Author(s): Echevarria, David J.; Hammack, Catherine M.; Jouandot, David J.; Toms, Christina N. | Abstract: Previous research reports that acute alcohol exposure disrupts shoaling behavior in the zebrafish. The purpose of these studies is to better understand how acute alcohol exposure (0%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1.0%) alters zebrafish behavior. The effects of alcohol on aggressive behaviors in humans have been widely researched. Previous research from this lab has shown a bimodal effect of alcohol on shoaling behavior in zebrafish, with 0.5% and 2.0% (v/v) disrupting shoaling while 1.0% and 1.5% showing no direct effect. Because shoaling is a social behavior and is altered during acute alcohol exposure, aggressive behavior between fish should be addressed. In this series of experiments we explored alcohols effects on aggressive behaviors. In order to address a possible role for alcohol induced aggression as it relates to shoaling we chose to examine the effects of acute alcohol exposure on zebrafish
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevention of alterations in intestinal permeability is involved in zinc inhibition of acute ethanol-induced liver damage in mice. AU - Lambert, Jason C.. AU - Zhou, Zhanxiang. AU - Wang, Lipeng. AU - Song, Zhenyuan. AU - McClain, Craig J.. AU - Kang, Yujian. PY - 2003/6/1. Y1 - 2003/6/1. N2 - Acute ethanol exposure causes liver injury in experimental animals, and accumulating evidence suggests that a major responsible factor for the pathogenesis is endotoxemia, which results from bacterial endotoxin leakage from the small intestine due to increased intestinal permeability under alcohol challenge. The purpose of this study was to examine whether zinc pretreatment would inhibit acute ethanol-induced liver injury through prevention of intestinal permeability changes. Male 129 SvPCJ mice were treated with three intragastric doses of ZnSO4 at 5 mg of zinc ion per kg each dosing prior to acute ethanol challenge with a single oral dose of 6 g/kg ethanol. The zinc treatment did not ...
1 World Production and Consumption 2 Fuel Ethanol Prices 3 International Trade 4 Blending Mandates WORLD Fuel Ethanol Production WORLD Feedstock Use for Fuel Ethanol Production WORLD Fuel Ethanol Consumption WORLD Fuel Ethanol Trade WORLD Ethanol Production WORLD Ethanol Exports WORLD Ethanol Imports ARGENTINA Fuel Ethanol Balance ARGENTINA Fuel Ethanol Reference Prices AUSTRALIA Ethanol Balance BRAZIL Ethanol Balance BRAZIL Fuel Ethanol Balance BRAZIL Fuel Ethanol Consumption by Type and Region BRAZIL Ethanol Production BRAZIL Total Ethanol Production by State BRAZIL Hydrous Ethanol Production by State BRAZIL Anhydrous Ethanol Production by State BRAZIL Hydrous and Anhydrous Ethanol Production BRAZIL São Paulo State Ex-Mill Ethanol Prices (BRL/litre) BRAZIL São Paulo State Ex-Mill Ethanol Prices (USD/litre) BRAZIL Ex-Mill Sugar As Against Hydrous Ethanol Price BRAZIL Hydrous Ethanol Retail Pump Prices BRAZIL Gasohol (Gasolina C) Retail Pump Prices BRAZIL Hydrous Ethanol/Gasohol Retail Pump ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of acute ethanol administration on hepatic protein and glycoprotein secretion in vivo. AU - Volentine, G. D.. AU - Tuma, D. J.. AU - Sorrell, M. F.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020355393&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020355393&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0020355393. VL - 2. SP - No. 89. JO - Hepatology. JF - Hepatology. SN - 0270-9139. IS - 5. ER - ...
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor dysfunction has been strongly suggested to link with the abnormalities seen in fetal alcohol syndrome. Thus, the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on the total expression of NR1 splice variants and the cell surface expression of both NR1 and NR2 subunits in brain were investigated in rats. Western blot studies of membrane homogenates from cerebral cortices at postnatal days 1 through 21 indicate that prenatal ethanol treatment does not alter total NR1 expression or differential expression of NR1 splice variants during development. However, immunoprecipitation studies using PSD95 suggest that both C2-terminal variants and NR2A subunits at the cortical postsynaptic membrane of postnatal day 21 were significantly reduced after prenatal ethanol treatment. Moreover, C1-terminal variants were decreased in both pair-fed and ethanol-treated groups, while no significant differences in the levels of total NR1 subunits, NR1 splice variants containing the N- or C2-terminal
Chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure (CIE) in rodents produces reliable and high blood ethanol concentration and behavioral symptoms associated with moderate to severe alcohol use disorder (AUD)—for example, escalation of operant ethanol self-administration, a feature suggestive of transition from recreational to addictive use, is a widely replicated behavior in rats that experience CIE. Herein, we present evidence from a subset of rats that do not demonstrate escalation of ethanol self-administration following seven weeks of CIE. These low responders (LR) maintain low ethanol self-administration during CIE, demonstrate lower relapse to drinking during abstinence and reduced reinstatement of ethanol seeking triggered by ethanol cues when compared with high responders (HR). We examined the blood ethanol levels in LR and HR rats during CIE and show higher levels in LR compared with HR. We also examined peak corticosterone levels during CIE and show that LR rats have higher levels compared
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Emerging evidence suggested mitophagy activation mitigates ethanol-induced liver injury. However, the effect of ethanol on mitophagy is inconsistent. Importantly, the understanding of mitophagy status after chronic ethanol consumption is limited. This study evaluated the effect of quercetin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid, on chronic ethanol-induced mitochondrial damage focused on mitophagy. An ethanol regime to mice for 15 weeks (accounting for 30% of total calories) led to significant mitochondrial damage as evidenced by changes of the mitochondrial ultrastructure, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and remodeling of membrane lipid composition, which was greatly attenuated by quercetin (100 mg/kg.bw). Moreover, quercetin blocked chronic ethanol-induced mitophagy suppression as denoted by mitophagosomes-lysosome fusion and mitophagy-related regulator elements, including LC3II, Parkin, p62 and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), paralleling with increased FoxO3a nuclear translocation. AMP
The Ethanol Effect is the newest hour-long special from the team behind Detroit Public Televisions Alfred I. DuPont/Columbia University Award-winning series Beyond the Light Switch.. From Iowas farm fields to Washingtons corridors of power, and from the algae-choked surface of the Great Lakes to the poisoned depths of the Gulf of Mexico, The Ethanol Effect investigates the human, environmental and political costs of growing and refining corn for ethanol in America. Our guide through the tangled web of ethanols influence is David Biello. Follow Biello as he untangles the web of ethanols unexpected influence on our daily in The Ethanol Effect ...
The Ethanol Effect is the newest hour-long special from the team behind Detroit Public Televisions Alfred I. DuPont/Columbia University Award-winning series Beyond the Light Switch.. From Iowas farm fields to Washingtons corridors of power, and from the algae-choked surface of the Great Lakes to the poisoned depths of the Gulf of Mexico, The Ethanol Effect investigates the human, environmental and political costs of growing and refining corn for ethanol in America. Our guide through the tangled web of ethanols influence is David Biello. Follow Biello as he untangles the web of ethanols unexpected influence on our daily in The Ethanol Effect ...
Title: CYP2E1: Biochemistry, Toxicology, Regulation and Function in Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury. VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 6. Author(s):Irina Kessova and Arthur I. Cederbaum. Affiliation:Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Box 1603, Mount Sinai Schoolof Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029.. Keywords:cyp2e1, ethanol-induced liver injury, chronic alcohol treatment., cyp2e1-dependent oxidative stress. Abstract: Ethanol-induced oxidative stress appears to play a major role in mechanisms by which ethanol causes liver injury. Many pathways have been suggested to contribute to the ability of ethanol to induce a state of oxidative stress. One central pathway appears to be the induction of the CYP2E1 form of cytochrome P450 enzymes by ethanol. CYP2E1 is of interest because of its ability to metabolize and activate many toxicological substrates, including ethanol, to more reactive, toxic products. Levels of CYP2E1 are elevated under a variety of physiological and ...
