Downloadable! Recent research has emphasized emotions role in non-utilitarian judgments, but has not focused much on characteristics of subjects contributing to those judgments. The present article relates utilitarian judgment to individual disposition to experience various emotions. Study 1 first investigated the relationship among state emotions and utilitarian judgment. Diverse emotions were elicited during judgment: guilt, sadness, disgust, empathy, anger, and anxiety, etc. Using psychological scales, Study 2 found that trait emotions predict the extent of utilitarian judgments, especially trait anger, trait disgust, and trait empathy. Unlike previous research that designated emotions only as factors mitigating utilitarian judgment, this research shows that trait anger correlates positively with utilitarian judgment. On the other hand, disgust and empathy correlated negatively. Guilt and shame---though previous research argued that their absence increased utilitarian judgment---appear unrelated to
Act utilitarianism not only requires everyone to do what they can to maximize utility, but to do so without any favouritism. Mill said, "As between his own happiness and that of others, utilitarianism requires him to be as strictly impartial as a disinterested and benevolent spectator."[80] Critics say that this combination of requirements leads to utilitarianism making unreasonable demands. The well-being of strangers counts just as much as that of friends, family or self. "What makes this requirement so demanding is the gargantuan number of strangers in great need of help and the indefinitely many opportunities to make sacrifices to help them."[81] As Shelly Kagan says, "Given the parameters of the actual world, there is no question that …(maximally)… promoting the good would require a life of hardship, self-denial, and austerity…a life spent promoting the good would be a severe one indeed."[82]. Hooker describes two aspects to the problem: act utilitarianism requires huge sacrifices ...
Introduction. Explain the main differences between Act and Rule Utilitarianism (33) Utilitarianism is a teleological (relativist) ethical theory, which follows the concept that the end justifies the means (the value of a moral action is judged according to the end it produces) on the understanding of providing the greatest happiness for the greatest number, and is therefore contrary to deontological theories such as Kants Categorical Imperative. In addition, it is important to declare that the concept of Utilitarianism was devised by Jeremy Bentham, in which he divided his theory into the following three categories: the motivation of human beings; the principle of utility (usefulness); and the hedonic calculus (which takes into account seven elements when deciding the preferable course of action). It is also significant to make reference to John Stuart Mill, who developed Benthams theory with the intention of altering the emphasis from quantity to quality, and distinguished between ...
I have partially answered this question in the first posting on desire utilitarian theory.. Desire utilitarianism is a theory that holds that desires are the fundamental object of moral evaluation, and that desires are to be evaluated according to the utility they produce. The rightness or wrongness of an action does not depend on maximizing utility. The rightness or wrongness of an action depends on whether it is the type of action that a person with good desires would perform.. I have answered this question in more detail in a posting that I called The 1000Sadists Problem. What if the televised torture of a young child will fulfill the desires of 1,000 sadists? Does desire utilitarianism say we should torture the child?. No, it does not.. The first thing we must do is to evaluate the sadistic desire itself. Let us assume that nobody has a sadistic desire. In this case, no desires are being thwarted. No victims are being tortured to fulfill the desires of the sadist, and no sadists are having ...
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Utilitarianism in fashion is little vague-even to a wardrobe consultant/ stylist. Finally the trend is showing up in Denver stores- here are 3 ways to wear it.
The medical progressives claim to being egalitarian advocates of social justice is contradicted by their advocacy for a utilitarian approach to the allocation of these finite resources. Utilitarianism is not a subset of egalitarianism.A leading egalitarian, John Rawls accurately characterizes utilitarianism as being inattentive to the separateness of individuals and treating people merely as means for the achievement of some aggregate or social end. The medical progressives claim to promote social justice in the abstract but operationally sponsor utilitarian calculus in which some individuals may suffer to further some alleged statistical benefit to the collective. The progressives play the social justice card frequently in their polemics profiting from this polymorphic notions lack of generally agreed upon specificity - the term social justice is loose , vague and indeterminate ...
This chapter asks whether equal treatment of generations is compatible with social discounting. It presents the rank‐discounted utilitarian criterion, proposed by Stéphane Zuber and analysed in Zuber and Asheim (2010), which combines equal treatment with social discounting by giving priority for the worse off not only due to their absolute level of well‐being but also their relative rank in well‐being. If the future is better off than the present, then this criterion is behaviourally indistinguishable from discounted utilitarianism, which is the criterion usually employed by economists. However, if for example climate change breaks the correlation between time and well‐being, then rank‐discounted utilitarianism more than discounted utilitarianism calls for present action to protect the interests of future generations.
