TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevention of alterations in intestinal permeability is involved in zinc inhibition of acute ethanol-induced liver damage in mice. AU - Lambert, Jason C.. AU - Zhou, Zhanxiang. AU - Wang, Lipeng. AU - Song, Zhenyuan. AU - McClain, Craig J.. AU - Kang, Yujian. PY - 2003/6/1. Y1 - 2003/6/1. N2 - Acute ethanol exposure causes liver injury in experimental animals, and accumulating evidence suggests that a major responsible factor for the pathogenesis is endotoxemia, which results from bacterial endotoxin leakage from the small intestine due to increased intestinal permeability under alcohol challenge. The purpose of this study was to examine whether zinc pretreatment would inhibit acute ethanol-induced liver injury through prevention of intestinal permeability changes. Male 129 SvPCJ mice were treated with three intragastric doses of ZnSO4 at 5 mg of zinc ion per kg each dosing prior to acute ethanol challenge with a single oral dose of 6 g/kg ethanol. The zinc treatment did not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of acute ethanol administration on hepatic protein and glycoprotein secretion in vivo. AU - Volentine, G. D.. AU - Tuma, D. J.. AU - Sorrell, M. F.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020355393&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020355393&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0020355393. VL - 2. SP - No. 89. JO - Hepatology. JF - Hepatology. SN - 0270-9139. IS - 5. ER - ...
Emerging evidence suggested mitophagy activation mitigates ethanol-induced liver injury. However, the effect of ethanol on mitophagy is inconsistent. Importantly, the understanding of mitophagy status after chronic ethanol consumption is limited. This study evaluated the effect of quercetin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid, on chronic ethanol-induced mitochondrial damage focused on mitophagy. An ethanol regime to mice for 15 weeks (accounting for 30% of total calories) led to significant mitochondrial damage as evidenced by changes of the mitochondrial ultrastructure, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and remodeling of membrane lipid composition, which was greatly attenuated by quercetin (100 mg/kg.bw). Moreover, quercetin blocked chronic ethanol-induced mitophagy suppression as denoted by mitophagosomes-lysosome fusion and mitophagy-related regulator elements, including LC3II, Parkin, p62 and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), paralleling with increased FoxO3a nuclear translocation. AMP
The Ethanol Effect is the newest hour-long special from the team behind Detroit Public Televisions Alfred I. DuPont/Columbia University Award-winning series Beyond the Light Switch.. From Iowas farm fields to Washingtons corridors of power, and from the algae-choked surface of the Great Lakes to the poisoned depths of the Gulf of Mexico, The Ethanol Effect investigates the human, environmental and political costs of growing and refining corn for ethanol in America. Our guide through the tangled web of ethanols influence is David Biello. Follow Biello as he untangles the web of ethanols unexpected influence on our daily in The Ethanol Effect ...
The Ethanol Effect is the newest hour-long special from the team behind Detroit Public Televisions Alfred I. DuPont/Columbia University Award-winning series Beyond the Light Switch.. From Iowas farm fields to Washingtons corridors of power, and from the algae-choked surface of the Great Lakes to the poisoned depths of the Gulf of Mexico, The Ethanol Effect investigates the human, environmental and political costs of growing and refining corn for ethanol in America. Our guide through the tangled web of ethanols influence is David Biello. Follow Biello as he untangles the web of ethanols unexpected influence on our daily in The Ethanol Effect ...
Title: CYP2E1: Biochemistry, Toxicology, Regulation and Function in Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury. VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 6. Author(s):Irina Kessova and Arthur I. Cederbaum. Affiliation:Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Box 1603, Mount Sinai Schoolof Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029.. Keywords:cyp2e1, ethanol-induced liver injury, chronic alcohol treatment., cyp2e1-dependent oxidative stress. Abstract: Ethanol-induced oxidative stress appears to play a major role in mechanisms by which ethanol causes liver injury. Many pathways have been suggested to contribute to the ability of ethanol to induce a state of oxidative stress. One central pathway appears to be the induction of the CYP2E1 form of cytochrome P450 enzymes by ethanol. CYP2E1 is of interest because of its ability to metabolize and activate many toxicological substrates, including ethanol, to more reactive, toxic products. Levels of CYP2E1 are elevated under a variety of physiological and ...
