The connection speed of a technology that involves forward error correction typically refers to the physical layer net bit rate in accordance with the above definition. For example, the net bitrate (and thus the "connection speed") of an IEEE 802.11a wireless network is the net bit rate of between 6 and 54 Mbit/s, while the gross bit rate is between 12 and 72 Mbit/s inclusive of error-correcting codes. The net bit rate of ISDN2 Basic Rate Interface (2 B-channels + 1 D-channel) of 64+64+16 = 144 kbit/s also refers to the payload data rates, while the D channel signalling rate is 16 kbit/s. The net bit rate of the Ethernet 100Base-TX physical layer standard is 100 Mbit/s, while the gross bitrate is 125 Mbit/second, due to the 4B5B (four bit over five bit) encoding. In this case, the gross bit rate is equal to the symbol rate or pulse rate of 125 megabaud, due to the NRZI line code. In communications technologies without forward error correction and other physical layer protocol overhead, there is ...
Looking for frontal p? Find out information about frontal p. in mathematics, flat surface of infinite extent but no thickness. An example of a plane, or more exactly of a bounded portion of a plane, is the surface... Explanation of frontal p
In this study, we used a traditional auditory oddball paradigm, in which participants were required to press a button for the infrequent target stimulus while ignoring the frequent non-target standard stimulus while ignoring the frequent non-target standard stimulus, and focused on P3 component, which is a generic name for a variety of relatively late positive components with a centro-parietal or centro-frontal midline distribution [17, 18]. In addition, we will also investigate the N2, a frontal-central distributed negativity that reflects the stimulus evaluation response including action monitoring, the early target-selection and response preparation [19]. If there were gender effects on cognitive function in patients, it should be reflected by a modulation of the N2 and/or P3 components.. The present study found the P3 component was larger for female than for male participants, for both the patient and control groups. Compared with the control group, there was a decrease in the amplitude of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Negative correlation of reaction times and the auditory P50 in a Go, No- Go paradigm. AU - Ninomiya, Hideaki. AU - Onitsuka, Toshiaki. AU - Chen, Chung H.O.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - We investigated the relationship between reaction times in a Go, No-Go paradigm and various components of the auditory event-related potentials. The P50 latencies in the Go trials were significantly earlier than those in the No-Go trials. The N200 and P300 were positively associated with the reaction times. However, the P50 latencies showed negative correlation with the reaction times, and the negative correlation at F3 was the largest. Referring to source studies on P50, it is suggested that the activation of either the ascending activating system or the left premotor area through that system might affect the speed of reaction.. AB - We investigated the relationship between reaction times in a Go, No-Go paradigm and various components of the auditory event-related potentials. The P50 ...
We report the implementation of a text input application (speller) based on the P300 event related potential. We obtain high accuracies by using an SVM classifier and a novel feature. These techniques enable us to maintain fast performance without sacrificing the accuracy, thus making the speller usable in an online mode. In order to further improve the usability, we perform various studies on the data with a view to minimizing the training time required. We present data collected from nine healthy subjects, along with the high accuracies (of the order of 95% or more) measured online. We show that the training time can be further reduced by a factor of two from its current value of about 20 min. High accuracy, fast learning, and online performance make this P300 speller a potential communication tool for severely disabled individuals, who have lost all other means of communication and are otherwise cut off from the world, provided their disability does not interfere with the performance of the speller.
Bit rate in a PCM Companding system is reduced by transmitting sample magnitude (Xn) if the sample is near a zero-crossing, and transmitting the difference (Dn) between sequential samples if not near a zero-crossing. ROMs are used for mapping (transforming) full versus reduced data.
An object-based analysis-synthesis image sequence coder for transmission bit rates between 8 and 16 kbit/s is presented. Each moving object is described by
Sex Differences in Gamma Band Functional Connectivity Between the Frontal Lobe and Cortical Areas During an Auditory Oddball Task, as Revealed by Imaginary Coherence Assessment
Auditory novelty detection has been associated with different cognitive processes. Bekinschtein et al. (2009) developed an experimental paradigm to dissociate these processes, using local and global novelty, which were associated, respectively, with automatic versus strategic perceptual processing. They have mostly been studied using event-related potentials (ERPs), but local spiking activity as indexed by gamma (60-120 Hz) power and interactions between brain regions as indexed by modulations in beta-band (13-25 Hz) power and functional connectivity have not been explored. We thus recorded 9 epileptic patients with intracranial electrodes to compare the precise dynamics of the responses to local and global novelty. Local novelty triggered an early response observed as an intracranial mismatch negativity (MMN) contemporary with a strong power increase in the gamma band and an increase in connectivity in the beta band. Importantly, all these responses were strictly confined to the temporal ...