For the record (and I am certain that Kevin understands this) the "subjectivist interpretation of DU" is identical to the "objectivist interpretation of DU." This is true in the same way that DU, spoken in Spanish, should be identical to DU spoken in English. The difference that Kevin is referring to is not differences in interpretation, but differences in languages.. Now, on to the issue of right actions.. The right action is the action that a person with good desires would have performed.. This is in contrast with the theory that says that right actions are the actions that fulfill the most and strongest desires. This competing theory is a theory that I call "desire fulfillment act utilitarianism" - and is quite close to the more popular theory "preference utilitarianism" (the right act is the act that satisfies the most preferences).. However, desire utilitarianism is a rule-utilitarian theory, not an act-utilitarian theory. The right act is the act that conforms to the best rules (where the ...
Since the middle of the twentieth century, virtue ethics has enriched the range of philosophical approaches to normative ethics, often drawing on the work of the ancient Greeks, who offered accounts of the virtues that have become part of contemporary philosophical ethics. But these virtue ethical theories were situated within a more general picture of human practical rationality, one which maintained that to understand virtue we must appeal to what would make our lives go well. They were built on a framework established by the thought that we have most reason to live well-to have eudaimonia. This feature of ethical theorizing has not become part of philosophical ethics as the virtue theories dependent upon it have. This book is an attempt to bring eudaimonism into dialog with contemporary philosophical work in ethical theory. It does not attempt to replicate the many contributions to normative ethics, in particular to thinking about the virtues. Instead, it attempts to contribute to metatethics-to
In my view, we have to begin by separating that question into two aspects, which I call moral psychology (ie. why in fact do humans make the moral choices they do) and moral philosophy proper (ie. the attempt to systematize our moral behaviours, and justify them in terms of some consistent ethical theory; eg. utilitarianism, deontism, divine command, etc). Humans most of the time behave morally themselves, and make moral judgements about other people, without necessarily holding any articulated and consistent ethical theory. Its just something we do, because we have an instinctive understanding, mediated largely by emotions like anger, shame, compassion, and affection that we need to treat others in a certain way if we wish to go on living in society with them (few of us want to be hermits, or could survive long as such). Now heres the kicker: we are not the only animals to display moral behaviour (suggested reading: Frans de Wall). Other primates (and some non-primates) care for sick troup ...
The book is divided into five parts. The first part looks at the evolution of human morality. Starting out with the classic tragedy of the commons (distinct from Greenes own tragedy of commonsense morality), it reviews evidence relating to the various mechanisms humans have adopted to solve the tragedy. The second part builds upon this by looking more specifically at the neuro-psychology of moral decision-making. It is here that Greene introduces us to the well-known field of trolleyology, and reviews some of the studies he and others have done on the "dual-track" system of moral decision-making (an idea that will be familiar to anyone who has read Kahnemans Thinking Fast and Slow). The third part then switches focus from the facts of moral behaviour to the more traditional plain of normative moral philosophy. It proposes utilitarianism as the best candidate solution to the tragedy of commonsense morality. The fourth part then looks at a variety of challenges to utilitarianism. And the fifth ...
Another way, in which this situation may be looked at, is through the eyes of a utilitarian. It can be argued that utilitarianism is a good way of looking at a situation as it concentrates on what will produce the greatest amount of pleasure and the least amount of pain for the most people- taking everyone involved in the situation into consideration (mother, foetus, family and even the medical staff). Articulated by Jeremy Bentham, a social reformer, Utilitarianism is a teleological theory concerned with the ends or outcomes of an action rather than the action itself. Bentham believed that people are motivated by the desire for pleasure and seek the absence of pain. Utilitarians would see the act of abortion as being neither good nor bad, neither moral nor immoral. However, it becomes so when we consider to what end the procedure is being used. Under the circumstances of an ectopic pregnancy, where an abortion is being used to save the mother life, as long as the abortion in conducted in a ...
We give two social aggregation theorems under conditions of risk, one for constant population cases, the other an extension to variable populations. Intra and interpersonal welfare comparisons are encoded in a single individual preorder. The theorems give axioms that uniquely determine a social preorder in terms of this individual preorder. The social preorders described by these theorems have features that may be considered characteristic of Harsanyi-style utilitarianism, such as indifference to ex ante and ex post equality. However, the theorems are also consistent with the rejection of all of the expected utility axioms, completeness, continuity, and independence, at both the individual and social levels. In that sense, expected utility is inessential to Harsanyi-style utilitarianism. In fact, the variable population theorem imposes only a mild constraint on the individual preorder, while the constant population theorem imposes no constraint at all. We then derive further results under the ...