Acute alcohol use is associated with impaired immune responses and decreased proinflammatory cytokine production. Our earlier studies have shown that acute alcohol intake inhibits NF-kappaB DNA binding in an IkappaBalpha-independent manner. We report using human peripheral blood monocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with CD14 cells that acute alcohol treatment in vitro exerts NF-kappaB inhibition by disrupting phosphorylation of p65. Immunoprecipitation of p65 and IkappaBalpha revealed that acute alcohol exposure for 1 h decreased NF-kappaB-IkappaBalpha complexes in the cytoplasm. Phosphorylation of p65 at Ser(536) is mediated by IkappaB kinase (IKK)beta and is required for NF-kappaB-dependent cellular responses. We show that acute alcohol treatment decreased LPS-induced IKKalpha and IKKbeta activity resulting in decreased phosphorylation of p65 at Ser(536). Furthermore, nuclear expression of IKKalpha increased after alcohol treatment, which may contribute to inhibition of NF-kappaB.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Body temperature differentially affects ethanol sensitivity in both inbred strains and selected lines of mice. AU - Finn, Deborah (Deb). AU - Bejanian, M.. AU - Jones, B. L.. AU - McGivern, R. F.. AU - Syapin, P. J.. AU - Crabbe, John Jr. AU - Alkana, R. L.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Offsetting ethanol-induced hypothermia in five inbred strains of mice changed ethanol sensitivity within strains and markedly reduced differences between strains in brain sensitivity to hypnotic ethanol doses. The present study extended this work to mice selectivity bred for sensitivity and resistance to ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) and hypothermia. In all experiments LORR duration and ethanol concentrations at return of righting reflex were measured after i.p. hypnotic ethanol doses and exposure to 22 or 34°C. In experiment 1, C57BL/6J, A/HeJ, 129/J, LS/Ibg and SS/Ibg mice were given 4.2 g/kg ethanol. In experiment 2, the same mouse genotypes were tested with different ethanol ...
Evidence that brain edema and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels have roles in experimental binge ethanol-induced neurodegeneration has stimulated interest in swelling/edema-linked neuroinflammatory pathways leading to oxidative stress. We report here that neurotoxic binge ethanol exposure produces comparable significant effects in vivo and in vitro on adult rat brain levels of AQP4 as well as neuroinflammation-linked enzymes: key phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family members and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). In adult male rats, repetitive ethanol intoxication (3 gavages/d for 4 d, ∼9 g/kg/d, achieving blood ethanol levels ∼375 mg/dl;
4-Methyl pyrazole (4-MP, a specific inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase) reduced ethanol elimination by 30-50% and completely removed the ethanol-induced inhibition of galactose elimination in 2 control subjects. Ethanol elimination was accelerated in 2 alcoholics with adequate nutrition, but the effect of 4-MP was comparable to that in controls. In 2 other alcoholic subjects, who reported poor nutritional intake, intermediate rates of ethanol elimination were observed and 4-MP had almost no effect on ethanol or galactose elimination. These results suggest that alcohol abuse may result in an increased contribution to ethanol elimination by pathways other than that involving alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and that the decreased contribution from ADH, possibly potentiated by inadequate nutrition, may diminish the ethanol-induced shift in the NAD-coupled redox state. Since liver damage produced by alcohol abuse is believed to be related to changes from the normal redox state caused by ethanol, these ...
Rates of exchange catalysed by alcohol dehydrogenase were determined in vivo in order to find rate-limiting steps in ethanol metabolism. Mixtures of [1,1-2H2]- and [2,2,2-2H3]ethanol were injected in rats with bile fistulas. The concentrations in bile of ethanols having different numbers of 2H atoms were determined by g.l.c.-m.s. after the addition of [2H6]ethanol as internal standard and formation of the 3,5-dinitrobenzoates. Extensive formation of [2H4]ethanol indicated that acetaldehyde formed from [2,2,2-2H3]ethanol was reduced to ethanol and that NADH used in this reduction was partly derived from oxidation of [1,1-2H2]ethanol. The rate of acetaldehyde reduction, the degree of labelling of bound NADH and the isotope effect on ethanol oxidation were calculated by fitting models to the found concentrations of ethanols labelled with 1-42H atoms. Control experiments with only [2,2,2-2H3]ethanol showed that there was no loss of the C-2 hydrogens by exchange. The isotope effect on ethanol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subcellular location of secretory proteins retained in the liver during the ethanol-induced inhibition of hepatic protein secretion in the rat. AU - Volentine, Gary D. AU - Tuma, Dean J. AU - Sorrell, Michael Floyd. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - Ethanol administration inhibits the secretion of proteins by the liver, resulting in their hepatocellular retention. Experiments were designed in this study to determine the subcellular location of the retained secretory proteins. Ethanol was administered acutely to nonfasted rats by gastric intubation, whereas control animals received an isocaloric dose of glucose. Two hours after intubation, when maximum blood ethanol levels (45 mM) were observed, [3H]leucine and [14C]fucose were injected simultaneously into the dorsal vein of the penis. The labeling of secretory proteins was determined in the liver and plasma at various time periods after label injection. Ethanol treatment decreased the secretion of both leucine- and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of diet on ethanol withdrawal symptomatology. AU - Baker, T. B.. AU - Cannon, D. S.. AU - Berman, Robert F. AU - Atkinson, C. A.. PY - 1977. Y1 - 1977. N2 - In Experiment 1 rats were gavaged with ethanol and nutrients at 6 hr intervals for 72 hr. Ethanol dosages were assigned by behavioral criteria of inebriation. Nourished animals were able to tolerate higher ethanol dosages than nutrient-deprived rats (9.62 vs 7.60 g/kg/day). Nourished rats were less likely to have withdrawal seizures than were nutrient-deprived rats given an equivalent amount of ethanol, but nourished rats given 25-30% more ethanol than the nutrient-deprived rats did have withdrawal seizures. Nutrient-deprived rats had BECs (Blood Ethanol Contents) higher than those of nourished rats receiving equivalent amounts of ethanol but comparable to the BECs of nourished rats receiving 25-30% more ethanol. All these results were replicated in Experiment 2 in which ethanol dependent rats above starting body ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stable histone methylation changes at proteoglycan network genes following ethanol exposure. AU - Gavin, David P.. AU - Hashimoto, Joel G.. AU - Lazar, Nathan H.. AU - Carbone, Lucia. AU - Crabbe, John Jr. AU - Guizzetti, Marina. PY - 2018/8/30. Y1 - 2018/8/30. N2 - Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic mental illness in which patients often achieve protracted periods of abstinence prior to relapse. Epigenetic mechanisms may provide an explanation for the persisting gene expression changes that can be observed even after long periods of abstinence and may contribute to relapse. In this study, we examined two histone modifications, histone 3 lysine 4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) and histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylation (H3K27me3), in the prefrontal cortex of Withdrawal Seizure Resistant (WSR) mice 21 days after 72 h of ethanol vapor exposure. These histone modifications were selected because they are associated with active promoters (H3K4me3) and repressed gene expression in a ...
Increasing evidence suggests that ethanol-induced changes in cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal transduction play a critical role in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol. Here we have investigated the effects of ethanol on cAMP signal transduction in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Acute exposure to ethanol had a biphasic effect on glucagon-receptor-dependent cAMP production in intact cells: 25-50 mM-ethanol decreased cAMP, whereas treatment with 100-200 mM-ethanol increased cAMP. After chronic exposure to 50-200 mM-ethanol for 48 h in culture, glucagon-receptor-dependent cAMP levels were increased, but no change in glucagon receptor number was observed. These effects of ethanol were independent of ethanol oxidation. Chronic ethanol treatment also increased adenosine-receptor- and forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. Increased cAMP production was also observed upon stimulation of adenylate cyclase with glucagon, forskolin and F- in membranes isolated from cells cultured with 100 mM-ethanol for ...