We used high-density event-related potentials (ERP) in a modified flanker paradigm to study the role of anticipated action consequences in action planning and the role of anticipation in the perception of action consequences. Prior to the experiment, participants were trained to classify target letters in a four-alternative forced-choice task; another letter was presented as an effect following each response. After participants had thus acquired the response-effect contingencies, in the experiment effect letters were presented as flankers to target letters. Effect-compatible flankers were letters that were learned as effects of the correct response to the target; effect-incompatible ones were learned as effects of other responses; neutral flankers were never presented as action effects. To help distinguish early and late effects of flankers on target processing, flankers were presented either simultaneously with the target or after a delay. We found that effect-incompatible flankers resulted in ...
松岡 洋夫 , 中村 真樹 精神神經學雜誌 = Psychiatria et neurologia Japonica 107(4), 307-322, 2005-04-25 医中誌Web 参考文献58件 被引用文献2件 ...
M4A (AAC) exports: The Quality Slider in "Specify AAC Options" has no effect if the FFmpeg library is built with the libvo-aac encoder, as are recommended builds of FFmpeg for Windows and Mac OS X. Workaround: You can specify a constant bit rate if you select "Custom FFmpeg Export". Click the Options... button, choose "mp4" in the formats list and "libvo_aacenc" in the codecs list, then set bit rate in bits per second. Up to 320000 bps (320 kbps) is supported. Given the alternative AAC encoders for FFmpeg also have problems as described in these notes, you can instead export as WAV and convert to AAC in iTunes on Windows and Mac ...
Although cognitive decline is a heterogeneous disorder, the first abnormality associated with cognitive impairment is a decline in electrophysiological processing speed. This sets off a whole cascade of changes leading to declines in memory, attention, IQ, and changes in temperament. Brain speed can be measured by the P300 wave on a q EEG. The P300 wave is an event-related potential that can be recorded via EEG as a positive deflection in voltage at a latency of roughly 300+ age msec. The presence, magnitude, topography, and time of this signal can measure processing speed. The generation of the P300 event-related potential is influenced by the glutamatergic, GABAergic, cholinergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic systems. P300 latency is dominantly cholinergic, whereby decreased latency (increased processing speed) is associated with a well-functioning cholinergic system. The psychotropic medications used to treat dementia interact with these neurotransmitter systems. For example, ...
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If you believe that digital publication of certain material infringes any of your rights or (privacy) interests, please let the Library know, stating your reasons. In case of a legitimate complaint, the Library will make the material inaccessible and/or remove it from the website. Please Ask the Library, or send a letter to: Library of the University of Amsterdam, Secretariat, Singel 425, 1012 WP Amsterdam, The Netherlands. You will be contacted as soon as possible. ...
The dBm figure is the power related to a specific carrier bandwidth.(BW). Normaly, for a carrier , this is the power in the 3 dB bandwidth.. If you use a spectrum analyser to measure the carrier power, you must make sure to use a resolution bandwidth which is greater than the carrier BW, but not so wide it takes in the power of any adjacent carrier.. With the digital spec. ana. it is possible to set up line markers to measure the total power between ther markes. (In the old days you had to use the calculator to figure this out). A single forward bearer type has been chosen for use in the narrow beam. This bearer has a bandwidth of 189 kHz and uses 16 QAM modulation with a bit rate of 200-492kbps. (F80T4.5X). If the C/N0 is 69.5 dBHz: (Bear in mind that this figure is (negative dB) -69,5 dBHz). The power in the bearer is: -69.5 + (10log189K) =, -69,5 + 52,7 = -16,7 dBm. Additional comments to the discussion dBm and dBHz. The term log means logarithm with base 10. The acronym dB stands for ...
Source: BD-50 @ DDR Size: 1.77 GB General Format : M2TS Overall bit rate : 5 513 Mbps Video Format : AVC Format/Info : Advanced Video Codec Format pro
효연, 민, 조권 - Born to be Wild (Feat. 박진영) Release Date: 2016.08.26 Genre/Style: Dance Bit Rate: MP3-320kbps Rating (MelOn): 4.0/5 (628 votes) Please comment or click thanks if ...
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Części ciała po angielsku (zdjęcia i wymowa) - Ćwiczenia i testy interaktywne z języka angielskiego. Polecenie: Create sentences by choosing the correct words.
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Hodnota webu. Cena webové stránky? id-nes.cz je bezplatný kalkulátor cen webu, internetových stránek a domén. Prodat nebo koupit webové stránky.
Hodnota webu. Cena webové stránky? id-nes.cz je bezplatný kalkulátor cen webu, internetových stránek a domén. Prodat nebo koupit webové stránky.
