Molecular and intra-cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of apoptosis processes in endometrial cells are poorly understood and documented. We have investigated the possibility that Akt survival pathway might be involved in the regulation of apoptosis in the uterus during the estrous cycle. Rats with regular estrous cycle (4 days) were killed at different days of estrous cycle (diestrus, proestrus, estrus and metestrus). Uteri were collected and fixed for immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and apoptotic cell death detection by [TdT]-mediated deoxyuridinetriphosphate nick end-labelling (TUNEL) or endometrial protein extracts collected for Western analysis. TUNEL analysis revealed that apoptosis was mainly found at estrus compared to other day of estrous cycle. TUNEL positive cells were apparent in luminal epithelial cells only. No apoptotic cells were observed at proestrus. In contrast, proliferation was maximal at proestrus as confirmed with the expression of CDC47/MCM7 (a cell proliferation
PLoS One. 2014 Sep 5;9(9):e106795. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106795. eCollection 2014. Salilew-Wondim D1, Ahmad I1, Gebremedhn S1, Sahadevan S1, Hossain MD2, Rings F1, Hoelker M1, Tholen E1, Neuhoff C1, Looft C1, Schellander K1, Tesfaye D1. Abstract This study aimed to investigate the miRNA expression patterns in granulosa cells of subordinate (SF) and dominant follicle (DF) during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle. For this, miRNA enriched total RNA isolated from granulosa cells of SF and DF obtained from heifers slaughtered at day 3 and day 7 of the estrous cycle was used for miRNAs deep sequencing. The results revealed that including 17 candidate novel miRNAs, several known miRNAs (n = 291-318) were detected in SF and DF at days 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle of which 244 miRNAs were common to all follicle groups. The let-7 families, bta-miR-10b, bta-miR-26a, bta-miR-99b and bta-miR-27b were among abundantly expressed miRNAs in both SF and DF at both days of the estrous cycle. ...
In the same year that NT was hypothesized to be an endogenous neuroleptic (Nemeroff, 1980), the first report appeared concerning the effects of antipsychotic drug administration on NT-like immunoreactivity was published (Govoni et al., 1980). To date, all clinically effective antipsychotic drugs examined have specific effects on the NT system of the rat brain (for review, see Kinkead et al., 1999). Previously, acute administration of haloperidol has been shown to increase NT/NN mRNA expression (Merchant et al., 1992) and NT-like immunoreactivity (Frey et al., 1986; Eggerman and Zahm, 1988; Zahm, 1992; Zahm et al., 1996) in both the dorsal and ventral striatum of adult male rats. Within the ventral striatum, the effects of haloperidol have been reported to be limited to the shell subdivision (Merchant et al., 1992; Zahm, 1992; Zahm et al., 1996).. The results of these current studies demonstrate the necessity of considering both sex and the estrous cycle stage of female rats when examining the ...
Stages of the canine estrous cycle can be defined by sexual behavior, vulvar swelling, vaginal bleeding or by vaginal cytology. The period of receptivity... read full [Essay Sample] for free
Learn about the veterinary topic of Manipulation of the Estrous Cycle in Dogs and Cats. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic cocaine disruption of estrous cyclicity in the rat. T2 - Dose-dependent effects. AU - King, T. S.. AU - Canez, M. S.. AU - Gaskill, S.. AU - Javors, M. A.. AU - Schenken, R. S.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - The effects of cocaine on cyclic reproductive function in females remain largely unknown. In this study, we sought to define the range of doses of cocaine effective in disrupting estrous cyclicity and inhibiting ovulation. Estrous cyclicity was monitored daily by vaginal cytology. Group 1 consisted of rats receiving no treatment. Group 2 consisted of rats injected daily with saline s.c. Groups 3 to 6 consisted of rats injected with 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of cocaine HCl s.c., respectively. Group 7 consisted of rats that were food-restricted to allow weight gains comparable to those of group 6. Our results indicate a dose- dependent effect of cocaine on estrous cyclicity with an estimated IC50 of 8.5 mg/kg/day (i.e., the dose of cocaine required to inhibit the ...
