Downloadable! Recent research has emphasized emotions role in non-utilitarian judgments, but has not focused much on characteristics of subjects contributing to those judgments. The present article relates utilitarian judgment to individual disposition to experience various emotions. Study 1 first investigated the relationship among state emotions and utilitarian judgment. Diverse emotions were elicited during judgment: guilt, sadness, disgust, empathy, anger, and anxiety, etc. Using psychological scales, Study 2 found that trait emotions predict the extent of utilitarian judgments, especially trait anger, trait disgust, and trait empathy. Unlike previous research that designated emotions only as factors mitigating utilitarian judgment, this research shows that trait anger correlates positively with utilitarian judgment. On the other hand, disgust and empathy correlated negatively. Guilt and shame---though previous research argued that their absence increased utilitarian judgment---appear unrelated to
Act utilitarianism not only requires everyone to do what they can to maximize utility, but to do so without any favouritism. Mill said, As between his own happiness and that of others, utilitarianism requires him to be as strictly impartial as a disinterested and benevolent spectator.[80] Critics say that this combination of requirements leads to utilitarianism making unreasonable demands. The well-being of strangers counts just as much as that of friends, family or self. What makes this requirement so demanding is the gargantuan number of strangers in great need of help and the indefinitely many opportunities to make sacrifices to help them.[81] As Shelly Kagan says, Given the parameters of the actual world, there is no question that …(maximally)… promoting the good would require a life of hardship, self-denial, and austerity…a life spent promoting the good would be a severe one indeed.[82]. Hooker describes two aspects to the problem: act utilitarianism requires huge sacrifices ...
Introduction. Explain the main differences between Act and Rule Utilitarianism (33) Utilitarianism is a teleological (relativist) ethical theory, which follows the concept that the end justifies the means (the value of a moral action is judged according to the end it produces) on the understanding of providing the greatest happiness for the greatest number, and is therefore contrary to deontological theories such as Kants Categorical Imperative. In addition, it is important to declare that the concept of Utilitarianism was devised by Jeremy Bentham, in which he divided his theory into the following three categories: the motivation of human beings; the principle of utility (usefulness); and the hedonic calculus (which takes into account seven elements when deciding the preferable course of action). It is also significant to make reference to John Stuart Mill, who developed Benthams theory with the intention of altering the emphasis from quantity to quality, and distinguished between ...
I have partially answered this question in the first posting on desire utilitarian theory.. Desire utilitarianism is a theory that holds that desires are the fundamental object of moral evaluation, and that desires are to be evaluated according to the utility they produce. The rightness or wrongness of an action does not depend on maximizing utility. The rightness or wrongness of an action depends on whether it is the type of action that a person with good desires would perform.. I have answered this question in more detail in a posting that I called The 1000Sadists Problem. What if the televised torture of a young child will fulfill the desires of 1,000 sadists? Does desire utilitarianism say we should torture the child?. No, it does not.. The first thing we must do is to evaluate the sadistic desire itself. Let us assume that nobody has a sadistic desire. In this case, no desires are being thwarted. No victims are being tortured to fulfill the desires of the sadist, and no sadists are having ...
Download Utilitarianism Theory (EBOOK) (studies42 filmbay 983e2r) University 4 html Torrent for free, Full Movie And Tv Shows Streaming Link Also Available to Watch Online
Essays on utilitarianism - receive a 100% original, non-plagiarized dissertation you could only imagine about in our custom writing help Get started with essay writing and make finest essay ever Top affordable and trustworthy academic writing service.
Utilitarianism in fashion is little vague-even to a wardrobe consultant/ stylist. Finally the trend is showing up in Denver stores- here are 3 ways to wear it.
The medical progressives claim to being egalitarian advocates of social justice is contradicted by their advocacy for a utilitarian approach to the allocation of these finite resources. Utilitarianism is not a subset of egalitarianism.A leading egalitarian, John Rawls accurately characterizes utilitarianism as being inattentive to the separateness of individuals and treating people merely as means for the achievement of some aggregate or social end. The medical progressives claim to promote social justice in the abstract but operationally sponsor utilitarian calculus in which some individuals may suffer to further some alleged statistical benefit to the collective. The progressives play the social justice card frequently in their polemics profiting from this polymorphic notions lack of generally agreed upon specificity - the term social justice is loose , vague and indeterminate ...
This chapter asks whether equal treatment of generations is compatible with social discounting. It presents the rank‐discounted utilitarian criterion, proposed by Stéphane Zuber and analysed in Zuber and Asheim (2010), which combines equal treatment with social discounting by giving priority for the worse off not only due to their absolute level of well‐being but also their relative rank in well‐being. If the future is better off than the present, then this criterion is behaviourally indistinguishable from discounted utilitarianism, which is the criterion usually employed by economists. However, if for example climate change breaks the correlation between time and well‐being, then rank‐discounted utilitarianism more than discounted utilitarianism calls for present action to protect the interests of future generations.
For the record (and I am certain that Kevin understands this) the subjectivist interpretation of DU is identical to the objectivist interpretation of DU. This is true in the same way that DU, spoken in Spanish, should be identical to DU spoken in English. The difference that Kevin is referring to is not differences in interpretation, but differences in languages.. Now, on to the issue of right actions.. The right action is the action that a person with good desires would have performed.. This is in contrast with the theory that says that right actions are the actions that fulfill the most and strongest desires. This competing theory is a theory that I call desire fulfillment act utilitarianism - and is quite close to the more popular theory preference utilitarianism (the right act is the act that satisfies the most preferences).. However, desire utilitarianism is a rule-utilitarian theory, not an act-utilitarian theory. The right act is the act that conforms to the best rules (where the ...
Since the middle of the twentieth century, virtue ethics has enriched the range of philosophical approaches to normative ethics, often drawing on the work of the ancient Greeks, who offered accounts of the virtues that have become part of contemporary philosophical ethics. But these virtue ethical theories were situated within a more general picture of human practical rationality, one which maintained that to understand virtue we must appeal to what would make our lives go well. They were built on a framework established by the thought that we have most reason to live well-to have eudaimonia. This feature of ethical theorizing has not become part of philosophical ethics as the virtue theories dependent upon it have. This book is an attempt to bring eudaimonism into dialog with contemporary philosophical work in ethical theory. It does not attempt to replicate the many contributions to normative ethics, in particular to thinking about the virtues. Instead, it attempts to contribute to metatethics-to
In my view, we have to begin by separating that question into two aspects, which I call moral psychology (ie. why in fact do humans make the moral choices they do) and moral philosophy proper (ie. the attempt to systematize our moral behaviours, and justify them in terms of some consistent ethical theory; eg. utilitarianism, deontism, divine command, etc). Humans most of the time behave morally themselves, and make moral judgements about other people, without necessarily holding any articulated and consistent ethical theory. Its just something we do, because we have an instinctive understanding, mediated largely by emotions like anger, shame, compassion, and affection that we need to treat others in a certain way if we wish to go on living in society with them (few of us want to be hermits, or could survive long as such). Now heres the kicker: we are not the only animals to display moral behaviour (suggested reading: Frans de Wall). Other primates (and some non-primates) care for sick troup ...
