Our objective was to determine fertility of heifers after synchronization of estrus using PGF2", preceded by progesterone, GnRH, or both. Dairy heifers (n = 246) were assigned randomly to three treatments: 1) 50 :g of GnRH given 6 d before 25 mg of PGF2 (d -1) plus a used intravaginal progesteronereleasing insert (CIDR-B; d -7 to 0; CIDR+GnRH); 2) same as CIDR+GnRH without the GnRH (CIDR); and 3) same as CIDR+GnRH without the used CIDR (GnRH). All heifers were fitted with Heat- Watch® patches and characteristics of estrus examined before AI included duration of estrus, number of standing events, and total duration of standing events. In addition, all heifers were observed visually twice daily for estrus. Rates of conception and pregnancy differed among treatments. All of the estrus-synchronization treatments produced acceptable estrus detection and pregnancy rates but the CIDR+PGF2" treatment was most effective for improving conception and pregnancy rates ...
Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of inducing estrus during. lactation by reducing the nursing load of the sow between 2 and 4 weeks after. farrowing. lactating sows were separated from their litters for either 6 (20 sows). or 12 (10 sows) hr/day between 2 and 4 weeks postpartum. For comparison, the litters of other sows were weaned at either 2 (13 sows) or 4 (16 sows) weeks of age. Estrus was induced in 13 of 20 (65%) sows and 5 of 10 (50%) sows that were separated from their litters for 6 or 12 hr/day during lactation, respectively, compared with 0/13 and 0/16 sows weaned at 2 or 4 weeks. The 18 sows that. showed estrus during lactation averaged 5.9 days from the first day of litter. separation to estrus compared with 4.4 and 4.2 days from weaning to estrus for. sows weaned at 2 or 4 weeks. Fertility traits (number of corpora lutea, eggs. fertilized, fertilization rate, eggs cleaved, and cleavage rate) were unaffected by treatment. Daily separation of sows from their litters for ...
The result obtained from the acute toxicity studies showed a reasonable safety profile of the extract up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg after a 24 h test. Preclinical toxicity testing is one of the basic screening required to generate important information about potential damage of agents or new compounds to humans and is of utmost importance in drug development processes (Parasuraman 2011; David and Enegide, 2013). The US Food and Drug Administration states that the screening of new molecules for pharmacological activity and toxicity on animals is essential as this reveals similar incidence of occurrence and severity in humans (United States Code Sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, Code 1992).. The study of the effect of EM on the reproductive cycle revealed that high dose of EM prolonged the estrus cycle by prolonged or persistent estrus phase in mice. During normal estrus cycle of mice, increase in estrogen level coincides with proestrus phase and results in ...
Estrus: Estrus, , the period in the sexual cycle of female mammals, except the higher primates, during which they are in heat-i.e., ready to accept a male and to mate. One or more periods of estrus may occur during the breeding season of a species. Prior to ovulation the endometrium (uterine lining)
Estrus Whimper call features the Mac Daddy® mouthpiece. Just depress the lever and blow to produce yips, barks, howls and whimpers. The Estrus Whimper is extremely effective during mating season. Includes instructional DVD. - Estrus Whimper Call (EWP-1)
Proligestone* is alleged to suppress feline oestrus. However, no comparative data exist. The objective of the study was to estimate the impact of proligestone administration on the suppression of oestrus and on the prevention of recurrence of feline oestrous cycle and its probable unwanted effects.. The duration of behavioural alterations indicative of oestrus was recorded in 22 young cats during two consecutive oestrous periods. During the 1st oestrus (puberty), the animals received no treatment while on the 2nd day of overt oestrous sign manifestation of the 2nd oestrus, 18 cats were sc treated with proligestone (33 mg/kg) while the remaining 4 cats received normal saline (NS, 0.33 ml/kg), sc. Of the 18 proligestone-treated cats, 12 and 6, further received a 2nd and a 3rd proligestone administration, respectively, at 12-week intervals. The animals were observed for oestrous behaviour for a 12-week period following NS, 1st, 2nd and 3rd proligestone administration. Data were subjected to ...
Until recently, most estrous synchronization of dairy cows was performed using PGF2α or analogues (Lutalyse or Estrumate). These compounds cause the regression of the corpus luteum (CL), the expression of estrous behavior and ovulation of a follicle 2-5 days after administration. In order for PGF2α to act on a cow, she must have a functional CL on an ovary. The exact time from PGF2α administration until estrus depends on the population of follicles on the ovary. If there are no large follicles on the ovary, it will take more time for them to develop. Since all cows will not be in the same stage of the estrous cycle when injected with PGF2α, they will show estrus at different times after injection of PGF2α. The Targeted BreedingTM (Pharmacia-Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI) scheme uses additional synchronization doses of PGF2α to produce cows that are in the middle of the estrous cycles that all have dominant CLs (2 weeks after estrus). Cows at this stage give the most consistent response to a ...
