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The National Center for Biomedical Ontology was founded as one of the National Centers for Biomedical Computing, supported by the NHGRI, the NHLBI, and the NIH Common Fund under grant U54-HG004028 ...
The protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid suppressed autophagy completely in isolated rat hepatocytes, as measured by the sequestration of electroinjected [3H]raffinose into sedimentable autophagic vacuoles. Okadaic acid was effectively antagonized by the general protein kinase inhibitors K-252a and KT-5926, the calmodulin antagonist W-7, and by KN-62, a specific inhibitor of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II). These inhibitors also antagonized a cytoskeleton-disruptive effect of okadaic acid, manifested as the disintegration of cell corpses after breakage of the plasma membrane. CaMK-II, or a closely related enzyme, would thus seem to play a role in the control of autophagy as well as in the control of cytoskeletal organization. ...
Tau is a neuron-specific, microtubule-associated protein that forms paired helical filaments (PHFs) of Alzheimers disease when aberrantly phosphorylated. We have attempted to elucidate the protein kinases and phosphatases that regulate tau phosphorylation. Incubation of rat, human, and rhesus monkey temporal neocortex slices with the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid induced epitopes of tau similar to those found in PHFs. Okadaic acid (1-20 microM) induced variant forms of tau at 60-68 kDa, which were recognized by the monoclonal antibodies Alz-50 (in humans only) and 5E2 and two polyclonal antipeptide antisera, OK-1 and OK-2. The phosphorylation-sensitive monoclonal antibody Tau-1 failed to recognize the slowest mobility forms of tau after okadaic acid treatment. FK-520 (1-10 microM), a potent inhibitor of calcineurin activity, was tested in brain slices and found not to alter tau mobility. However, combinations of FK-520 (5 microM) and okadaic acid (100 nM) caused tau mobility shifts similar ...
Mammalian Ste20-like kinases 1 and 2 (MST1 and MST2) are activated in NIH3T3 cells exposed to okadaic acid. The Hippo pathway is a newly emerging signaling that functions as a tumor suppressor. MST1 and MST2 work as core kinases of the Hippo pathway and their activities depend on the autophosphorylation, which is negatively regulated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Okadaic acid has been frequently used to enhance the phosphorylation of MST1 and MST2 and to trigger the activation of the Hippo pathway. However other components of the Hippo pathway could also be targets of okadaic acid. In this review we first briefly summarize the molecular architecture of the Hippo pathway for the reference of researchers outside the field. We explain how MST kinases are regulated by PP2A and how okadaic acid activates MST2. Thereafter we discuss which components of the Hippo pathway are candidate substrates of protein phosphatases and which points we need to consider in the usage of okadaic acid to study the Hippo
This application is directed to novel fluorinated polymers and prepolymers derived from mono-substituted oxetane monomers having fluorinated alkoxymethylene side-chains and the method of making these compositions. The mono-substituted fluorinated oxetane monomers having fluorinated alkoxymethylene side-chains are prepared in high yield by the reaction of a fluorinated alkoxides with either 3-halomethyl-3-methyloxetane premonomers or aryl sulfonate derivative of 3-hydroxymethyl-3-methyloxetane premonomers. Preparation of a mono-substituted 3-bromomethyl-3-methyloxetane premonomer via a simple, high yield process amenable to commercial scaleup is also disclosed. The fluorinated oxetane monomers of this invention can be readily homo/co-polymerized in the presence of a Lewis acid and polyhydroxy compounds to obtain hydroxy-terminated polyether prepolymers having fluorinated alkoxymethylene side chains. Additionally, the fluorinated oxetane monomers can be copolymerized with non-fluorinated monomers such as
C08G65/2624-Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming an ether link in the main chain of the macromolecule from cyclic ethers by opening of the heterocyclic ring from cyclic ethers and other compounds the other compounds containing nitrogen containing amine groups containing aliphatic amine groups ...