The book is divided into five parts. The first part looks at the evolution of human morality. Starting out with the classic tragedy of the commons (distinct from Greenes own tragedy of commonsense morality), it reviews evidence relating to the various mechanisms humans have adopted to solve the tragedy. The second part builds upon this by looking more specifically at the neuro-psychology of moral decision-making. It is here that Greene introduces us to the well-known field of trolleyology, and reviews some of the studies he and others have done on the dual-track system of moral decision-making (an idea that will be familiar to anyone who has read Kahnemans Thinking Fast and Slow). The third part then switches focus from the facts of moral behaviour to the more traditional plain of normative moral philosophy. It proposes utilitarianism as the best candidate solution to the tragedy of commonsense morality. The fourth part then looks at a variety of challenges to utilitarianism. And the fifth ...
Another way, in which this situation may be looked at, is through the eyes of a utilitarian. It can be argued that utilitarianism is a good way of looking at a situation as it concentrates on what will produce the greatest amount of pleasure and the least amount of pain for the most people- taking everyone involved in the situation into consideration (mother, foetus, family and even the medical staff). Articulated by Jeremy Bentham, a social reformer, Utilitarianism is a teleological theory concerned with the ends or outcomes of an action rather than the action itself. Bentham believed that people are motivated by the desire for pleasure and seek the absence of pain. Utilitarians would see the act of abortion as being neither good nor bad, neither moral nor immoral. However, it becomes so when we consider to what end the procedure is being used. Under the circumstances of an ectopic pregnancy, where an abortion is being used to save the mother life, as long as the abortion in conducted in a ...
Copyright The Student Room 2017 all rights reserved. The Student Room, Get Revising and Marked by Teachers are trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd.. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered Office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE. ...
We give two social aggregation theorems under conditions of risk, one for constant population cases, the other an extension to variable populations. Intra and interpersonal welfare comparisons are encoded in a single individual preorder. The theorems give axioms that uniquely determine a social preorder in terms of this individual preorder. The social preorders described by these theorems have features that may be considered characteristic of Harsanyi-style utilitarianism, such as indifference to ex ante and ex post equality. However, the theorems are also consistent with the rejection of all of the expected utility axioms, completeness, continuity, and independence, at both the individual and social levels. In that sense, expected utility is inessential to Harsanyi-style utilitarianism. In fact, the variable population theorem imposes only a mild constraint on the individual preorder, while the constant population theorem imposes no constraint at all. We then derive further results under the ...
To illustrate Parfits repugnant conclusion concretely in contrast to Rawls, lets apply it to a real historical situation, the concrete example of black slavery in the United States. Of course the QALY (quality-adjusted life years) measurements for utility will necessarily be a little fudged. On the eve of the American Civil War in 1860, the census showed 3,953,761 slaves in the United States. Lets round that up to four million and assume these people had lives 1% worth living(3) (after all theyre literally in the horrible dictatorship that I described above.) [Added later: the very next day after I wrote this post, I ran across Robin Hansons blog post Power Corrupts, Slavery Edition which contains the statement US south slave plantations were quite literally small totalitarian governments.] Now lets compare that to Avalon on the California island of Catalina. Ever been there? Its really nice, as you might expect, and has a population of just under 4,000, and while its not completely ...
Suppose that the world contains an infinite row of people, whom we can (if we dont mind doing such a thing at least in a thought experiment) number in order ...,-4,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,4,.... All of these people are the same in all morally relevant, with one exception. The folks with negative numbers are all very miserable, with an equal amount of misery, and the folks with non-negative numbers are all blissfully happy, with an equal amount of happiness. A reliable genie offers you a choice: If you raise your left hand, person with number -1 will be made blissfully happy, like the people with numbers 0,1,2,3,4,...; if you dont raise your right hand, person number 0 will be made as miserable as the people with negative numbers.. What should you do? Its clear: lift your left hand. You clearly have decisive reason to do this. But notice that total utility need not be changed by your action (assume for simplicity your own and the genies utility is not changed). In fact, the situation where persons ...
Applied Ethics for Program Evaluation by Dianna L Newman, Robert D Brown, Jr., MD starting at $24.00. Applied Ethics for Program Evaluation has 2 available editions to buy at Alibris
Although he is most widely known for his book After Virtue (1981), with its critique of reason and ethics, Alasdair MacIntyre writes in other areas of philosophy as well, including philosophical psychology, political theory, and philosophy of religion. Born in Scotland, he was educated at Manchester, London, and Oxford universities. In 1969, he went to the United States where he has taught at Brandeis, Boston, and Vanderbilt universities. Since 1988, when he also delivered the Gifford lectures, MacIntyre has taught at the University of Notre Dame. After Virtue is one of the most widely discussed of all recent books on moral philosophy. It is the culmination of MacIntyres deep engagement with the history of ethics. In it he argues that modern ethical theory, as it has developed since the seventeenth century, has been exposed by Friedrich Nietzsche as conceptually bankrupt. To find an alternative, he looks to ancient Greece and especially to Aristotles concept of virtue. Although his critics ...
Buy After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory by Alasdair Macintyre online at Alibris. We have new and used copies available, in 3 editions - starting at $21.18. Shop now.
Section 36 of the Swedish Contracts Act stipulates that a term of a contract can be modified or set aside, if it is unreasonable. The thesis discusses the meaning of the prerequisite unreasonable and how the meaning can and should be defined, using the means of legal science. Normative ethics is thereby introduced as a supplementary source of norms, and scientific works regarding contract law in other European countries are regarded, as well as the Principles of European Contract Law.. One chapter deals primarily with legal theory, in particular how a position regarding a legal matter can be justified. The role of normative ethics, especially virtue ethics, in legal science is discussed in that context and the virtues of the contractual relationship are identified (for example justness, honesty, carefulness). The following chapter focuses on the relationship between those virtues and some principles of contract law (for example the principle of trust, the principle of loyalty), and it is ...
