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The molecular mechanisms involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis are still not completely understood. In this study, using the H295R cell line as a model system, we investigated the role of estrogens and estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and ER beta in the growth regulation of adrenocortical tumors. We demonstrated that H295R cells are able to convert androgens to estrogens by a constitutive expression of active cytochrome P450 aromatase protein and express ER beta to a greater extent than ER alpha. Moreover, physiological concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (E2) determined an increase of thymidine incorporation, suggesting the presence of an autocrine mechanism in maintaining H295R cell proliferation. Evaluating the response to ER antagonists like 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) and ICI 182 780 (ICI), we observed an up-regulation of ER beta and a dose-dependent inhibition of H295R cell proliferation. Whereas ICI determined the growth arrest of H295R cells, OHT induced morphological changes that were ...
Prostate cancer is the commonest, non-cutaneous cancer in men. At present, there is no cure for the advanced, castration-resistant form of the disease. Estrogen has been shown to be important in prostate carcinogenesis, with evidence resulting from epidemiological, cancer cell line, human tissue and animal studies. The prostate expresses both estrogen receptor alpha (ERA) and estrogen receptor beta (ERB). Most evidence suggests that ERA mediates the harmful effects of estrogen in the prostate, whereas ERB is tumour suppressive, but trials of ERB-selective agents have not translated into improved clinical outcomes. The role of ERB in the prostate remains unclear and there is increasing evidence that isoforms of ERB may be oncogenic. Detailed study of ERB and ERB isoforms in the prostate is required to establish their cell-specific roles, in order to determine if therapies can be directed towards ERB-dependent pathways. In this review, we summarise evidence on the role of ERB in prostate cancer and
BioAssay record AID 404864 submitted by ChEMBL: Activation of human estrogen receptor beta expressed in HEK293 cells at 1 nM beta-galactosidase reporter gene assay relative to control.
Estrogen Receptor beta兔多克隆抗体(ab3576)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 羊, 人, 猪, 非人类灵长类动物样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC, Inhib, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被11篇文献引用…
article{c840d53a-503c-49f5-b0d1-477f7736c951, abstract = {Acute treatment with 17β-estradiol provides effective neuroprotection during the first days after acute brain injury, however, effects of chronic activation of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) on recovery of function after experimental stroke have not been investigated. The present study, therefore, was conducted to test if delayed treatment with the specific ERβ ligand 4-(1-phenyl-cyclohexyl)-phenol (AC-131) improves recovery of lost neurological function after permanent focal stroke induced by photothrombosis in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatment was initiated on day 2 after photothrombosis and AC-131 (1, 10, and 50mg/kg) was administered by daily subcutaneous injections for 14 days. On day 2, 4, 6, 8, 11, 14, and 17 after photothrombosis, functional deficits were assessed by the paw placement test, a standardized grip strength test and an adhesive removal test. Daily treatment with AC-131 significantly improved test scores in all ...
Sequence variants of estrogen receptor beta and risk of prostate cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. ...
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In brief, the currently available estrogen therapies used to treat menopausal symptoms are non-selective to both of the two known estrogen receptors, alpha and beta. Because of this non-selectivity, all estrogens marketed to treat menopausal symptoms have the potential to cause elevated risks for breast and uterine cancers due to the proliferative effects on breast and uterine tissues mediated through the estrogen receptor alpha. Selective activation of the estrogen receptor beta, however, does not lead to proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines or an increase for uterine cancer in mouse xenograph models. Bionovo is taking advantage of the differential effects caused by the two estrogen receptors on cancer formation by developing selective estrogen receptor beta drugs. The mechanism of action of MF101 as a selective estrogen receptor beta therapy may provide a safer, long-term alternative to treat menopausal symptoms ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Body mass index, mammographic density, and breast cancer risk by estrogen receptor subtype. AU - Shieh, Yiwey. AU - Scott, Christopher G.. AU - Jensen, Matthew R.. AU - Norman, Aaron D.. AU - Bertrand, Kimberly A.. AU - Pankratz, V. Shane. AU - Brandt, Kathleen R. AU - Visscher, Daniel W. AU - Shepherd, John A.. AU - Tamimi, Rulla M.. AU - Vachon, Celine M. AU - Kerlikowske, Karla. PY - 2019/4/3. Y1 - 2019/4/3. N2 - Background: Obesity and elevated breast density are common risk factors for breast cancer, and their effects may vary by estrogen receptor (ER) subtype. However, their joint effects on ER subtype-specific risk are unknown. Understanding this relationship could enhance risk stratification for screening and prevention. Thus, we assessed the association between breast density and ER subtype according to body mass index (BMI) and menopausal status. Methods: We conducted a case-control study nested within two mammography screening cohorts, the Mayo Mammography Health Study ...
