In addition to being practiced in a number of countries, eugenics was internationally organized through the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations.[28] Its scientific aspects were carried on through research bodies such as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics,[29] the Cold Spring Harbour Carnegie Institution for Experimental Evolution,[30] and the Eugenics Record Office.[31] Politically, the movement advocated measures such as sterilization laws.[32] In its moral dimension, eugenics rejected the doctrine that all human beings are born equal and redefined moral worth purely in terms of genetic fitness.[33] Its racist elements included pursuit of a pure Nordic race or Aryan genetic pool and the eventual elimination of unfit races.[34][35] Many leading British politicians subscribed to the theories of eugenics. Winston Churchill supported the British Eugenics Society and was an honorary vice president for the organization. Churchill believed ...
Eugenics is a scheme for improving the human race by controlling reproduction. The practice of eugenics reached its height in the period between the latenineteenth century and World War II, when German Nazis carried eugenic principles to the extremes of mass sterilization and genocide. Different forms of eugenics have been practiced around the world and are currently in effect in the Peoples Republic of China, where reproduction is strictly limited. With the advent of medical research such as the Human Genome Project, society is still trying to resolve the ethical issues raised by eugenic theories.. The general concept of eugenics is first mentioned in Greek records dating back to 368 BC. Plato and Aristotle both refer to the city states need for healthy citizens to form an elite ruling class and army. In this earliest blueprint for eugenics, men and women were encouraged to reproduce when they were at the peak of their physical and mental powers, in order to conceive the healthiest and most ...
War Against The Weak: Eugenics and Americas Campaign to Create a Master Race, by Edward Black. 550 pp, with notes, appendices and bibliography. Four Walls Eight Windows, New York.. With vigor and eloquence, Pope John Paul II has spoken against the culture of death. Without too much thought, one might believe that culture is of recent vintage and found in legal abortion and the debate over legalizing euthanasia.. But the culture of death is much older, and may well have its roots in the eugenics programs of the early 20th century. Writing in War Against The Weak: Eugenics and Americas Campaign to Create A Master Race, Edwin Black casts an unwelcome spotlight on an ugly time when American leaders and philanthropic institutions virtually created eugenics and sought to stop the unfit from reproducing.. As valuable as the book is, however, Black doesnt draw, at least explicitly, one important connection: Without the State, eugenics is impossible.. Early Eugenics. The book begins with a ...
Eugenics in California is a notable part of eugenics in America. As an early leading force in the field of eugenics, California became the third state in the United States to enact a sterilization law. By 1921, California had accounted for 80% of the sterilizations nationwide. This continued until World War II, after which the number of sterilizations began to decrease, largely due to the fallout of Hitlers eugenics movement. There were about 20,000 forced sterilizations in California between 1909 and 1963. Records of eugenics practices in California are held at the following agencies and institutions. The records are still protected for confidentiality reasons. California State Archives, Sacramento Sonoma State Hospital Records Mendocino State Hospital Records Modesto State Hospital Records California Youth Authority/Whittier State Home Records Department of Mental Hygiene Records (incomplete) Legislative Histories (microfilm) Patton State Hospital Patton State Hospital Records Napa State ...
He hasnt said much of anything about CRISPR gene editing technology that can readily alter the genetic code of cells of nearly any organism, including humans, but Trump has a fascination with the concept of good genes that sounds eerily similar to eugenics and could link together CRISPR & Eugenics.. If you watch the video above, youll see many striking quotes from Trump on his amazing genes.. Whats the deal? Could Trump be a eugenicist without even knowing it? Wheres the line if any between snobbery and eugenics? Can the idea of genes unite the two?. The word eugenics can be taken literally to mean good birth or good genes. In the past, eugenics as a movement has largely been associated with societal disasters where certain individuals or groups decided that some segments of society were intrinsically inferior. As a result, these groups were oppressed or even killed. The Nazis embraced eugenics, but so did many Americans especially in the early 20th century when forced sterilization ...
This paper deals with theme field of eugenics, with detailed analysis of new or how ih has been called now- laissez faire eugenics, and its effects on human society. I will show how the idea of improving human species was a necessity which people tried to achieve since the ancient times, however the scientific meaning was given to eugenics by Francis Galton in 19. st. Since then eugenics was used as scientific justification for social inequalities and superiority of one race over another. After the second world war, eugenics has disappeared from the world scene, to raise again with progress of genetical engineering, and to use it as its main weapon. Todays eugenics differs from the old one with methods and goals, and I will try to explain those differences in detail in separate part of this paper. Furthermore, example of modern Chinese eugenics show one transitional model from old to new eugenics, were personal choice which represents characteristic of new eugenics ih highly conditioned by laws ...
Hitler and his henchmen victimized an entire continent and exterminated millions in his quest for a co-called Master Race. But the concept of a white, blond-haired, blue-eyed master Nordic race was not Hitlers. The idea was created in the United States, and cultivated in Connecticut, two to three decades before Hitler came to power, the product of the American eugenics movement. Hartford and indeed the state of Connecticut played an important albeit unknown role in this countrys campaign of ethnic cleansing. Whats more, Connecticut was an important player in Americas eugenic nexus with Nazi Germany. Eugenics was the racist American pseudoscience determined to wipe away all human beings except those who conformed to a Nordic stereotype. The philosophy was enshrined into national policy by forced sterilization and segregation laws, as well as marriage restrictions enacted in 27 states. In 1909, Connecticut became the third state to adopt such laws. Ultimately, eugenics coercively sterilized ...
Ive talked to a lot of Jews about this sort of thing and for many of them, especially those of Eastern European descent it is very hard to convince them that this sort of procedure has no similarity at all to anything the Nazis were doing.. Interestingly, some of the more recent commentators on eugenics are Jewish. For instance, John Glad & Seymour Itzkoff. Itzkoff writes the preface to Glads e-book Future Human Evolution: Eugenics in the Twenty-First Century:. The term eugen-ics has been on an ideological hit list both by the irrational left as well as by an intimidated public. However, as Dr. Glad points out, clearly and authoritatively, there is virtually no factual basis for what can only be seen as a totemic reaction. The mere mention of eugenics elicits knee-jerk reaction-Nazi genocide, forced sterilization. Yet by any standard of rational analysis, this vision of improvement for the human species has a strong humanistic tradition to support its fur-ther application.. The real ...