Acute alcohol use is associated with impaired immune responses and decreased proinflammatory cytokine production. Our earlier studies have shown that acute alcohol intake inhibits NF-kappaB DNA binding in an IkappaBalpha-independent manner. We report using human peripheral blood monocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with CD14 cells that acute alcohol treatment in vitro exerts NF-kappaB inhibition by disrupting phosphorylation of p65. Immunoprecipitation of p65 and IkappaBalpha revealed that acute alcohol exposure for 1 h decreased NF-kappaB-IkappaBalpha complexes in the cytoplasm. Phosphorylation of p65 at Ser(536) is mediated by IkappaB kinase (IKK)beta and is required for NF-kappaB-dependent cellular responses. We show that acute alcohol treatment decreased LPS-induced IKKalpha and IKKbeta activity resulting in decreased phosphorylation of p65 at Ser(536). Furthermore, nuclear expression of IKKalpha increased after alcohol treatment, which may contribute to inhibition of NF-kappaB.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Body temperature differentially affects ethanol sensitivity in both inbred strains and selected lines of mice. AU - Finn, Deborah (Deb). AU - Bejanian, M.. AU - Jones, B. L.. AU - McGivern, R. F.. AU - Syapin, P. J.. AU - Crabbe, John Jr. AU - Alkana, R. L.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Offsetting ethanol-induced hypothermia in five inbred strains of mice changed ethanol sensitivity within strains and markedly reduced differences between strains in brain sensitivity to hypnotic ethanol doses. The present study extended this work to mice selectivity bred for sensitivity and resistance to ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) and hypothermia. In all experiments LORR duration and ethanol concentrations at return of righting reflex were measured after i.p. hypnotic ethanol doses and exposure to 22 or 34°C. In experiment 1, C57BL/6J, A/HeJ, 129/J, LS/Ibg and SS/Ibg mice were given 4.2 g/kg ethanol. In experiment 2, the same mouse genotypes were tested with different ethanol ...
Evidence that brain edema and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels have roles in experimental binge ethanol-induced neurodegeneration has stimulated interest in swelling/edema-linked neuroinflammatory pathways leading to oxidative stress. We report here that neurotoxic binge ethanol exposure produces comparable significant effects in vivo and in vitro on adult rat brain levels of AQP4 as well as neuroinflammation-linked enzymes: key phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family members and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). In adult male rats, repetitive ethanol intoxication (3 gavages/d for 4 d, ∼9 g/kg/d, achieving blood ethanol levels ∼375 mg/dl;
Rates of exchange catalysed by alcohol dehydrogenase were determined in vivo in order to find rate-limiting steps in ethanol metabolism. Mixtures of [1,1-2H2]- and [2,2,2-2H3]ethanol were injected in rats with bile fistulas. The concentrations in bile of ethanols having different numbers of 2H atoms were determined by g.l.c.-m.s. after the addition of [2H6]ethanol as internal standard and formation of the 3,5-dinitrobenzoates. Extensive formation of [2H4]ethanol indicated that acetaldehyde formed from [2,2,2-2H3]ethanol was reduced to ethanol and that NADH used in this reduction was partly derived from oxidation of [1,1-2H2]ethanol. The rate of acetaldehyde reduction, the degree of labelling of bound NADH and the isotope effect on ethanol oxidation were calculated by fitting models to the found concentrations of ethanols labelled with 1-42H atoms. Control experiments with only [2,2,2-2H3]ethanol showed that there was no loss of the C-2 hydrogens by exchange. The isotope effect on ethanol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subcellular location of secretory proteins retained in the liver during the ethanol-induced inhibition of hepatic protein secretion in the rat. AU - Volentine, Gary D. AU - Tuma, Dean J. AU - Sorrell, Michael Floyd. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - Ethanol administration inhibits the secretion of proteins by the liver, resulting in their hepatocellular retention. Experiments were designed in this study to determine the subcellular location of the retained secretory proteins. Ethanol was administered acutely to nonfasted rats by gastric intubation, whereas control animals received an isocaloric dose of glucose. Two hours after intubation, when maximum blood ethanol levels (45 mM) were observed, [3H]leucine and [14C]fucose were injected simultaneously into the dorsal vein of the penis. The labeling of secretory proteins was determined in the liver and plasma at various time periods after label injection. Ethanol treatment decreased the secretion of both leucine- and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of diet on ethanol withdrawal symptomatology. AU - Baker, T. B.. AU - Cannon, D. S.. AU - Berman, Robert F. AU - Atkinson, C. A.. PY - 1977. Y1 - 1977. N2 - In Experiment 1 rats were gavaged with ethanol and nutrients at 6 hr intervals for 72 hr. Ethanol dosages were assigned by behavioral criteria of inebriation. Nourished animals were able to tolerate higher ethanol dosages than nutrient-deprived rats (9.62 vs 7.60 g/kg/day). Nourished rats were less likely to have withdrawal seizures than were nutrient-deprived rats given an equivalent amount of ethanol, but nourished rats given 25-30% more ethanol than the nutrient-deprived rats did have withdrawal seizures. Nutrient-deprived rats had BECs (Blood Ethanol Contents) higher than those of nourished rats receiving equivalent amounts of ethanol but comparable to the BECs of nourished rats receiving 25-30% more ethanol. All these results were replicated in Experiment 2 in which ethanol dependent rats above starting body ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stable histone methylation changes at proteoglycan network genes following ethanol exposure. AU - Gavin, David P.. AU - Hashimoto, Joel G.. AU - Lazar, Nathan H.. AU - Carbone, Lucia. AU - Crabbe, John Jr. AU - Guizzetti, Marina. PY - 2018/8/30. Y1 - 2018/8/30. N2 - Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic mental illness in which patients often achieve protracted periods of abstinence prior to relapse. Epigenetic mechanisms may provide an explanation for the persisting gene expression changes that can be observed even after long periods of abstinence and may contribute to relapse. In this study, we examined two histone modifications, histone 3 lysine 4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) and histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylation (H3K27me3), in the prefrontal cortex of Withdrawal Seizure Resistant (WSR) mice 21 days after 72 h of ethanol vapor exposure. These histone modifications were selected because they are associated with active promoters (H3K4me3) and repressed gene expression in a ...