BioAssay record AID 747467 submitted by ChEMBL: Agonist activity at human estrogen receptor-beta by yeast two-hybrid assay in presence of SRC1.
A molecular ribbon model of estrogen receptor beta, a protein encoded by the ESR2 gene, found primarily in the kidneys, brain, bone, heart, lungs, intestinal mucosa, prostate and endothelial cells. After activated by estrogen hormones, estrogen receptors bind to DNA to regulate gene expression. Abnormal activity by estrogen receptors have been observed in cases of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer and endometrial cancer. The loss of estrogen receptor beta proteins can disrupt the process of apoptosis and are often associated with advanced colon cancer and the development of tumours. - Stock Image C027/6387
In Silico Prediction of Estrogen Receptor Subtype Binding Affinity and Selectivity Using Statistical Methods and Molecular Docking with 2-Arylnaphthalenes and 2-Arylquinolines. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The changes of estrogen receptor-β variants expression in breast carcinogenesis. T2 - Decrease of estrogen receptor-β2 expression is the key event in breast cancer development. AU - Park, Byeongwoo. AU - Kim, Ki Suk. AU - Heo, Min Kyu. AU - Yang, Woo Ick. AU - Kim, Seung Il. AU - Kim, Joo Hang. AU - Kim, Gwi Eon. AU - Lee, Kyong Sik. PY - 2006/5/1. Y1 - 2006/5/1. N2 - Backgound and Objectives: Although more than five variant forms of estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) have been identilied, their role has not been identified. This study was carried out to investigate the changes of ERβ variants in breast cancer development. Methods: Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and triple primer PCR (TP-PCR), the expression levels of ERβ variants mRNA were measured in 66 paired normal and cancer tissues. The relative expression level of ERβ variants were compared between normal and cancer tissues, and also compared according to various clinicopathological ...
Epidemiological, clinical and animal studies revealed that sex differences exist in the manifestation and outcome of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The underlying molecular mechanisms implicated in these sex differences are not fully understood. The reasons for sex differences in CVD are definitely multifactorial, but major evidence points to the contribution of sex steroid hormone, 17β-estradiol (E2), and its receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). In this review, we summarize past and present studies that implicate E2 and ER as important determinants of sexual dimorphism in the physiology and pathophysiology of the heart. In particular, we give an overview of studies aimed to reveal the role of E2 and ER in the physiology of the observed sex differences in CVD using ER knock-out mice. Finally, we discuss recent findings from novel transgenic mouse models, which have provided new information on the sexual dimorphic roles of ER specifically in cardiomyocytes ...