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The estrus cycle (also œstrus or estrous cycle) refers to the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females (humans and great apes are the only mammals who undergo a menstrual cycle instead). Estrus cycles start after puberty in sexually mature females and are interrupted by anestrous phases (see below: anestrus). Typically estrus cycles continue until death. Some animals may display bloody vaginal discharge, often mistaken for menstruation ...
Natural breeding of gilts is achieved by placing a boar of similar size (weight) in with the female. Females that are not in estrus tend to move away and squeal when mounted. These females should be removed to prevent physical harm from occurring when and an excited boar attempts to mount or flank stimulate the gilt. A gilt in estrus will become immobilized when physical contact with the male is established. This detection period may require can take from 2-10 minutes. For a female that is in estrus, the male will often mount and once he extends the penis, will insert it into the female vagina. Sometimes, there remains an intact hymen. This is a thin tissue membrane that will tear at 1st breeding. This is sometimes painful for the gilt, and she may not allow intromission again until the next day of estrus. In other females, no pain is evident when the hymen is ruptured.. AI of gilts is standard with respect to timing and procedures. However, the insertion of the catheter is somewhat more snug ...
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(154) These can be used to synchronise oestrus in groups of gilts or in sows after weaning. Regumate Porcine (POM) This is an oil based product containing the active principle...
OvaMed is indicated for the suppression of estrus in mares. Suppression of estrus allows for a predictableoccurrence of estrus following drug withdrawal.
present a graph-theoretic framework in which to study instances of the semiunification problem (SUP), which is known to be undecidable, but has several known and important decidable subsets. One such subset, the acyclic semiunification problem (ASUP), has proved useful in the study of polymorphic type inference. We present graph-theoretic criteria in our framework that exactly characterize the ASUP acyclicity constraint. We then use our framework to find a decidable subset of SUP (which we call R-ASUP), which has a more natural description than ASUP, and strictly contains it. ...
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polyestrous definition: Having a few estrous cycles during a single reproduction period.; Ovulating more often than once a-year.; Having several periods of estrus in annually, or during a breeding period;…
A Pomeranian is in heat when she displays a swollen vulva, a strong sex drive, and several other physical and behavioral changes. Also known as estrus, heat involves sharp swings in hormonal levels...
Looking for online definition of postpartum estrus in the Medical Dictionary? postpartum estrus explanation free. What is postpartum estrus? Meaning of postpartum estrus medical term. What does postpartum estrus mean?
Molecular and intra-cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of apoptosis processes in endometrial cells are poorly understood and documented. We have investigated the possibility that Akt survival pathway might be involved in the regulation of apoptosis in the uterus during the estrous cycle. Rats with regular estrous cycle (4 days) were killed at different days of estrous cycle (diestrus, proestrus, estrus and metestrus). Uteri were collected and fixed for immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and apoptotic cell death detection by [TdT]-mediated deoxyuridinetriphosphate nick end-labelling (TUNEL) or endometrial protein extracts collected for Western analysis. TUNEL analysis revealed that apoptosis was mainly found at estrus compared to other day of estrous cycle. TUNEL positive cells were apparent in luminal epithelial cells only. No apoptotic cells were observed at proestrus. In contrast, proliferation was maximal at proestrus as confirmed with the expression of CDC47/MCM7 (a cell proliferation
TY - JOUR. T1 - Leptin concentrations in relation to energy balance, milk yield, intake, live weight and estrus in dairy cows. AU - Liefers, S.C.. AU - Veerkamp, R.F.. AU - te Pas, M.F.W.. AU - Delavaud, C.. AU - Chilliard, Y.. AU - van der Lende, T.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - The objective of this study was to describe fluctuations in leptin concentrations during late pregnancy and lactation and to investigate how those fluctuations are related to energy balance, milk yield, milk components, dry matter intake, live weight, first postpartum luteal activity, and first observed estrus during lactation. Live weight, dry matter intake, energy balance, and milk yield were measured weekly on 304 primiparous Holstein cows for the first 80 d of lactation. The first postpartum luteal activity was determined by measuring milk progesterone, and independently, first observed estrus. For measuring leptin concentrations from 30 d before until 80 d after calving, blood samples were taken at 2-wk intervals at ...