The result obtained from the acute toxicity studies showed a reasonable safety profile of the extract up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg after a 24 h test. Preclinical toxicity testing is one of the basic screening required to generate important information about potential damage of agents or new compounds to humans and is of utmost importance in drug development processes (Parasuraman 2011; David and Enegide, 2013). The US Food and Drug Administration states that the screening of new molecules for pharmacological activity and toxicity on animals is essential as this reveals similar incidence of occurrence and severity in humans (United States Code Sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, Code 1992).. The study of the effect of EM on the reproductive cycle revealed that high dose of EM prolonged the estrus cycle by prolonged or persistent estrus phase in mice. During normal estrus cycle of mice, increase in estrogen level coincides with proestrus phase and results in ...
Only 4 of births will happen on the EDD, but this is similar to most other days around the EDD; every day within every week of the EDD has a three to four probability of being the day that birth will occur. Being disheartened I put it to the back of my thoughts and with it estrogen positive breast cancer and pregnancy my 2 year olds birthday the day after I didnt even take into consideration my late interval until the Monday, I had brought a twin pack on the Friday so had one left over, I assumed I could estrogen positive breast cancer and pregnancy nicely put my mind to relaxation and the check showed up optimistic straight away. they are so cute. To stop estrogen positive breast cancer and pregnancy formation, dont stay too long sitting or standing and not wearing clothing made from quark and train. This can happen throughout sudden or gradual actions, akin to when you get up, twist or stretch. I always imagine one ought to attempt something a few occasions and be eager about but not managed ...
The estrus cycle (also œstrus or estrous cycle) refers to the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females (humans and great apes are the only mammals who undergo a menstrual cycle instead). Estrus cycles start after puberty in sexually mature females and are interrupted by anestrous phases (see below: anestrus). Typically estrus cycles continue until death. Some animals may display bloody vaginal discharge, often mistaken for menstruation ...
Reproductive history is the strongest risk factor for breast cancer after age, genetics and breast density. Increased breast cancer risk is entwined with a greater number of ovarian hormone-dependent reproductive cycles, yet the basis for this predisposition is unknown. Mammary stem cells (MaSCs) are located within a specialized niche in the basal epithelial compartment that is under local and systemic regulation. The emerging role of MaSCs in cancer initiation warrants the study of ovarian hormones in MaSC homeostasis. Here we show that the MaSC pool increases 14-fold during maximal progesterone levels at the luteal dioestrus phase of the mouse. Stem-cell-enriched CD49fhi cells amplify at dioestrus, or with exogenous progesterone, demonstrating a key role for progesterone in propelling this expansion. In aged mice, CD49fhi cells display stasis upon cessation of the reproductive cycle. Progesterone drives a series of events where luminal cells probably provide Wnt4 and RANKL signals to basal ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Morgan D Ashworth, Jason W Ross, Daniel R Stein, Frank J White, Udaya W Desilva, Rodney D Geisert].
Evaluation of the female reproductive system is an important part of basic reproductive biology research, toxicology testing, and mutant mouse phenotype assessment
Preparation of brain slices incorporating GnRH neurons. All female mice (CBA/CaxC57BL/6J) were bred and housed (lights on at 7:00 A.M. and off at 7:00 P.M.) at The Babraham Institute and treated in accordance with UK Home Office regulations under project 80/1005. Vaginal smears were taken on a daily basis to identify adult female mice at diestrous or estrous stages of the ovarian cycle. Between 9:00 and 11:00 A.M., juvenile (postnatal day 15-22) and adult (day 50-70) female mice were anesthetized with isoflurane-RM (Rhone Merieux, Harlow, UK) and decapitated, and their brains were rapidly removed and placed in ice-cold bicarbonate-buffered artificial CSF (ACSF) of the following composition (in mm): 118 NaCl, 3 KCl, 0.5 CaCl2, 6.0 MgCl2, 11d-glucose, 10 HEPES, and 25 NaHCO3 (pH 7.4 when bubbled with 95% O2 and 5% CO2). Brains were blocked and glued with cyanoacrylate to the chilled stage of an Oxford Vibratome (General Scientific, Redhill, UK), and 150-μm-thick coronal slices containing the ...
Although the scientific community continues to combat male bias in preclinical research, representation of women in late-phase clinical trials has improved markedly in recent years.21 The National Institutes of Health initiative to increase the use of female organisms and cells in preclinical research ensures that the scientific community as a whole will grow to fully address the health of both men and women. A major obstacle to the incorporation of female animals into studies, however, has been the belief that the rodent estrous cycle would render the study of these animals prohibitively expensive or difficult. Our study shows for the first time in a single large data set of physiological measurements that this belief is not accurate.. Our findings show that sex differences in CV among rats are small despite hormone fluctuations because of the estrous cycle. Moreover, for the majority of phenotypes, cohorts larger than typically used in preclinical research are required to detect the sex ...