Writing for the majority in the Supreme Courts affirmative decision of the Buck v. Bell landmark case, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. described Charlottesville native Carrie Buck as the probable potential parent of socially inadequate offspring, likewise afflicted stating that her welfare and that of society will be promoted by her sterilization.. Current scholarship shows that Carrie Bucks sterilization relied on a false diagnosis premised on the now discredited science of eugenics. It is likely that Carries mother, Emma Buck, was committed to a state institution because she was considered sexually promiscuous, that the same diagnosis was made about Carrie when she became an unwed mother at the age of 17 due to being raped, and that her daughter Vivian was diagnosed as not quite normal at the age of six months largely in support of the legal effort to sterilize Carrie.. ...
We already knew about chemical contraception, the tool par excellence of contemporary eugenics. Immunization policy is another angle of attack using state interference in medicine.. With 11 compulsory vaccines for babies under 2 years of age, we are certain to see a sharp worsening of the autism epidemic. And maybe thats really the goal.. Smart bureaucrats have come to coldly decide to harm the health of the new generation.. Because, beyond the arrogance and stupidity of any bureaucracy, there is also their underlying mentality: eugenics. The aim of eugenicists, who always seek to select a superior race, was and still is to remove the most fragile 5% from society. Like Francis Galton, Charles Darwin or Alexis Carrel and the Rockefellers, they wanted to keep the weakest people out of life, this time by crippling them very severely, only to sterilize them and park them in closed institutions.. Contemporary eugenics has changed symbols and vocabulary since the post-war period (1945) and now claims ...
Contemporary advocates for birth control exhibit no awareness whatsoever that birth control was always conceived in the context of eliminating the unfit, ie., eugenics. Eugenics, in turn, was considered a straight-forward logical extension of Darwinism. Eugenics was seen as human control of human evolution, and was always tied into discussions on population control. These are … Continue reading ». ...
Contemporary advocates for birth control exhibit no awareness whatsoever that birth control was always conceived in the context of eliminating the unfit, ie., eugenics. Eugenics, in turn, was considered a straight-forward logical extension of Darwinism. Eugenics was seen as human control of human evolution, and was always tied into discussions on population control. These are … Continue reading ». ...
iJMii^MlilMli UNC-CM HEALTH SCIENCES L1BR4R I II! I,l III jll 11 IN II III mil II H00006283 of ti)e D{t)t0fon of ^ealtf) affairs (^niDetjSitp of H^otti) (STatoIina i 1 i Form No. Biennial Report OF The Eugenics Board of North Carolina July 1, 1940 To June 30, 1942 R. Eugene Brown, Secretary TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Members of Board and Office Staff 4 Letter of Transmittal 5 Report of Secretary 7 Statistical Tables 10 EUGENICS BOARD OF NORTH CAROLINA Mrs. W, T. Bost, Commissioner of Public Welfare, Chairman Hon. Harry McMullan, Attorney General Dr. Carl V. Reynolds, Secretary and State Health Officer, State Board of Health Dr. J. W. AsHBY, Superintendent, State Hospital, Raleigh Dr. F. L. Whelpley, Superintendent, State Hospital, Goldsboro STAFF R. Eugene Brown, Secretari/ Margaret Runnion, Office Secretary LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL To His Excellency, J. Melville Broughton, Governor of North Carolina. Dear Sir : I have the honor of submitting herewith the report of the Eugenics Board of North ...
Yet in truth the threat of eugenics is fainter than ever. This is for three reasons. First, the essence of eugenics was compulsion: it was the state deciding who should be allowed to breed, or to survive, for the supposed good of the race. As long as we prevent coercion, we will not have eugenics. Our politics would have to change far more drastically than our science.
Is President Donald Trump a fan of eugenics? He seems to believe that he comes from greatly superior genetic stock. He hasnt said much of anything about CRISPR gene editing technology that can readily alter the genetic code of cells of nearly any organism, including humans, but Trump has a fascination with the concept of good genes that sounds eerily similar to eugenics and could link together CRISPR & Eugenics. If you watch the video above, youll see many striking quotes from Trump on his …Read More. ...
Eugenics is notorious for its racial/breeding/heredity dimension. Less well known is that it also has a behavioral dimension - anti-tobacco/alcohol (negative eugenics - viewed as body poisons), dietary prescriptions/proscriptions, physical exercise [find a eugenics text at a uni library. It will typically have sections on anti-tobacco and anti-alcohol] Eugenics reduced all to the physical. Health was perversely reduced to only a physical, absence-of-disease phenomenon (biological reductionism), devoid of any other dimensions, e.g., mental, social. Humans are viewed as not too different from a herd of cattle that can be engineered along particular dimensions for the best biological herd result. Eugenics was embraced/funded by the mega-wealthy (e.g., Rockefeller, Ford, Harriman, Carnegie) and the educated classes. There were few critics of eugenics at the time. The eugenics promise was the eradication of poverty, crime, and disease. It did no such thing. It brought out the worst in people - ...
Malacrida, a University of Lethbridge sociology professor, became interested in the residents of Michener Centre while working on a book project with the Alberta Association for Community Living when she was a doctoral student.. That project traced the lives of some 40 people and their experiences of living in provincial institutions, including Red Deers Michener Centre, established in 1923 for people who were labeled as being mentally defective. This label made them vulnerable to Albertas eugenics laws allowing forced sterilization of mental defectives, which were in effect from 1928 to 1972.. Im interested in Michener primarily because it was the largest feeder for the eugenics program. I began collecting stories and I ended up interviewing 22 survivors, people who had lived there primarily between the 50s and the 80s, she says. All of them left as a result of the deinstitutionalization movement. Many of them were admitted in very early childhood and stayed many decades. It was a ...
The implementation by the Presidents New Freedom Commission (NFC) to screen the entire United States population - children first - for presumed, undetected, mental illness is an ill- conceived policy destined for disastrous consequences. The pseudoscientific methods used to screen for mental and behavioral abnormalities are a legacy from the discredited ideology of eugenics. Both eugenics and psychiatry suffer from a common philosophical fallacy that undermines the validity of their theories and prescriptions. Both are wed to a faith-based ideological assumption that mental and behavior manifestations are biologically determined, and are, therefore, ameliorated by biological interventions. NFC promoted the Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP) as a model medication treatment plan. The impact of TMAP is evident in the skyrocketing increase in psychotropic drug prescriptions for children and adults, and in the disproportionate expenditure for psychotropic drugs. The New Freedom ...