We previously reported that ethanol elicits an increased protein oxidation in the liver of rats receiving chronic ethanol by continuous intragastric infusion (Tsukamoto-French method). This accumulation of oxidized proteins could result from a decrease in the cytosolic proteolysis, related specifica …
title Gasoline Example; data Gas; input Fuel :$8. CpRatio EqRatio NOx @@; label Fuel = Fuel CpRatio = Compression Ratio (CR) EqRatio = Equivalence Ratio (PHI) NOx = Nitrogen Oxide (NOx); datalines; Ethanol 12.0 0.907 3.741 Ethanol 12.0 0.761 2.295 Ethanol 12.0 1.108 1.498 Ethanol 12.0 1.016 2.881 Ethanol 12.0 1.189 0.760 Ethanol 9.0 1.001 3.120 Ethanol 9.0 1.231 0.638 Ethanol 9.0 1.123 1.170 Ethanol 12.0 1.042 2.358 Ethanol 12.0 1.215 0.606 Ethanol 12.0 0.930 3.669 Ethanol 12.0 1.152 1.000 Ethanol 15.0 1.138 0.981 Ethanol 18.0 0.601 1.192 Ethanol 7.5 0.696 0.926 Ethanol 12.0 0.686 1.590 Ethanol 12.0 1.072 1.806 Ethanol 15.0 1.074 1.962 Ethanol 15.0 0.934 4.028 Ethanol 9.0 0.808 3.148 Ethanol 9.0 1.071 1.836 Ethanol 7.5 1.009 2.845 Ethanol 7.5 1.142 1.013 Ethanol 18.0 1.229 0.414 Ethanol 18.0 1.175 0.812 Ethanol 15.0 0.568 0.374 Ethanol 15.0 0.977 3.623 Ethanol 7.5 0.767 1.869 Ethanol 7.5 1.006 2.836 Ethanol 9.0 0.893 3.567 Ethanol 15.0 1.152 0.866 Ethanol 15.0 0.693 1.369 Ethanol 15.0 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Responses of cerebral arterioles during chronic ethanol exposure. AU - Mayhan, William. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ethanol exposure on responses of cerebral arterioles in vivo. Rats were fed liquid diets with or without ethanol for 2-3 mo. Using intravital microscopy, we measured diameter of cerebral arterioles in non-ethanol- and ethanol-fed rats in response to acetylcholine, histamine, ADP, the thromboxane analogue (U- 46619), and nitroglycerin. In non-ethanol-fed rats, acetylcholine, histamine, and ADP produced dose-related dilatation of cerebral arterioles. In ethanol- fed rats, however, acetylcholine produced vasoconstriction, and vasodilatation in response to histamine and ADP was impaired. Dilatation of cerebral arterioles in response to nitroglycerin and vasoconstriction in response to the thromboxane analogue (U-46619) were similar in non-ethanol- fed and ethanol-fed rats. Thus these findings suggest that chronic ...
On July 31, 2013, INEOS Bio, a bioenergy company, announced that its Florida facility became the world pioneer in producing commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol. Ethanol, or ethyl alcohol, is a renewable fuel resulting from fermenting plant-based materials. INEOS Bio produces cellulosic ethanol using vegetative and yard waste. Despite the flurry that accompanied last Julys event, Brazil is still regarded as the country that implemented the most successful ethanol industry in the world -the sugarcane ethanol industry. In the United States, the ethanol industry touches on two critical areas. First, ethanol can be used as motor fuel, and it is no secret that the United States relies on motor fuel. Second, the nations reliance on motor fuel, especially gasoline, raises significant environmental concerns, notably, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Thus, given the recent advancements in ethanol production, and the critical areas that ethanol touches on, an issue emerges as to whether Brazils ethanol ...
Author(s): Devineni, Anita | Advisor(s): Heberlein, Ulrike | Abstract: Ethanol is one of the most widely used and abused drugs in the world. Ethanol consumption produces short-term changes in behavior as well as long-term adaptations that can lead to addiction. The mechanisms underlying both acute and chronic responses to ethanol are still not fully understood. Human and rodent studies have suggested that acute ethanol sensitivity may be related to risk of alcohol abuse, and that the same genes often regulate both types of behavior. In this thesis I have used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model to study the genetic and neural mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behavior. In Chapter 2, I show that flies prefer to consume food containing ethanol and that this ethanol preference may represent a new model for studying addiction-related behavior. In Chapter 3, I examine the relationships between acute ethanol sensitivity, ethanol tolerance, and ethanol consumption preference by measuring these
The liver plays a key role in the metabolism of alcohol and is also sensitive to the deleterious effects of chronic alcohol consumption. In humans, chronic alcohol consumption leads to a characteristic set of changes to the metabolism of lipids in the liver that is referred to as an alcoholic fatty liver. In humans, AFL is characterized by an increase in liver weight, accumulation of triglyceride and changes in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. In severe cases, these metabolic changes result in the enlargement and fibrillization of the liver and are considered risk factors for cirrhosis and liver cancer.. Previous work suggests that there may be links between mutations in the circadian system and liver metabolism. The transcription of many genes in liver, including those involved in lipid metabolism, is regulated on the circadian time scale [8, 22]. Furthermore, mice with mutations in core elements of the circadian timing system also exhibit deficits in liver function. In ...
Background: Although the beneficial effects of mild to moderate ethanol consumption have been implied with respect to heart, alcohol abuse has proven to be a major cause of nonischemic cardiomyopathy in Western society. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms, which mediate the pathologic cardiac effects of ethanol, remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of chronic ethanol exposure on cardiac apoptosis and expression of some of the genes associated with cardiac remodeling in vivo. Methods: Alcohol-avoiding Alko Non Alcohol rats of both sexes were used. The ethanol-exposed rats (females, n= 6; males, n= 8) were given 12% (v/v) ethanol as the only available fluid from age of three to 24 months of age. The control rats (females, n= 7; males, n= 5) had only water available. At the end of the experiment, free walls of left ventricles of hearts were immediately frozen. Cytosolic DNA fragmentation, reflecting apoptosis, was measured using a commercial ...
Your ethanol or alcohol or drinking alcohol as it is also called can provide great taste and strength only when you use the right yeast for fermentation, and infusing top quality ethanol yeast can increase ethanol yield as well as provide that perfect taste. Whether you engage in professional ethanol production or want to ferment a small batch of ethanol at home, using the best yeast can certainly improve the quality and quantity of your end product.. Alcohols and spirits such as whiskey, beer, wine, vodka, rum, etc need to pass through several brewing and even distilling processes before they end up in your glass. These processes start by firstly mixing the raw materials such as wheat, barley, corn, sugar, potatoes, grapes, apples, or any other ingredient based on the country where the drinks are produced and the end product that is required, along with water. This mixture is boiled, milled, and cooled so as to encourage the activation of enzymes that convert all possible starch in the raw ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of protein and dietary fiber levels on the activities of ehanol metabilizing enzymes of the brain in acute and chronic ethanol-treated rats. Male Sprague-Dwley rats were fed on diets containing two levels of protein(7%, 20%)) with two levels of fiber(5%, 105) for 5 weeks. Rats were orally administered 40% (v/v) ethanol(5g/body weight) 90 min before decapitation in the acute ethanol-treated groups and 25% (v/v) ethanol (5g/kg body weight) once a day for 5 weeks in the chronic ethnol-treated groups. Cytosilic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities were higher than those of mitochondrial ADH. The ADH activities were increased by 20% protein and %% fiber levels in the diet in two fractions , but were decreased by chronic ethanol treatment. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities did not change by ethanol treatment but were increased by the 20% protein level. However, cytosilic ALDH activities were decreased by chronic ethanol ...
The present article provides an up-to-date review summarizing almost 18 years of research in genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats. The results of this work demonstrate that msP rats have natural preference for ethanol characterized by a spontaneous binge-type of drinking that leads to pharmacologically significant blood ethanol levels. This rat line is highly vulnerable to relapse and presentation of stimuli predictive of alcohol availability or foot-shock stress can reinstate extinguished drug-seeking up to 8 months from the last alcohol experience. The msP rat is highly sensitive to stress, shows an anxious phenotype and has depressive-like symptoms that recover following ethanol drinking. Interestingly, these animals have an up-regulated corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) receptor 1 system. Clinical studies have shown that alcoholic patients often drink ethanol in the attempt to self-medicate from negative affective states and to search for anxiety ...
Thus, cellulosic ethanol provides a unique opportunity in which ethanol is produced not from corn that otherwise is used as food, but from a range of waste biomass, which are normally wasted anyway.. In theory, cellulosic ethanol sounds great. In practice however, cellulosic ethanol has not entered large scale commercial production owing to the high cost of ethanol thus produced. It is hoped that the cellulosic ethanol companies will soon escape from the valley of death phase they are currently in and start producing ethanol from cellulose in a large scale. Ethanol from cellulose raises the interesting question of whether algae could be used as the biomass for ethanol production from cellulose? It appears that some species of algae do have the potential to be considered as a cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production. However, we have not seen many efforts taken in this area of research. In algae, the storage component is starch and the cell wall component is cellulose. Many strains of algae ...