You may also wish to search for items by Mortimer, C. and Mortimer. 67 matching references were found. Mortimer, C.T.; Pritchard, H.O.; Skinner, H.A., Thermochemistry of metallic alkyls. Part V - Mercury di-propyl and mercury di-isopropyl, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1952, 48, 220-229. [all data] Chernick, C.L.; Skinner, H.A.; Mortimer, C.T., Thermochemistry of organophosphorus compounds. Part I. Trimethyl and triethyl phosphites, J. Chem. Soc., 1955, 3936-39. [all data] Cass, R.C.; Fletcher, S.E.; Mortimer, C.T.; Springall, H.D.; White, T.R., Heats of combustion and molecular structure. Part V. The mean bond energy term for the C-O bond in ethers, and the structures of some cyclic ethers, J. Chem. Soc., 1958, 1406-1410. [all data] Cass, R.C.; Fletcher, S.E.; Mortimer, C.T.; Quincey, P.G.; Springall, H.D., Heats of combustion and molecular structure. Part VI. The structure of some cyclic ethers of o-dihydroxybenzene, J. Chem. Soc., 1958, 2595-2597. [all data] Cass, R.C.; Fletcher, S.E.; Mortimer, C.T.; ...
Hydroxy terminated polyethers are obtained by reacting (1) epoxide and oxetane monomers with (2) a telogen at least partially soluble with the monomers, reactive with said monomers and being selected
Okadaic Acid, Free Acid, |98%, CAS#78111-17-8, More than 1,000 labs worldwide have purchased Okadaic Acid or its salts from LC Labs, either directly from us or from our distributors and resellers (the latter resell under their own labels).
A carbon oxoacid acid carrying at least one -C(=O)OH group and having the structure RC(=O)OH, where R is any any monovalent functional group. Carboxylic acids are the most common type of organic acid.. ...
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2. Is it possible to activate some kinase activity (its been published that okadaic acid can activate PKC activity) in homogenized tissue that could confound the data. I keep my samples on ice and add 1mM EDTA, but Im afraid that if phosphatases are inhibited without proper inhibition of kinases, the phosphorylated protein signal could be inflated ...
Principal Investigator:HANEJI Tatsuji, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Morphological basic dentistry
80592-86-5 - ZLZINPAIXXXARB-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Benzofuran, 5-bromo-2-(diethylaminomethyl)-3-phenyl- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A role for protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation in eliciting glucagon desensitization in rat hepatocytes. AU - Savage, A.. AU - Zeng, L.. AU - Houslay, M. D.. PY - 1995/4/1. Y1 - 1995/4/1. N2 - An immobilized hepatocyte preparation was used to show that both vasopressin and glucagon could desensitize the ability of glucagon to increase intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations. This process was not dependent on any influx of extracellular Ca2+ and was not mediated by any rise in the intracellular level of Ca2+. The protein kinase C-selective inhibitors chelerythrine, staurosporine and calphostin C acted as potent inhibitors of the desensitization process but with various degrees of selectivity regarding their ability to inhibit the desensitizing actions of glucagon and vasopressin. The protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid was just as potent as vasopressin and glucagon in causing desensitization. Treatment of hepatocyte membranes with alkaline phosphatase restored to near ...
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Miyazawa M., Shindo M., Shimada T.. 1,8-Cineole, the monoterpene cyclic ether known as eucalyptol, is one of the components in essential oils from Eucalyptus polybractea. We investigated the metabolism of 1,8-cineole by liver microsomes of rats and humans and by recombinant cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) enzymes in insect cells in which human P450 and NADPH-P450 reductase cDNAs had been introduced. 1,8-Cineole was found to be oxidized at high rates to 2-exo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole by rat and human liver microsomal P450 enzymes. In rats, pregenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) and phenobarbital induced the 1,8-cineole 2-hydroxylation activities by liver microsomes. Several lines of evidence suggested that CYP3A4 is a major enzyme involved in the oxidation of 1,8-cineole by human liver microsomes: (1), 1,8-cineole 2-hydroxylation activities by liver microsomes were inhibited very significantly by ketoconazole, a CYP3A inhibitor, and anti-CYP3A4 immunoglobulin G; (2), there was a good correlation between ...
Looking for online definition of Polyethers in the Medical Dictionary? Polyethers explanation free. What is Polyethers? Meaning of Polyethers medical term. What does Polyethers mean?
Shop Type-1 protein phosphatase inhibitor ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Type-1 protein phosphatase inhibitor Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
To distinguish whether the increased Cdk2 activity is due to an immediate effect of PP2A inhibition on CycE/Cdk2, we performed a kinase assay in Drosophila S2R+ cultured cells, where we can use short-term treatments with the pan-PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid (OA) to discern immediate versus indirect effects of PP2A inhibition on CycE/Cdk2 activity. We performed a timecourse and dosage test of OA treatment in S2R+ cells and confirmed that, with 30 min of OA treatment, PP2A activity is inhibited as assessed by increased phosphorylation of S6K. We performed a timecourse of OA treatment on S2R+ cells transiently transfected with a CycE expression vector and undertook CycE/Cdk2 kinase assays as described above. We found that with 30 min of OA treatment S2R+ cells exhibit a mild increase in CycE/Cdk2 activity (Fig. 8C), consistent with a direct effect of PP2A on CycE/Cdk2 activity. However, upon longer OA treatments (2 h shown), cells exhibit a reduction in CycE/Cdk2 kinase activity and a slower ...