Although the sterilization laws were passed in 1919 and 1929, the Eugenics Board was organized in July 1933. In four short months, the Board started receiving petitions to sterilize North Carolinians. From 1933 until 1977, the year the Board closed and the eugenics program in North Carolina ended, the state government had sterilized approximately 7,600 individuals (male and female and white and black).
China and its revolution have been a prime example of how eugenics can be implemented on a society as whole. As many people know, China has adopted the one child policy. This was due to lobbying from several eugenics organizations including Planned Parenthood and the United Nations. This policy was phased in, in the 1960s. Citizens who do not follow this policy were faced with heavy fines. Later the punishment would become more severe and parents are now being imprisoned if they fail to comply. The combination of forced abortions and the cultural desire for families to have male children has plunged China into an extensive dilemma. There are now 30 million more men than women. All opposes are sent to forced labor camps. Their blood and tissue types are saved for organ harvesting. The Chinese government then sells the organs of its prisoners to buyers on the world market. Elderly and disabled people are euthanized ...
Annals of Eugenics. Utg. K . Pearson og E. M. Elderton, Cambridge University Press. Archiv der Julius- Klaus Stiftung. Zürich. Utg. Orell Füssli. Archiv für Rassen- und Gesellschaftsbiologie. Utg. A. Ploetz og F. Lenz, München. Das kommende Geschlecht. Zeitschrift für Eugenik. Utg. H. Muckermann. Berlin og Bonn. Der Biologe. Utg. E. Lehmann. Tübingen. Der Erbarzt. Utg. Deutscher Ärztevereinsbund og Verband der Ärzte Deutschlands. (Hartmannbund.) Leder Frh. O. v. Verschuer. Die Sonne. Utg. W. Kulz. Leipzig. Erfeligkheid bij de mens. Utg. W. P. van Stockum og Zoon. Eugenical News. Utg. «Eugenics Research Association». og «Galton Society». Leder C. B. Davenport. Long Island, N. Y. Cold Spring Harbor. Eugenics. Organ for «American Eugenics Society», New Haven, Conn. Eugenics Review. Organ for «Eugenics Society», London. Leder E. Moore. Eugenik. Utg. A. Ostermann. Berlin. Genetica. Utg. J. P. Lotzy, sGravenhage. Genetics. Utg. G. H. Shull. Brooklyn Botanical Gardens. Hereditas. Utg. ...
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The Progress of Eugenic Sterilization Paul Popenoe Human Betterment Foundation, Pasadena More than 150,000,000 people are now living under laws providing for eugenic sterilization in selected cases. The operations used for sterilizing patients, without unsexing them, are of relatively recent origin. It is true that as long ago as 1823, Dr. James Blundell read a paper before the Medico-Chirurgical Society of London in which he suggested that the fallopian tubes, which conduct the egg cell from the ovary to the uterus, might be cut at the time of a Caesarean operation, thus preventing future pregnancy. But so far as is known, Dr. Blundell never performed such an operation, but merely offered it as a possibility. In 1881 Dr. S. S. Lungren of Toledo, Ohio, tied the tubes of a patient with silk at the time of a Caesarean section in order to prevent future pregnancy. Such a ligature is still used sometimes, but since about one case in five ends in failure, it cannot be regarded as good surgical ...
During the 20th Century many countries around the world adopted policies, influenced by the ideas of eugenics. The general purpose of these eugenic policies was meant to improve the genetic stock of each countrys superior population. Most people are probably aware of the eugenic policies of the Nazi government in Germany. Less well known are the eugenic beliefs of other world leaders, such as Winston Churchill, Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt ...
In Tuesdays ruling on Indianas abortion law, Justice Clarence Thomas took the national debate over the right to choose to a dark new place: eugenics. His 20-page concurring opinion included an extensive discussion of the eugenics movement of the early 20th century. Thomas argued that as the justices consider abortion going forward, they should pay more attention to its potential to become a tool of eugenic manipulation.. In making his argument, Thomas cited my book Imbeciles: The Supreme Court, American Eugenics, and the Sterilization of Carrie Buck repeatedly. (He also cited an article I wrote about Harvards ties to eugenics). I dont want to appear ungrateful: Its an honor to be relied on by the highest court in the land, and these days, nonfiction authors appreciate just being read at all. But Thomas used the history of eugenics misleadingly, and in ways that could dangerously distort the debate over abortion.. Thomass opinion came as an addendum to a decision that sidestepped the most ...
Ann Farmer traces the development of abortion from its eugenics days right to the present hour. You might associate eugenics with Hitler and the Holocaust. But it was actually a British geneticist, Francis Galton, who coined the term eugenics in 1883.. Eugenics literally means good genes, good race, or good stock. It became an international academic discipline, with research journals, conferences, books, and scientific centres - all devoted to the study of eugenics. The eugenicists believed that they should intervene in human population and reproduction so that the genes of the human race would be improved.. In addition, the eugenicists were almost always radical believers in the theory of overpopulation. The theory of overpopulation originated the writings of Thomas Malthus, an English cleric and scholar, in 1798. He stated that the human population was growing at an unsustainable rate and that by 1890 there would be no food as a result. He therefore advocated restricting access to ...
The word Eugenics means good genes. Eugenicists believe that principles of Darwins theory regarding the survival of the fittest can be used to support the elimination of weak and undesirable people from society. When Adolf Hitler applied Darwins theory of evolution and the principles of eugenics to the goals of the German state, the result was the murder of eleven million men, women and children. These lives were sacrificed in the name of eugenics. Eugenicists were seeking to improve the conditions of life for humanity by creating a superior race of people. The eugenics movement had a very dark side, which led to social control, loss of reproductive freedom, and the loss of life. Should we be concerned that modern genetic science might have a dark side as well? Will the fruit of genetic research be misused by ill-intentioned people to gain control over others as happened with eugenics in the past? Has modern genetics completely severed itself from its roots? Or, might it become the tool ...