Separately, chronic alcohol ingestion and HIV-1 infection are associated with severe skeletal muscle derangements, including atrophy and wasting, weakness, and fatigue. One prospective cohort study reported that 41% of HIV-infected patients met the criteria for alcoholism, however; few reports exist on the co-morbid effects of these two disease processes on skeletal muscle homeostasis. Thus, we analyzed the atrophic effects of chronic alcohol ingestion in HIV-1 transgenic rats and identified alterations to several catabolic and anabolic factors. Relative plantaris mass, total protein content, and fiber cross-sectional area were reduced in each experimental group compared to healthy, control-fed rats. Alcohol abuse further reduced plantaris fiber area in HIV-1 transgenic rats. Consistent with previous reports, gene levels of myostatin and its receptor activin IIB were not increased in HIV-1 transgenic rat muscle. However, myostatin and activin IIB were induced in healthy and HIV-1 transgenic rats fed
This dissertation examines the corn based ethanol industry in the Corn Belt of the U.S. from three different angles: What affects ethanol plant location decisions, how does new ethanol capacity affect the local corn price, and what is the future landscape of ethanol production under an uncertain future? Ethanol production is a significant part of the American economy in terms of market demand for corn, job creation, household income, tax revenue, and decreasing reliance on foreign fuel. The EPA has supported the ethanol industry through the creation of the Renewable Fuels Standards put in place in 2007, however the very mandate created in part to secure the future of renewable energy in the U.S. is also a source of uncertainty. In late 2015, after speculation of a reduction in the requirement for ethanol, the RFS were renewed at an increased ethanol mandate than expected. These three papers enhance general understanding of how ethanol growth may occur, how new ethanol capacity affects local corn ...
Purpose: : To compare the mRNA expression of IL-1α, IL-8, MCP-1, and TGF-ß1 following topical ethanol treatment and mechanical debridement. Methods: : Fifty-eight pigmented rabbit corneas were divided into four groups. Group I (n=18) received mechanical epithelial debridement, group II (n=18) underwent 20% ethanol application for 30 seconds, and group III corneas underwent 20% ethanol application for 60 seconds. Group IV (n=4) did not undergo any procedure. Corneal epithelial and stromal keratocyte change was examined with H&E and TUNEL stains, while the mRNA expression of IL-1α, IL-8, MCP-1, and TGF-ß1 were examined with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: : Stromal keratocyte apoptosis was noticed for three days in group I and up to seven days in group III. Topical ethanol induced significant TUNEL staining of corneal epithelium and stromal keratocyte in an application time dependent manner. In group I, the expression of IL-8 mRNA showed two spikes of up-regulation on day 0 ...
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) results from alcohol overconsumption and is among the leading causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors has been observed in ALD, but how it contributes to ALD pathophysiology is unclear. Here we investigated the impact of VEGF signaling inhibition on an established zebrafish model of acute alcoholic liver injury. VEGF-receptor 2/Kdrl activity was blocked by chemical inhibitor treatment or by genetic mutation. Exposing 4-day-old zebrafish larvae to 2% ethanol for 24 hours induced hepatic steatosis, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis. The liver started self-repair once ethanol was removed. While inhibiting Kdrl did not block the initial activation of hepatic stellate cells during ethanol treatment, it suppressed their proliferation, extracellular matrix protein deposition, and fibrogenic gene expression after ethanol exposure, thus enhancing the liver repair. It also ...
Until the Daniels Administration began pushing for development of ethanol plants in 2005, Indiana had only one commercial ethanol plant that produced ethanol primarily for use in blending with petroleum products in gasoline. Indiana was barely a blip on the radar screen in the ethanol industry nationwide. Now with 13 plants producing 1.2 billion gallons of ethanol annually, Indiana is a player, and is quickly being recognized as a major player in the ethanol energy game. Pence believes part of the solution is giving consumers choices. That means making various blends of ethanol available, and will require investment by different groups at various levels. Like Governor Daniels he also believes there is still hope for cellulosic ethanol. Daniels told the same audience Pence addressed that developments in cellulosic ethanol were coming much slower than he had hoped, and many had anticipated. Nevertheless, Daniels believes it will become a player in the industry. Cellulosic ethanol refers to ethanol ...
The isolated perfused rat kidney was used to investigate the effect of ethanol on the renal excretion and metabolism of choline. Choline at an initial perfusate concentration of 2.8 mM, with tracer amounts of [methyl-14C]choline, was recirculated through kidneys and radioactivity measured in perfusate, urine, and kidney. 14C-Choline and its metabolites were identified by chromatographic and electrophoretic procedures. Tubular excretion of choline was demonstrated and a transport maximum (Tm) of 1.6 mumol/kidney/min was reached at a choline perfusate concentration of 1.2 mM. Addition of 50 mM ethanol resulted in a 56% increase in the choline Tm and 100 mM ethanol decreased the choline Tm by 25%. The rate of loss of 14C-choline from the perfusate was increased by the lower ethanol concentration and decreased by the higher ethanol concentration. Ethanol at both concentrations diminished the amount of 14C remaining in the kidney. 14C-Betaine was the major choline metabolite and the only ...
The processing of raw cannabis plants to extract cannabinoids and other compounds can be carried out using a variety of methods. Some of the most popular methods are extraction using CO2, a hydrocarbon (usually butane), or ethanol. Which one is used depends on a variety of factors, including the amount of raw material to be processed, and the final application of the product, for example what form it will take and whether its for recreational or medicinal use.. In this article, well focus on the method of ethanol extraction. Ethanol extraction can be carried out by a number of methods including cold, warm, or room-temperature processing. Some ethanol extraction processes involve the use of a rotary evaporator setup to remove the ethanol from the extract solution.. Here, we take a closer look at ethanol extraction for cannabis applications, with a particular focus on ethanol removal using a rotary evaporator. Well include information about the steps involved in ethanol extraction, optimal ...
Most of ethanol production processes are limited by lower ethanol production rate and recyclability problem of ethanologenic organism. In the present study, immobilized co-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae GSE1618 was employed for ethanol fermentation using rice straw enzymatic hydrolysate in a packed bed reactor (PBR). The immobilization of S. cerevisiae was performed by entrapment in Ca-alginate for optimization of ethanol production by varying alginic acid concentration, bead size, glucose concentration, temperature and hardening time. Remarkably, extra hardened beads (EHB) immobilized with S. cerevisiae could be used up to repeated 40 fermentation batches. In continuous PBR, maximum 81.82 g L−1 ethanol was obtained with 29.95 g L−1 h−1 productivity with initial glucose concentration of 180 g L−1 in feed at dilution rate of 0.37 h−1. However, maximum ethanol concentration of 40.33 g L−1 (99% yield) with 24.61 g L−1 h−1 productivity was attained at 0.61 h−1 dilution rate in ...
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Ethanol continues to be the most frequently abused intoxicant in the United States.4 Drug testing in various work environments has become commonplace during the past two decades and will at times include blood, breath, or urine alcohol testing.5 While valid reasons for false positive drug tests do occur, a plethora of unusual and dubious explanations have been likewise tendered. Medical Review Officers (MRO) involved in evaluating such reports rely on past case reports, knowledge of laboratory analytical techniques, and other scientific evidence to validate or negate claims of drug use in the workplace. ABHS are now found in most hospitals and health-care facilities.1,3 Only one human report of serum ethanol levels following frequent clinical use of the ABHS has been reported.7 This finding of a negative serum ethanol level in this case is likely to be reproducible in all clinical settings as the physician attempted to simulate the most extreme use of the product that would be consistent with ...
March 2013. Subjects. This model has been predominantly been studied using adult (65-75 days of age) male C57BL/6J mice obtained from Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME). Although experimental parameters have been optimized using these mice, we have conducted studies with adult female C57BL/6J mice, as well as other inbred mouse strains including DBA/2J and C3H/Hecr, selectively bred HAP/LAP lines, and and BXD RI lines. Mice are acclimated to the facility for at least two weeks prior to experimental use. Mice are individually housed in standard polypropylene pans with wood-chip bedding and stainless steel wire lids. The mice are housed under a modified light/dark cycle (lights on at 0200 hr) to allow for behavioral testing to be conducted during the dark phase of the cycle. Rodent food (Wayne Lab-Blox) and water is available ad libitum at all times during the studies.. General Experimental Design and Strategy. The overall objective of this chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure model ...