The female reproductive function depends on the healthy ovaries (primary reproductive organ) and genital tract organs. Infertility is one of the main gynecological problems which affect between 10-15% of females in the reproductive age.
polyestrous definition: Having a few estrous cycles during a single reproduction period.; Ovulating more often than once a-year.; Having several periods of estrus in annually, or during a breeding period;…
Studies of selenium (Se) status indicate that Se is necessary for fertility but how precisely is not known. We aimed to show that Se was important in bovine female reproductive function. The elemental distribution in the bovine ovary (n = 45 sections) was identified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging. Se wa
Table_5_Differential microRNA Expression in Porcine Endometrium Involved in Remodeling and Angiogenesis That Contributes to Embryonic Implantation.xlsx
Some studies have shown that pinealectomized female rats present a large concentration of collagen fibers in the endometrium. The lack of light results in morphologic alterations in the uterine lamina propria and in the muscular layer, reducing thus the uterine weight. Therefore, this work aimed to analyze ultra-structurally the influence of melatonin in the remodeling of the collagen in the endometrium, in the estrus phase, in pinealectomized adult rats or submitted to lack of light. The experimental groups: I- sham-pinealectomized maintained in a clear/dark cycle 12/12 hours, during three months; II- pinealectomized rats maintained in a clear/dark cycle 12/12 hours, for three months; III- normal rats maintained in clear/dark cycle 12/12 hours for three ...
Video created by 宾夕法尼亚州立大学 for the course 乳制品生产和管理. This week you will learn basic concepts related to reproduction on dairy farms. We will start with a discussion of the life cycle of the dairy cow and how to adequately prepare a heifer for ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Gao MH, Lai NC, Miyanohara A, et al. Hum Gene Ther. 2013;24(9):777-85.. Evidence for a celiac ganglion-ovarian kisspeptin neural network in the rat: intraovarian anti-kisspeptin delays vaginal opening and alters estrous cyclicity. ...
NTP STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY TUMORS REPORT: PEIRPT08 LAB: Battelle Columbus COCONUT OIL ACID DIETHANOLAMINE CONDENSATE DATE: 02/24/99 EXPERIMENT: 55312 TEST: 03 TIME: 13:45:17 TEST TYPE: CHRONIC CAGES FROM 0000 TO LAST CAGE PAGE: 1 CONT: N01-ES-15314 ROUTE: SKIN APPLICATION NTP C#: 55312B PATHOLOGIST: TOFT, J. CAS: 68603-42-9 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2 YEAR CHONIC RATS REASONS FOR REMOVAL: ALL REMOVAL DATE RANGE: ALL TREATMENT GROUPS: INCLUDE ALL NTP STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY TUMORS REPORT: PEIRPT08 LAB: Battelle Columbus COCONUT OIL ACID DIETHANOLAMINE CONDENSATE DATE: 02/24/99 EXPERIMENT: 55312 TEST: 03 TIME: 13:45:17 TEST TYPE: CHRONIC CAGES FROM 0000 TO LAST CAGE CONT: N01-ES-15314 ROUTE: SKIN APPLICATION NTP C#: 55312B PATHOLOGIST: TOFT, J. CAS: 68603-42-9 Rats(FISCHER 344) ----------------------------- FOR ALL DOSES THE TUMOR RATES IN THE FOLLOWING TISSUES/ORGANS ARE ...
The average duration of proestrus in mature bitches is nine days, with a normal range of 0 to 27 days [4]. Proestrus is usually simply defined as that stage of the estrous cycle where noticeable signs of serosanguinous (thin, bloody) vaginal discharge begin. Varying degrees of bloody vaginal discharge are typically seen. The nature of the discharge is typically bright red and voluminous at the onset of proestrus and then becomes less voluminous towards the end. However, it should be noted there is great variation amongst bitches in regards to the amount and nature of their discharge. During proestrus, females are attractive to male dogs, but generally refuse matings. Pheromones, which are present in the females vaginal secretions, anal sac expressions, and urine are responsible for this attractiveness [5-8]. Sexual reflexes such as flagging of the tail (elevation of the tail away from the vulva and swaying of the hips from side to side) in response to touching the perineal region (area between ...