Increasing evidence suggests that ethanol-induced changes in cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal transduction play a critical role in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol. Here we have investigated the effects of ethanol on cAMP signal transduction in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Acute exposure to ethanol had a biphasic effect on glucagon-receptor-dependent cAMP production in intact cells: 25-50 mM-ethanol decreased cAMP, whereas treatment with 100-200 mM-ethanol increased cAMP. After chronic exposure to 50-200 mM-ethanol for 48 h in culture, glucagon-receptor-dependent cAMP levels were increased, but no change in glucagon receptor number was observed. These effects of ethanol were independent of ethanol oxidation. Chronic ethanol treatment also increased adenosine-receptor- and forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. Increased cAMP production was also observed upon stimulation of adenylate cyclase with glucagon, forskolin and F- in membranes isolated from cells cultured with 100 mM-ethanol for ...
Chronic alcoholics who also binge drink (i.e., acute on chronic) are prone to an exacerbated liver injury but its mechanism is not understood. We therefore investigated the in vivo effects of chronic and binge ethanol ingestion and compared to chronic ethanol followed by three repeat binge ethanol on the liver of male C57/BL6 mice fed ethanol in liquid diet (4%) for four weeks followed by binge ethanol (intragastric administration, 3.5 g/kg body weight, three doses, 12h apart). Chronic followed by binge ethanol exacerbated fat accumulation, necrosis, decrease in hepatic SAM and SAM:SAH ratio, increase in adenosine levels, and elevated CYP2E1 levels. Histone H3 lysine acetylation (H3AcK9), dually modified phosphoacetylated histone H3 (H3AcK9/PS10), and phosphorylated H2AX increased after binge whereas phosphorylation of histone H3 ser 10 (H3S10) and H3 ser 28 (H3S28) increased after chronic ethanol-binge. Histone H3 lysine 4 and 9 dimethylation increased with a marked dimethylation in H3K9 in chronic
title Gasoline Example; data Gas; input Fuel :$8. CpRatio EqRatio NOx @@; label Fuel = Fuel CpRatio = Compression Ratio (CR) EqRatio = Equivalence Ratio (PHI) NOx = Nitrogen Oxide (NOx); datalines; Ethanol 12.0 0.907 3.741 Ethanol 12.0 0.761 2.295 Ethanol 12.0 1.108 1.498 Ethanol 12.0 1.016 2.881 Ethanol 12.0 1.189 0.760 Ethanol 9.0 1.001 3.120 Ethanol 9.0 1.231 0.638 Ethanol 9.0 1.123 1.170 Ethanol 12.0 1.042 2.358 Ethanol 12.0 1.215 0.606 Ethanol 12.0 0.930 3.669 Ethanol 12.0 1.152 1.000 Ethanol 15.0 1.138 0.981 Ethanol 18.0 0.601 1.192 Ethanol 7.5 0.696 0.926 Ethanol 12.0 0.686 1.590 Ethanol 12.0 1.072 1.806 Ethanol 15.0 1.074 1.962 Ethanol 15.0 0.934 4.028 Ethanol 9.0 0.808 3.148 Ethanol 9.0 1.071 1.836 Ethanol 7.5 1.009 2.845 Ethanol 7.5 1.142 1.013 Ethanol 18.0 1.229 0.414 Ethanol 18.0 1.175 0.812 Ethanol 15.0 0.568 0.374 Ethanol 15.0 0.977 3.623 Ethanol 7.5 0.767 1.869 Ethanol 7.5 1.006 2.836 Ethanol 9.0 0.893 3.567 Ethanol 15.0 1.152 0.866 Ethanol 15.0 0.693 1.369 Ethanol 15.0 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Responses of cerebral arterioles during chronic ethanol exposure. AU - Mayhan, William. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ethanol exposure on responses of cerebral arterioles in vivo. Rats were fed liquid diets with or without ethanol for 2-3 mo. Using intravital microscopy, we measured diameter of cerebral arterioles in non-ethanol- and ethanol-fed rats in response to acetylcholine, histamine, ADP, the thromboxane analogue (U- 46619), and nitroglycerin. In non-ethanol-fed rats, acetylcholine, histamine, and ADP produced dose-related dilatation of cerebral arterioles. In ethanol- fed rats, however, acetylcholine produced vasoconstriction, and vasodilatation in response to histamine and ADP was impaired. Dilatation of cerebral arterioles in response to nitroglycerin and vasoconstriction in response to the thromboxane analogue (U-46619) were similar in non-ethanol- fed and ethanol-fed rats. Thus these findings suggest that chronic ...