Want to live smart healthy baby to avoid 10 dangerous mistakes! Sohu maternal child is quantity, or quality? The answer is definitely the latter, so, how to give birth to high quality baby? It must be mentioned that eugenics. Eugenics is a broad topic, many aspects are related to the behavior of eugenics. In addition to eugenics can make more healthy offspring, but also can reduce the pain due to birth defects to the family. Here, let us explore the birth of the minefield. Chongqing Modern Womens Hospital doctors, 10 errors of eugenics, want to give birth to a healthy baby clever words, remember to avoid inbreeding, 1 oh. As a result of the law of heredity, consanguineous marriage can lead to childrens mental decline or deformity, congenital diseases will increase the chance of occurrence. 2, sick pregnant. The disease will bring the crisis to the family, if the sick pregnant and children, will affect the childs health. 3, the elderly pregnant. The best age for women is 25-30 years old, ...
Full history exposed: Tribeca Film Festival carrying out Nazi agenda of genocide, eugenics and extermination via science and medicine
The United States During the Progressive era, ca. 1890 to 1920, was the first country to concertedly undertake compulsory sterilization programs for the purpose of eugenics.[109] Thomas C. Leonard, professor at Princeton University, describes American eugenics and sterilization as ultimately rooted in economic arguments and further as a central element of Progressivism alongside wage controls, restricted immigration, and the introduction of pension programs.[110] The heads of the programs were avid proponents of eugenics and frequently argued for their programs which achieved some success nationwide mainly in the first half of the 20th Century. Eugenics had two essential components. First, its advocates accepted as axiomatic that a range of mental and physical handicaps-blindness, deafness, and many forms of mental illness-were largely, if not entirely, hereditary in cause. Second, they assumed that these scientific hypotheses could be used as the basis of social engineering across several ...
Posted on 06/13/2007 11:59:38 AM PDT by LUMary. Eugenic Darwinism by: Wendy Cook, June 04, 2007 Charles Darwin is partly to blame for eugenics, according to Discovery Institute senior fellow John West. Merriam-Webster s defines eugenics as a science that deals with the improvement (as by control of human mating) of hereditary qualities of a race or breed. Darwin said that because of our sense of compassion we couldn t simply follow the dictates of reason and get rid of the unfit, but he certainly provided the logical basis for why we should do so and later the eugenicists quoted this passage and they weren t quoting it out of context, because in The Descent of Man Darwin really did argue that our progress as humans is dependent on a struggle for survival and that we were really impeding human progress by trying to undercut that struggle for survival, Dr. West explained to an audience at the Family Research Council recently. With savages, the weak in body or mind are soon eliminated; and those ...
After a ten-year deliberation process, North Carolina is set to be the first state to offer monetary compensation to victims of government-sponsored sterilization. Between 1929 and 1974, the state sterilized an estimated 7,600 people by choice, force or coercion under the authority of the North Carolina Eugenics Board program. The North Carolina General Assembly in…
Two men sued the state Monday for damages over their forced sterilization under a now-defunct eugenics protection law that mandated the prevention of peopl
HOUSE SELECT COMMITTEE ON COMPENSATION FOR VICTIMS OF THE EUGENICS STERILIZATION PROGRAM REPORT TO THE 2009 SESSION of the 2009 GENERAL ASSEMBLY DECEMBER 2008 N O R T H C A R O L I N A G E N E R A L A S S EMB LY ...
Written by Pamela Merritt for RH Reality Check. This diary is cross-posted; commenters wishing to engage directly with the author should do so at the original post. A task force in North Carolina recently ruled that survivors of that states eugenics program should be paid $50,000 each in financial compensation. Eugenics is often defined as the science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics. The practice of eugenics was not limited to Nazi Germany nor is it a well kept secret thats been waiting to be discovered by organizations opposed to reproductive justice. In America, state governments set up eugenics boards that determined the reproductive future of thousands. I grew up listening to my maternal Grandmother, a Mississippi native, warn against trusting doctors and passing along lessons she learned from other poor women of color who went into a hospital to give birth only to later find out that they were ...
Not to be outdone by her followers, Margaret Sanger spoke of sterilizing those she designated as unfit, a plan she said would be the salvation of American civilization.: And she also spike of those who were irresponsible and reckless, among whom she included those whose religious scruples prevent their exercising control over their numbers. She further contended that there is no doubt in the minds of all thinking people that the procreation of this group should be stopped. That many Americans of African origin constituted a segment of Sanger considered unfit cannot be easily refuted.. While Planned Parenthoods current apologists try to place some distance between the eugenics and birth control movements, history definitively says otherwise. The eugenic theme figured prominently in the Birth Control Review, which Sanger founded in 1917. She published such articles as Some Moral Aspects of Eugenics (June 1920), The Eugenic Conscience (February 1921), The purpose of Eugenics ...
Listen to an engaging discussion with Adam Cohen, author of Imbeciles, an exciting exposé of the American legal system. Imbeciles has been coined a superb history of eugenics in America by the New York Times,and the books relevance to our current political state is highlighted in the New Yorker, stating its impossible ... to read Imbeciles without thinking of the current election cycle. ...
Paul A. Lombardo, Medicine, Eugenics, and the Supreme Court: From Coercive Sterilization to Reproductive Freedom, 13 J. Contemp. Health L. & Poly 1 (1997 ...
Discussions with Vermont librarians about the Vermont Eugenics Project -- the bitter historical reality underlying The Darkness Under the Water -- often come, with sorrow, to Vermont author Dorothy Canfield Fisher. Author of Understood Betsy and many other well-loved childrens books, Fisher also wrote abundantly for adults. She campaigned for sensible future plans for her adopted home state (like many another flatlander turned Vermont taxpayer). In the early 1900s she saw the potential for tourism as a major revenue source for Vermont and urged a program of preparation, including tidying the landscape. Her thinking led her to approve of a Vermont peopled by camera-ready Yankee farmers, making do, polishing kitchens, and speaking in similar dialects. And her influence in the political and social world of her day contributed to the mood in which Vermont legislators finally passed a law that allowed invasive surgery of women who shouldnt have more children. The point was, to clean up the ...
Selecting on grounds of intelligence would be a form of positive eugenics, in that it would increase the general intelligence level of the population. But if it were merely a free choice by parents, I doubt if it would reduce intellectual inequality. Indeed, it could increase it, even if selection were free for the poor. The vast majority of children are conceived naturally, so would not go through in vitro selection. I hate to say this, but the potential parents who would opt for selection are likely to be more intelligent anyway: their aim would be to avoid having a child who is not intelligent enough to qualify for selective education. Those who have never benefited from selective education themselves might not want their children to be more intelligent than them, or they simply might not care about their childrens intellectual level. We know that one of the biggest obstacles for intelligent children from disadvantaged backgrounds is the attitude of their family and peers to education: ...