To illustrate Parfits repugnant conclusion concretely in contrast to Rawls, lets apply it to a real historical situation, the concrete example of black slavery in the United States. Of course the QALY (quality-adjusted life years) measurements for utility will necessarily be a little fudged. On the eve of the American Civil War in 1860, the census showed 3,953,761 slaves in the United States. Lets round that up to four million and assume these people had lives 1% worth living(3) (after all theyre literally in the horrible dictatorship that I described above.) [Added later: the very next day after I wrote this post, I ran across Robin Hansons blog post "Power Corrupts, Slavery Edition" which contains the statement "US south slave plantations were quite literally small totalitarian governments".] Now lets compare that to Avalon on the California island of Catalina. Ever been there? Its really nice, as you might expect, and has a population of just under 4,000, and while its not completely ...
Suppose that the world contains an infinite row of people, whom we can (if we dont mind doing such a thing at least in a thought experiment) number in order ...,-4,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,4,.... All of these people are the same in all morally relevant, with one exception. The folks with negative numbers are all very miserable, with an equal amount of misery, and the folks with non-negative numbers are all blissfully happy, with an equal amount of happiness. A reliable genie offers you a choice: If you raise your left hand, person with number -1 will be made blissfully happy, like the people with numbers 0,1,2,3,4,...; if you dont raise your right hand, person number 0 will be made as miserable as the people with negative numbers.. What should you do? Its clear: lift your left hand. You clearly have decisive reason to do this. But notice that total utility need not be changed by your action (assume for simplicity your own and the genies utility is not changed). In fact, the situation where persons ...
Applied Ethics for Program Evaluation by Dianna L Newman, Robert D Brown, Jr., MD starting at $24.00. Applied Ethics for Program Evaluation has 2 available editions to buy at Alibris
Although he is most widely known for his book "After Virtue" (1981), with its critique of reason and ethics, Alasdair MacIntyre writes in other areas of philosophy as well, including philosophical psychology, political theory, and philosophy of religion. Born in Scotland, he was educated at Manchester, London, and Oxford universities. In 1969, he went to the United States where he has taught at Brandeis, Boston, and Vanderbilt universities. Since 1988, when he also delivered the Gifford lectures, MacIntyre has taught at the University of Notre Dame. "After Virtue" is one of the most widely discussed of all recent books on moral philosophy. It is the culmination of MacIntyres deep engagement with the history of ethics. In it he argues that modern ethical theory, as it has developed since the seventeenth century, has been exposed by Friedrich Nietzsche as conceptually bankrupt. To find an alternative, he looks to ancient Greece and especially to Aristotles concept of virtue. Although his critics ...
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Section 36 of the Swedish Contracts Act stipulates that a term of a contract can be modified or set aside, if it is "unreasonable". The thesis discusses the meaning of the prerequisite "unreasonable" and how the meaning can and should be defined, using the means of legal science. Normative ethics is thereby introduced as a supplementary source of norms, and scientific works regarding contract law in other European countries are regarded, as well as the Principles of European Contract Law.. One chapter deals primarily with legal theory, in particular how a position regarding a legal matter can be justified. The role of normative ethics, especially virtue ethics, in legal science is discussed in that context and "the virtues of the contractual relationship" are identified (for example justness, honesty, carefulness). The following chapter focuses on the relationship between those virtues and some principles of contract law (for example the principle of trust, the principle of loyalty), and it is ...
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Before the activity, all faculty and anyone who is in a position to have control over the content of this activity and their spouse/life partner will disclose the existence of any financial interest and/or relationship(s) they might have with any commercial interest producing healthcare goods/services to be discussed during their presentation(s): honoraria, expenses, grants, consulting roles, speakers bureau membership, stock ownership, or other special relationships. Presenters will inform participants of any off-label discussions. All identified conflicts of interest are thoroughly vetted by Medical Learning Institute, Inc. for fair balance, scientific objectivity of studies mentioned in the materials or used as the basis for content, and appropriateness of patient care recommendations.. The associates of Medical Learning Institute, Inc., the accredited provider for this activity, and PVI, PeerView Institute for Medical Education do not have any financial relationships or relationships to ...
The special characteristics of radiological practice, particularly the daily use of the computer in the radiological routine, provide an ideal application context for the proposed diagnostic training system. The importance of images fosters the application of CBIR methods for the retrieval of similar patient cases. The strong correlation between the quality of diagnoses and the degree of experience provides a sound motivation for the use of experience-based knowledge as provided by CBR.. However, the performance of current CBIR systems is insufficient for a general application in CAD in general, as affirmed by the poor results, especially on the diagnosis level, achieved at ImageCLEF [74]. Furthermore, CBIR systems are typically specialized, e.g., in a certain anatomic region or modality. This limitation impedes its general application in radiology and argues for a dedicated use depending on the capabilities of the particular CBIR system. IRMA, for example, focuses on hand radiographs. ...