On July 31, 2013, INEOS Bio, a bioenergy company, announced that its Florida facility became the world pioneer in producing commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol. Ethanol, or ethyl alcohol, is a renewable fuel resulting from fermenting plant-based materials. INEOS Bio produces cellulosic ethanol using vegetative and yard waste. Despite the flurry that accompanied last Julys event, Brazil is still regarded as the country that implemented the most successful ethanol industry in the world -the sugarcane ethanol industry. In the United States, the ethanol industry touches on two critical areas. First, ethanol can be used as motor fuel, and it is no secret that the United States relies on motor fuel. Second, the nations reliance on motor fuel, especially gasoline, raises significant environmental concerns, notably, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Thus, given the recent advancements in ethanol production, and the critical areas that ethanol touches on, an issue emerges as to whether Brazils ethanol ...
The liver plays a key role in the metabolism of alcohol and is also sensitive to the deleterious effects of chronic alcohol consumption. In humans, chronic alcohol consumption leads to a characteristic set of changes to the metabolism of lipids in the liver that is referred to as an "alcoholic fatty liver". In humans, AFL is characterized by an increase in liver weight, accumulation of triglyceride and changes in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. In severe cases, these metabolic changes result in the enlargement and fibrillization of the liver and are considered risk factors for cirrhosis and liver cancer.. Previous work suggests that there may be links between mutations in the circadian system and liver metabolism. The transcription of many genes in liver, including those involved in lipid metabolism, is regulated on the circadian time scale [8, 22]. Furthermore, mice with mutations in core elements of the circadian timing system also exhibit deficits in liver function. In ...
Your ethanol or alcohol or drinking alcohol as it is also called can provide great taste and strength only when you use the right yeast for fermentation, and infusing top quality ethanol yeast can increase ethanol yield as well as provide that perfect taste. Whether you engage in professional ethanol production or want to ferment a small batch of ethanol at home, using the best yeast can certainly improve the quality and quantity of your end product.. Alcohols and spirits such as whiskey, beer, wine, vodka, rum, etc need to pass through several brewing and even distilling processes before they end up in your glass. These processes start by firstly mixing the raw materials such as wheat, barley, corn, sugar, potatoes, grapes, apples, or any other ingredient based on the country where the drinks are produced and the end product that is required, along with water. This mixture is boiled, milled, and cooled so as to encourage the activation of enzymes that convert all possible starch in the raw ...
The present article provides an up-to-date review summarizing almost 18 years of research in genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats. The results of this work demonstrate that msP rats have natural preference for ethanol characterized by a spontaneous binge-type of drinking that leads to pharmacologically significant blood ethanol levels. This rat line is highly vulnerable to relapse and presentation of stimuli predictive of alcohol availability or foot-shock stress can reinstate extinguished drug-seeking up to 8 months from the last alcohol experience. The msP rat is highly sensitive to stress, shows an anxious phenotype and has depressive-like symptoms that recover following ethanol drinking. Interestingly, these animals have an up-regulated corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) receptor 1 system. Clinical studies have shown that alcoholic patients often drink ethanol in the attempt to self-medicate from negative affective states and to search for anxiety ...
Separately, chronic alcohol ingestion and HIV-1 infection are associated with severe skeletal muscle derangements, including atrophy and wasting, weakness, and fatigue. One prospective cohort study reported that 41% of HIV-infected patients met the criteria for alcoholism, however; few reports exist on the co-morbid effects of these two disease processes on skeletal muscle homeostasis. Thus, we analyzed the atrophic effects of chronic alcohol ingestion in HIV-1 transgenic rats and identified alterations to several catabolic and anabolic factors. Relative plantaris mass, total protein content, and fiber cross-sectional area were reduced in each experimental group compared to healthy, control-fed rats. Alcohol abuse further reduced plantaris fiber area in HIV-1 transgenic rats. Consistent with previous reports, gene levels of myostatin and its receptor activin IIB were not increased in HIV-1 transgenic rat muscle. However, myostatin and activin IIB were induced in healthy and HIV-1 transgenic rats fed
This dissertation examines the corn based ethanol industry in the Corn Belt of the U.S. from three different angles: What affects ethanol plant location decisions, how does new ethanol capacity affect the local corn price, and what is the future landscape of ethanol production under an uncertain future? Ethanol production is a significant part of the American economy in terms of market demand for corn, job creation, household income, tax revenue, and decreasing reliance on foreign fuel. The EPA has supported the ethanol industry through the creation of the Renewable Fuels Standards put in place in 2007, however the very mandate created in part to secure the future of renewable energy in the U.S. is also a source of uncertainty. In late 2015, after speculation of a reduction in the requirement for ethanol, the RFS were renewed at an increased ethanol mandate than expected. These three papers enhance general understanding of how ethanol growth may occur, how new ethanol capacity affects local corn ...