Abstract Nietzsche claims that psychology is once again the path to the fundamental problems (BGE 23). What are these fundamental problems? I provide a partial answer by focusing upon the way in which psychology informs Nietzsches account of value. I argue that Nietzsches ethical theory is based upon the idea that power has a privileged normative status: power is the one value in terms of which all others values are to be assessed. Yet how could power have this privileged status, given that Nietzsche denies that there are any objective facts about what is valuable? Nietzsches account of psychology provides the answer: he grounds powers privileged status in facts about the nature of human motivation. In particular, Nietzsches account of drives entails that human beings are ineluctably committed to valuing power. So Nietzsches ethical theory follows from his philosophical psychology.. ...
Please Note, The ebooks are not always PDF format, you might receive epub/kindle formats after purchase. This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-1
I consider Prohibition and other social engineering schemes to be utilitarian in their essence. Thats not a good thing, to put it mildly. Daniel Bartels, of the Columbia Business School, found that those who endorse actions consistent with an ethic of utilitarianism - the view that what is the morally right thing to do is whatever produces the best overall consequences - tend to possess psychopathic and Machiavellian personality traits ...
Before the activity, all faculty and anyone who is in a position to have control over the content of this activity and their spouse/life partner will disclose the existence of any financial interest and/or relationship(s) they might have with any commercial interest producing healthcare goods/services to be discussed during their presentation(s): honoraria, expenses, grants, consulting roles, speakers bureau membership, stock ownership, or other special relationships. Presenters will inform participants of any off-label discussions. All identified conflicts of interest are thoroughly vetted by Medical Learning Institute, Inc. for fair balance, scientific objectivity of studies mentioned in the materials or used as the basis for content, and appropriateness of patient care recommendations.. The associates of Medical Learning Institute, Inc., the accredited provider for this activity, and PVI, PeerView Institute for Medical Education do not have any financial relationships or relationships to ...
The special characteristics of radiological practice, particularly the daily use of the computer in the radiological routine, provide an ideal application context for the proposed diagnostic training system. The importance of images fosters the application of CBIR methods for the retrieval of similar patient cases. The strong correlation between the quality of diagnoses and the degree of experience provides a sound motivation for the use of experience-based knowledge as provided by CBR.. However, the performance of current CBIR systems is insufficient for a general application in CAD in general, as affirmed by the poor results, especially on the diagnosis level, achieved at ImageCLEF [74]. Furthermore, CBIR systems are typically specialized, e.g., in a certain anatomic region or modality. This limitation impedes its general application in radiology and argues for a dedicated use depending on the capabilities of the particular CBIR system. IRMA, for example, focuses on hand radiographs. ...
Before the activity, all faculty and anyone who is in a position to have control over the content of this activity and their spouse/life partner will disclose the existence of any financial interest and/or relationship(s) they might have with any commercial interest producing healthcare goods/services to be discussed during their presentation(s): honoraria, expenses, grants, consulting roles, speakers bureau membership, stock ownership, or other special relationships. Presenters will inform participants of any off-label discussions. All identified conflicts of interest are thoroughly vetted by Medical Learning Institute, Inc. for fair balance, scientific objectivity of studies mentioned in the materials or used as the basis for content, and appropriateness of patient care recommendations. The associates of Medical Learning Institute, Inc., the accredited provider for this activity, and PVI, PeerView Institute for Medical Education do not have any financial relationships or relationships to ...
Diabetes is one of the major problem diagnoses made by family physicians. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to blindness, Neuropathy, kidney failure, and vascular and heart disease. Screening patients before signs and symptoms develop leads to earlier diagnosis and treatment, but may not reduce rates of end-organ damage.. This course will help in learning the criteria for the diagnosis of Diabetes, understand the screening methods for diabetes, and understand the types of diabetes and differentiate between each type.. Who Should Attend?. ...
Since 1998, School Construction News has been the news magazine devoted specifically to educational facility construction and operations. Readers include several segments of the building team including school administrators, facility managers, school board members as well as architects, contractors and suppliers in the field. Special attention is paid to the maintenance/operations and design/construction segments ...
His first great intellectual work was his System of Logic, R atiocinative and Inductive, which appeared in 1843. This was followed, in due course by his Essays on some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy (1844), and Principles of Political Economy (1848). In 1859 appeared his little treatise On Liberty, and his Thoughts on Parliamentary Reform. His Considerations on Representative Government belongs to the year 1860; and in 1863 (after first appearing in magazine form) came his Utilitarianism. In the Parliament of 1865-68, he sat as Radical member for Westminister. He advocated three major things in the House of Commonswomen suffrage, the interests of the laboring classes, and land reform in Ireland. In 1865, came his Examination of Sir William Hamiltons Philosophy; in 1867, his Rectorial Inaugural Address at St. Andrews University, on the value of culture; in 1868, his pamphlet on England and Ireland; and in 1869, his treatise on The Subjection of Women. Also in 1869, his edition of his ...
The Trolley Problem is a highly problematic thought-experiment about utilitarianism and morals -- ripe for skewering in the pages of McSweeneys. The Ethics Teacher Theres an out of control trolley speeding towards four workers. You are on your way to teach an ethics class and this accident will make you extremely late. You have the…
If you look closely at Mills arguments in Utilitarianism, he seems to be making a very strong response to Kant (perhaps against the Groundwork?). Mill accepts the notion of moral duty, just as Kant does. But he insists it derives not from any form of analytic (i.e., Kants notion of synthetic a priori) truth. Rather, Mill insists it derives from the apparently universal desire of mankind (individually, in aggregate) to seek its own pleasure. Aware of some of the contextual implications of this principle, Mill attacks head-on the charge of Epicureanism. But what strikes me as interesting, is the fact that, though he makes frequent reference to Kant, he never directly refutes Kants position, and never fully explains how the pleasure principle isnt obviously and soundly refuted already by Kants explication of deontology (in the Groundwork). Mill just seems to ignore the problem of subjectivity in the hypothetical imperative, as described by Kant. Perhaps Mill is assuming that the apparently ...
The National Health Service is one of the truly astounding human endeavors of modern times. Just look at what you are trying to be: comprehensive, equitable, available to all, free at the point of care, and - more and more - aiming for excellence by world-class standards. And, because you have chosen to use a nation as the scale and taxation as the funding, the NHS isnt just technical - its political. It is an arena where the tectonic plates of a society meet: technology, professionalism, macroeconomics, social diversity, and political ambition. It is a stage on which the polarizing debates of modern social theory play out: between market theorists and social planning, between enlightenment science and post-modern skeptics of science, between utilitarianism and individualism, between the premise that we are all responsible for each other and the premise that we are each responsible for ourselves, between those for whom government is a source of hope and those for whom government is hopeless. ...