In the technique of anaerobic respiration yeast yields ethanol. Ethanol fermentation by yeast is a vital course of action during the manufacture of ethanol or booze and while in the means of anaerobic respiration yeast generates ethanol. It is very critical to restrict the presence of oxygen throughout the fermentation process making sure that the yeast can ferment sugars into ethanol or consuming booze because it is also known.. Every single type of ethanol manufacturing including ethanol for human consumption and bio ethanol for powering engines needs to go through the fermentation approach that converts the mashed combination of water coupled with several fruits or grains or greens into ethanol with the desired alcoholic energy. Once the mash is prepared for sugar fermentation then dried yeast powder is additional to the mixture to begin the method of transforming sugars present while in the mixture into ethanol. Even so, during this process, its very crucial to avoid oxygen from remaining ...
Ethanol fermentation by yeast is a vital process during the manufacture of ethanol or alcohol and while in the means of anaerobic respiration yeast generates ethanol. Its very important to restrict the existence of oxygen during the fermentation procedure to ensure the yeast can ferment sugars into ethanol or consuming alcohol due to the fact it is also known.. Each individual sort of ethanol production which include ethanol for human intake and bio ethanol for powering engines needs to pass through the fermentation practice that converts the mashed mixture of water along with various fruits or grains or vegetables into ethanol along with the wished-for alcoholic power. After the mash is ready for sugar fermentation then dried yeast powder is additional towards the combination to start out the method of converting sugars current from the mixture into ethanol. Even so, for the duration of this method, it is rather critical to stop oxygen from remaining present in the combination since it is ...
The main aim of the present investigation was to achieve high ethanol concentration as the final ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth is critical to make a cost-effective ethanol production process. Since the ethanol concentration is directly proportional to the sugar concentration, hence high concentration sugar syrup is a prerequisite. In the present study, the process modeling consisting of mass balance and kinetic models were used to provide insights into the process performance and to optimize the process for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis. During the batch saccharification at different consistencies, a regular decrease in the rate constant with increase in the substrate concentration was observed (Figure 1) and the reaction was assumed to be a first order reaction. This decrease in rate may be attributed to the product inhibition, improper heat and mass transfer and the thermal deactivation of enzymes [7, 12]. The difference between the experimental values and those predicted ...
Define blood alcohol concentration. blood alcohol concentration synonyms, blood alcohol concentration pronunciation, blood alcohol concentration translation, English dictionary definition of blood alcohol concentration. n. The concentration of alcohol in the blood, expressed as the weight of alcohol in a fixed volume of blood and used as a measure of the degree of...
Inositol phosphate accumulation and adenylate cyclase activity were investigated in the cortex of young and aged ethanol-treated rats. Three months of ethanol treatment of young rats decreased maximal stimulation of inositol phosphate accumulation by carbachol by 26%, from 494 ± 76% of basal turnover in control animals to 396 ± 54% in ethanol-treated animals (mean ± SD). In aged rats ethanol-related changes were no longer observed but age-related changes were evident. EC50 was significantly higher than in young animals and maximal stimulation was significantly lower. Basal adenylate cyclase activity in cortical membranes of all groups of animals was not different. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was not affected by ethanol treatment, but was higher in aged animals. The activity of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in the presence of carbachol was higher in both young and aged ethanol-treated animals, when compared to young controls. These results suggest that both ethanol ...
The actions of ethanol on brain ligand-gated ion channels have important roles in the pathophysiology of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders and fetal alcohol syndrome. Studies have shown that N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are among the ligand-gated ion channels affected by prenatal ethanol exposure. We exposed pregnant dams to an ethanol-containing liquid diet that results in blood ethanol levels near the legal intoxication limit in most states (0.08%). Primary cultures of hippocampal neurons were prepared from the neonatal offspring of these dams, and NMDA receptor function was assessed by patch clamp electrophysiological techniques after 6-7 days in culture in ethanol-free media. Unexpectedly, we did not detect any changes in hippocampal NMDA receptor function at either the whole-cell or single-channel levels. However, we determined that fetal alcohol exposure alters the actions of the neurosteroids pregnenolone sulfate and pregnenolone hemisuccinate, which potentiate NMDA ...
With the discovery of interspecies hydrogen transfer in the late 1960s (Bryant et al. in Arch Microbiol 59:20-31, 1967), it was shown that reducing the partial pressure of hydrogen could cause mixed acid fermenting organisms to produce acetate at the expense of ethanol. Hydrogen and ethanol are both more reduced than glucose. Thus there is a tradeoff between production of these compounds imposed by electron balancing requirements; however, the mechanism is not fully known. Deletion of the hfsA or B subunits resulted in a roughly 1.8-fold increase in ethanol yield. The increase in ethanol production appears to be associated with an increase in alcohol dehydrogenase activity, which appears to be due, at least in part, to increased expression of the adhE gene, and may suggest a regulatory linkage between hfsB and adhE. We studied this system most intensively in the organism Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum; however, deletion of hfsB also increases ethanol production in other thermophilic bacteria
Alcohol tolerance refers to the bodily responses to the functional effects of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. This includes direct tolerance, speed of recovery from insobriety and resistance to the development of alcoholism. Alcohol tolerance is increased by regular drinking. This reduced sensitivity requires that higher quantities of alcohol be consumed in order to achieve the same effects as before tolerance was established. Alcohol tolerance may lead to (or be a sign of) alcohol dependency. Heavy alcohol consumption over a period of years can lead to reverse tolerance. A liver can be damaged by chronic alcohol use, leading to a buildup of fat and scar tissue. The reduced ability of such a liver to metabolize or break down alcohol means that small amounts can lead to a high blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and more rapid intoxication. Direct alcohol tolerance is largely dependent on body size. Large-bodied people will require more alcohol to reach insobriety than lightly built ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute ethanol intoxication and endotoxemia after trauma. AU - Woodman, George E.. AU - Fabian, Timothy C.. AU - Croce, Martin A.. AU - Proctor, Kenneth G.. PY - 1996/7/1. Y1 - 1996/7/1. N2 - To determine actions of acute intoxication on pathophysiologic responses to trauma, anesthetized and ventilated mongrel pigs received a 20% solution of ethanol (EtOH) by an intravenous (IV group; 2 g/kg, n = 8) or an oral (PO group; 3 g/kg, n = 12 x 60 minutes) route of administration, or the lactated Ringers vehicle (LR group; n = 12). After 60 minutes, all were subjected to soft tissue injury and 30 to 35% hemorrhage, 60-minute shock, and then resuscitation, with shed blood plus supplemental LR. After 3 days, host defense was challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS); (1 μg/kg x 30-minutes IV). The supplemental resuscitation was identical (50-53 mL/kg/hours), but posttraumatic acidosis was observed in the IV group and the PO group (base deficit = 4.4 ± 1.3 and 5.5 ± 0.9 ...
Caffeine has been shown to reverse some of the performance-impairing effects of ethanol. However, it is not known whether this antagonistic effect of caffeine is mediated by a reduction in sleepiness. The present study assessed physiological alertness/sleepiness, memory, and psychomotor performance following the administration of placebo, ethanol, and caffeine+ethanol combinations. A total of 13 healthy individuals (21-35 years old) underwent four conditions presented in a Latin Square Design: placebo-placebo, ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-placebo, ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-caffeine 150 mg, and ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-caffeine 300-mg. The Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), psychomotor performance battery, memory test, and mood/sleepiness questionnaires were administered following each condition. The peak breadth ethanol concentration (BrEC) was 0.043±0.0197% and did not differ among the three caffeine treatments. As expected, ethanol reduced mean latency on the MSLT. The lowest caffeine dose reversed this effect and the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex-dependent differences in the regulation of myocardial protein synthesis following long-term ethanol consumption. AU - Vary, Thomas C.. AU - Kimball, Scot R.. AU - Sumner, Andrew. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2007/2. Y1 - 2007/2. N2 - Chronic heavy alcohol consumption alters cardiac structure and function. Controversies remain as to whether hearts from females respond to the chronic ethanol intake in a manner analogous to males. In particular, sex differences in the myocardial response to chronic alcohol consumption remain unresolved at the molecular level. The purpose of the present set of experiments was to determine whether alterations in cardiac structure and protein metabolism show sexual dimorphism following chronic alcohol consumption for 26 wk. In control animals, hearts from female rats showed lowered heart weights and had thinner ventricular walls compared with males. The smaller heart size was associated with a lower ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dopamine Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens During Consummatory Phases of Oral Ethanol Self-Administration. AU - Doyon, William M.. AU - York, Jennifer L.. AU - Diaz, Laurea M.. AU - Samson, Herman H.. AU - Czachowski, Cristine L.. AU - Gonzales, Rueben A.. PY - 2003/10. Y1 - 2003/10. N2 - Background: This present study was designed to clarify the role of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens during operant ethanol self-administration by separating bar pressing (ethanol seeking) from ethanol consumption. Furthermore, we sought to define the relationship between ethanol in the brain and the accumbal dopamine response after oral self-administration of ethanol. Methods: Two separate groups of male Long-Evans rats were trained to bar press with 10% ethanol or water. Rats were trained to elicit an escalating number of bar presses across daily sessions before gaining access to the drinking solution for 20 min. Microdialysis was performed before (during a waiting period), during, and after ...