The National Center for Biomedical Ontology was founded as one of the National Centers for Biomedical Computing, supported by the NHGRI, the NHLBI, and the NIH Common Fund under grant U54-HG004028 ...
A small reactive molecule - Ethylene Oxide is a small, reactive molecule (C2H4O) consisting of a cyclical ether ring and four hydrogen atoms.
Cationic polymerization of a variety of organic materials such as vinyl monomers, prepolymers, cyclic ethers, cyclic esters and organosilicon cyclics can be achieved by the use of certain radiation sensitive aromatic halonium salts. In addition, polymerizable compositions are provided which can be used as coating compounds, molding resins, adhesives, etc.
Okadaic acid (OA) has been an invaluable pharmacological tool in the study of cellular signaling. The great affinity of this polyether for its targets together with its high specificity to inhibit certain protein phosphatases enables the differential study of these proteins. Crystallographic structures of protein phosphatases in complex with OA show a 1:1 protein to toxin ratio. Nevertheless, it has been found that OA is able to self-associate under certain conditions although very little is known about the importance of this phenomenon. Here we review the available knowledge on the latter topic and we report on the existence of an unusual self-associated tetrameric form. The structure of these oligomers is proposed based on spectroscopic data and molecular modeling calculations.
Signal transductionRegulatory functionsProtein interactionsPhr family secreted Rap phosphatase inhibitor (TIGR04429; HMM-score: 12.4) ...
Background: SNF1-related protein kinases 2 (SnRK2s) are key regulators of the plant response to osmotic stress. They are transiently activated in response to drought and salinity. Based on a phylogenetic analysis SnRK2s are divided into three groups. The classification correlates with their response to abscisic acid (ABA); group 1 consists SnRK2s non-activated in response to ABA, group 2, kinases non-activated or weakly activated (depending on the plant species) by ABA treatment, and group 3, ABA-activated kinases. The activity of all SnRK2s is regulated by phosphorylation. It is well established that clade A phosphoprotein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs) are negative regulators of ABA-activated SnRK2s, whereas regulators of SnRK2s from group 1 remain unidentified. Results: Here, we show that ABI1, a PP2C clade A phosphatase, interacts with SnRK2.4, member of group 1 of the SnRK2 family, dephosphorylates Ser158, whose phosphorylation is needed for the kinase activity, and inhibits the kinase, both in ...
List of Contributors. 1. Engineering and Specialty Thermoplastics: Polyethers and Polyesters (Sabu Thomas and Visakh P.M.).. 1.1 Introduction.. 1.2 Polyesters Synthesis.. 1.3 Polyethers.. 1.4 Individual Polyethers and Polyesters and Their Application.. 1.5 New Challenges and Opportunities.. 2. Poly(phenylene oxide) (Mong Liang).. 2.1 Introduction and History.. 2.2 Monomer.. 2.3 Polymerization and Mechanism.. 2.4 Properties.. 2.5 Compounding and Special Additives.. 2.6 Processing.. 2.7 Applications.. 2.8 Environmental Impact and Recycling.. 2.9 Recent Developments in Poly Phenylene Oxide Based Blends and Composites and Their Applications.. 3. Polyether Ether Ketone (Jinwen Wang).. 3.1 Introduction and History.. 3.2 Polymerization and Fabrication.. 3.3 Properties.. 3.4 Chemical Properties.. 3.5 Environmental Resistance.. 3.6 Compounding and Special Additives.. 3.7 Processing.. 3.8 Applications.. 3.9 Environmental Impact and Recycling.. 3.10 Recent Developments in PEEK Based Blends and Composites ...
article{972d3387-c0ca-4d23-9b0a-36720bbb1e75, abstract = {In adipocytes, protein kinase B (PKB) has been suggested to be the enzyme that phosphorylates phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B), a key enzyme in insulins antilipolytic signalling pathway. In order to screen for PKB phosphatases, adipocyte homogenates were fractionated using ion-exchange chromatography and analysed for PKB phosphatase activities. PKB phosphatase activity eluted as one main peak, which coeluted with serine/threonine phosphatases (PP)2A. In addition, adipocytes were incubated with inhibitors of PP. Incubation of adipocytes with 1 microM okadaic acid inhibited PP2A by 75% and PP1 activity by only 17%, while 1 microM tautomycin inhibited PP1 activity by 54% and PP2A by only 7%. Okadaic acid, but not tautomycin, induced the activation of both PKBalpha and PKBbeta. Finally, PP2A subunits were found in several subcellular compartments, including plasma membranes (PM) where the phosphorylation of PKB is thought to occur. In summary, ...