Purpose: : To compare the mRNA expression of IL-1α, IL-8, MCP-1, and TGF-ß1 following topical ethanol treatment and mechanical debridement. Methods: : Fifty-eight pigmented rabbit corneas were divided into four groups. Group I (n=18) received mechanical epithelial debridement, group II (n=18) underwent 20% ethanol application for 30 seconds, and group III corneas underwent 20% ethanol application for 60 seconds. Group IV (n=4) did not undergo any procedure. Corneal epithelial and stromal keratocyte change was examined with H&E and TUNEL stains, while the mRNA expression of IL-1α, IL-8, MCP-1, and TGF-ß1 were examined with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: : Stromal keratocyte apoptosis was noticed for three days in group I and up to seven days in group III. Topical ethanol induced significant TUNEL staining of corneal epithelium and stromal keratocyte in an application time dependent manner. In group I, the expression of IL-8 mRNA showed two spikes of up-regulation on day 0 ...
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) results from alcohol overconsumption and is among the leading causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors has been observed in ALD, but how it contributes to ALD pathophysiology is unclear. Here we investigated the impact of VEGF signaling inhibition on an established zebrafish model of acute alcoholic liver injury. VEGF-receptor 2/Kdrl activity was blocked by chemical inhibitor treatment or by genetic mutation. Exposing 4-day-old zebrafish larvae to 2% ethanol for 24 hours induced hepatic steatosis, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis. The liver started self-repair once ethanol was removed. While inhibiting Kdrl did not block the initial activation of hepatic stellate cells during ethanol treatment, it suppressed their proliferation, extracellular matrix protein deposition, and fibrogenic gene expression after ethanol exposure, thus enhancing the liver repair. It also ...
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Ethanol continues to be the most frequently abused intoxicant in the United States.4 Drug testing in various work environments has become commonplace during the past two decades and will at times include blood, breath, or urine alcohol testing.5 While valid reasons for false positive drug tests do occur, a plethora of unusual and dubious explanations have been likewise tendered. Medical Review Officers (MRO) involved in evaluating such reports rely on past case reports, knowledge of laboratory analytical techniques, and other scientific evidence to validate or negate claims of drug use in the workplace. ABHS are now found in most hospitals and health-care facilities.1,3 Only one human report of serum ethanol levels following frequent clinical use of the ABHS has been reported.7 This finding of a negative serum ethanol level in this case is likely to be reproducible in all clinical settings as the physician attempted to simulate the most extreme use of the product that would be consistent with ...
March 2013. Subjects. This model has been predominantly been studied using adult (65-75 days of age) male C57BL/6J mice obtained from Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME). Although experimental parameters have been optimized using these mice, we have conducted studies with adult female C57BL/6J mice, as well as other inbred mouse strains including DBA/2J and C3H/Hecr, selectively bred HAP/LAP lines, and and BXD RI lines. Mice are acclimated to the facility for at least two weeks prior to experimental use. Mice are individually housed in standard polypropylene pans with wood-chip bedding and stainless steel wire lids. The mice are housed under a modified light/dark cycle (lights on at 0200 hr) to allow for behavioral testing to be conducted during the dark phase of the cycle. Rodent food (Wayne Lab-Blox) and water is available ad libitum at all times during the studies.. General Experimental Design and Strategy. The overall objective of this chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure model ...
In the technique of anaerobic respiration yeast yields ethanol. Ethanol fermentation by yeast is a vital course of action during the manufacture of ethanol or booze and while in the means of anaerobic respiration yeast generates ethanol. It is very critical to restrict the presence of oxygen throughout the fermentation process making sure that the yeast can ferment sugars into ethanol or consuming booze because it is also known.. Every single type of ethanol manufacturing including ethanol for human consumption and bio ethanol for powering engines needs to go through the fermentation approach that converts the mashed combination of water coupled with several fruits or grains or greens into ethanol with the desired alcoholic energy. Once the mash is prepared for sugar fermentation then dried yeast powder is additional to the mixture to begin the method of transforming sugars present while in the mixture into ethanol. Even so, during this process, its very crucial to avoid oxygen from remaining ...