Should we allow the government to use prisoners for medical research? This practice is unethical and I would apply the theory of Utilitarianism to show how these actions are not right and therefore that good may be achieved under conditions that are harmful to some.
Citing surgeries we recognize as offensive is a pointless diversion. However, Ill play along briefly. I nominate removing the breast buds from infant females to reduce their risk of breast cancer. I have no idea if this would work or its been studied in any manner. It doesnt matter, because my point was to reject the thinking that believes a potential benefit may be chased. I suspect this would be offensive to most parents, as it almost always is when I raise it in debate. Non-essential, healthy, functioning breasts are different from non-essential, healthy, functioning foreskins, somehow. My guess is that Jakes approach to this would be his utilitarianism, which would assess whether removing breast buds has a potential benefit. (Unless he has some objection I havent determined.) If it does in his evaluation, it is a valid choice for parents, even if only chosen by those few parents who dont find it offensive. I reject that because the healthy girl may not want the intervention ...
There are different types of ethics. One of these, namely applied ethics, applies ethical theories to real life situations which matter to people. In some cases, the issue at stake may be a matter of principle or well-being, in others it may be a matter of life or death. In this report, we are interested in ethical issues relating to restrictions of freedom. The different theories which might be considered or partly guide ethical decision making are briefly described in this section. This is not a comprehensive review. As a group, we do not favour a particular theory over another. Each has its own strengths and weaknesses and may appeal to each persons values and logic more than another theory. Those which a person finds meaningful may influence the way they apply concepts to real-life situations.. Some approaches to ethics focus on the outcome. This might involve judging whether the consequences of the act are good or bad (Noble-Adams, 1999) or what the best outcome would be for the greatest ...
Edited by John T. Scott. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) was a pivotal thinker in the history of political philosophy, and in that of thought and literature more generally. Making major contributions in a variety of areas, he brought his political theory to bear on subjects such as the novel, music, education, and…. Hardback - 2005-12-20 ...
You can follow the discussion on Extension on due date for second essay draft without having to leave a comment. Cool, huh? Just enter your email address in the form here below and youre all set.. ...
You can follow the discussion on Info without having to leave a comment. Cool, huh? Just enter your email address in the form here below and youre all set.. ...
The program previously offered a PhD course (FI8880 Deliberating Controversies in Globalization Theory, Methodology, and Ethics) focusing on critically examining some selected conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and ethical issues in globalization research. These issues included debates about how to define globalization, naturalist and constructivist approaches to social research, global justice and democracy, ethics in international research, and the role of information and communication technology (ICT) in globalization processes. (PDF of seminars from 2011-2014, PDFs of course descriptions from 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014). ...
This paper presents a systematic account of ethical issues actualised in different areas, as well as at different levels and stages of health care, by introducing organisational and other procedures that embody a shift towards person centred care and shared decision-making (PCC/SDM). The analysis builds on general ethical theory and earlier work on aspects of PCC/SDM relevant from an ethics perspective.This account leads up to a number of theoretical as well as empirical and practice oriented issues that, in view of broad advancements towards PCC/SDM, need to be considered by health care ethics researchers. Given a PCC/SDM-based reorientation of health care practice, such ethics research is essential from a quality assurance perspective.. ...
TheSynapse keeps the medical professionals updated with latest International and Maltese news, local medical events, offers online medical learning modules and offers a network platform for the medical professionals
Nathan Schlueter is Professor of Philosophy and Religion at Hillsdale College, where he teaches courses in social and political philosophy, ethical theory, Roman Catholic theology and philosophy and literature. Nathan has a B.A. in History from Miami University of Ohio (1993) and an M.A. and Ph.D. in Politics from the University of Dallas (1999). He is the author of One Dream… Read more →. ...
I realize that trollycar-style ethical theory is regarded by many with a certain degree of skepticism - nay, it is the tipmost taper on the candelabrum of not very punk rock…….I thought about turning off comments on this post but decided that would probably just result in someone complaining about trolleycars in someone elses CT thread. In other words, you want people in general to talk about trolley-car problems, but you dont necessarily want me to talk about trolley car problems. So I wont. Not much, anyway. Ill go off-topic instead.. My big beef with trolley car problems is that theyre an especially vivid example of the academic / analytic philosophy practice of decontextualizing problems before analyzing them. Sometimes this works and sometimes it doesnt, but the academic bias is too overwhelmingly in the decontextualizing direction. The original trolleycar problem with the switchman was real-world, but the elaborations and refinements became increasingly ludicrous. It would have ...
The great majority of ethical theories elaborate values and principles the adoption of which should be conducive to the achievement
Tom Regan is Professor of philosophy at North Carolina State University and a leading animal rights advocate. His best known work is in the form of his book The Case for Animal Rights (1983).. Regans position on animal rights and how it differs from that of Singers.. Regan disagrees with Singers utilitarian program for animal liberation, for he rejects utilitarianism as lacking a notion of intrinsic worth. According to Regan, animals and humans all have equal intrinsic value on which their right to life and concern are based. This is precisely where Regan and Singer philosophically differ as Singer does not take into account this intrinsic value that Regan argues for; that utilitarianism lacks.. Regan calls for the total abolition of the use of animals in science, the total dissolution of the commercial animal agriculture system, and the total elimination of commercial and sport hunting and trapping. Regan writes, The fundamental wrong is the system that allows us to view animals as our ...
Social neuroscience explores the biological underpinnings of empathic concern and more generally interpersonal sensitivity, using an integrative approach that bridges the biological and social levels.[17] Neural systems, including autonomic functions, that rely on brain stem neuropeptides, such as oxytocin and vasopressin, are plausible correlates for empathic concern. Alternatively, vasopressin might be implicated in situations where a more active strategy is required for an effective response.[18] An association between executive functions, underpinned by the prefrontal cortex with reciprocal connections with the limbic system, the sense of agency, and empathic concern has been suggested based on lesion studies in neurological patients and functional neuroimaging experiments in healthy individuals.[19] The difference between imaging self versus imaging other is supported by a series of functional neuroimaging studies of affective processing. For instance, Lamm, Batson and Decety (2007) found ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outcome-focused judgements of moral dilemmas in schizophrenia. AU - McGuire, Jonathan. AU - Brüne, Martin. AU - Langdon, Robyn. PY - 2017/7. Y1 - 2017/7. N2 - Previous research on moral judgement in healthy adults suggests a complex interplay of automatic, emotional and deliberative processing. We aimed to advance understanding of these processes by examining moral judgement in individuals with schizophrenia, a population characterised by social-cognitive deficits and interpersonal difficulties. Forty-five patients with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls judged high-conflict moral dilemmas in response to 3rd-person (i.e. Is it morally okay to [perform X]?) and 1st-person (i.e. Would you [perform X]?) probes. Controls were less utilitarian for 3rd-person than 1st-person probes, while this discrepancy did not hold for patients. Utilitarianism in patients correlated with higher levels of interpersonal conflict. Findings suggest that people with schizophrenia focus equally on ...