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Seminarky.cz - Velk katalog - obsahuje refer ty, maturitn ot zky, semin rn pr ce, skripta, ten sk den k, p edn ky, diplomov pr ce a dal
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do kterych nalil miliony pred volbami, aby je duverivy ovcan jeste jednou zvolil, neraduji se ja. Tenhle soudem oznaceny gauner, co pripravil o bydleni v Ostrave tisice lidi, si jen zaplatil dalsi 4 nerusene roky v nastale mafianske kleptokracii, a ja se jen ptam, co ma za nehty, ze se toho Paroubka tak boji.. http://denikreferendum.cz/clanek/12586-bakala-neuspel-s-pokusem-obnovit-soud-se-zaoralkem-oznaceni-gauner-byla-kritika ...
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The Gaslight Anthem vydali po singlu 45 i druhý, který je tentokrát nejen názvem přímo spjatý s názvem nového alba.... číst více. ...
Neperlivá pramenitá voda nejvyšší kvality. Pochází z artéského 170 m hlubokého podzemního zdroje, který vyvěrá v podhůří Nízkého Jeseníku.
ale kdo z nep zp sobiv ch mn vykradl kav rnu a je t p ed otev en m mn existen n ohrozil,to asi nikoho nep l ,m m tedy podat alobu na nezn m ho pachatele, e po kodil mn jako jednotlivce??????Grrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr a ten mysl,nav c vykonal.Kdyby jim ta babi ka ten plyn,pustila, i myslela-li kysl k ubrala,takhle ji soudit,za slova......copak cik ni lidem okolo nevyhro uj jdi...do p....a podobn ?Pod v na n snad n kdo alobu ...
V brněnském klubu Melodka byly vyhlášeny výsledky 14. ročníku cen Břitva. Držitele cen určilo hlasování 52 převážně rockových, metalových či punkových publicistů.. Navigace. ...
Profil kapely Madhouse Express (psychedelic-rock) z města Praha, obsahující písničky k poslechu, mp3, koncerty, alba, videoklipy, texty a fotky.
Byli jsme finalisty celostátní soutěže internetových obchodů ShopRoku v ročnících 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012 a 2011. Jsme držiteli certifikátu Ověřeno zákazníky.. ...
Byli jsme finalisty celostátní soutěže internetových obchodů ShopRoku v ročnících 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012 a 2011. Jsme držiteli certifikátu Ověřeno zákazníky.. ...
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Dysfunction of higher cognitive abilities occurs in 40-60 % of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), as detected with neuropsychological testing, with predominant involvement of executive functions and processing speed. Event-related potentials to the Stroop are a bioelectrical correlate of executive function. We tested whether event-related potentials to the executive Stroop test may reflect executive dysfunction in MS. 29 MS patients (M/F:14/15; mean age 40 ± 8), and 16 healthy control subjects were included in the study (M/F:7/9; mean age 36 ± 10). Patients underwent a neuropsychological battery and, according to the performance obtained, they were divided in two groups: 13 frontal patients (F-MS; M/F:6/7; mean age: 40 ± 8) and 16 non frontal patients (NF-MS; M/F:8/8; mean age: 41 ± 7). Simple and complex reaction times to the Stroop task were measured using a computerized system. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to the same stimuli were obtained from 29 channel EEG, during mental discrimination
The P3 wave is one cognitive component of event-related potentials (ERP) used to investigate various types of dementia. The aim of this study was to use the odd-ball paradigm to evaluate the P3 in Huntingtons Disease (HD) gene carriers who showed no symptoms of chorea, compared to a group of mildly affected HD patients. We selected 14 HD patients and six individuals who, despite testing positive for the HD gene, did not show any clinical evidence of the disease. Thirty-six normal subjects were also selected as controls. Statistical evaluation of N1, P2, N2 and P3 latencies and amplitudes was performed in each group. Both the N2 latency and the P3 latency corrected for age (cP3) were significantly correlated with the duration of illness in pooled symptomatic and presymptomatic gene carriers. However, these latencies did not correlate with any clinical scale or psychometric test, including WAIS subtests. As the individual P3 latency of the majority of HD patients and all presymptomatic gene ...
This work was supported, in part, by Institute of Educational Sciences Grant R324A110266 to Vanderbilt University (Nashville, TN; awarded to Fred H. Bess) and National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Grants P30 HD15052 and U54 HD083211 to Vanderbilt Kennedy Center. This research was also supported by the Dan and Margaret Maddox Charitable Fund. The content expressed is that of the authors and do not necessarily represent official views of the Institute of Educational Sciences, the U.S. Department of Education, or the National Institutes of Health. Data management was supported, in part, by the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research (UL1 TR000445 from National Center for Advancing Translational Services and National Institutes of Health). We thank Dorita Jones for assistance with event-related potential data processing, as well as students and study staff who assisted in participant recruitment and data collection, including Nick Bennett, Hilary Davis, Andy ...