Ethanol fermentation by yeast is a vital process during the manufacture of ethanol or alcohol and while in the means of anaerobic respiration yeast generates ethanol. Its very important to restrict the existence of oxygen during the fermentation procedure to ensure the yeast can ferment sugars into ethanol or consuming alcohol due to the fact it is also known.. Each individual sort of ethanol production which include ethanol for human intake and bio ethanol for powering engines needs to pass through the fermentation practice that converts the mashed mixture of water along with various fruits or grains or vegetables into ethanol along with the wished-for alcoholic power. After the mash is ready for sugar fermentation then dried yeast powder is additional towards the combination to start out the method of converting sugars current from the mixture into ethanol. Even so, for the duration of this method, it is rather critical to stop oxygen from remaining present in the combination since it is ...
The main aim of the present investigation was to achieve high ethanol concentration as the final ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth is critical to make a cost-effective ethanol production process. Since the ethanol concentration is directly proportional to the sugar concentration, hence high concentration sugar syrup is a prerequisite. In the present study, the process modeling consisting of mass balance and kinetic models were used to provide insights into the process performance and to optimize the process for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis. During the batch saccharification at different consistencies, a regular decrease in the rate constant with increase in the substrate concentration was observed (Figure 1) and the reaction was assumed to be a first order reaction. This decrease in rate may be attributed to the product inhibition, improper heat and mass transfer and the thermal deactivation of enzymes [7, 12]. The difference between the experimental values and those predicted ...
Die Universität zu Köln ist eine Exzellenzuniversität mit dem klassischen Fächerspektrum einer Volluniversität. Als eine der größen Hochschulen Europas arbeitet sie in Forschung und Lehre auch international auf höchstem Niveau.
The ethanol industry has experienced explosive growth in the past several years due to concerns about oil dependence and climate change. However, sentiment has begun to shift against corn ethanol due to increasing food costs, dwindling profit margins and increased government expenditures propping up the industry. Despite the record increase in gasoline prices, ethanol has struggled with its own rising costs of production and market turmoil. This Masters Project assesses the economics of corn-based ethanol production in the United States through the development of three models. The Ethanol Supply Curve Model constructs an ethanol supply curve based on user defined commodity prices. The model compares the marginal cost of ethanol production to the wholesale price of gasoline in order to determine the ability of ethanol to compete with gasoline in the transportation fuel market. The Ethanol Profit Model solves for a facilitys profit margin under user defined commodity conditions. The Ethanol ...
Ethanol consumption is associated with left ventricular dysfunction in heavy ethanol drinkers. The effect of moderate ethanol intake on left ventricular function in hypertension, however, is unknown. We investigated the relationship between ethanol consumption and cardiac changes in nonalcoholic hypertensive patients. In 335 patients with primary hypertension, we assessed daily ethanol consumption by questionnaires that combined evaluation of recent and lifetime ethanol exposure and examined cardiac structure and function by echocardiography. Patients with abnormal liver tests, previous cardiovascular events, left ventricular ejection fraction ,50%, and creatinine clearance ,30 mL/min 1.72 m2 were excluded. Left ventricular hypertrophy was found in 21% of hypertensive patients and diastolic dysfunction was detected in 50% by tissue-Doppler imaging. Ethanol consumption was comparable in hypertensive patients with and without left ventricular hypertrophy, whereas patients with left ventricular ...
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Jul;228(2):207-15. doi: 10.1007/s00213-013-3023-y. Epub 2013 Feb 22. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
Chronic alcohol exposure affects the central nervous system, influences behavior, and induces neuroadaptive changes in vertebrate species including our own. literature to be alcohol related. We conclude that the zebrafish is an excellent tool for the analysis of genes associated with alcohols actions in vertebrates, one which may facilitate the discovery and better understanding of […]. ...
To assess the role of acute alcohol ingestion as a risk factor for cerebral infarction, we administered a pretested questionnaire to 205 middle-aged and elderly acute ischemic stroke patients and 410 outpatient controls matched by age, sex, race, and method of hospital payment. Paired Mantel-Haenszel analysis revealed that alcohol ingestion within 24 (p = 0.07) and 72 (p = 0.001) hours of stroke onset and medical histories of smoking (p less than 0.0001), hypertension (p less than 0.001), and transient ischemic attacks (p = 0.051) were more common among stroke index cases than controls. Matched multiple logistic analysis revealed that both hypertension (p less than 0.05) and smoking (p less than 0.05) were independently associated with stroke, while alcohol consumption was not. In analyses to assess the possibility of mutual confounding effects of independent variables, the effect of alcohol ingestion was lost when adjusting for smoking. We conclude that acute alcohol ingestion is not an ...