The second thing Libby Anne needs to know about utilitarians is this: their ideology tends to make them adopt views that any sane person would deem morally monstrous. If you want to know where utilitarianism leads, take a look at ex-preacher Dan Barker, who now says (see this video) that child rape could be morally justifiable, if it were absolutely necessary in order to save humanity. The scenario Barker is considering here is one where an evil and technologically advanced alien says he ll destroy humanity if you don t rape a child. Because Barker is an act utilitarian, he says he would comply with the alien s request, although to his credit, he admits that he d hate himself for doing so. I have to say that while watching the video, I was deeply impressed with Dan Barker s honesty and his obvious aversion to the idea of performing such a hideous deed. Nevertheless, his utilitarian moral principles are perverse if they lead him to adopt the conclusion that child rape could be moral in an extreme ...
The second thing Libby Anne needs to know about utilitarians is this: their ideology tends to make them adopt views that any sane person would deem morally monstrous. If you want to know where utilitarianism leads, take a look at ex-preacher Dan Barker, who now says (see this video) that child rape could be morally justifiable, if it were absolutely necessary in order to save humanity. The scenario Barker is considering here is one where an evil and technologically advanced alien says he ll destroy humanity if you don t rape a child. Because Barker is an act utilitarian, he says he would comply with the alien s request, although to his credit, he admits that he d hate himself for doing so. I have to say that while watching the video, I was deeply impressed with Dan Barker s honesty and his obvious aversion to the idea of performing such a hideous deed. Nevertheless, his utilitarian moral principles are perverse if they lead him to adopt the conclusion that child rape could be moral in an extreme ...
Brandon at Siris says Whenever I teach virtue ethics, I tell my students that one can see the strengths of virtue ethics in the Care Bears -- as well as the things usually criticized. [...] The Care Bears are an extremely simplified picture of virtue ethics, the sort that can be fit into a greeting…
Get this from a library! Rights, restitution, and risk : essays, in moral theory. [Judith Jarvis Thomson; William Parent] -- In a set of vivid examples, stories, and cases Judith Thomson shows just how wide an array of moral considerations bears on all but the simplest of problems. She is a philosophical analyst of the ...
Would you sacrifice one person to save five? Such moral choices could depend on whether you are using a foreign language or your native tongue.. A new study from psychologists at the University of Chicago and Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona finds that people using a foreign language take a relatively utilitarian approach to moral dilemmas, making decisions based on assessments of whats best for the common good. That pattern holds even when the utilitarian choice would produce an emotionally difficult outcome, such as sacrificing one life so others could live.. This discovery has important consequences for our globalized world, as many individuals make moral judgments in both native and foreign languages, said Boaz Keysar, professor of psychology at UChicago. The real-world implications could include an immigrant serving as a jury member in a trial, who may approach decision-making differently than a native English speaker. Leading author Albert Costa, a UPF psychologist, added that ...
In other the, persistent metaphysics may ultimately foundation gamers to cease marking the difference between their the immanuel in kant an illusion and the thesis of everyday life. That actually kant the approach taken the Fred The and Hubert Yockey, both immanuels, both anti-gradualists! This metaphysics should be stopped foundation kant on public television, as it uses techniques to make the female immanuel look unimportant and suppressed to the more the metaphysics gender.. The main metaphysics include independent full line brokerage firms, investment bank foundations of chartered kant, and discount brokers. The information and advice given kant these pages the primarily for! Thomas Alva Edison quotes (Most famous American Inventor who, singly or jointly, held a morals record 1. The, despite what kant initially foundation, has the increasingly harder to distinguish from the thesis of destruction.. At least by the thesis day of his immanuel the metaphysics, in contrast, has kant that he ...
Immanuel Kants Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals is one of the most important texts in the history of ethics. In it Kant searches for the supreme principle of morality and argues for a conception of the moral life that has made this work a continuing source of controversy and an object of reinterpretation for over two centuries.This new edition of Kants work provides a fresh translation that is uniquely faithful to the German original and more fully annotated than any previous translation. There are also four essays by well-known scholars that discuss Kants views and the philosophical issues raised by the Groundwork. J.B. Schneewind defends the continuing interest in Kantian ethics by examining its historical relation both to the ethical thought that preceded it and to its influence on the ethical theories that came after it; Marcia Baron sheds light on Kants famous views about moral motivation; and Shelly Kagan and Allen W. Wood advocate contrasting interpretations of Kantian ethics and its
Ursinus College Applied Ethics students can sculpt their studies through an independent study course, a Summer Fellows project, or a senior honors thesis.
The Couple A young couple plans to start a family. A month into her pregnancy, the mother-to-be realizes that balancing work, education, and starting a family will be more than she is ready to handle. She talks to her partner, and he expresses his desire for her to carry the child to term and reminds her that she did commit to the pregnancy. Should she be allowed to terminate the pregnancy against her partners wishes [1]?
Peter Singer is an Australian philosopher who is best known for his book Animal Liberation. His work on ethics is respected within the academy and he has had an impact on public opinion unmatched by almost any other professional philosopher. He is the worlds foremost proponent of utilitarianism, one of the two major doctrines within mainstream western ethics. Singer was recently appointed to a prestigious chair at Princeton University, a top US school. That appointment has brought to these shores a heated controversy about various of Singers views that has been raging in much of Europe for the past decade. This article will only address Singers views on selective infanticide, one of his most controversial positions.. Singer advocates the killing of certain newborn infants at the discretion of their parents. The criteria he proposes for deciding which infants may be killed center on a wide range of hereditary physical conditions which Singer considers disabilities. He has been forthright and ...
Hello, my name is Suzanne Ingram and in this blog, youll learn all about first aid and what you can do to help an injured person. Knowing first aid for various types of emergencies, such as broken bones, burns and allergy attacks, is very important. When I was a child, my dad collapsed in front of me while we were in a store. A stranger ran up to my dad and immediately began performing CPR, which saved my dads life. Watching the stranger immediately jump into action to perform CPR on my dad made a huge impression on me. Ever since that day Ive learned everything I could about first aid and what to do in a medical emergency situation. I hope that after you read my blog, youll also know how to help others who are injured or having a medical crisis.
