariant, regulator and servomechanisms. Modelling system dynamics by transfer functions, block diagrams, state models. System Response: Transient response of second order systems. Steady state response, steady state errors, frequency response. Stability: simple stability tests, Routh Hurwitz, root locus, Bode and Nyquist. Methods used for design and compensation of control systems such as PID, Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules, lead and lag compensator will be examined. MATLAB software package will be used for control system design and analysis.. ...
Global business knowledge portal connecting international business professionals to a wealth of information, insights, and learning resources on global business activities. globalEDGE is a gateway to specialized international business research knowledge on countries, cross-border business transactions, and cross-cultural management.
Global business knowledge portal connecting international business professionals to a wealth of information, insights, and learning resources on global business activities. globalEDGE is a gateway to specialized international business research knowledge on countries, cross-border business transactions, and cross-cultural management.
Methods of preparing compositions for preferential distribution of active agents to injury sites are provided. The compositions may comprise a polymer with hydrophilic properties and one or more activ
... manufaktur oleh Bossgoo(China)Technology Co., Ltd.; Detail produk China A-line Round leher panjang lutut lapisan Satin gadis bunga gaun.
... manufaktur oleh Bossgoo(China)Technology Co., Ltd.; Detail produk China A-line bergigi leher panjang lutut Taffeta mengacak-acak bunga gadis gaun.
RAW K-Complex by Garden of Life provides RAW Food-Created Nutrients for bone strength, a healthy heart, healthy blood clotting and coagulation.
RAW K-Complex by Garden of Life provides RAW Food-Created Nutrients for bone strength, a healthy heart, healthy blood clotting and coagulation.
Sociologists stress that the definition of what is deviant varies from time to time and from place to place. Some people feel that our society is moving toward regarding cigarette smoking as deviant. Do you agree? If so, how is.
... Port l pro eny. Diskuze, l nky, sout e, bazar, wiki, poradny. Plastick chirurgie, dermatologie, kosmetika, oble en , pohyb, psychologie, ivotn styl.
... Port l pro eny. Diskuze, l nky, sout e, bazar, wiki, poradny. Plastick chirurgie, dermatologie, kosmetika, oble en , pohyb, psychologie, ivotn styl.
The creator of Beavis and Butt-Head explains why techie oddball success is a subject ripe for comedy, as shown in his TV satire Silicon Valley
Report on the Computational Auditory Scene Analysis Workshop Malcolm Slaney, Dan Ellis, Dave Rosenthal Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 19 and 20th, 1995. The first workshop on Computational Auditory Scene Analysis (CASA) was held August 19 and 20th at the 1995 IJCAI (International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence) in Montreal. Organized by Hiroshi Okuno and David Rosenthal, the workshop was attended by about thirty people doing work on scientific and engineering models of human audition and signal processing. Perhaps the workshop will best be remembered as the largest gathering to date of people interested in computer models of auditory scene analysis (ASA). The attendees were nearly evenly split between those that are interested in understanding human auditory perception and those that want to solve problems in auditory perception, perhaps using some of the techniques of auditory scene analysis. Al Bregman served as keynote speaker for the conference. His book, Auditory Scene ...
Individuals with schizophrenia have heterogeneous impairments of the auditory processing system that likely mediate differences in the cognitive gains induced by auditory training (AT). Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential component reflecting auditory echoic memory, and its amplitude reduction in schizophrenia has been linked to cognitive deficits. Therefore, MMN may predict response to AT and identify individuals with schizophrenia who have the most to gain from AT. Furthermore, to the extent that AT strengthens auditory deviance processing, MMN may also serve as a readout of the underlying changes in the auditory system induced by AT. Fifty-six individuals early in the course of a schizophrenia-spectrum illness (ESZ) were randomly assigned to 40 h of AT or Computer Games (CG). Cognitive assessments and EEG recordings during a multi-deviant MMN paradigm were obtained before and after AT and CG. Changes in these measures were compared between the treatment groups. Baseline and trait
Individuals with schizophrenia have heterogeneous impairments of the auditory processing system that likely mediate differences in the cognitive gains induced by auditory training (AT). Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential component reflecting auditory echoic memory, and its amplitude reduction in schizophrenia has been linked to cognitive deficits. Therefore, MMN may predict response to AT and identify individuals with schizophrenia who have the most to gain from AT. Furthermore, to the extent that AT strengthens auditory deviance processing, MMN may also serve as a readout of the underlying changes in the auditory system induced by AT. Fifty-six individuals early in the course of a schizophrenia-spectrum illness (ESZ) were randomly assigned to 40 h of AT or Computer Games (CG). Cognitive assessments and EEG recordings during a multi-deviant MMN paradigm were obtained before and after AT and CG. Changes in these measures were compared between the treatment groups. Baseline ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Associative learning shapes the neural code for stimulus magnitude in primary auditory cortex. AU - Polley, Daniel B.. AU - Heiser, Marc A.. AU - Blake, David T.. AU - Schreiner, Christoph E.. AU - Merzenich, Michael M.. PY - 2004/11/16. Y1 - 2004/11/16. N2 - Since the dawn of experimental psychology, researchers have sought an understanding of the fundamental relationship between the amplitude of sensory stimuli and the magnitudes of their perceptual representations. Contemporary theories support the view that magnitude is encoded by a linear increase in firing rate established in the primary afferent pathways. In the present study, we have investigated sound intensity coding in the rat primary auditory cortex (AI) and describe its plasticity by following paired stimulus reinforcement and instrumental conditioning paradigms. In trained animals, population-response strengths in AI became more strongly nonlinear with increasing stimulus intensity. Individual AI responses became ...