Davies, M. P. A., ONeill, P. A., Innes, H., Sibson, D. R., Prime, W., Holcombe, C., & Foster, C. S. (2004). Correlation of mRNA for oestrogen receptor beta splice variants ER beta 1, ER beta 2/ER beta cx and ER beta 5 with outcome in endocrine-treated breast cancer. JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY, 33(3), 773-782. doi:10.1677/jme. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Estrogen Receptor beta antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC, Inhibition, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 28…
ERβ agonists significantly and specifically inhibit the proliferation of BLM melanoma cells.(A) BLM cells were treated with different doses of the classical ER
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab288 交差種: Ms,Hu,Mk,Bb 適用: WB,IHC-P,IHC-Fr,Flow Cyt,ChIP,ICC/IF…Estrogen Receptor…
Esr2 - Esr2 (untagged ORF) - Rat estrogen receptor 2 (ER beta) (Esr2), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
BACKGROUND: The causes of prostate cancer are poorly understood, but genetic factors may be more important than for many other malignancies, and dietary phytoestrogens may be protective. Because phytoestrogens bind tightly to the estrogen receptor-beta, we conducted an epidemiologic investigation of synergistic effects between phytoestrogen intake and estrogen receptor-beta gene polymorphisms. METHODS: We performed a population-based case-control study in Sweden. All participants reported their phytoestrogen intake and donated a blood sample. We identified four haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) and genotyped these htSNPs in 1314 prostate cancer patients and 782 controls. Odds ratios were estimated by multivariate logistic regression. Interactions between phytoestrogen intake and estrogen receptor-beta SNPs on prostate cancer risk were evaluated considering both multiplicative and additive effect scales. RESULTS: We found a significant multiplicative interaction (P = ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The roles of membrane estrogen receptor subtypes in modulating dopamine transporters in PC-12 cells. AU - Alyea, Rebecca A.. AU - Laurence, Stephanie E.. AU - Kim, Sung H.. AU - Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.. AU - Katzenellenbogen, John A.. AU - Watson, Cheryl S.. PY - 2008/8. Y1 - 2008/8. N2 - The effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on dopamine (DA) transport could explain gender and life-stage differences in the incidence of some neurological disorders. We tested the effects of E2 at physiological concentrations on DA efflux in nerve growth factor-differentiated rat pheochromocytoma cells that express estrogen receptors (ER) α, ERβ, and G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), and DA transporter (DAT). DAT efflux was determined as the transporter-specific loss of 3H-DA from pre-loaded cells; a 9-15 min 10-9 M E2 treatment caused maximal DA efflux. Such rapid estrogenic action suggests a non-genomic response, and an E2-dendrimer conjugate (limited to non-nuclear actions) caused DA ...
Feedback regulation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons by estradiol plays important roles in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction. Recently, we found that the majority of LHRH neurons in the rat contain estrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta) mRNA, whereas, they seemed to lack ER …
Prostate cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men of the Western world. A castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) eventually will arise when a local restricted prostate carcinoma was not cured duly by radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy. According to the study by the Hormone and Obesity Center Bahnhofsalle, posted in PubMed, phytoestrogens feature tumour preventive characteristics and most probably are involved in the low incidence rate of hormone related cancers in Asian countries. Phytoestrogens such as isoflavones can have a marked impact on the most essential therapy target of CRPC i.e. the androgen receptor. Furthermore, functional analyses solidified the notion of such drugs as androgen antagonistic. Phytoestrogens commonly feature low toxicity combined with a potential of targeted therapy. Thus, these drugs qualify for conceivable implementation in prostate cancer patients under active surveillance. In addition, relapse prevention with these drugs after radical ...
Natalie Angier article explains recent discovery of second estrogen receptor, protein through which potent hormone can convey its messages to bodys cells; estrogen receptor beta, considered only last year just a backup to true receptor, has now been found in organs with little or no evidence of alpha receptor, and that were never considered to be under estrogens dominance; organs include lungs, kidneys, intestines, bladder and colon; diagram; beta receptor also exists in certain cells of bone and blood vessels where original receptor is scarce; discovery could help resolve longstanding puzzles about estrogens effects on female bodies, and influence breast cancer and heart treatment; new work also alters view of estrogen as female hormone, since receptor was found while screening rodent prostate tissue in search of androgen receptor; Dr Jan-Ake Gustafson comments on work with colleagues at Karolinska Institute in Sweden (M)
The researchers found that proteins involved in binding and breaking down oestrogen were present in pre-cancerous and cancerous HNSCC cells grown in the laboratory. These proteins were also present in tissue from both males and females, and levels of a protein that binds to oestrogen (called oestrogen receptor beta) and the CYP1B1 enzyme (the product of the CYP1B1 gene) were higher in HNSCC tissue than normal tissue.. Treating pre-cancerous HNSCC cells with oestrogen in the laboratory caused the CYP1B1 gene to increase in activity about threefold. However, when cancerous HNSCC cells were treated with oestrogen, an increase in CYP1B1 gene activity was not seen. Treating pre-cancerous HNSCC cells with oestrogen did not affect their movement or division. When the researchers switched off the CYP1B1 gene in these cells, however, they became less able to move and divide.. Exposing pre-cancerous HNSCC cells to oestrogen also reduced the number of cells that died by "cell suicide" (apoptosis). Treating ...
The estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is the predominant ER in the human colonic epithelium. Levels of ERβ are reduced in colorectal cancer compared to normal colon tissue. In a previous study, we generated ERβ-expressing colon cancer cells and showed that ERβ inhibits proliferation as well as colon cancer xenograft growth, as a consequence of ERβ mediated inhibition of cell-cycle pathways.. The present study was conducted to investigate genome wide changes by ERβ in three human colon cancer cell lines (SW480, HT29 and HCT116). They have very low or no levels of ERβ expression and were transduced with lentivirus containing an ERβ expression cassette. Microarray studies showed that ERβ regulated 623, 643 and 124 genes for SW480, HT29 and HCT116, respectively.. Comparisons showed few genes in common for the three cell lines. However, over representation analysis showed that several themes, such as cell proliferation, cell communication and apoptosis were regulated in all of the cell ...
Sárvári, Miklós and Kalló, Imre and Hrabovszky, Erik and Solymosi, Norbert and Liposits, Zsolt (2017) Ovariectomy Alters Gene Expression of the Hippocampal Formation in Middle-Aged Rats. Endocrinology, 158 (1). pp. 69-83. ISSN 0013-7227 (print), 1945-7170 (online) Vastagh, Csaba and Rodolosse, Annie and Solymosi, Norbert and Liposits, Zsolt (2016) Altered Expression of Genes Encoding Neurotransmitter Receptors in GnRH Neurons of Proestrous Mice. Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 10. pp. 1-16. ISSN 1662-5102, ESSN: 1662-5102 Molnár, Csilla and Sárvári, Miklós and Vastagh, Csaba and Maurnyi, Csilla and Fekete, Csaba and Liposits, Zsolt and Hrabovszky, Erik (2016) Altered gene expression profile of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of male mice suggests profound developmental changes in peptidergic signaling. NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY. ISSN 0028-3835 (In Press) Bálint, Flóra and Liposits, Zsolt and Farkas, Imre (2016) Estrogen Receptor Beta and 2-arachidonoylglycerol Mediate the Suppressive ...
Estrogen Receptor-α Knock-Out Mouse Model is an eagle-i resource of type Mus musculus at Charles Drew University of Medicine and Science.
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Rabbit polyclonal GABA A Receptor beta 3 antibody validated for WB, IHC and tested in Mouse and Rat. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
Propranolol - This, added to great exposure in a country where malarial disease was prevalent even among' the Indians, brought recurrent spells of sickness that at times prostrated him for weeks.
Summary Two polymorphisms of the aromatase and estrogen receptor genes appeared to interact to influence the risk of hip fractures in women. Introduction Allelic variants of the aromatase gene have been associated with bone mineral density and vertebral fractures. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between two polymorphisms of the aromatase and estrogen receptor genes and hip ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel estrogen receptor ligands based on an anthranylaldoxime structure. T2 - Role of the phenol-type pseudocycle in the binding process. AU - Minutolo, Filippo. AU - Antonello, Michela. AU - Bertini, Simone. AU - Ortore, Gabriella. AU - Placanica, Giorgio. AU - Rapposelli, Simona. AU - Sheng, Shubin. AU - Carlson, Kathryn E.. AU - Katzenellenbogen, Benita S. AU - Katzenellenbogen, John A.. AU - Macchia, Marco. PY - 2003/9/11. Y1 - 2003/9/11. N2 - The 3,4-diphenylsalicylaldoxime system 1 is an estrogen receptor (ER) ligand of unusual structure, having a hydrogen-bonded pseudocyclic A′-ring in place of the paradigmatic phenolic A-ring that is characteristic of most estrogens. We have investigated the role played by the pseudocycle A′ in binding to the ER by preparing 3,4-diphenylbenzaldoxime (4), a compound that completely lacks this ring but still preserves all of the other features of the original molecule 1, as well as a series of 3,4-diphenylanthranylaldoximes (5a-c) in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of estrogen receptor gene in mouse oocyte and during embryogenesis. AU - Wu, T. C J. AU - Wang, L.. AU - Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Estrogen is required for oocyte maturation and embryonic development in vivo; however, the mechanism involved is not clear. Since the effect of estrogen is mediated through the estrogen receptor (ER), we examined the ontogeny and expression of the ER gene in mouse oocytes and embryos of various gestational stages using the highly sensitive reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. Total RNA, extracted from 40 ovulated oocytes, 2-cell embryos, morulae, and blastocysts, was reverse transcribed into cDNA. A pair of primers flanking the 453-bp region encoding the hormone-binding domain of ER was used for 30 cycles of PCR. The identity of the amplified product was confirmed by sizing and Southern blot hybridization. The results indicated that ER gene is expressed in unfertilized oocytes and ...