Before the activity, all faculty and anyone who is in a position to have control over the content of this activity and their spouse/life partner will disclose the existence of any financial interest and/or relationship(s) they might have with any commercial interest producing healthcare goods/services to be discussed during their presentation(s): honoraria, expenses, grants, consulting roles, speakers bureau membership, stock ownership, or other special relationships. Presenters will inform participants of any off-label discussions. All identified conflicts of interest are thoroughly vetted by Medical Learning Institute, Inc. for fair balance, scientific objectivity of studies mentioned in the materials or used as the basis for content, and appropriateness of patient care recommendations. The associates of Medical Learning Institute, Inc., the accredited provider for this activity, and PVI, PeerView Institute for Medical Education do not have any financial relationships or relationships to ...
Since 1998, School Construction News has been the news magazine devoted specifically to educational facility construction and operations. Readers include several segments of the "building team" including school administrators, facility managers, school board members as well as architects, contractors and suppliers in the field. Special attention is paid to the maintenance/operations and design/construction segments ...
If you look closely at Mills arguments in Utilitarianism, he seems to be making a very strong response to Kant (perhaps against the Groundwork?). Mill accepts the notion of moral duty, just as Kant does. But he insists it derives not from any form of analytic (i.e., Kants notion of synthetic a priori) truth. Rather, Mill insists it derives from the apparently universal desire of mankind (individually, in aggregate) to seek its own pleasure. Aware of some of the contextual implications of this principle, Mill attacks head-on the charge of Epicureanism. But what strikes me as interesting, is the fact that, though he makes frequent reference to Kant, he never directly refutes Kants position, and never fully explains how the pleasure principle isnt obviously and soundly refuted already by Kants explication of deontology (in the Groundwork). Mill just seems to ignore the problem of subjectivity in the hypothetical imperative, as described by Kant. Perhaps Mill is assuming that the apparently ...
The National Health Service is one of the truly astounding human endeavors of modern times. Just look at what you are trying to be: comprehensive, equitable, available to all, free at the point of care, and - more and more - aiming for excellence by world-class standards. And, because you have chosen to use a nation as the scale and taxation as the funding, the NHS isnt just technical - its political. It is an arena where the tectonic plates of a society meet: technology, professionalism, macroeconomics, social diversity, and political ambition. It is a stage on which the polarizing debates of modern social theory play out: between market theorists and social planning, between enlightenment science and post-modern skeptics of science, between utilitarianism and individualism, between the premise that we are all responsible for each other and the premise that we are each responsible for ourselves, between those for whom government is a source of hope and those for whom government is hopeless. ...
Should we allow the government to use prisoners for medical research? This practice is unethical and I would apply the theory of Utilitarianism to show how these actions are not right and therefore that good may be achieved under conditions that are harmful to some.
Citing "surgeries we recognize as offensive" is a pointless diversion. However, Ill play along briefly. I nominate removing the breast buds from infant females to reduce their risk of breast cancer. I have no idea if this would work or its been studied in any manner. It doesnt matter, because my point was to reject the thinking that believes a potential benefit may be chased. I suspect this would be offensive to most parents, as it almost always is when I raise it in debate. Non-essential, healthy, functioning breasts are different from non-essential, healthy, functioning foreskins, somehow. My guess is that Jakes approach to this would be his utilitarianism, which would assess whether removing breast buds has a potential benefit. (Unless he has some objection I havent determined.) If it does in his evaluation, it is a valid choice for parents, even if only chosen by those few parents who dont find it offensive. I reject that because the healthy girl may not want the intervention ...
There are different types of ethics. One of these, namely "applied ethics", applies ethical theories to real life situations which matter to people. In some cases, the issue at stake may be a matter of principle or well-being, in others it may be a matter of life or death. In this report, we are interested in ethical issues relating to restrictions of freedom. The different theories which might be considered or partly guide ethical decision making are briefly described in this section. This is not a comprehensive review. As a group, we do not favour a particular theory over another. Each has its own strengths and weaknesses and may appeal to each persons values and logic more than another theory. Those which a person finds meaningful may influence the way they apply concepts to real-life situations.. Some approaches to ethics focus on the outcome. This might involve judging whether the consequences of the act are good or bad (Noble-Adams, 1999) or what the best outcome would be for the greatest ...