In 1927, the Supreme Court handed down a ruling so disturbing, ignorant, and cruel that it stands as one of the great injustices in American history. In Imbeciles, bestselling author Adam Cohen exposes the courts decision to allow the sterilization of a young woman it wrongly thought to be -feebleminded- and to champion the mass eugenic sterilization of undesirable citizens for the greater good of the country. The 8-1 ruling was signed by some of the most revered figures in American law--including Chief Justice William Howard Taft, a former U.S. president; and Louis Brandeis, a progressive icon. Oliver Wendell Holmes, considered by many the greatest Supreme Court justice in history, wrote the majority opinion, including the courts famous declaration -Three generations of imbeciles are enough ...
In feminist theory and gender studies, gender essentialism is the attribution of a fixed essence to women.[6] Womens essence is assumed to be universal and is generally identified with those characteristics viewed as being specifically feminine.[6] These ideas of femininity are usually related to biology and often concern psychological characteristics such as nurturance, empathy, support, non-competitiveness, etc.[6] Feminist theorist Elizabeth Grosz states in her 1995 publication, Space, Time and Perversion: Essays on the Politics of Bodies, that essentialism entails the belief that those characteristics defined as womens essence are shared in common by all women at all times. It implies a limit of the variations and possibilities of change-it is not possible for a subject to act in a manner contrary to her essence. Her essence underlies all the apparent variations differentiating women from each other. Essentialism thus refers to the existence of fixed characteristic, given attributes, and ...
North Carolina could become the first state to compensate people who were forcibly sterilized in programs across the country that began during the Great Depression and continued for decades, targeting individuals deemed feeble-minded or otherwise unfit.. In a proposed budget, lawmakers have set aside $10 million for one-time payments to an estimated 1,500 people still alive who were part of a state program that sterilized 7,600 men, women and children from 1929 to 1974. The amount of each payout would be determined by how many people came forward.. North Carolina is among 32 states that ran so-called eugenics programs, although may states abandoned them after World War II because of the movements association with the practices of Nazi Germany. By contrast, North Carolina actually expanded its program in the postwar era.. Advocates of eugenics believed that involuntary sterilization of individuals deemed inferior would strengthen the gene pool and reduce poverty.. Julie Rose, of member station ...
North Carolina should pay a significant sum to living victims of the states decades-long sterilization program and do it soon, a task force recommended in its final report to Gov. Bev Perdue.. The report, issued Jan. 27 by a five-member task force appointed by Perdue, makes the most definitive and potentially viable case yet for compensating the survivors of North Carolinas officially sanctioned eugenics program.. From the early 1930s to the early 1970s, some 7,600 North Carolinians were sterilized after being judged feebleminded, recklessly promiscuous, epileptic or some combination thereof. The majority were poor white women, and the program disproportionately targeted racial minorities.. Eugenics programs took place in 32 states, but North Carolina is the only one to have come this far in trying to redress the attendant abuses.. Most of Western North Carolina didnt actively participate in the program, but Buncombe County did. As Carolina Public Press reported last summer, Buncombe was ...
Reacting to todays (4th October 2010) news of the award of the Nobel prize for medicine to Robert Edwards, Dr David King, Director of Human Genetics Alert (1) said, I find it shocking that the Nobel Foundation should honour a man who has been a lifelong supporter of eugenics. That is immensely hurtful to millions of disabled people, like myself.. …It will no doubt be argued that it would be wrong for the Nobel Foundation to refuse to award prizes to scientists because it does not like their political views. But, said Dr King, That argument does not apply here, because the issue of eugenics has been so totally intertwined with the whole history of genetics and reproductive technology. This is no better than giving the Peace Prize to a racist.…. …When people say PGD is expensive, I always say what is the price of a disabled baby who is born. What is the cost for anyone to bear? That is a terrible price for anybody to bear, and the financial cost is immense. A PGD by comparison is a ...
The latest book by Dr Simon Duffy, Director of the Centre for Welfare Reform, is now available to buy.. The Unmaking of Man reviews the history of the Holocaust for people with disabilities. Too few people realise that people with disabilities were not only victims of the Holocaust they were its first victims; they were the first victims of Nazi experiments in eugenics and murder. It was doctors who lobbied Hitler to convert institutions into early death camps and these technologies were then applied to the Jews.. This is not just a matter of history. When we examine the causes of moral breakdown in Hitlers Germany we find that some of the same factors are powerfully present today. There are philosophical confusions and insufficient recognition of the unique value of every human life. There are socio-economic insecurities and a sense of crisis; and people with disabilities remain poorer, more isolated and with diminished rights. The threat from new forms of eugenics is very real and ...
Euthanasia Prevention Coalition, a blog about euthanasia, assisted suicide, elder abuse, end-of-life care, palliative care. Most recent articles and news from around the world.
The bibliography provides information on writings dealing with the history of rape, including sexual child abuse, sexual harassment, sexual molestation, child prostitution, forced prostitution, sexual slavery, sexual(ized) violence. The blog informs about calls for papers, forthcoming events and new literature in this field.. ...
Tuesday: Seeking a reckoning over sterilization practices, a defense fund for immigrants in Los Angeles, and a look back a woman who lived in a tree.
When I gave a speech at Emory Law School in Atlanta, students came up to me afterward and said that, with genetic testing readily available, women shouldnt be allowed to have children with disabilities, since it raises peoples insurance rates. --Lori B. Andrews, reproductive rights lawyer. All people have the right to have been conceived, gestated, and born without genetic manipulation. --Genetic Bill of Rights, Council for Responsible Genetics. We are entering a world where we have to consider the quality of our children. --Robert Edwards, IVF pioneer and cloning advocate. When cloning is safe, creation of children will not be a mystery but a choice, not only if and when, but what kind. --Gregory Pence, Ph.D., bioethicist and cloning advocate. A woman I know was told by her obstetrician that her fetus had Down syndrome. The doctor ordered her to abort, she refused.... Another woman was similarly coerced. Her doctor told her that her baby would be more like a fish than a human and ...