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that produces synovial proliferation and joint erosions. The pathologic lesions of RA are driven through the production of inflammatory mediators in the synovium mediated, in part, by the transcription factor NF-κB. We have identified a non-steroidal estrogen receptor ligand, WAY-169916, that selectively inhibits NF-κB transcriptional activity but is devoid of conventional estrogenic activity. The activity of WAY-169916 was monitored in two models of arthritis, the HLA-B27 transgenic rat and the Lewis rat adjuvant-induced model, after daily oral administration. In both models, a near complete reversal in hindpaw scores was observed as well as marked improvements in the histological scores. In the Lewis rat adjuvant model, WAY-169916 markedly suppresses the adjuvant induction of three serum acute phase proteins: haptoglobin, α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Gene expression experiments also demonstrate a global
Endocrine therapies focus on the service of the oestrogen receptor alpha dog (Emergency room) via distinct systems, but it all is not very clear whether breasts tumor cells may adapt to treatment using drug-specific systems. development. Finally, we demonstrate that a CB-based personal might become utilized to improve the stratification of Emergency room breast cancer individuals before adjuvant treatment. Outcomes Version to AI treatment qualified prospects to invasiveness ETs are designed to stop oestrogen-driven expansion by interfering with one particular TF (for example, Emergency room). Nevertheless, we hypothesized that the advancement of level of resistance may follow specific ways and generate alternate phenotypes through the different molecular systems particular to each agent2. To check this speculation, we utilized a series of isogenic cell lines resistant to solitary real estate agents or a mixture of real estate agents (endocrine therapy (ET)-resistant ETR cells, Fig. 1a)15. Our ...
There are several potential explanations for the failure of acute hormone replacement therapy to reduce ambulatory ECG ischemia in our study. Although human endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells express estrogen receptors (12,26), Losordo et al. (27)reported that atherosclerotic coronary arteries expressed fewer estrogen receptors than coronary arteries without significant atherosclerosis. Furthermore, Post et al. (28)reported increased rates of estrogen receptor gene promoter methylation with increasing age, both in nondiseased vessels and even more so in areas with atherosclerotic plaque. Increased promoter methylation inactivates estrogen receptor gene transcription. Since women with UA are usually elderly with significant atherosclerosis, they may be unresponsive to hormone therapy due to lack of the estrogen receptor. It also is possible that the concurrent use of nitroglycerin in three-quarters of our patients resulted in maximal endothelial-independent coronary vasodilation, thus ...
In the early 1980s, McMichael and Potter (12) proposed the hypothesis that female sex hormones may be protective against colorectal cancer, citing the protective effect of parity, a potential protective effect of high-dose oral contraceptives, and biological evidence that sex hormones modify hepatic cholesterol metabolism and reduce bile acids. Since then, observational studies (1) and randomized controlled trials (2, 13) have found a protective effect of exogenous hormonal therapy on risk of colorectal cancer. Exogenous and endogenous estrogens have been shown to stimulate cell proliferation and tumor development in the breast and uterus. These protumorigenic effects are thought to be mediated through the estrogen receptor subtype ERα, which is predominant in these tissues (14). It has been hypothesized that estrogens may be protective against colorectal cancer because the predominant estrogen receptor subtype in the colon, ERβ, has been shown to inhibit transcription and induce apoptosis on ...