Plasma prolactin, luteinizing hormone and estradiol levels were determined in six normal adult females before and during a period of acute alcohol intoxication. Plasma hormone levels found in these studies were compared with values obtained after administration of an isocaloric beverage. Each woman served as her own control for both studies which were carried out on the same day of the menstrual cycle (day 8, 9 or 10) over two consecutive menstrual cycles. Integrated plasma samples were obtained every 20 min for 6 consecutive hr before acute alcohol administration and during the ascending, peak and descending portions of the blood alcohol curve. After acute alcohol administration, all women achieved a moderate degree of intoxication, with mean peak blood alcohol levels of 88 mg/100 ml. No significant differences in levels of luteinizing hormone and estradiol were detected during any phase of the blood alcohol curve when compared to prealcohol administration values. No significant differences ...
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Findings show that American Indians are at much greater risk than other ethnic groups.. In 2009, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, suicide ranked as the 10th leading overall cause of death in the United States. Prior research has also shown that alcohol use disorders confer increased risk for suicide, and are second only to mood disorders as common among individuals who have committed suicide. A study of the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of suicide involving acute alcohol intoxication among U.S. ethnic minorities has found that American Indians are at much greater risk than other groups.. Results will be published in the May 2013 issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research and are currently available at Early View.. I do not think that most people in the U.S. are aware that suicide is ranked as the 10th leading cause of death, said Raul Caetano, regional dean (Dallas) and professor of epidemiology at The University of Texas School of Public ...
Preparation of two oligopeptides from corn protein and their protective effect on acute alcohol intoxication in mice, Naxin Sun, Tongcheng Xu, Yuehui Liu, Chunjiang Ye, Zhuqing Jia
The effect of long-term ethanol exposure on muscarinic receptors was investigated in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Exposure to 100 mM ethanol for 4 days enhanced both peak and steady-state levels of carbachol-stimulated inositol 1,4,5-bisphosphate increase. An ethanol concentration of 50 mM was sufficient for an enhancement of this event. The carbachol-stimulated decrease in [3H]inositol-labeled [3H]phosphatidylnositol 4,5-bisphosphate and increase [3H]inositol trisphosphate and [3H]inositol bisphosphate were also potentiated in ethanol-treated cells, which demonstrated that the receptor-stimulated activation of phospholipase C is augmented. Experiments with pirenzepine showed that carbachol-stimulated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate increase is mediated via M1 receptors both in ethanol-treated and control cells. Ethanol exposure for 2 or 4 days also caused an increase in [3H]N-methylscopolamine and [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites and elevation of [3H]pirenzepine binding, which ...
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. Problems may include an abnormal appearance, short height, low body weight, small head size, poor coordination, low intelligence, behavior problems, and problems with hearing or seeing. Those affected are more likely to have trouble in school, legal problems, participate in high-risk behaviors, and have trouble with alcohol or other drugs. The most severe form of the condition is known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Other types include partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD). Some accept only FAS as a diagnosis, seeing the evidence as inconclusive with respect to other types. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Surveys from the United States have found about 10% of pregnant women have drunk alcohol in the last month, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ethanol differentially regulates proadrenocorticotropin/endorphin production and corticosterone secretion in ls and ss lines of mice. AU - Wand, Gary S.. PY - 1989/1. Y1 - 1989/1. N2 - The stimulatory effects of ethanol administration on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were investigated in the long sleep (LS) and short sleep SS) lines of mice, selectively bred for differences in sensitivity to ethanol. To characterize the effects of ethanol exposure on levels of anterior pituitary pro-ACTH/endorphin mRNA, animals were treated with ethanol for either 4 or 7 days. Northern analyses of total RNA extracted from anterior pituitary indicated that ethanol-treated SS mice had 1.5-fold higher pro-ACTH/endorphin mRNA levels on day 4 and 2.5-fold higher mRNA levels on day 7 than SS control mice. Although ethanol-treated LS mice had 4-fold higher pro-ACTH/endorphin mRNA levels on day 4 compared to those in control LS mice, by day 7 pro- ACTH/endorphin mRNA levels in ...
Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) is a clear, colorless liquid. It is also known as ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and EtOH (see Fuel Properties search.) Ethanol has the same chemical formula regardless of whether it is produced from starch- or sugar-based feedstocks, such as corn grain (as it primarily is in the United States), sugar cane (as it primarily is in Brazil), or from cellulosic feedstocks (such as wood chips or crop residues).. Ethanol has a higher octane number than gasoline, providing premium blending properties. Minimum octane number requirements for gasoline prevent engine knocking and ensure drivability. Lower-octane gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol to attain the standard 87 octane.. Ethanol contains less energy per gallon than gasoline, to varying degrees, depending on the volume percentage of ethanol in the blend. Denatured ethanol (98% ethanol) contains about 30% less energy than gasoline per gallon. Ethanols impact on fuel economy is dependent on the ethanol content in the fuel and ...
Alcohol use disorder is a worldwide public health problem and is a disorder with substantial individual variation. There are suggested links between various behavioral traits, comorbid psychiatric diseases and excessive alcohol consumption. Moreover, the endogenous opioid system is involved in alcohol reward and reinforcement, and implicated in the action of alcohol. However, less is known about the complex associations between individual differences in behavior, alcohol consumption, pharmacotherapy response and related neurochemical mechanisms. Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorder.. The overall aims of this thesis were: i) to study the association between behavior and voluntary alcohol intake in outbred rats; ii) to study the association of voluntary alcohol intake, behavior, opioid receptor density and response to naltrexone; and iii) to obtain detailed behavioral characterizations of the animals on the basis of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The production of ethanol from D-glucose and D-xylose by different Fusarium strains. AU - Suihko, Maija-Liisa. AU - Enari, Tor-Magnus. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - Production of ethanol from glucose and xylose by different Fusarium strains has been studied in shake flask cultures. The best strain was Fusarium oxysporum VTT-D-80134. The best ethanol yields were 50 % ethanol on both sugars. The fermentation time was 3 days on glucose and 6 days on xylose.. AB - Production of ethanol from glucose and xylose by different Fusarium strains has been studied in shake flask cultures. The best strain was Fusarium oxysporum VTT-D-80134. The best ethanol yields were 50 % ethanol on both sugars. The fermentation time was 3 days on glucose and 6 days on xylose.. KW - biofuels. KW - biomass. KW - ethanol. KW - ethanol production. KW - Fusarium. KW - glucose. KW - xylose. U2 - 10.1007/BF00134851. DO - 10.1007/BF00134851. M3 - Article. VL - 3. SP - 723. EP - 728. JO - Biotechnology Letters. JF - ...
This is an interesting case report of a 3-year-old girl who presented to ED with suspected acute ethanol toxicity from ingestion of an alcohol-based hand sanitiser. She presented with a GCS of 10 and developed hypotension BP 70/22 requiring fluid boluses and peripheral adrenaline infusion. She was admitted to PICU without intubation and discharged 24 hours later. Serum ethanol concentration was 260mg/dL (legal blood ethanol level for drivers is ,50mg/dL). This particular sanitiser has 70% ethanol and it is thought that she ingested a total of 55mL. The author highlight the hazards associated with hand sanitiser ingestion.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alcohol metabolism in hangover sensitive versus hangover resistant social drinkers. AU - Mackus, M.. AU - Lantman, M. van Schrojenstein. AU - Van de Loo, A. J. A. E.. AU - Kraneveld, A. D.. AU - Garssen, J.. AU - Brookhuis, K. A.. AU - Verster, J. C.. PY - 2018/4/1. Y1 - 2018/4/1. N2 - Background: Previous research demonstrated that urinary ethanol concentrations were significantly lower in hangover resistant individuals compared to drinkers who reported having a hangover. This finding suggests that the rate of ethanol metabolism is faster in drinkers who do not experience an alcohol hangover. This study aimed to directly compare alcohol metabolism after administering a low dose of ethanol to hangover sensitive drinkers and hangover resistant drinkers.Methods: Social drinkers who previously participated in hangover trials at Utrecht University were invited to participate. It was aimed to include 12 hangover resistant drinkers and 12 hangover sensitive drinkers. Participants ...