The ethanol supporters are looking to raise the content of ethanol in every day gasoline from 10 percent ethanol and 90 percent gasoline 20 percent ethanol and 80 percent gasoline. This will double the nations use of ethanol to further reduce Americas oil consumption. E85 (85 percent ethanol 15 percent gasoline) is still seemingly hard to find in many states, e10 has been utilized greatly across the country.. The only threat that can get this shot down is can todays cars use twice the ethanol that is currently available in e10? Some say, older vehicle engines may not be able to run on e20 because it will damage their engines.. The University of Minnesota and Minnesota State University have conducted studies to help ethanol out. They found that e20 will not damage engine parts. The e20 blend is not enough ethanol for engine parts to break down.. Even though there may be skepticism regarding ethanol as the fuel of the future, numerous states in America have laws requiring a certain percent of ...
Keywords: Ethanol, ischemia-reperfusion injury, preconditioning, heart. Abstract: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that excessive drinking is associated with hypertension, cerebral bleeding and loss of cardiac contractility. Conversely, studies have shown that mortality rates for people who regularly drink ethanol in moderation are lower than in abstainers, primarily due to decreased fatal ischemic heart disease. Further, moderate ethanol consumers have lower rates of myocardial infarction compared with abstainers. These beneficial cardiac effects may be due to pleiotropic effects of ethanol on lipids, platelets, and fibrinolytic activity. During the past decade, studies conducted in several animal models have revealed that light to moderate regular ethanol consumption renders hearts more tolerant to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury; to a degree similar to cardiac ischemic preconditioning (brief episodes of ischemia dramatically limit infarct size following prolonged ischemia). Recent ...
2Research Center for Alcoholic Liver Disease and Pancreatitis and Cirrhosis, School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA. In the search for novel targets for chronic alcohol-induced inflammatory responses, we recently started exploring the therapeutic potential of ATP-gated purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs). Despite the recognized important role in several neurodegenerative pathologies and inflammatory conditions, the role of P2X7Rs in ethanol-induced inflammation and organ damage is still unknown. Using a chronic ethanol exposure model of alcohol liver disease that combines intragastric (iG) ethanol feeding and high fat diet (Hybrid) in C57BL/6J mice, our recent work demonstrated an increased expression of P2X7Rs that paralleled neuroinflammatory changes in several ethanol-sensitive brain regions. These findings served the basis for the hypothesis that there is a functional link between P2X7Rs and chronic ethanol-induced inflammatory response leading to organ ...
6. Abstract Ethanol is a common factor in traumatic injury, including burn injury. Previous studies from our laboratory indicate that ethanol increases both pul...
Ethanol fermentation by yeast is an important process in the manufacture of ethanol or booze and within the means of anaerobic respiration yeast provides ethanol. It is very essential to restrict the presence of oxygen through the fermentation method so that the yeast can ferment sugars into ethanol or drinking booze due to the fact it is likewise recognised.. Each and every form of ethanol manufacturing including ethanol for human consumption and bio ethanol for powering engines must go through the fermentation approach that converts the mashed combination of h2o along with various fruits or grains or vegetables into ethanol when using the ideal alcoholic energy. When the mash is prepared for sugar fermentation then dried yeast powder is extra to the mixture to start out the method of converting sugars present during the mixture into ethanol. However, through this method, its very essential to forestall oxygen from remaining current from the mixture because it is simply while in the absence of ...
The major relationship between ethanol and the behavioral response to environmental stressors indicates that ethanol functions to reduce the effects of stress. The most classical presentation of the anxiety-reduction hypothesis of alcoholism, presented by Cogner (1956), theorized that alcoholism was induced by the anxiolytic effects of ethanol, which in turn reinforced intake of ethanol. If this holds true, then it is reasonable to hypothesize that the CNS effects of ethanol may be dominant in the area of the brain that controls or influences anxiety. Given the known role of the amygdala in fear and anxiety-induced responses, we hypothesized that the anxiety reducing effects of ethanol would be observed within the amygdala and may be measured as alterations of neuronal excitability. The first aim of this thesis was to establish an animal model of alcoholism in the laboratory. This was done by introducing a nutritionally complete ethanol containing liquid diet. We compared two liquid diet ...
For many homeowners, purchasing fuel for your small engine and outdoor power equipment simply means going to the nearest gas station and filling up with the lowest cost fuel option. Not much thought is given to the ethanol content of the fuel. For longtime boaters and marina managers, however, the dangers of high ethanol content gas are well known, particularly in applications that will be sitting in high heat or humidity for long periods of time.. A Mistake That Can Be Costly, In Multiple Ways When fuel contains a high amount of ethanol, the gasoline will begin to decay because of the oxygen in the blend. Since the ethanol is hygroscopic, it absorbs water from the air, causing the fuel blend to separate. Ethanol can be extremely damaging to small engines and high-powered sports equipment, leading to corrosion of the engine and fuel system. Simply put, what seems like a relatively innocuous purchase of an ethanol containing fuel can ruin your engine. Making matters worse, using a high-ethanol ...