Bill Bennett has committed the horrendous crime of agreeing with professors from Stanford university and the University of Chicago. After all, it was only six years ago that Dr. John J. Donohue 3rd of Stanford Law School and Dr. Steven D. Levitt of the University of Chicago publicly argued that the high percentage of abortions in the 1970s was responsible for the drop in crime in the 1990s. Dr. Levitt, it may be recalled, was the winner of John Bates Clark award for the best economist under the age of 40. The Wall Street Journal even ran a book review by economist Steven E. Landsburg which praised Levitt for daring to address the question...of whether the effect on crime rates is a sufficient reason to legalize abortion. So, Bennetts thesis is neither remarkably new nor remarkably different from that advocated by abortion supporters and population control advocates for decades: get rid of poor people and the world would be better off. The strong liberal support for population control ...
Actually, its all pretty innocent. A Swiss company called GenePartner has launched its dating service designed to match men and women based on the correla
Cary Fowler is the Trusts Executive Director. Fowler was Professor and Director of Research in the Department for International Environment & Development Studies at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. He was also a Senior Advisor to the Director General of Bioversity International. There he represented the Future Harvest Centres of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) in negotiations on the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources. In the 1990s, he headed the International Program on Plant Genetic Resources at the FAO. He drafted and supervised negotiations of FAOs Global Plan of Action for Plant Genetic Resources, adopted by 150 countries in 1996. He is a past-member of the National Plant Genetic Resources Board of the US and the Board of Trustees of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center in Mexico, another Rockefeller Foundation and CGIAR project ...
In Peru, evidence is piling up that the murderous Shining Path narco-terrorist group has been financed and armed by WWF. At minimum, Shining Path has served as the WWFs enforcers in areas like the Upper Huallaga River Valley, the worlds premier cocaine-producing region and an area dense with ecologically protected areas (4). In the Apurimac Reserved Zone (5), the Peruvian Army recently discovered mass graves and concentration camps run by Shining Path. The victims of the Shining Path brutality: the Ashaninka Indians. As far back as the mid-1960s, WWF had targeted this area of Peru as an ideal site for a future protected area. The obstacle was the Ashaninka, who had farmed and hunted the area for centuries, and were apparently open to modernization and integration into Peruvian society. Shining Path moved into the area in the 1980s, after 1.6 million hectares had been set aside as the Apurimac Reserved Zone and began the systematic murder and enslavement of the Ashaninka. All done under the ...
Hughes writes that I have asserted that the project was a form of eugenics and cultural imperialism. The first thing I would want to be very clear about is that there is no such project in existence and so I dont think it IS anything at all, strictly speaking. The only actually-existing Project to which Hughes essay refers here is The Great Ape Project, and I happen to so approve of the Great Ape Project that readers of Amor Mundi will find a link to it in my blogroll, indeed will find that it is something to which I have drawn the attention of my students in many courses that touch on questions of nonhuman animal rights or environmental justice. That should come as no surprise to anybody who knows that I have been an ethical vegetarian for nearly twenty years, have written and taught extensively on animal rights questions, and so on. I wouldnt want anybody mistakenly to think I disdain the actually-existing and actually-important work of the Great Ape Project as a form of eugenics and ...
Griffiths (1999), Okasha (2002), and LaPorte (2004) have suggested a form of species essentialism which can be called relational essentialism. According to relational essentialism, certain relations among organisms, or between organisms and the environment, are necessary and sufficient for membership in a species. Such relations, argue Griffiths, Okasha, and LaPorte, are species essences. For example, they suggest that being descendent from a particular ancestor is necessary and sufficient for being a member of a species.. Devitt (2008) rejects relational essentialism. He argues that relational essentialism fails to answer two crucial questions. The taxon question: Why is organism O a member of species S? The trait question: Why do members of species S typically have trait T? Devitt suggests that to answer these questions species need intrinsic essences; and because relational essentialism only posits relational essences, relational essentialism fails to answer these questions. Devitts target ...
Appendix Essentialism Teach just what people need to learn Essentialism calls on us to teach the essence of any subject rather than unimportant, distracting, and peripheral details. By teaching essentials, … - Selection from E-Learning by Design, 2nd Edition [Book]
This article analyses neuronal determinism (neurodeterminism) and mentions that at first sight it appears to be a type of qualified determinism. Neurodeterminism is better conceived as determinism tout court when it is applied to human beings. It differs importantly from genetic determinism, together the two views that are often regarded as similar in form if not in content. Moreover, the article examines the question of genetic determinism, because it is a paradigm of qualified determinism. It then explains the meaning of determinism tout court, its relation with the notions of
Page topic: Comparative genomic evidence for self-domestication in Homo sapiens. Created by: Lorraine Quinn. Language: english.
Theological determinism is a form of determinism which states that all events that happen are pre-ordained, or predestined to happen, by a monotheistic deity, or that they are destined to occur given its omniscience. Two forms of theological determinism exist, here referenced as strong and weak theological determinism.[21] The first one, strong theological determinism, is based on the concept of a creator deity dictating all events in history: everything that happens has been predestined to happen by an omniscient, omnipotent divinity.[22] The second form, weak theological determinism, is based on the concept of divine foreknowledge - because Gods omniscience is perfect, what God knows about the future will inevitably happen, which means, consequently, that the future is already fixed.[23] There exist slight variations on the above categorisation. Some claim that theological determinism requires predestination of all events and outcomes by the divinity (i.e. they do not classify the weaker ...
First, Planned Parenthood was founded by Margaret Sanger, a white, anti-Life activist who promoted negative eugenics (preventing the proliferation of populations believed to be inferior through elimination, birth control, sterilization, and state regulation of fertility, among other methods). She proposed extreme measures in an attempt to ensure that only certain people be allowed to live in her ideal world. This world excluded a host of individuals and groups she and her powerful ilk deemed unfit, including - among others - the weak, the mentally or physically impaired, and the poor. Some of Sangers actions suggest that she may have considered the white population to be superior to blacks. For example, Sanger colluded with black leaders to promote birth control and sterilization among black populations disproportionately. Sangers radical eugenic views led to a lifetime of attempting to eliminate so-called undesirable human beings from civilization. …those of us who believe that the ...
FAA aeronautical and local business information for airport John Harris Field (AR05), AR, US, covering airport operations, communications, weather, runways, comments and remarks, approach plates and procedures, services, all reporting businesses and FBOs, and kneeboard print outs.