The influence of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on innate immune cells from peripheral blood monocytes to tissue macrophages originating from spleen, lungs, and liver can be diverse. Earlier studies have shown that sterilization of the gut with antibiotics abrogated the in vivo effects of acute alcohol on Kupffer cells, indicating that circulating endotoxin played a key role in the effects of alcohol (32). Furthermore, in vivo acute alcohol exposure of murine Kupffer cells show decreased responsiveness to LPS, and this has been related to decreased IRAK expression, reduced NFκB activity (33), and decreased intracellular Ca2+ concentration (32). Subsequent studies also revealed that acute in vivo ethanol exposure of Kupffer cells increased CD14 expression through a mechanism dependent on AP-1 activation (34). In addition, splenic and alveolar macrophages exposed to a single dose of in vivo alcohol followed by ex vivo stimulation of LPS showed a significant decrease in proinflammatory ...
Youve probably heard of personal breathalysers and wristbands that read your blood alcohol level. But now researchers at the University of California in San Diego have developed a tattoo that analyses your sweat to determine the amount of alcohol in your bloodstream.. The temporary stick-on tattoo releases a drug called pilocarpine onto your skin to induce sweating, and then reads your blood-alcohol levels using a flexible electronic device magnetically attached to the tattoo. The data is beamed via Bluetooth to your smartphone, where you can easily check if youre over the limit. This all happens in less than eight minutes, and if youve had too much to drink, the application can even notify the police or a medical professional.. The developers claim the tattoo is more accurate than a breathalyser, and less invasive than a finger-prick test. They hope the new technology will help individuals to better control their alcohol consumption, as well as empowering bartenders to refuse customers who ...
Youve probably heard of personal breathalysers and wristbands that read your blood alcohol level. But now researchers at the University of California in San Diego have developed a tattoo that analyses your sweat to determine the amount of alcohol in your bloodstream.. The temporary stick-on tattoo releases a drug called pilocarpine onto your skin to induce sweating, and then reads your blood-alcohol levels using a flexible electronic device magnetically attached to the tattoo. The data is beamed via Bluetooth to your smartphone, where you can easily check if youre over the limit. This all happens in less than eight minutes, and if youve had too much to drink, the application can even notify the police or a medical professional.. The developers claim the tattoo is more accurate than a breathalyser, and less invasive than a finger-prick test. They hope the new technology will help individuals to better control their alcohol consumption, as well as empowering bartenders to refuse customers who ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in 4 US communities. AU - May, Philip A.. AU - Chambers, Christina D.. AU - Kalberg, Wendy O.. AU - Zellner, Jennifer. AU - Feldman, Haruna. AU - Buckley, David. AU - Kopald, David. AU - Hasken, Julie M.. AU - Xu, Ronghui. AU - Honerkamp-Smith, Gordon. AU - Taras, Howard. AU - Manning, Melanie A.. AU - Robinson, Luther K.. AU - Adam, Margaret P.. AU - Abdul-Rahman, Omar. AU - Vaux, Keith. AU - Jewett, Tamison. AU - Elliott, Amy J.. AU - Kable, Julie A.. AU - Akshoomoff, Natacha. AU - Daniel, Falk. AU - Arroyo, Judith A.. AU - Hereld, Dale. AU - Riley, Edward P.. AU - Charness, Michael E.. AU - Coles, Claire D.. AU - Warren, Kenneth R.. AU - Jones, Kenneth Lyons. AU - Hoyme, H. Eugene. PY - 2018/2. Y1 - 2018/2. N2 - IMPORTANCE Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are costly, life-long disabilities. Older data suggested the prevalence of the disorder in the United States was 10 per 1000 children; however, there are few current estimates ...
Betaine, a methyl donor active in methionine metabolism, is effective in preventing and reversing experimental alcohol liver disease. The metabolic and molecular biologic mechanisms involved in this prevention are only partially known. To further investigate how betaine modifies the effects of ethanol on the liver, rats were given an acute ethanol bolus with or without betaine and the results were compared to isocaloric dextrose-fed controls. Livers were subjected to microarray analysis, and functional pathways and individual gene expression changes were analyzed. Experimental groups were compared by Venn diagrams showing that both ethanol and betaine caused a change in the expression of a large number of genes indicating that the changes were global. The bio-informatic analysis showed that all the KEGG functional pathways were affected and mainly down regulated at 3 h post bolus when ethanol plus betaine were compared with ethanol-fed rats. The most profound effect of betaine was on the metabolic
Endogenous levels of salsolinol and dopamine were measured by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) - selected ion monitoring technique using deuterated internal standards in Long Evans rats chronically exposed to ethanol for ten months. Chronic ethanol exposure produced significant increases of dopamine and salsolinol concentrations in the medial basal hypothalamus but not striatum. The data suggest that the occurrence of salsolinol in rat brain tissue is a consequence of an in vivo Pictet-Spengler cyclization.
Low ethanol prices relative to the price of gasoline blendstock, and tax credits, have resulted in discretionary blending at wholesale terminals of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels---a practice known as ethanol splashing in industry parlance. No one knows precisely where or in what volume ethanol is being blended with gasoline and this has important implications for motor fuels markets: Because refiners cannot perfectly predict where ethanol will be blended with finished gasoline by wholesalers, they cannot know when to produce and where to ship a blendstock that when mixed with ethanol at 10 percent would create the most economically efficient finished motor gasoline that meets engine standards and has comparable evaporative emissions as conventional gasoline without ethanol blending. In contrast to previous empirical analyses of biofuels that have relied on highly aggregated data, our analysis is disaggregated to the level of individual wholesale fuel terminals or racks (of which
Eriksen BA, Eriksen CW (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a non-search task. Percept Psychophysics 16, 143-146. Ferrara SD, Zancaner S, Giorgetti R (1994). Low blood alcohol concentrations and driving impairment, Int J Leg Med 106, 169-177. Hamilton P, Copeman A (1970). The effect of alcohol and noise on components of a tracking and monitoring task. Br J Psychol 61, 149-156. Jex HR, McDonnell JD (1966). Critical tracking task for manual control research. IEEE Trans Hum Factors 7, 138-145. Maylor EA, Rabbitt PMA, Sahgal A, Wright C (1987). Effects of alcohol on speed and accuracy in choice reaction time and visual search. Acta Psychol 65, 147-163. Mongrain S, Standing L (1989). Impairment of cognition, risk taking, and self-perception by alcohol. Percept Mot Skills 69, 199-210. Moskowitz H (1973). Laboratory studies of the effects of alcohol on some variables related to driving. J Saf Res 5, 185-199. Moskowitz H, Burns MM, Williams AF (1985). Skills ...
Ethanol is known as a potent teratogen responsible for the fetal alcohol syndrome characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Since the mechanisms of these deficits and following partial recovery are not fully elucidated, the aim of the present study was to investigate the process of synaptogenesis in the hippocampus over the first two months of life in control and fetal-alcohol rats. Ethanol was delivered to the pregnant dams by intragastric intubation throughout 7-21 gestation days at the daily dose of 6g/kg generating a mean blood alcohol level of 246.6±40.9mg/dl on gestation day 20. The spine densities as well as the expression of pre- and postsynaptic proteins, synaptophysin (SYP) and PSD-95 protein, were evaluated for three distinct hippocampal regions: CA1, CA2+3, and DG and four postnatal days: PD1, PD10, PD30 and PD60, independently. Our results confirmed an intensive synaptogenesis within the brain spurt period (first 10 postnatal days),
NAD or NADP differ with respect to presence or absence of a phosphate group esterified at the 2′ position of the adenosine ribose and are similar at the level of structure. Rosell et al. (21) have shown complete reversal of ADH cofactor specificity in crystallography studies. However, NAD is typically used in oxidative, ATP-generating degradation reactions, and NADP usually acts as a reductant in reductive biosynthetic reactions. An ethanol cycle with two ADH isozymes catalyzing opposite reactions (i.e., ethanol oxidation or ethanol synthesis) has been proposed for Thermoanaerobacter pseudoethanolicus (formerly Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum) (22) and similarly for the naturally more ethanol-tolerant Zymomonas mobilis (23). We did not test the ethanol cycling hypothesis in this study, but net ethanol oxidation did not appear to be a major detoxification mechanism (SI Appendix, Fig. S6).. The reduction in specific activity with respect to NADH was far greater (∼25-fold less activity) than ...