Changes of two components of the auditory event-related potential, the evoked 40-Hz response and the N350, were studied during different stages of wakefulness and sleep. The evoked 40-Hz response has been proposed to represent an attention-modulating mechanism; the N350 seems to reflect an inhibitory process associated with reduced information processing. Because recent literature suggests that both components reflect opposite mechanisms, an inverse relationship was expected. Ten participants were presented with tone pips while reading, lying awake in bed, and during light sleep, slow wave sleep, and REM sleep. A significant evoked 40-Hz response was observed during reading and lying awake in bed. N350 was evident in all conditions and, as expected, peaked during light sleep. The hypothesized inverse relationship was confirmed. These findings support former proposals that relate both components to attention. Possibly, the N350 is most pronounced during the sleep transition period because its inhibitory
Selectively attending to task-relevant sounds whilst ignoring background noise is one of the most amazing feats performed by the human brain. Here, we studied the underlying neural mechanisms by recording magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses of 14 healthy human subjects while they performed a near-threshold auditory discrimination task vs. a visual control task of similar difficulty. The auditory stimuli consisted of notch-filtered continuous noise masker sounds, and of 1020-Hz target tones occasionally () replacing 1000-Hz standard tones of 300-ms duration that were embedded at the center of the notches, the widths of which were parametrically varied. As a control for masker effects, tone-evoked responses were additionally recorded without masker sound. Selective attention to tones significantly increased the amplitude of the onset M100 response at 100 ms to the standard tones during presence of the masker sounds especially with notches narrower than the critical band. Further, attention ...
A novel method is presented for creating a probability map from histologically defined cytoarchitectonic data, customised for the anatomy of individual fMRI volunteers. Postmortem structural and cytoarchitectonic information from a published dataset is combined with high resolution structural MR images using deformable registration of a region of interest. In this paper, we have targeted the three sub-areas of the primary auditory cortex (located on Heschls gyrus); however, the method could be applied to any other cytoarchitectonic region. The resulting probability maps show a significantly higher overlap than previously generated maps using the same cytoarchitectonic data, and more accurately span the macroanatomical structure of the auditory cortex. This improvement indicates a high potential for spatially accurate fMRI analysis, allowing more reliable correlation between anatomical structure and function. We validate the approach using fMRI data from nine individuals, taken from a published ...
Sex Differences in Gamma Band Functional Connectivity Between the Frontal Lobe and Cortical Areas During an Auditory Oddball Task, as Revealed by Imaginary Coherence Assessment
Examples of current source density (CSD) waveforms (A) and CSD maps (B). EEG data (SEPs) shown in Fig. 2 were subjected to CSD transformation. Isolatency dotte
This module continues the analysis of the response of a single-degree-of-freedom system to harmonic excitation by including the effects of viscous damping. The corresponding equations of motion are developed and concepts such as resonance, phase shift and steady-state response for damped systems are discussed. Numerical examples, interactive plots, and steps to create MapleSim simulations are included to enhance the learning experience.
... - Negativity is viral. It spreads quickly, as it is infectious. Stay with a negative person for a while and you will be infected, from out of nowhere your mind will fall into a negative, downward spiral! You know very well that in your family, or in your work place, you are surrounded by umpteen numbers of the carrier of this deadly disease. Negativity is the root cause of diseases, some worse than cancer. We need to discuss various ways and means to take care of this root disease of all illnesses of mind and body.
Bear Antithesis Naked Cosplay Deviant. Enjoy some entertaining nude girls cosplaying as their most loved game, movie, TV or anime series with the added bonus of seeing them getting naked by slowly stripping their cosplay costume in style. These sexy cosplay girls are real Cosplay Deviants as they always want to show their naughty side when they get in the role of their favorite character and get naked. Adult cosplay does not get any better than that, so do not miss your chance to take a peak and enjoy the 18+ only cosplay show that is waiting for you.. - To see more from the sexy girl cosplaying as a hot character getting completely nude…. ...
Underscore Nonbender Naked Cosplay Deviant. Enjoy some entertaining nude girls cosplaying as their most loved game, movie, TV or anime series with the added bonus of seeing them getting naked by slowly stripping their cosplay costume in style. These sexy cosplay girls are real Cosplay Deviants as they always want to show their naughty side when they get in the role of their favorite character and get naked. Adult cosplay does not get any better than that, so do not miss your chance to take a peak and enjoy the 18+ only cosplay show that is waiting for you.. - To see more from the sexy girl cosplaying as a hot character getting completely nude…. ...
A popular method to judge the behavior of a system that has to make decisions is to come up with a measure of performance. Such a system could be a human, an animal, an artificial agent or a classification algorithm. In case of multiple decisions, e.g. between two classes, a straightforward measure is often the Accuracy (i.e., the rate of correct decisions). However, Accuracy is misleading when the true class distribution is unbalanced. This situation is not only common in natural environments, but also often intended experimentally (e.g. in oddball paradigms). Consider, e.g., a situation where we have 990 examples of class A and just 10 examples of class B. Even if we know nothing about how to separate the two classes, we are able to obtain an Accuracy of 99% if we always decide for class A. The problem gets even worse when we want to compare two situations with different class distributions (e.g. when distributions change over time). To deal with such difficulties a lot of measures exist, but ...
... available at DoItTennis.com. Shop with confidence with our consumer-friendly return policy.
vitam ny skladem a za nejlep ceny na patro.cz. Nab z me vitam ny Advance nutraceutics, Akuna, Allivictus, Allnature, Barny s. Na patro.cz naleznete tak Hubnut a celulitida, D tsk v iva, aj.