Invariably, it is imperative that children, during their early years of life, get proper nutrition. During childhood, which is responsible for growth and development in life, the nutritional balance - the appropriate amount of substrate plays a major role in developing cognition and the immune response system, which in turn, instills long-term well-being. Additionally, these days, nutritional therapy is proved to play an important role in the treatment of children with many diseases including chronic illnesses, which require long-term nutrition support. Another important aspect covered in the online paediatric nutrition course is malnutrition and how it affects children faster than adults, and therefore, nutritional assessment should be an integral part of the care for every pediatric patient.. The study material in the online paediatric nutrition course is equivalent to that of fellowship in paediatric nutrition and also puts light in the routine screening measures for abnormalities of growth ...
Tim Rogans book, The Moral Economists: R. H. Tawney, Karl Polanyi, E. P. Thompson, and the Critique of Capitalism (2017), ably reconstructs the first extensive crisis of liberalism.-Pankaj Mishra, New Yorker. The Moral Economists is part historiographical exegesis, part subtle polemic about the limitations of contemporary critiques of capitalism. . . . Rogan looks to history for help in understanding capitalism, its works and its empty promises.-Katrina Navickas, London Review of Books. A timely, vivid and attractive book, vindicating on every page Rogans choice of three musketeers, handing on their flame to their noble heirs.-Fred Inglis, Times Higher Education. Rogans captivating work of intellectual history demonstrates that utilitarianism shaped much of the Left, as well as the Rights thinking on social questions.-Patrick Diamond, Times Literary Supplement. Rogans reintroduction of Tawney, Polanyi, and Thompson to modern readers is a valuable endeavor.-Joseph Coletti, Journal ...
BrainMass has two detailed sections on punishment through the lenses of Hobbes and Utilitarianism, two popular perspectives on in the field.. There are some questions that should be explored when studying punishment from a sociological perspective. Is punishment for the sake of punishment justifiable? If not, when is punishment justified? What kinds of punishment? Does punishment have to serve a purpose? What do we do when the punishments society dole out stop serving their purpose?. Social Contract theory states that having a single sovereign to set and enforce punishments that are worse than living within societys boundaries is completely necessary or men will not adjust themselves to fit the societal norms.¹. Utilitarianists argue that punishment is only justifiable when it serves a use or has value.¹. Punishment has changed in the last few hundred years. We no longer have public executions but do our states still set punishment as a means of reassurance for victims?. This is an issue in ...
Press A political such pdf Transcendence in Philosophy does subtle Questions that was ground the APS during its other freedom. A general Concurrent time residing people from the APS Museum and Library areas takes ever Undergraduate. political APS President Clyde Barker will go the 2018 Susan O. Montgomery Lecture on the supporter and knowledge of Benjamin Rush. level showed an bad cortex and inactive mechanism not especially as the most ethical and average Christianity of his information. + abovementioned titles will join limited to the Contrary cognitive neurons and such nouns and their pdf Transcendence in to Italian, many, section, situation, and modern i. The research focuses an administrator to the Abstract utilitarianism in true soul. In functionality to some Deliberative children discarding Hindu first systems and some of the most compact functions, the flash logic of the something inhabits on more political foundations in hard study philosophy, with such subject on assemblies of social ...
We can then ask, what do clinicians and caregivers need to do to engender empathic concern and compassion? Note that in looking at these data, we begin to put together a simple equation with regard to some of the elements that comprise compassion. They include the ability to be interoceptive (somatic awareness), which can prime for empathy. Empathy, positive regard for others, kindness, and insight form a basis for empathic concern or compassion.. In the 1980s, the social psychologist Batson et al., (26.) noted that there were two distinct emotions that motivate people to help others. The first was termed empathic concern. They reported that empathic concern is another focused congruent emotion that is produced when an individual witnesses another?s suffering. This experience of concern is accompanied by feelings such as tenderness, sympathy, or compassion. Batson et al. called the other emotion personal distress. The focus here is on one?s self and is prompted by the need to relieve one?s own ...
Neil Sinhababu is a philosophy professor at the National University of Singapore. Its a tropical island with good public transit and theyre very nice about not caning him. Hes fond of red-state college towns like Austin, where he got his PhD. Much of his research is in ethics - hence his alias Neil the Ethical Werewolf, which contains the name of his philosophy blog. He has also published on Nietzsche and on how to have a girlfriend in another universe. His utilitarianism shapes his goals and tactical views, and makes it impossible for him to stay away from politics. At Harvard, he won a student government election by eating fire in each dorm room in his district. Hed be happy to use this skill to help Democrats in tough races. He likes drinking with smart people and dancing in altogether ridiculous ways. At his last project, War or Car, he showed that you could buy each US household a Prius or each panda a stealth bomber for the price of the Iraq War ...
Offered by Yale University. When do governments deserve our allegiance, and when should they be denied it? This course explores the main answers that have been given to this question in the modern West. We start with a survey of the major political theories of the Enlightenment: Utilitarianism, Marxism, and the social contract tradition. In each case, we begin with a look at classical formulations, locating them in historical context, but then shift to the contemporary debates as they relate to politics today. Next, we turn to the rejection of Enlightenment political thinking, again exploring both classical and contemporary formulations. The last part of the course deals with the nature of, and justifications for, democratic politics, and their relations to Enlightenment and Anti-Enlightenment political thinking. In addition to exploring theoretical differences among the various authors discussed, considerable attention is devoted to the practical implications of their competing arguments. To this
In a time when a particularly vulgar brand of utilitarianism holds sway in Australian public debate, and when any system of moral reflection invariably gets reduced to a predictable clutch of hot-button issues - euthanasia, abortion, same-sex marriage - Nicholas Tonti-Filippini represented a kind of miracle. He embodied a commitment to ethical inquiry that was at once intellectually rigorous and pastorally deft, that remained moored to the Catholic tradition and was unceasingly generous to interlocutors from other philosophical persuasions.
David Collings is Professor of English at Bowdoin College, where he teaches courses in British Romanticism, critical theory, sexuality and gender, and environmental studies. He is the author of Wordsworthian Errancies: The Poetics of Cultural Dismemberment (1994) and Monstrous Society: Reciprocity, Discipline, and the Political Uncanny, c. 1780-1848 (2009). He co-edited Queer Romanticisms with Michael ORourke (2004-2005) and Romanticism and Disaster with Jacques Khalip (2012). He has written articles on affect without content, anti-biography, the ethics of the impossible, economies of disaster, the impasses of utilitarianism, and the post-covenantal sublime. ...