CYR61 protein was detected in glandular and luminal epithelial cells of endometrium. Prepubertal female dogs had significantly the lowest expression of Cyr61, followed by proestrus, estrus and anestrus phases. Patients affected by pyometra revealed significantly the highest staining area, followed by diestrus phase. Therefore, Cyr61 in normal endometrium was highest during the secretory phase and lowest during proliferative phase of the estrus cycle, resulting in significant positive linear correlation of cytoplasmatic staining area with progesterone levels. There was no significant correlation with estrogen levels. ...
In ruminants, the maternally derived secretions that comprise the uterine histotroph are critically important for successful conceptus development. As part of a larger study examining the effect of elevated P4 on conceptus elongation, it was hypothesized that the expression of members of the IGF family in the uterine endometrium, in particular secreted proteins that could contribute to the histotroph, would be altered by elevated P4 and/or pregnancy. In the current study, there was no effect on IGFBP5 mRNA expression, but there was a temporal decrease in IGF1, IGFBP4, and IGFBP6 expression observed, as the stage of the estrous cycle/early pregnancy progressed. In contrast, there was a coordinated increase in IGF1R expression as the estrous cycle/early pregnancy progressed; however, when IGFR1 protein was localized there was a significant decrease in its abundance in the LE, SG, and DG in pregnant heifers on day 16. While IGF2 mRNA was not affected by day or treatment, localization of IGF2 ...
The aim of this study was to determine signs of subclinical endometritis found by ultrasound that are associated with reduced fertility in dairy cows. The maximum diameter of the uterine lumen was determined by ultrasound in 324 cows without clinical signs of endometritis after evaluation of the genital tract 21 to 27 days postpartum. Cows were classified into healthy or with subclinical endometritis by three threshold values for the maximum uterine lumen diameter of 0.2 cm, 0.5 cm or 0.8 cm. Examinations by rectal palpation and ultrasound as well as classifications were repeated 14 days later. In addition, ovaries were scanned by ultrasound to determine the stage of the estrous cycle. In a subgroup of 103 cows the echotexture of the uterus and its contents was evaluated. In these cows the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis was performed by a scoring system. The diameter of the uterine lumen was significantly affected by stage of the estrous cycle at the time of examination. However, no ...
Nutrients in uterine secretions are essential for development and survival of conceptuses (embryo and associated extraembryonic membranes) during pregnancy; however, little is known about changes in the amounts of specific nutrients in the uterine fl
Lactoferrin expression in the mouse reproductive tract during the natural estrous cycle: correlation with circulating estradiol and progesterone.: Lactoferrin (
Diestrous Phase. Stringy mucous, white blood cells (not many in this photo), nucleated epithelial cells. Proestrous. Mostly nucleated epithelial cells. Early Estrous. Relatively even distribution of nucleated epithelial cells and cornified epithelial cells. Estrous. Slideshow 160179 by...
So youve probably heard that your menstrual cycle should be approximately 28 days long. But what exactly does that mean? When are you most likely to get pregnant?
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How To Run a Recomp Cycle I hear this all the time I want to get bigger and rip up a bit Starting my cycle, looking to lean up and
Hey everyone, I will be starting my second ph cycle, I ran a 5 week cycle of epi with good results once It was [email protected] didn t notice any sides that
The presence of asymmetry in the capacity of the left and right ovaries to secrete testosterone was analyzed by studying the effects of hemiovariectomy along the estrus cycle one hour after surgery. The effects of ether anesthesia on hormone serum levels were also analyzed. Bilateral ovariectomy and the extirpation of the left ovary performed on the day of proestrus resulted in significantly lower testosterone levels. Compared to the anesthetized group, the effects of perforating the peritoneum unilaterally varied according to the day of the estrous cycle and the side of the peritoneum surgery was performed on. Injecting atropine sulfate (ATR) to control or anesthetized rats on D1 resulted in a significant increase of testosterone serum levels. The effects of perforating the peritoneum on testosterone levels depended on the cholinergic innervation and varied along the estrous cycle. Blocking the cholinergic system before performing unilateral or bilateral ovariectomy had different effects depending on
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Looking for online definition of diestrus in the Medical Dictionary? diestrus explanation free. What is diestrus? Meaning of diestrus medical term. What does diestrus mean?