Addition polymerizable polyethers having pendant ethylenically unsaturated urethane groups are usefully employed as flooring materials and in other applications utilizing radiation curable or chemically curable materials. Such urethane polyethers are advantageously prepared by reacting a polyether polyol such as a hydroxy terminated polypropylene glycol with an isocyanatoalkyl ester of an ethylenically unsaturated acid such as 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate.
The trapping of cations generated from Co2(CO)6-bispropargylic alcohols provided diethers in good yield. The procedure is also valid when two vicinal acetylenes are present. The methodology can be applied to the synthesis of symmetrical or unsymmetrical linear or cyclic propargylic ethers. The use of substrates with a stereochemically defined secondary nucleophilic alcohol provided cyclic ethers with a high degree of stereocontrol ...
Use of the cyclic ether degrading fungus, Cordyceps sinensis strain A to degrade dibenzo- p-dioxin (DD), 2,3,7-trichlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (2,3,7-triCDD) and ...
United States Patent O US. Cl. 260-463 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Fluorinated linear polyethers of the general formula 2 4 P 2 Q( R. B wherein C 1 represents a perfluoroalkylene unit derived from the opening of a double bond of a molecule of tetrafiuoroethylene; the two perfluoroalkylene units have a random distribution along the polyether chain; -(O) represents an oxygen atom having a random distribution along the polymer chain and linked in the peroxidic form to the different oxyperfluoroalkylene units; A and B may be the same or different and each is a radical selected from the group consisting of CF;,--, -COF, and CF -COF; P and Q are each from 1 to 199, R is from 0 to 199, the sum of P+Q is between 2 and 200, the ratio Q/P is between 0.1 and 10, the ratio R/P is between 0 and 1, and the ratio R/(P+Q+1) is between 0 and 0.8. Also in cludes derivatives of such polyethers, as by hydrolysis, esterification, salt formation, amidation, dehydration of the amide to a nitrile, and ...
Oxetane-containing nucleosides, particularly non-reducing psiconucleoside oxetanes are described herein. Therapeutic application of these oxetane compounds toward the treatment of nucleoside analog related disorders such as disorders involving cellular proliferation and infection are also described.
Phosphodiesterase type 3B (PDE3B) has been shown to be activated and phosphorylated in response to insulin and hormones that increase cAMP. In order to study serine/threonine protein phosphatases involved in the regulation of rat adipocyte PDE3B, we investigated the phosphorylation and activation of PDE3B in vivoin response to phosphatase inhibitors and the dephosphorylation and deactivation of PDE3B in vitroby phosphatases purified from rat adipocyte homogenates. Okadaic acid and calyculin A induced dose- and time-dependent activation of PDE3B. Maximal effects were obtained after 30 min using 1 μM okadaic acid (1.8-fold activation) and 300 nM calyculin A (4-fold activation), respectively. Tautomycin and cyclosporin A did not induce activation of PDE3B. Incubation of adipocytes with 300 nM calyculin A inhibited protein phosphatase (PP) 1 and PP2A completely. Okadaic acid (1 μM) reduced PP2A activity by approx. 50% but did not affect PP1 activity, and 1 μM tautomycin reduced PP1 activity by ...
Mouse FT210 cells at 39 degreesC cannot enter mitosis but arrest in G2 phase, because they lack Cdc2 kinase activity as a result of a temperature-sensitive lesion in the cdc2 gene. Incubation of arrested cells with the protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitor okadaic acid induces morphologically normal chromosome condensation. We now show that okadaic acid also induces two other landmark events of early mitosis, nuclear lamina depolymerization and centrosome separation, in the absence of Cdc2 kinase activity. Okadaic acid-induced entry into mitosis is accompanied by partial activation of Cdc25C and may be prevented by tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors and by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine, suggesting that Cdc25C and kinases distinct from Cdc2 are required for these mitotic events. Using in-gel assays, we show that a 45-kDa protein kinase normally activated at mitosis is also activated by okadaic acid independently of Cdc2 kinase. The 45-kDa kinase can utilize GTP, is stimulated by ...