Rats of the atherosclerosis-prone JCR:LA-corpulent strain were subjected to long-term low (0.5% wt/vol) or high (4% wt/vol) consumption of ethanol from 1 to 12 months of age. The corpulent rats are hyperphagic, obese, and insulin-resistant; exhibit a marked very low density lipoprotein hyperlipidemia; and develop both vascular and myocardial lesions while eating a normal rat chow. The total lipid profile of the rat sera showed only limited changes with ethanol consumption. There were also no significant effects on high density lipoprotein lipids. Ethanol consumption was associated with elevated fasting glucose concentrations in both lean and corpulent rats and a strong decrease in fasting insulin levels and pancreatic B-cell volume density in the hyperinsulinemic corpulent rats. The relative frequency of myocardial nodules of chronic inflammatory cells was increased in the ethanol-consuming rats, both lean and corpulent. In contrast, old organized lesions (scars) were absent in the ...
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose birth mother consumed alcohol during pregnancy. The effects can include physical problems and/or difficulties with behavior and learning. When clinicians identify FASD early, intervention approaches can minimize the potential impact and lessen or even prevent disabilities. Thus, objective markers for prenatal alcohol exposure are desired.. Using dried blood spots from the umbilical cord and a heel stick of newborns, this study will use Phosphatidylethanol (PEth), a novel biomarker for alcohol exposure, to identify and characterize infants exposure to alcohol before birth. Additionally, the dried blood spots will used to validate the use of screening assays using epigenetic changes as markers for prenatal alcohol exposure. Epigenetic changes are heritable changes in DNA that affect DNA function but do not change DNA sequence. The use of PEth testing will allow for the correlation of prenatal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Microbial production of ethanol from acetate by engineered Ralstonia eutropha. AU - Lee, Hye Mi. AU - Jeon, Bo Young. AU - Oh, Min-Kyu. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - This study was performed to produce ethanol from acetate using a genetically engineered Ralstonia eutropha. In order to genetically modify R. eutropha H16, phaCAB operon encoding metabolic pathway genes from acetyl-CoA to polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was deleted and adhE encoding an alcohol dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli was overexpressed for conversion of acetyl-CoA to ethanol. The resulting strain produced ethanol up to 170 mg/L when cultivated in minimal media supplemented with 5 g/L of acetate as a sole carbon source. Growth and ethanol production were optimized by adjusting nitrogen source (NH4Cl) content and repetitive feeding of acetate into the bacterial culture, by which the ethanol production was reached to approximately 350 mg/L for 84 h.. AB - This study was performed to produce ethanol from ...
Ethanol is a selective CNS depressant at low concentrations, and a general depressant at high concentrations. Initially, ethanol produces exhilaration and loss of inhibition, which progresses to lack of coordination, ataxia, slurred speech, gait disturbances, drowsiness, and, ultimately, stupor, and coma. The intoxicated child may demonstrate a flushed face, dilated pupils, excessive sweating, gastrointestinal distress, hypoventilation, hypothermia, and hypotension. Death from respiratory depression may occur at serum ethanol concentrations >500 mg/dL. Convulsions and death have been reported in children with acute ethanol intoxication owing to alcohol-induced hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia results from inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and is most common in children younger than 5 years. It does not appear to be directly related to the quantity of ethanol ingested.4 ...
Chronic alcohol intake leads to neuroinflammation and astrocyte dysfunction, proposed to perpetuate alcohol consumption and to promote conditioned relapse-like binge drinking. In the present study, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured in 3D-conditions to generate MSC-spheroids, which greatly increased MSCs anti-inflammatory ability and reduced cell volume by 90% versus conventionally 2D-cultured MSCs, enabling their intravenous administration and access to the brain. It is shown, in an animal model of chronic ethanol intake and relapse-drinking, that both the intravenous and intra-cerebroventricular administration of a single dose of MSC-spheroids inhibited chronic ethanol intake and relapse-like drinking by 80-90%, displaying significant effects over 3-5 weeks. The MSC-spheroid administration fully normalized alcohol-induced neuroinflammation, as shown by a reduced astrocyte activation, and markedly increased the levels of the astrocyte Na-glutamate (GLT-1) transporter. This research
Downloadable! The U.S. biofuel industry is striving to produce ethanol from cellulosic feedstock sources in an effort to augment its existing corn grain-based ethanol production infrastructure. Technology to commercially produce cellulosic ethanol is rapidly advancing due in large part to the availability of substancial federal research and development funding. At the moment, several firms have pilot scale cellulosic ethanol production facilities under construction and testing. The transition from pilot scale to full commercialization of cellulosic ethanol will be difficult, due in large part financial constraints being imposed both internally and externally on the biofuels industry. This paper provides an overview of the biofuel industrys current financial setting and describes future challenges it faces in attempting to expand. These challenges are rooted in lack of industry capital, limited availability of performance benchmarks, concerns regarding future prospects of the industry, and general
Recent research findings show that mid-range ethanol blends - fuel mixtures most likely between E20 and E30 - can in some cases provide better fuel economy than regular unleaded gasoline, even in standard, non-flex-fuel vehicles. Previous assumptions held that ethanols lower energy content directly correlates with lower fuel economy for drivers. Those assumptions were found to be incorrect. E20 and E30 ethanol blends outperformed unleaded gasoline in fuel economy tests for certain autos. The tests were conducted using four 2007 model vehicles: a Toyota Camry, a Ford Fusion, and two Chevrolet Impalas, one flex-fuel and one non-flex-fuel. Contrary to Btu-based estimates of fuel economy for ethanol blends, three of the four vehicles tested achieved their highest fuel efficiency not on gasoline, but on an ethanol blend. Mid-level blends of ethanol E20 (20% ethanol, 80% gasoline) and E30 (30% ethanol, 70% gasoline) offered the best fuel economy in these tests. E30 offered better fuel economy than gasoline
I made biodiesel using ethanol, palm kernel flakes and potassium hydroxide 85%. I made it twice. The first time I used 95% ethanol, 5% water. The second time I used 99.5% ethanol, 0.5% water. I had better results using the 99.5% ethanol to produce biodiesel. A problem is drying 95% ethanol+ 5% water and doing it inexpensively. There was a little water produced in the 99.5% ethanol when the catalyst was added, but Im not sure how much. If your oil is dry, for one liter of oil use 250 milliliters of ethanol with 5.8 grams 85% potassium hydroxide mixed into the alcohol plus titration number. Heat with constant stirring at 70 to 75 degrees centigrade for one hour. Do not heat with a flame. If possible use a sparkless hot plate. I think starting by making small amounts then working your way up to large quantities is the best way to learn to make the fuel correctly. After heating the ethanol, potassium hydroxide, dry jatropha oil for one hour, let the glycerine settle out long enough, remove the ...
Both aluminium and ethanol are pro-oxidants and toxic. Uncontrolled use of aluminium and increasing trends of ethanol consumption in India increased the chance of coexposure to aluminium and ethanol. There are possibilities, that both of them follow common mechanisms to produce reproductive toxicity. The present study was planned to identify the effects of aluminium administration on the microscopic structure of ovary and to clarify any possible protection conferred by the concomitant administration of ethanol. Sixteen female rats divided into one control and three experimental groups exposed to aluminium (4.2mg/kg body weight) and ethanol (1gm/kg body weight) for 3 months. After the exposure period, ovaries were processed for light microscopic examination. Ovary showed significant atretic follicles with degenerated ova and vacuolation. Rupture of zona pellucida in oocyte seen in aluminium treated animals. Ethanol treated group showing absence of growing follicles, increased large corpora lutea. Dilated