The fact that the image of Stopes was chosen by a group of female academics and historians underscores the very real foothold that eugenics-style thinking still maintains amongst 21st century elitists.. Alex Jones 2007 documentary End Game exposes how the origins of eugenics began not with Hitler and the Nazis, but in fact with the Anglo-American elite towards the end of the 19th century.. The same sentiments continue to be advanced, albeit under different guises such as the Optimum Population Trust movement and some aspects of environmentalism, such as the promotion of one child policies to reduce global warming.. Infamously, an Australian ABC News website aimed at children caused outrage back in May when it advised kids of when you should die by calculating their carbon footprint.. Perhaps most disturbing is the fact that many would still find common ground with Stopes disgusting Nazi ideology even today. Indeed, one of the first reader comments on a Daily Mail article on the subject in ...
3. Planned Parenthood abortion centers that target minority communities for eugenics cleansing of the gene pool.. 4. Inoculation of all vaccine recipients with hidden, cancer-causing viruses that are deliberately allowed to contaminate many vaccines. (See the SV40 Simian Virus fiasco affecting 98 million Americans via the polio vaccine.) (Also, read the book Plague by Judy Mikovitz.). 5. The planned, deliberate use of cancer-causing ingredients in the popular food supply, including sodium nitrite in processed meat, inducing widespread cancer and early deaths (the clueless population then eats itself to death, while enriching the cancer industry).. 6. Spiking public health vaccines with covert sterilization chemicals, exactly as has been confirmed in African vaccination campaigns that target young black women for sterilization without their knowledge or consent.. If you do not know that mass sterilization efforts are underway right now to eliminate human fertility and drastically reduce the ...
Industrialist Alfred P. Sloan, as head of General Motors, was a Nazi collaborator, and ardent admirer of Hitler. Sloans hatred of blacks was almost as intense as his hatred of Jews. He had a close connection with the eugenics movement which eventually became the Human Genome Project. The Sloan Foundation, together with the Rockefeller nexus, held a long standing interest in population reduction, including their involvement with the introduction of mysterious new vaccines together with the World Health Organization, which has a stated policy of population reduction, as clearly set forth in Agenda 21. (truthaboutagenda21.com).. This dubious enterprise led to a massive vaccine initiative to vaccinate against relatively rare tetanus in The Philippines, Nicaragua, and Mexico. These vaccine vials, distributed by the WHO, were found to contain hCG, which when combined with tetanus toxoid carrier, stimulated formation of antibodies against human chorionic gonadotropin, rendering women incapable of ...
Coerced sterilization is a shameful part of Americas history, and one doesnt have to go too far back to find examples of it. Used as a means of controlling undesirable populations - immigrants, people of color, poor people, unmarried mothers, the disabled, the mentally ill - federally-funded sterilization programs took place in 32 states throughout the 20th century. Driven by prejudiced notions of science and social control, these programs informed policies on immigration and segregation.. As historian William Deverell explains in a piece discussing the Asexualization Acts that led to the sterilization of more than 20,000 California men and women,If you are sterilizing someone, you are saying, if not to them directly, Your possible progeny are inassimilable, and we choose not to deal with that.. According to Andrea Estrada at UC Santa Barbara, forced sterilization was particularly rampant in California (the states eugenics program even inspired the Nazis):. ...
The best way to fool people about their present and future, is to downright lie about their past. This is what the abortion industry has to do in order to sell death as a phony choice. Black Americans have a long and tragic history in America that, despite deep-seated racism and eugenics (from organizations like Planned Parenthood), has led to many triumphs. The abolition of slavery, as celebrated across the country on Juneteenth (June 19th), was one such victory. The Juneteenth holiday commemorates the emancipation of slaves in Texas in April 1865, two years after Lincolns Emancipation Declaration. Each civil rights battle since then, though seemingly impossible, has resulted in the ability to live life more freely and less threatened by violence. These achievements could only result from a multi-racial coalition of Americans, black and white, dedicated to the righteous pursuit of human dignity and justice. The Radiance Foundation has launched a massive billboard campaign in Atlanta, GA to ...
That scientific theory manifests in the nazi movement, because the nazis believed in the Science of Eugenics that they were actually a superior race! And they believed that the jews were an inferior race ! Thats science, thats not RELIGION.So dawkins doesnt talk about that science, science is only whats good and wondeful according to him.So science has its downside as well, now religion has its downside also, but its kind of unfair fight like when you take the best of science, the worst of religion and write a book about that ! And just say hey, science is the answer and religion is evil.Sam harris, another person he says Gee, isnt religion horrible, it caused all these WARS. I say Well gee, what was the 20th century? World war 1 ? was that about religion? wasnt that NATIONALISM? World war 2 was that about religion? Wasnt that Fascism? All the cold wars, werent those about COMMUNISM? Communism is anti-religion! So the 20th century, the bloodiest century in human history is all wars ...
State legislators in North Carolina in June passed over a proposal that sought to compensate the living survivors of the states long-lasting forced sterilization and eugenics program, citing budgetary concerns.
David Solway on the feminist enthusiasm for fatness: In a speech on the topic of radical fat liberation jointly sponsored by the Women and Gender Studies Department and the Centre for Equity and Inclusion at St. Olaf College in Minnesota, the prodigiously overweight Sonalee Rashatwar, a self-proclaimed Fat Sex Therapist, compared fitness trainers to Nazis, defined child dieting as sexual assault, attributed the Christchurch shooting to thin white supremacism, and condemned science as fataphobic for promoting the idea that certain bodies are fit, able and desirable. She wonders, rhetorically, is it my fatness that causes my high blood pressure, or is it my experience of weight stigma? She goes on to blame the Reagan administration for having refused to provide social supports that also help me to subsidise my food costs. When not equating routine health advice with eugenics and Nazi science, Ms Rashatwar claims that diet culture and fat phobia are forms of sexual violence. Mr ...
Video on NBCNews.com: The allegations of illegal sterilization in California prisons echo the forced sterilizations that took place in California nearly 50 years ago - and serve as a sharp reminder of the California connection between eugenics and the Nazis.
By Wesley J. Smith, J.D., Special Consultant to the CBC Our sense of entitlement - including not only to have a child, but the child we want - is driving us to ever greater extremes. The Daily Mail has a
Analyzes constructions of disability as deviance in current and historical contexts such as American eugenics, Nazi sterilization and Euthanasia crimes, and present national policies. Prerequisites: Six hours of Sociology including SOC 001 and SOC 100, or SOC 001 and SOC 101; or HST 190/HS 190; or HST 139/HS 139; or Instructor permission ...