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Protein Phosphatase Inhibitor-2 (I-2) specifically and instantaneously inhibits the catalytic subunit of type I protein phosphatase (PP1) at nanomolar concentrations. In contrast, the inhibition of native forms of PP1
Define benzofuran. benzofuran synonyms, benzofuran pronunciation, benzofuran translation, English dictionary definition of benzofuran. n. A colorless liquid, C8H6O, found in coal tar and used to make thermoplastic resins for paints and varnishes. Also called coumarone . n a colourless...
plasma membrane, magnesium-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity, protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity, drought recovery, microtubule cytoskeleton organization, negative regulation of growth, protein dephosphorylation
Calyculin A is a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor that inhibits the activity of protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A. Human carcinoma A431 cells treated with calyculin A for 30 minutes can undergo significant threonine phosphorylation, as shown by western blotting using anti-Phospho-Akt (Thr-34), cat.# AP1001, as co
Aqueous coating compositions consist essentially of: (a) a water-insoluble film-forming polymeric resin; (b) water-insoluble agglomerated particulate beads of urea, melamine or phenol and formaldehyde; (c) polyethers having the formulaH(OC.sub.x H.sub.2x).sub.n OHwhere x is from 2 to 4 and n is a number such that the polyether has a weight average molecular weight of from about 200 to about 1000; (d) pigments; and (e) water. The aqueous coating compositions are especially useful for imparting to metal coil a low gloss pigmented protective finish having good metal marking resistance.
The present invention relates to soft capsules comprising (a) polymers prepared by polymerization of vinyl esters in the presence of polyethers (b) where appropriate structure-improving auxiliaries and (c) where appropriate other conventional constituents, the use and production thereof.
Looking for epoxide? Find out information about epoxide. A reactive group in which an oxygen atom is joined to each of two carbon atoms which are already bonded. A three-membered cyclic ether. Also known as... Explanation of epoxide
The present invention provides methods, reactor systems, and catalysts for converting in a continuous process biomass to fuels and chemicals. The invention includes methods of converting the water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.
20780-54-5 - AWMVMTVKBNGEAK-MRVPVSSYSA-N - Styrene oxide, (S)- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatases can also stimulate Hippo signaling in cell culture. We defined the Hippo protein-protein interaction network with and without inhibition of serine and threonine phosphatases by okadaic acid ...
This study investigates the occurrence and regulation of serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PPases) in insulin-secreting RINm5F insulinoma cells. PPases types 1 and 2A were identified in crude RINm5F cell homogenates by both enzymatic assay and Western blot analysis. We then characterized and compared the inhibitory actions of several compounds isolated from cyanobacteria, marine dinoflagellates and marine sponges, (viz. okadaic acid, microcystin-LR, calyculin-A and nodularin) cation-independent PPase activities in RINm5F cell homogenates. It was found that okadaic acid was the least potent inhibitor (IC50 ≈ 10−9M, IC100 ≈ 10−6M), while the other compounds exhibited IC50 values of ≈ 5·10−10 M and IC100 ≈ 5·10−9 M. The findings indicate that the inhibitory substances employed in this study may be used pharmacologically to investigate the role of serine/threonine PPases in RINm5F cell insulin secretion, a process that is likely to be regulated to a major extent by protein ...
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To elucidate the roles of protein phosphatases type 1 (PP1) and type 2A (PP2A) in 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D3]-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells into monocytes, we examined the enzyme activity and the protein and gene expressions of PP1 and PP2A in these cells. Calyculin-A augmented the 1,25(OH)2D3-induced differentiation of the cells. Treatment of the cells with 1,25(OH)2D3 led to a decrease in PP1-like activity in the cytosol fraction, with a concomitant increase in the membrane and nuclear PP1-like activity, as determined when protein phosphatase activity was assayed using myosin light chain as substrate in the presence of 5 nm okadaic acid. Western blot analysis with antibodies specific for PP1 catalytic subunit isozymes (PP1α, PP1γ, and PP1δ) showed that all three PP1 isozymes were expressed but were differentially distributed in each cellular fraction. Subcellular redistribution of PP1-like activity during 1,25(OH)2D3-induced differentiation was mainly attributed to ...