During the follicular phase, elevated estrogen concentrations trigger estrus behavior in cows, and lead to the LH surge and consequent ovulation. Cows are considered in estrus when they stand to be ridden by other animals and therefore are sexually receptive. On average, the estrus period lasts 15 hours, but can range from 6 to 24 hours depending on the animal. Ovulation, the release of the egg from the follicle into the oviduct, occurs between 24 and 32 hours after the onset of estrus.. Therefore, according to the estrous cycle arrangement, including the luteal phase, follicular phase, estrus, and ovulation, cows have the chance of becoming pregnant about every 21 days.. After natural breeding, sperm cells need to move through the cervix to reach the uterus. Sperm cells originated from artificial insemination are already deposited into the uterine body. In the uterus, sperm cells navigate toward both uterine horns, although the egg is typically produced by only one ovary during each ovulation. ...
Breeding onset is at about 50 days of age in both females and males, although females may have their first estrus at 25-40 days. Mice are polyestrous and breed year round; ovulation is spontaneous. The duration of the estrous cycle is 4-5 days and estrus itself lasts about 12 hours, occurring in the evening. Vaginal smears are useful in timed matings to determine the stage of the estrous cycle. Mating is usually nocturnal and may be confirmed by the presence of a copulatory plug in the vagina up to 24 hours post-copulation. The presence of sperm on a vaginal smear is also a reliable indicator of mating.[7] Female mice housed together tend to go into anestrus and do not cycle. If exposed to a male mouse or the pheromones of a male mouse, most of the females will go into estrus in about 72 hours. This synchronization of the estrous cycle is known as the Whitten effect. The exposure of a recently bred mouse to the pheromones of a strange male mouse may prevent implantation (or pseudopregnancy), a ...
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Rats typically have rapid cycle times of 4 to 5 days. Although they ovulate spontaneously, they do not develop a fully functioning corpus luteum unless they receive coital stimulation. Fertile mating leads to pregnancy in this way, but infertile mating leads to a state of pseudopregnancy which lasts about 10 days. Mice and hamsters have similar behaviour.[9] The events of the cycle are strongly influenced by lighting periodicity.[7] A set of follicles start to develop near the end of proestrus and grow at a nearly constant rate until the beginning of the subsequent estrus when the growth rates accelerate eightfold. They then ovulate about 109 hours after starting growth. Oestrogen peaks at about 11am on the day of proestrus. Between then and midnight there is a surge in progesterone, LH and FSH, and ovulation occurs at about 4am on the next, estrus day. The following day, metestrus, is called early diestrus or diestrus I by some authors. During this day the corpus lutea grow to a maximal volume, ...
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There are four major hormonal diseases in ferrets. Two of these diseases are covered in separate handouts, namely abnormally high levels of estrogen associated with persistent estrus in female ferrets (see Ferrets - Reproductive diseases), and abnormally high levels of insulin associated with the pancreatic tumor called insulinoma (see Ferrets - Tumors).. ...
There are four major hormonal diseases in ferrets. Two of these diseases are covered in separate handouts, namely abnormally high levels of estrogen associated with persistent estrus in female ferrets (see Ferrets - Reproductive diseases), and abnormally high levels of insulin associated with the pancreatic tumor called insulinoma (see Ferrets - Tumors).. ...
According to Moreira and Hansen, cows typically show estrus, or signs of heat, approximately every 21 days. After a cow is inseminated, either naturally or by artificial insemination, the animals corpus luteum will not regress.. The corpus luteum, or yellow body, is a structure that develops from ovarian follicles during ovulation. Moreira and Hanson say that in the event of pregnancy, "The corpus luteum will not regress, progesterone concentrations will remain high, and the cow will not return to estrus.". If the cow is not observed to enter back into estrus approximately 21 days after end of the previous cycle, it is highly possible the cow is pregnant. Visual signs to detect estrus include tail chalking, mucus production from the vagina, swollen vulva and a willingness to be mounted.. ...
Complete article is available online.. PDF version is available online.. Real-time ultrasound (RTU) may aid in identifying sources of reproductive failure. In the month prior to observation, a commercial 2500-sow unit experienced an increase in the wean-to-estrus interval and reduced conception rates. A subpopulation of 52 sows was examined using RTU once daily on days 4, 5, and 6 postweaning. Transrectal RTU of the ovaries and uterus, performed following estrus detection, required 3.5 minutes per sow. To identify sources of reproductive failure, measures of follicle size, cysts, and time of ovulation were analyzed with sow records. Only 38 of the 52 sows expressed estrus within 7 days of weaning (73%), and only 29 sows ovulated (56%). Nine of the 23 sows that failed to ovulate (24%) were detected standing. Cystic ovaries were observed in four sows that failed to ovulate (17%) and in two sows that ovulated (7%). Of the 14 sows not detected in estrus, none ovulated (0%). The average ...