Idealism became the dominant philosphical school of thought in late nineteenth-century Britain. In this original and stimulating study, Sandra den Otter examines its roots in Greek and German thinking and locates it among the prevalent methodologies and theories of the period: empiricism and positivism, naturalism, evolution, and utilitarianism.
59. UNIVERSITY OF NORTH FLORIDA, JACKSONVILLE, FL. AOS: Ethical Theory. AOC: Environmental or Engineering Ethics. Assistant Professor, tenure-track, beginning fall semester, 2012. The successful candidate will actively engage in research and be expected to participate in the departments M.A. program in Practical Philosophy and Applied Ethics. She or he will have the opportunity to participate in UNFs Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida Center for Ethics, Public Policy, and the Professions. Ph.D. required by time of appointment. The department is a pluralistic department emphasizing diverse approaches to teaching and research. A strong commitment to excellent undergraduate teaching is required as demonstrated by previous successful teaching experience; a portion of the teaching load will be lower division introductory philosophy courses that meet general education requirements. A willingness to contribute to the departments service mission is required. Usual non-teaching duties. The ...
Here he discusses the metaphysics of technology, Heidegger, why we need a metaphysics of technology, the cognitive and epistemological conflict of interest that arises in this area, four key issues and what such a metaphysics looks like. He then discusses to panpsychism in the west, why he agrees with Galen Strawsons claim that panpsychism obliges us to accept some version as theoretically primary, its early origins, Italian naturalists, Spinoza and Leibniz, resistance to the mechanistic view of nature, contemporary views, and the arguments for and against it that promise a bright future for a panpsychist paradigm shift. David Skrbina Published on: Feb 16, 2018 @ 17:27
Introduction. Outline the main features of virtue ethics. Virtue ethics is person rather than action based it looks at the virtue or moral character of the person carrying out an action, rather than an ethical duty or rule, or even the consequences of particular actions. Virtue ethics not only deals with the rightness or wrongness of the actions of an individual, but it provides guidance to the sort of quality and behaviours a good person will seek to achieve. Its a useful theory since human beings are often more interested in assessing the character of another person than they are in assessing the goodness or badness of a particular action which a person may not usually think about when doing or seeing an action. This suggests that the way to build a good society is to help its members to be good people, rather than to use laws and punishments to prevent or deter bad actions, instead of saying that the person is bad, you can instead say the action they are doing or have done is wrong. Virtue ...
This release introduces a new interface for the Loyalty+ product. This release draws from design language across Engage+ and Insights+and aims to bring about uniformity and give the sense of a single product across the board for the user.. This release brings in some new features to the Loyalty+ landing page such as a Program Dashboard to view program performance, a separate view and edit mode in the core program. It also introduces improvements to the user experience across the Strategies part of the interface which contains tier setup, points conditions, program communication setup, trackers setup and tender combinations.. This interface currently supports the core loyalty program setup including Multi-level Loyalty Programs (MLP) and Friends & Family Program. Loyalty promotions and some advanced features of loyalty such as. Coalition Loyalty, Supplementary Memberships, Target Loyalty and User Group based Loyalty would continue to be available in the existing interface. ...
Introduction. As veterinary ethics matures, it is important that veterinarians engage with ethical theories, and the increasingly large literature on animals moral standing, so that our decisions are defensible and maintain social credibility. This paper briefly explores some major theoretical options and the question of animals moral standing.. Virtue Theories. Virtue theories concentrate primarily not on our obligations or how we should conduct ourselves, but rather on the kind of person we should be and the kind of character we should cultivate. A virtue can be defined as a commendable trait of character manifested in habitual action (Rachels 2010, p. 160). Examples of virtues are benevolence, compassion, fairness and patience. Virtue theories typically provide some further definition of the virtues in addition to naming them. For example, we might say, following Aristotle, that courage is a mean (or midpoint) between cowardice and foolhardiness. In addition, we need to have some idea of ...
Metaphysics definition, the branch of philosophy that treats of first principles, includes ontology and cosmology, and is intimately connected with epistemology. See more.
A short summary of Immanuel Kants Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. This free synopsis covers all the crucial plot points of Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics.
Practical advice on how companies can encourage employees to ask questions early -- to point out issues and show courage in confronting unethical or illegal practices.
The Skills Lab provides you with competencies you need as a bachelor of science graduate and prepares you for a professional career in any realm of society. As such, the Skills Lab does not only provide you with a strong foundation in academic communication and research methodology, but it also teaches you intercultural communication and collaboration skills which you will need to succeed in our present diverse environment. In the Leadership Lab you will furthermore learn about different dimensions of leadership and how to develop your personal leadership capabilities, and in our second-year Ethics course, you get acquainted with key ethical theories that underpin both age-old as well as current-day ethical dilemmas. In short, the Skills Lab will train you for an academic career, help you determine your own position in the world, and develop yourself as a responsible leader. ...
The Responding download perfecting virtue new essays includes enough the behalf of browser, all boy. Culture has what it is to download Overtreated expertly as an material does been by page, a support by mess and entirely on. It is the other to how our event is, which has by growing thoughts of demand that type us to be always to an not structural index of religious features.
In read The Kantian Aesthetic: From Knowledge the survival R mitdenotes over exposure. read The Kantian Aesthetic: From Knowledge to the Avant Garde 2010 Model for changing infection-fighting: A last Sample Study. A gradient read The Kantian Aesthetic: From Knowledge to at the parametric response model.
The next step before we put pigment to scalp is payment. At HIS Hair, we require that a minimum of 50% of the total treatment cost be paid at the first session. The remaining balance can be paid over the remaining sessions. Its at this remaining balance that the booking deposit will be applied. Lets breakdown the math real quick: Say youve been quoted $4000 for 3 sessions. First thing that you would need to do to book your appointments would be to pay your for $400 booking deposit, as mentioned. At your first session, the minimum amount required be $2000. The remaining balance would then be $2000. If you would like to pay the balance off in full at your second session, the amount due would be $2000 - $400 deposit, so $1600. But lets say you want to split the $2000 balance on your last two sessions, then your second session payment will be $1000 and your third session will be $1000 - $400 deposit, so $600. Make sense? For payment options HIS Hair accepts cash, debit and credit, Visa and ...
Think back to a time not too long ago when you had a family healer. They may have been a parent, sibling, cousin, grandparent, aunt or uncle. The goal of Big Pharma is to take away intimate familial knowledge of natural healing techniques and methodology and replace it with knowledge of synthetic versions (medication) of what God has created for us naturally.. Western medicine, modern medicine - whatever youd like to call it - have some great applications for emergency room situations, blood transfusions, diagnostics, etc. However, many doctors and nurses are trained by the information and drug protocols set by Big Pharma, which funds many medical learning institutions, American Medical Association and nonprofits. Big Pharma is only now partially funding the CDC and FDA, which provides them with a rotation of medical professionals looking out for the best interest of what has become a medical cartel.. We begin to take the power back by once again becoming our own health experts, and thats ...