During the later stages of follicular growth (Figure 2), activins and estradiol, the predominant estrogen in humans, enhance the actions of FSH (65, 66) (Figure 2). In mice, activins activate the transcription factors SMAD2/3 and SMAD4, which coordinately regulate several FSH-induced genes including those encoding the cell cycle regulator CCND2 and the steroidogenic enzyme aromatase (67), which converts theca cell-derived androgens to estradiol. Estradiol, acting primarily via estrogen receptor beta (ERS2), has recently been shown to suppress expression of phosphodiesterase 1C (Pde1c), thereby increasing intracellular levels of cAMP induced by FSH (66). Because activins facilitate proliferation of granulosa cells and enhance FSH actions, in part by increasing estradiol, these interactions may help explain why, when activin actions are unopposed by inhibins (as occurs in mice lacking inhibin α subunit, which is encoded by Inha), activins promote GCT growth. The WNT signaling target β-catenin ...
Tumors from 58 ovarian cancer patients contained less messenger RNA for the ER beta than found in ovarian samples from healthy patients, said Lazennec, whose team included scientists from France and Italy. To understand how the loss of ER beta affected the ovarian cells during cancer progression, the gene for ER beta was replaced in ovarian cancer cell lines that no longer expressed the estrogen-triggered nuclear receptor. The ER beta reintroduced into the cancer cell lines did not share the classic functions attributed to estrogen receptors, including induction of progesterone receptor expression and fibuline-1C, and it s ability to decrease the expression of the cyclin D1 gene was completely opposite of it s counterpart, ER beta ...
Background: Cigarette smoking (smoking), hormone therapy (MHT), and folate intake (folate) are each thought to influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely defined. Expression of estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) has been associated with CRC stage and survival. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we examined smoking, MHT, and folate -associated CRC risks by ESR2protein expression level among participants in the Iowa Womens Health Study (IWHS). Self-reported exposure variables were assessed at baseline. Archived, paraffin-embedded CRC tissue specimens were collected and evaluated for ESR2protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Multivariate Cox regression models were fit to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between smoking, MHT, or folate and ESR2-defined CRC subtypes. Results: Informative environmental exposure and protein expression data were available for 491 incident CRC cases. ...
Human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα) is a hormone-responsive nuclear receptor (NR) involved in cell growth and survival that contains both a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD). Functionally relevant inter-domain interactions between the DBD and LBD have been observed in sever …
Dear Mr. Berko: My husband and I are 77. We both had jobs for 40 years, raised four children and lived frugally; our home is paid for, and we managed to save $285,000 in two IRAs, which are now worth $223,000 from the market collapse. This money is now in CDs earning 1.75 percent, and we need more income. Together, we get $21,000 from Social Security after health insurance payments, plus $4,300 from our IRA CDs. We really need a new car, our air conditioning and heating system must be replaced, and we have the same kitchen and bathrooms when we bought the house new 37 years ago.
This study investigates the molecular mechanisms by which critical genes are differentially regulated in the male and female brain. The hormone, estrogen, is cr...
Perturbation of endocrine signaling during critical developmental windows has been implicated in decreased fertility and reproductive disorders. Using the "developmental origins of disease" paradigm, we examined the differentiation of the Müllerian duct into female reproductive tract structures. Müllerian duct development involves estrogen signaling, and is thus susceptible to disruption via environmental contaminants. The alligator is a useful model for studying reproductive system development, because sex determination is not genetic, but reliant on egg incubation temperature. To identify and characterize critical events in the differentiation of the alligator oviduct, we investigated pathways leading to sex reversal. Alligator eggs incubated at a temperature that produces 100% males (33.5 C) were treated with estradiol-17beta (E2) or 4,4,4-(4-Propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5 -triyl)trisphenol (PPT), a specific agonist for estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), at a stage just prior to sex ...
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