There is provided a moveable cart for use in transporting an animal, as a male hog, past one or more rows of cages containing sows to permit the determination of estrus in the sows and also to increase the success rate during artificial insemination by permitting snout to snout contact between the sow and male hog, the cart having a base with wheels mounted thereon, at least one wall extending upwardly from the base, and at least one panel for blocking visual access in at least one direction between the interior and exterior of the cart and at least one opening in the wall sized to permit the head of an animal to least partially extend therethrough.
INTRODUCTION. Nonsurgical contraceptive measures include permanent or temporary pharmaco-castration of males, reversible and nonreversible estrus prevention in females, estrus suppression in females, and pregnancy prevention or termination after unwanted mating. As for females, no new products for estrus prevention or suppression have been introduced in the last decade, other than revised formulations and new brands of progestins previously marketed. In fact, contraceptive options in bitches have decreased in some countries with the recent withdrawal of the androgen mibolerone (Cheque Drops©) as an estrus preventative. However, an implant product providing down-regulating amounts of a potent GnRH-agonist has recently been approved as male dog contraception in New Zealand and Australia, and efforts are underway to obtain approval as a contraceptive in bitches as well, as well as application to cats. Depending on price and regulatory hurdles, the product is likely to become available in many ...
Note incidentally that checking the mare by teasing at 22 days is a bit late. The interovulatory period averages 21 days, but can vary by up to a couple of days in either direction, so it is quite possible that the mare had already returned to estrus, ovulated, and gone back into diestrus. If you want to check by teasing, then one should start teasing at 14 days after the prior estrus, and tease every other day to day 26, but which time if there is no estrus, there is a 90% chance of pregnancy ...
Time has come for the 2nd part... Chinchillas Chinchillas become sexually mature at an average age of 8 months: females 8.5 months (2-14), and males at 8 (4-12) months. They are polyestric animals. Females cycle seasonally (November to May in northern hemisphere). They come in estrus every 28-35 days. They also present postpartum estrus: 12 hours…
Read our article about why prostaglandin may not work for more details, but in short form, using PGF2α will not pinpoint ovulation to the same degree that P&E will. Your range of ovulation will be somewhere between 1 and 20 days. If one can palpate/ultrasound, then yes, go ahead, but if youre looking at breeding based solely on timing it will be less reliable. Having said that, if you have a stallion with which to tease, you may also be OK - just start teasing the day after using the PGF2α in case she comes into estrus rapidly, and then breed on day 3 and 5 (and if necessary 7) of standing estrus ...
Irish dairy herd fertility has been declining since the 1980s. The extent, nature and causes of this decline in fertility and the current status of Irish dairy herd fertility were described. An increase in calving interval of approximately one day per year has been recorded. The principal components of this trend have been an increased incidence of postpartum endocrinopathies, reduced expression of oestrus and a fall in conception rate. Both submission rate and calving-to-service interval have increased slightly over time. Significant risk factors associated with these trends have been strain substitution within the Holstein-Friesian breed and single trait selection for milk production. Critically, these changes have been reflected in loss of body condition. Contributory factors included increased herd size and possibly increased use of DIYAI. The most recent Irish study showed that 48% of cows conceived to first service and 14% of cows were not pregnant at the end of the industry-average 15-week spring
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Stages of the canine estrous cycle can be defined by sexual behavior, vulvar swelling, vaginal bleeding or by vaginal cytology. The period of receptivity... read full [Essay Sample] for free
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The reason that they need to cycle before the time at which they will actually conceive is that heifers that have cycled 2 or 3 times prior to mating are far more fertile than those that are cycling for the first time. Therefore, to ensure that all heifers are cycling by 12 - 13 months of age (leaving them adequate time to go through 2/3 oestrus cycles, taking 6-9 weeks, making them ready for mating at 15 months old) heifers need to weigh 50% of their expected adult bodyweight at 12 months and gain 10% of their expected adult bodyweight in the next 3 months ...
The oestrous cycle is the reproductive cycle found in most mammalian placental females whereby there are recurring periods when the female is fertile and sexually receptive (oestrus) interrupted ...
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The Axel sensor mounted on the animal\s collar measures and records 9 statistical values every 5 minutes which describe the animals activity, and then communicates them to the Radio base unit from a range of over 200m.. The zootechnical readings transmitted to the servers DWS via a GSM link are stored and analysed continuously in order to detect oestrus.. Informed via SMS, you can get closer to your animals and note signs of oestrus.. ...