Edited by John T. Scott. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) was a pivotal thinker in the history of political philosophy, and in that of thought and literature more generally. Making major contributions in a variety of areas, he brought his political theory to bear on subjects such as the novel, music, education, and…. Hardback - 2005-12-20 ...
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This paper presents a systematic account of ethical issues actualised in different areas, as well as at different levels and stages of health care, by introducing organisational and other procedures that embody a shift towards person centred care and shared decision-making (PCC/SDM). The analysis builds on general ethical theory and earlier work on aspects of PCC/SDM relevant from an ethics perspective.This account leads up to a number of theoretical as well as empirical and practice oriented issues that, in view of broad advancements towards PCC/SDM, need to be considered by health care ethics researchers. Given a PCC/SDM-based reorientation of health care practice, such ethics research is essential from a quality assurance perspective.. ...
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Nathan Schlueter is Professor of Philosophy and Religion at Hillsdale College, where he teaches courses in social and political philosophy, ethical theory, Roman Catholic theology and philosophy and literature. Nathan has a B.A. in History from Miami University of Ohio (1993) and an M.A. and Ph.D. in Politics from the University of Dallas (1999). He is the author of One Dream… Read more →. ...
I realize that trollycar-style ethical theory is regarded by many with a certain degree of skepticism - nay, it is the tipmost taper on the candelabrum of not very punk rock…….I thought about turning off comments on this post but decided that would probably just result in someone complaining about trolleycars in someone elses CT thread. In other words, you want people in general to talk about trolley-car problems, but you dont necessarily want me to talk about trolley car problems. So I wont. Not much, anyway. Ill go off-topic instead.. My big beef with trolley car problems is that theyre an especially vivid example of the academic / analytic philosophy practice of decontextualizing problems before analyzing them. Sometimes this works and sometimes it doesnt, but the academic bias is too overwhelmingly in the decontextualizing direction. The original trolleycar problem with the switchman was real-world, but the elaborations and refinements became increasingly ludicrous. It would have ...
2009 (English)In: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, ISSN 1386-2820, E-ISSN 1572-8447, 247-256 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
Not all ethical theories assume this! Not only is there the difference between pain and pleasure physiologically, but beyond that, living organisms mostly are spontaneously active. A well fed cat, if alllowed to go outside, will often hunt and kill birds or rodents, but not even attempt to eat them. Its not a question of acting to gain the relief of hunger; its a question of acting to gain the satisfaction of acting. Of course you can say that the cat is deprived of the activity of hunting, but that seems to be turning the whole matter into a tautology: We see someone acting, so we define something about the action as a privation that is belng relieved, even if the only privation is of the action itself. But really, action for its own sake is different from action for the sake of escaping pain or even action for the sake of obtaining rewards. And a lot of human activity falls under this heading, including art, athletics, games, and scientific research. A focus on this kind of activity can be ...
Before the activity, all faculty and anyone who is in a position to have control over the content of this activity and their spouse/life partner will disclose the existence of any financial interest and/or relationship(s) they might have with any commercial interest producing healthcare goods/services to be discussed during their presentation(s): honoraria, expenses, grants, consulting roles, speakers bureau membership, stock ownership, or other special relationships. Presenters will inform participants of any off-label discussions. All identified conflicts of interest are thoroughly vetted by Medical Learning Institute, Inc. for fair balance, scientific objectivity of studies mentioned in the materials or used as the basis for content, and appropriateness of patient care recommendations ...
TheSynapse keeps the medical professionals updated with latest International and Maltese news, local medical events, offers online medical learning modules and offers a network platform for the medical professionals
TheSynapse keeps the medical professionals updated with latest International and Maltese news, local medical events, offers online medical learning modules and offers a network platform for the medical professionals
TheSynapse keeps the medical professionals updated with latest International and Maltese news, local medical events, offers online medical learning modules and offers a network platform for the medical professionals
TheSynapse keeps the medical professionals updated with latest International and Maltese news, local medical events, offers online medical learning modules and offers a network platform for the medical professionals
TheSynapse keeps the medical professionals updated with latest International and Maltese news, local medical events, offers online medical learning modules and offers a network platform for the medical professionals
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Animals Issue (Carruthers Peter) pe OKIAN.ro. Pret: 112.99 lei. Peter Carruthers explores a variety of moral theories, arguing that animals lack direct mor
Topic 1: Unpaid Labour and Family CaringFor woman, morality is primarily about caring (Hinman, 1998, Ethics: A Pluralistic Approach to Moral Theory, pp377), thus unpaid labour and family caring becomes primarily a womans job. This essay analyzes the...