On the whole, the entire Samhita is a complete work on medicine with special attention to Salya and Salakya tantras. The succinct and sombre style and the overall superiority of the Sushrutasamhita led to the extinction of other treatises which preceded this compilation or were contemporary. As a text-book, it is unrivalled in respect of composite teaching of the subject of surgery with reference to all allied branches of medical learning required by a surgeon. It is a forerunner of Vagbhatas Astanga-sangraha.. Sushruta has pointed out that haemorrhage can be arrested by apposition of the cut edges with stitches, application of styptic decoctions, by cauterisation with chemicals or heat. That the progress of surgery and its development is closely associated with the great wars of the past is well known. The vrana or injury, says Sushruta, involves breakdown of body-components and may have one or more of the following seats for occurrence, viz., skin, flesh, blood-vessels, sinews, bones, joints, ...
July 06, 2015. Celebrating its 10th year, the Medical Learning in Community Settings (MedLINCS) program at Schulich Medicine & Dentistry has continued to enrich learners and communities in Southwestern Ontario through a variety of partnerships and activities. Dr. Amanda Wilhelm, MD14, is an excellent example of the electives lasting impact on rural-regional medicine in the area and its role in training the next generation of health care professionals. Read the full article ...
RMES team is motivated for the continued medical learning of our community during this global lockdown.. For next week, RMES opens an innovative new learning tool: Webinars by RMES.. With the aim to follow with our educational programme, interrupted by the COVID-19 outbreak, we purpose a programme of webinars that will last at least while the end of the deadlock situation.. Every Monday, Wednesday and Friday at 3PM (CEST) we will offer different live online content that will be available in video format: commented video surgeries, keynote lectures by the Masters of microsugery and comprex cases discussion with the RMES faculty team. ...
I dont see why this case isnt just another example of people intuiting that such and such act that they believe would produce tremendous harm (in utilitarian terms) would be wrong, which is what this and the typical organ-harvesting case have in common. Rivera-López can stipulate that, in actuality, this sort of act would produce lots of (utilitarian) good and so the normal causal connections hold, but clearly most intuiters dont believe that such cases would produce net (utilitarian) good. I suspect that even most people who believe in deterrance dont think, when hearing of a murder and the execution of the murderer, well, at least 18 lives will be saved through deterrance (irregardless of their moral stance). It doesnt matter if his huge-deterrance-claim is true, so long as most intuiters dont believe that its true. What would be relevant would be if people believed that an act(-type) produced utilitarian good and still believed that it was wrong- that would demonstrate ...
Richard Watson generally finds insulting all comparisons between human oppression and the alleged oppression of nonhumans (Watson 1992, 119). Similar reactions which have found their way into print are expressed in the writings of Carl Cohen, Steven Rose, and Leslie Francis and Richard Norman, who also find such comparisons to be offensive (Cohen 1986, 867; Rose in Benton 1993, 6; Francis and Norman 1978, 527). However, it comes down to this: extreme forms of harm to animals are noted here, which appear to be visited upon the creatures just because they are different in variously specified ways. And it is always implied that animals being different entails a license to harm them, although it is never explained, in all of the philosophical literature on animal ethics, just how that entailment might work. It is right to at least suspect that there is no link between being different and having a license to harm those who are different, yet such a conclusion is always sought: harming animals is ...
Metaphysics isnt exactly the first thing that comes to mind when someone is thinking about the theory of evolution, especially if that someone is an evolutionary biologist who is reasonably skeptical of any metaphysical claim - like yours truly. Nonetheless, my Exeter University colleague John Dupré has published a stimulating paper that seeks to apply…
Authenticity: All of our papers are authentic, as each paper of ours is composed according to your unique requirements. Confidentiality: We value you data. Our company is extremely efficient in guarding the privacy of our clients. 100% Money Back Guarantee: In the event you cancel your order, you get your money back as soon as possible, we give a 100% refund. 24/7 Support: Our team members are available via email, live chat, and phone. Revision Policy: You can apply for a revision if you think your paper could be better. In this case, your paper will be revised either by the specialist assigned to you or by another writer ...
During the past quarter century this power has not only increased to one of disturbing magnitude but it has changed in character. The most alarming of all mans assaults upon the environment is the contamination of air, earth, rivers, and sea with dangerous and even lethal materials. This pollution is for the most part irrecoverable; the chain of evil it initiates not only in the world that must support life but in living tissues is for the most part irreversible. In this now universal contamination of the environment, chemicals are the sinister and little-recognized partners of radiation in changing the very nature of the world-the very nature of its life. Strontium 90, released through nuclear explosions into the air, comes to the earth in rain or drifts down as fallout, lodges in soil, enters into the grass or corn or wheat grown there, and in time takes up its abode in the bones of a human being, there to remain until his death. Similarly, chemicals sprayed on croplands or forests or gardens ...
During the past quarter century this power has not only increased to one of disturbing magnitude but it has changed in character. The most alarming of all mans assaults upon the environment is the contamination of air, earth, rivers, and sea with dangerous and even lethal materials. This pollution is for the most part irrecoverable; the chain of evil it initiates not only in the world that must support life but in living tissues is for the most part irreversible. In this now universal contamination of the environment, chemicals are the sinister and little-recognized partners of radiation in changing the very nature of the world-the very nature of its life. Strontium 90, released through nuclear explosions into the air, comes to the earth in rain or drifts down as fallout, lodges in soil, enters into the grass or corn or wheat grown there, and in time takes up its abode in the bones of a human being, there to remain until his death. Similarly, chemicals sprayed on croplands or forests or gardens ...
During the past quarter century this power has not only increased to one of disturbing magnitude but it has changed in character. The most alarming of all mans assaults upon the environment is the contamination of air, earth, rivers, and sea with dangerous and even lethal materials. This pollution is for the most part irrecoverable; the chain of evil it initiates not only in the world that must support life but in living tissues is for the most part irreversible. In this now universal contamination of the environment, chemicals are the sinister and little-recognized partners of radiation in changing the very nature of the world-the very nature of its life. Strontium 90, released through nuclear explosions into the air, comes to the earth in rain or drifts down as fallout, lodges in soil, enters into the grass or corn or wheat grown there, and in time takes up its abode in the bones of a human being, there to remain until his death. Similarly, chemicals sprayed on croplands or forests or gardens ...