Ethanol groups filed comments Friday with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) on the intention to analyze potential environmental impacts of new Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for model year (MY) 2022-2025 light-duty vehicles. The Renewable Fuels Association submitted a letter and literature survey of technical papers and studies on the benefits of ethanol-based High Octane Fuel, noting that broader availability of such fuel would help automakers increase engine compression ratios without making costly hardware changes. Read the letter Growth Energy also submitted comments supporting the use of high-octane, midlevel ethanol blends to achieve higher energy efficiency standards.. "It has long been recognized that vehicles and fuels operate as a system, and to undertake significant changes and increases in the stringency of tailpipe GHG standards without an examination of potential changes in the fuel used by these vehicles makes little sense," Growth Energy ...
Alcohol abuse reduces response rates to IFN therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. To model the molecular mechanisms behind this phenotype, we characterized the effects of ethanol on Jak-Stat and MAPK pathways in Huh7 human hepatoma cells, in HCV replicon cell lines, and in primary human hepatocytes. High physiological concentrations of acute ethanol activated the Jak-Stat and p38 MAPK pathways and inhibited HCV replication in several independent replicon cell lines. Moreover, acute ethanol induced Stat1 serine phosphorylation, which was partially mediated by the p38 MAPK pathway. In contrast, when combined with exogenously applied IFN-α, ethanol inhibited the antiviral actions of IFN against HCV replication, involving inhibition of IFN-induced Stat1 tyrosine phosphorylation. These effects of alcohol occurred independently of i) alcohol metabolism via ADH and CYP2E1, and ii) cytotoxic or cytostatic effects of ethanol. In this model system, ethanol directly perturbs the Jak-Stat pathway, and HCV
ST. PAUL -- Federal officials have until years end to decide whether gasoline may contain more than the common 10 percent ethanol.. If that happens, ethanol supporters promise thousands of new jobs for the Minnesota economy and another step toward national energy independence.. "We are not going to kneel at the altar of big oil in this country forever," said Doug Peterson, a former state lawmaker and current Minnesota Farmers union president.. A coalition of ethanol producers, Growth Energy, earlier this month submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency a request that gasoline be allowed to contain up to 15 percent ethanol. Current federal law limits ethanol in most gasoline to 10 percent, although specially made cars can use fuel with 85 percent ethanol.. The request is not to mandate the sale of what is known as E15, only to allow it to be used in normal cars.. The EPA has until the end of the year to decide on the request.. Minnesota Agriculture Commissioner Gene Hugoson said that ...
Selectively bred high-alcohol sensitive (HAS) and low-alcohol sensitive (LAS) rats possess a number of behavioural and electrophysiological differences in their responses to alcohol. Using a microdialysis technique, we have evaluated whether the levels of the amino acids aspartate, glutamate, arginine, taurine, and alanine in HAS and LAS rats differ in their response to ethanol administration (2 g/kg, i.p.). The basal concentrations of each amino acid in these two groups were statistically similar. Following ethanol injection, alanine, arginine, and glutamate were significantly decreased in HAS rats, whereas, alanine, glutamate, and taurine were significantly increased in LAS rats by the end of the experiment. Interestingly, an increase in the sulphonated amino acid taurine was only evident 20 min after ethanol administration in the HAS rats, when compared to saline controls. No changes were observed in the other amino acids studied, aspartate and glycine, after ethanol administration. These ...
Ethanol is easily absorbed from the intestine and diffuses quickly throughout body water. The bulk of ethanol is metabolized in the liver, where alcohol dehydrogenase, a complex mixture of isoenzymes, oxidizes ethanol to acetaldehyde. Ethanol abuse produces functional and structural changes in the gastrointestinal tract, such as in the stomach, small intestine, liver, and pancreas. Accumulating evidence suggests direct toxicity of ethanol and possibly of acetaldehyde. Fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, acute and chronic gastritis, deranged structure and function of the small intestine, acute and chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic lithiasis are some of the sequelae of ethanol abuse. Recent investigations have enhanced our understanding of the functional and structural changes of the gastrointestinal tract produced by the abuse of ethanol. ...
Ca2+ influx was increased in the presence of mM ethanol. LAMP-2), pan cathepsin protein levels and reduced expression of p62. SCs confirmed enhanced autophagic response to ethanol toxicity, . Ethanol Fireplace Takibi Brown, 765€, featured on Fab by Katrin and Norbert Weber. Bio-Ethanol gewährleistet ein sicheres und schnelles Anzünden der.. Triton X-1(a (glass) substrate are investigated for low Weber numbers. At an exchange rate of US$1=R$2. Highly efficient electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol and methanol has been achieved using the ruthenium-containing polyoxometalate . The effect of methanol on ethanol solvent was also investigated. Weber et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd. This is an Open Access article.. Weber Original Kettle 57cm Black sehr gut erhalten inkl. Weak spherical blast waves in static air and their breakup of ethanol and Jet A-1. Q-switch trigger: A delay of 2µs provided the . Ethanol Cheminée - Corten, gerostet, geöltVerwendung: nur im ...