An engaging Q & A format is used to discuss how auditory evoked-related potentials can help understand the cognitive factors involved in word recognition. 12731 AudiologyOnline Article
Ripper ...........:IMAGiNE IMDB Rating.......:7.7/10 Video Codec.......:XVID Release Date......:28/08/10 Audio Codec.......:AC3 Theatre Date......:13/08/10 Audio Bitrate.....:384 Runtime...........:1h 39mn Subtitles.........:English Language..........:ENGLISH Resolution........:704 x 304 IMDb URL..........:http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1320253/ DETAILS: Video Format : MPEG-4 Visual Format profile : Streaming [email protected] Format settings, BVOP : Yes Format settings, QPel : No Format settings, GMC : No warppoints Format settings, Matrix : Default Muxing mode : Packed bitstream Codec ID : XVID Codec ID/Hint : XviD Duration : 1h 39mn Bit rate : 1 577 Kbps Width : 704 pixels Height : 304 pixels Display aspect ratio : 2.35 Frame rate : 25.000 fps Resolution : 24 bits Colorimetry : 4:2:0 Scan type : Progressive Bits/(Pixel*Frame) : 0.295 Stream size : 1.09 GiB (80%) Writing library : XviD 50 Audio Format : AC-3 Format/Info : Audio Coding 3 Codec ID : 2000 Duration : 1h 39mn Bit rate mode : Constant Bit rate ...
O'Donoghue T, Morris DW, Fahey C, Da Costa A, Moore S, Cummings E, Leicht G, Karch S, Hoerold D, Tropea D, Foxe JJ, Gill M, Corvin A, Donohoe G, Effects of ZNF804A on auditory P300 response in schizophrenia., Translational psychiatry, 4, 2014, e345 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reproducibility of p3. AU - Zamrini, Edward Y.. AU - Meador, Kimford J.. AU - Thompson, William O.. AU - Lee, Gregory P. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - The P3 event-related potential has been widely employed in both clinical and research investigations. In the present study, P3 latency and amplitude intersession reliability were evaluated in 4 sessions over an average of 33 days in 24 healthy adults using the P3 tonal oddball paradigm. Mean group latencies ranged from 302-305 ms and mean amplitudes ranged from 7.75-8.87 μV. No significant group differences were found across sessions for latency or amplitude. Intrasubject variability was large; the 95% confidence interval for the difference between the means of two combined sessions was ±20 ms for latency and ±4.63 μV for amplitude. The results suggest that P3 latency and amplitude are reliable and reproducible over weeks for groups, but have greater variability for individuals.. AB - The P3 event-related potential has ...
Tinnitus related distress corresponds to different degrees of attention paid to the tinnitus. Shifting attention to a signal other than the tinnitus is therefore particularly difficult for patients wi
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Aspects of Digital-to-Analog Conversion• Bit rate is the number of bits per second.• Baud rate is the number of signal elements per second.• I…
Furthermore, we propose that the beat-induced periodic EEG response identified in the present study may constitute a direct correlate of the actual mechanism through which attentional and perceptual processes are dynamically modulated as a function of time. Indeed, the responsiveness of the neuronal population that is entrained to the beat may be expected to vary according to the phase of the beat-induced cycle. Most importantly, this hypothesis would account for the previous observations that event-related potentials elicited at different time points relative to the beat or meter cycle exhibit differences in amplitude (Brochard et al., 2003; Snyder and Large, 2005; Pablos Martin et al., 2007; Grube and Griffiths, 2009; Iversen et al., 2009; Fujioka et al., 2010; Schaefer et al., 2011). Indeed, several electrophysiological studies in primates including humans have suggested that when the activity of a neuronal population synchronizes at a given frequency, the phase of the induced oscillations ...
The root sphingo- comes from the Greek word sphingein which means to to hold fast. There are 12 different entries containing this root. glycosphingolipid- any of various lipids (such as a cerebroside or a ganglioside) sphingometer- an instrument for measuring the bending of a strut (as by deflection of beams of light) sphingomyelin- any of…
A popular method to judge the behavior of a system that has to make decisions is to come up with a measure of performance. Such a system could be a human, an animal, an artificial agent or a classification algorithm. In case of multiple decisions, e.g. between two classes, a straightforward measure is often the Accuracy (i.e., the rate of correct decisions). However, Accuracy is misleading when the true class distribution is unbalanced. This situation is not only common in natural environments, but also often intended experimentally (e.g. in oddball paradigms). Consider, e.g., a situation where we have 990 examples of class A and just 10 examples of class B. Even if we know nothing about how to separate the two classes, we are able to obtain an Accuracy of 99% if we always decide for class A. The problem gets even worse when we want to compare two situations with different class distributions (e.g. when distributions change over time). To deal with such difficulties a lot of measures exist, but ...