Horses are long day breeders that depend on natural sun light for reproductive function. Mares are seasonal polyestrous animals that have multiple estrous cycles throughout the warmer months of the year. During periods of shorter daylight and colder weather, reproductive cyclicity in the mare becomes more irregular, eventually leading to a period of anestrus, or lack of estrus or heat. Stallions also experience a decrease in the number of sperm produced and variable shrinkage of the testis in response to shorter daylight. Consequently, reproduction in both stallions and mares slows down in the northern hemisphere during this time of year and mares will not resume predictive and continuous estrous cycles until around April. The horse industry has determined that January 1st of every year is the day at which a horse gains a year in age. As a result, foals born later in the year are at a distinct competitive disadvantage if their biological age is less than their registered age. This is especially ...
Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary: Successful reproduction is dependent on the ability of an animal to release a viable oocyte at the appropriate time of her estrous cycle. Yet little is known about the mechanisms that control the development of the ovarian follicles that support developing oocytes. While several hundred follicles begin to grow during each estrous cycle, only one generally ovulates. Cell lculture studies have demonstrated that the hormone insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) enhances the ability of cells from follicles to proliferate and secrete steroids (i.e., estrogens), two aspects associated with follicle maturation. In addition, IGF-I has been shown to be beneficial for in vitro maturation of oocytes. The present study demonstrated that concentrations of IGF-I did not differ between fluid from follicles destined to ovulate and those destined to die. However, the study determined that IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) were much less prevalent in follicles destined to ovulate ...
Normal fertility in a cat, and the ability to reproduce kittens, requires a normal estrous cycle, with a healthy reproductive tract, normal ova (eggs), normal and stable levels of reproductive hormones, fertilization by normal spermatozoa, implantation of an embryo in the lining of the uterus (endometrium), normal placenta placement, and stable levels of progesterone concentration.
Normal fertility in a cat, and the ability to reproduce kittens, requires a normal estrous cycle, with a healthy reproductive tract, normal ova (eggs), normal and stable levels of reproductive hormones, fertilization by normal spermatozoa, implantation of an embryo in the lining of the uterus (endometrium), normal placenta placement, and stable levels of progesterone concentration.
vaginal opening - MedHelps vaginal opening Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for vaginal opening. Find vaginal opening information, treatments for vaginal opening and vaginal opening symptoms.
At Instituto Bernabeu we complete a personalised fertility study on every patient as every case is different. After a detailed consultation, the gynaecologist ...
The succession of vaginal and behavioral changes was followed throughout the estrous cycle of ten continuously cycling female rats. Interruption of cycles by pregnancy or pseudopregnancy was prevented by the use of the vaginal mask. The behavioral indices were Lordosis Quotient, a measure of sexual responsiveness, and Rejection Quotient, a measure of tolerance by the female of mounting by the male. Before the onset of lordosis, which took place during proestrus, females rejected males on many attempted mounts, although rejection decreased rapidly with rise in frequency of lordosis. Full receptivity was displayed for 6 to 9 hours, but females began to reject the males while still displaying high levels of lordosis. The total period of 19 hours over which lordosis is shown was divided into pre-heat, heat, and post-heat periods.
Matthew D Johnson is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Measuring In Vivo Changes in Extracellular Neurotransmitters During Naturally Rewarding Behaviors in Female Syrian Hamsters
Estrogens (also called Oestrogens) are steroid compounds that are important for development and functioning of females of the species. They are named so because they play an important role in the estrous cycle. Their name comes from estrus/oistros (period of fertility for female mammals) + gen/gonos = to generate.
Doccument Title More details on reproductive cycles The slick mucosa coating their body has been confirmed to be the material which contains their sperm. Small ovaries are contained in their skin. Self-fertilization can occur but results in greatly reduced reproductivity. When allowed to rub against other SCP-562 and to lick each other fertility is increased greatly due to cross-fertilization. Eggs are also contained within this Mucosa. Should they enter a mammals Orifice then the reproductive cycle will begin.. The larva grow consuming each other, vaginal wall linings (menstrual tissues) and semi-digested foodstuffs. When they reach a thickness of 4-5 cm in diameter and a length of 2.5-3 decimeters they will seek to exit. Frequently this is via the same hole they entered. They look like smaller versions of the adults, but are similarly proportioned though they tend to be far thicker compared to length then the more elderly of the adults.. Once they have emerged from the host they seek ...
The fertility doctor responsible for Octomom Nadya Sulemans pregnancy has claimed that he was actually using her in a human study on fertility methods.
These diagrams put the ovarian cycle into a step-wise layout and it is much easier to understand when the certain hormones do their job.
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