In September 2020, nurse Dawn Wooten courageously exposed the forced gynecological procedures and medical abuses inflicted on immigrants at the Irwin County Detention Center in Georgia. Her disclosure catalyzed further resistance. A collective of birth workers, healthcare workers, healers, and public health practitioners condemned the abuses and called for a full transformation of health systems in their powerful Health, Healing Justice & Liberation Statement, part of the #ShutDownIrwin campaign anchored by Project South. It recognizes that ICE abuses are part of larger legacies of harm, including the prison and medical industrial complexes, violent and dehumanizing immigration policies and rhetoric, and racist population control and eugenics practices. Join some of the co-writers and editors of the statement to discuss their resistance, and learn how we can reimagine these damaging systems, support the healing of survivors, and stand up against the carceral state. Speakers: Courtni Andrews, ...
The goal of this course, taught by Rudy Le Menthéour, is to provide students with the means to better understand the ideological roots of modern hygiene and health policies. At first sight, hygiene and eugenics have nothing in common: the former is usually conceived as a good management -either private or public- of our everyday conditions of life, whereas the later are commonly reviled for having inspired discriminatory practices not only in Nazi Germany, but also in democratic countries like the US, Sweden, and Switzerland. Our inquiry explores how a sub-discipline of Medicine -namely Hygiene- was redefined, expanded its scope and developed its ambitions, and eventually became hegemonic both in the medical field and in the civil society. We also explore how and why a philanthropic ideal led to the quest for the improvement of the human species. This seminar also helps us reconsider the legacy of enlightened hygiene, and more broadly of the Enlightenment. Although the course focuses on ...
In 1987, Adrian Raine, who describes himself as a neurocriminologist, moved from Britain to the US. His emigration was prompted by two things. The first was a sense of banging his head against a wall. Raine, who grew up in Darlington and is now a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, was a researcher of the biological basis for criminal behaviour, which, with its echoes of Nazi eugenics, was perhaps the most taboo of all academic disciplines.. In Britain, the causes of crime were allowed to be exclusively social and environmental, the result of disturbed or impoverished nurture, rather than fated and genetic nature. To suggest otherwise, as Raine felt compelled to, having studied under Richard Dawkins and been persuaded of the all-embracing influence of evolution on behaviour, was to doom yourself to an absence of funding. In America, there seemed more open-mindedness on the question and, as a result, more money to explore it. There was also another good reason why Raine headed ...
Well done Mr. Blount!!! Please dont stop exposing liberals for what they really are: Evil Fascists. Check this out, Ive replaced a few words in the original story with words a liberal Nazi would likely say, and now look how it reads (not much difference):. Giving women and girls access to contraceptives is good for them and its also good for the master liberal race, liberal propagandist Kavita Ramdas said at a discussion about womens health and eugenics at the Woodrow Wilson International Center in Washington, D.C. on Monday.. [E]mpowering women to time their pregnancies would reduce the time it would take to establish a pure liberal utopia, said Ramdas… The logic is simple: When women have the power to plan the disposal of their unborn babies, populations grow more slowly with fewer genetically defective children, Ramdas wrote.. This probably could have been written better, but I do not possess the evil mindset of these fascists to write it as they would.. ...
Despite a dark history marked by the eugenics movement, increasing numbers of people with disabilities are choosing to become parents. Recent research reveals that more than 4 million parents (six percent of American mothers and fathers) are disabled. This number will unquestionably increase as more people with disabilities exercise a broader range of lifestyle options as a result of social integration, civil rights, and new adaptive technologies. Likewise, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of veterans who are returning from war with service-connected disabilities, some of whom may already be parents and others who will enter parenthood after acquiring their disability.. The right to parent without interference is protected by the U.S. Constitution and balanced by the judicially recognized power of the state to interfere to protect the well-being of its children. This book provides a comprehensive review of the barriers and facilitators people with diverse disabilities (including ...
Reviewed from a final copy. Not a roundup, not a Best Of list, not a bird OR a plane, its a review! With three stars and a shout out in the comments of our original list, this is historical fiction with a twist - a Hamlet-infused ghosty twist. This is not the only Shakespeare inspired fiction that weve looked at this year, and its certainly not the only historical fiction. What makes this a standout title? The historical setting is very well done, and focuses on rarely-talked about, very ugly aspects of US history - state-sanctioned racism like laws against interracial marriages, eugenics, forced sterilization, etc. (The authors note at the end provides a great list of further reading.) My favorite kind of historical fiction is the kind that connects past conversations with current situations and issues, and the parallel conversations happening today certainly let us know that, as a history teacher in my school posted on the wall, history is not the past. It seems strange to type this, but ...
Dont get me started on how Goldberg has tarnished the serious study of fascism. Hopefully everyone will have forgotten all about that stinker before long.. D: Is your objection to transhumanists / eugenicists … primarily that theyre ethically problematic or that theyre scientifically unrealistic?. Thats a good question. I would say that the ethical issue is primary, because even if transhumanism or eugenics could deliver on exactly what they promise their methods and goals would still be problematic. My biggest problem with transhumanism is the involuntary experimentation on future generations - physically, mentally, socially - that any germline modification would entail. And realistically any such engineering would likely require countless trials resulting in many dead, malformed, and subfunctional human infants, children, and adults. Im not opposed with getting rid of Tay-Sachs or cystic fibrosis (What about heterozygotes? Well…). But a normal, functional genetic variation is not at ...
Human cloning belongs to the eugenics project and is thus subject to all the ethical and juridical observations that have amply condemned it. -- Reflections on Cloning, Pontificia Academia Pro Vita Proponents of therapeutic cloning have set up reproductive cloning as the greater of two evils and then insisted that the public must choose one. This leaves the public with therapeutic cloning as the lesser evil. In fact, we can decide to reject them both as evils, but I see reproductive cloning as the lesser of the two presented evils. Instead of promoting deaths, it promotes life; although, of course, the nature of cloned lives raise many deep concerns and fears. --James Sherley Ph.D., professor of biological engineering at MIT.. ...methods that fail to respect the dignity and value of the person must always be avoided. I am thinking in particular of attempts at human cloning with a view to obtaining organs for transplants: these techniques, insofar as they involve the manipulation and ...